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Heart conditions in premature babiesHHeart conditions in premature babiesHeart conditions in premature babiesEnglishNeonatology;CardiologyPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)Heart;LungsCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZPatrick McNamara, MB, BCh, BAO, FRCPC10.000000000000059.0000000000000493.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about why premature babies are especially at risk for several types of heart conditions, and about the various conditions themselves.</p><p>Premature babies are often at risk for developing various heart conditions including congestive heart failure and congenital heart defects. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>The heart of a fetus is different in structure and function inside the womb than that of a baby outside the womb.<br></li> <li>Due to their underdeveloped heart and lungs, premature babies are at risk for several heart complications.</li> <li>Heart failure is a condition in which h the amount of blood pumping and the amount of oxygen being delivered is too small to meet the body's needs.</li> <li>Heart failure may be caused by weakness of the heart muscle, periods of high or low blood pressure, and abnormal heart rhythms.</li> <li>Congenital heart defects are malformations of the heart that occur before birth, with some being minor and others more severe with long-term complications.</li></ul>
Cardiopathies et les bébés prématurésCCardiopathies et les bébés prématurésHeart conditions in premature babiesFrenchNeonatology;CardiologyPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)Heart;LungsCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZPatrick McNamara, MB, BCh, BAO, FRCPC10.000000000000059.0000000000000493.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Apprenez pourquoi les bébés prématurés sont particulièrement à risque pour plusieurs types de cardiopathies, et au sujet des différentes conditions elles-mêmes.</p><p>Les bébés prématurés sont souvent à risque de développer différents troubles cardiaques y compris de l’insuffisance cardiaque congestive et des malformations cardiaques congénitales. </p><h2>À retenir</h2> <ul><li>La structure et la fonction du cœur d’un fœtus sont différentes dans l’utérus que ceux d’un bébé à l’extérieur de l’utérus.</li> <li>En raison du sous-développement de leur cœur et de leurs poumons, les bébés prématurés sont à risque de développer plusieurs complications cardiaques.</li> <li>L’insuffisance cardiaque est un trouble où la quantité de sang pompée et la quantité d’oxygène acheminée sont trop faibles pour répondre aux besoins du corps.</li> <li>L’insuffisance cardiaque peut être causée par une faiblesse du muscle cardiaque, par des périodes de faible pression sanguine ou de pression sanguine élevée de même que des rythmes cardiaques anormaux.</li> <li>Les cardiopathies cardiaques congénitales sont des malformations du cœur qui se produisent avant la naissance, certaines étant mineures et d’autres plus graves avec des complications à long terne.</li></ul>

 

 

Heart conditions in premature babies1767.00000000000Heart conditions in premature babiesHeart conditions in premature babiesHEnglishNeonatology;CardiologyPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)Heart;LungsCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZPatrick McNamara, MB, BCh, BAO, FRCPC10.000000000000059.0000000000000493.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about why premature babies are especially at risk for several types of heart conditions, and about the various conditions themselves.</p><p>Premature babies are often at risk for developing various heart conditions including congestive heart failure and congenital heart defects. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>The heart of a fetus is different in structure and function inside the womb than that of a baby outside the womb.<br></li> <li>Due to their underdeveloped heart and lungs, premature babies are at risk for several heart complications.</li> <li>Heart failure is a condition in which h the amount of blood pumping and the amount of oxygen being delivered is too small to meet the body's needs.</li> <li>Heart failure may be caused by weakness of the heart muscle, periods of high or low blood pressure, and abnormal heart rhythms.</li> <li>Congenital heart defects are malformations of the heart that occur before birth, with some being minor and others more severe with long-term complications.</li></ul><figure> </figure> <h2>The developing heart</h2><p>The heart of a fetus within the womb and that of a baby outside the womb are different in both structure and function. Both immature and mature hearts pump blood through the baby’s body; however, the source of oxygen supply for blood cells and the route by which blood is pumped around the body are different. In the womb, the oxygen comes from the mother, passes through the placenta and the umbilical cord, and then travels to the fetal heart through a blood vessel called the ductus venosus. Once it reaches the heart, the blood is pumped to the rest of the body. As there is no need for blood to pass through the lungs, the blood is diverted away form the lungs through an artery called the ductus arteriosus. After it has delivered the oxygen, the blood returns to the heart and is pumped back to the umbilical cord and placenta to be re-oxygenated.</p><p>A fetus’s blood pressure is low by mature standards and the patterns of blood flow are different from those of a baby’s heart after birth. Since oxygenation takes place outside the fetus’s body, flow to fetal lungs is minimal. Unlike the fetal heart, which is already beating and pumping blood, the lungs will not begin to function until birth. In the womb, the blood vessels in the lungs are constricted, which limits blood flow to them. Much of the blood flow is directed to the brain and to the blood vessels around the heart itself. The heart muscle, or myocardium, which is the engine that powers the pumping action of the heart, is still immature and the extra blood helps it develop the strength it will need to function in the outside world.</p><h2>A full-term baby’s heart</h2> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">Circulation before and after birth</span> <div class="asset-animation"> src="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/Style%20Library/akh/swfanimations/swf.html?swffile=PDA_Patent_ductus_circulation_after_birth_MED_ANI_EN.swf" </div></figure> <p>Once a baby is born, their first breath initiates changes in the function of the heart. Suddenly filling with air, the lungs expand, the blood vessels within the lungs relax or dilate, and blood flow increases, allowing for gas exchange. Blood flow to the umbilical cord and placenta drops to nothing. The ductus arteriosus begins to close rapidly. Under normal circumstances, the ductus arteriosus is completely sealed and replaced with scar tissue in a few weeks, never to open again. At this point, the baby’s heart is functioning and circulating blood in much the same way as an adult’s heart.</p><p>With this rapid change from womb to world, premature babies are at risk for several heart complications. Their frequency and severity is related to how premature the baby is.</p><h2>Congestive heart failure</h2><p>Heart failure is a condition whereby the amount of blood pumping, and therefore the amount of oxygen being delivered, is too small to meet the body’s needs. It may be caused by weakness of the heart muscle, also called pump failure; periods of high or low blood pressure; and abnormal heart rhythms. Since the muscular tissue of the heart, called the myocardium, is still developing, the immature heart may not pump forcefully enough to compensate when things go wrong; this will result in a lowered amount, or volume, of blood leaving the heart, also called lowered cardiac output. The name “congestive heart failure” sounds alarming because it suggests a complete and irrevocable breakdown of the heart, but in most cases, this serious condition is treatable.</p><p>Lacking oxygen, a baby’s body may try to compensate. The heart may beat faster and try to pump with stronger force, the chambers of the heart may enlarge to increase the volume of blood each beat propels though the system, or the baby’s blood flow may be directed to the vital organs such as the brain, heart, and kidneys, at the expense of the extremities, including the skin. The baby may also respond by changing the rhythm of their breathing. Lack of oxygenated blood may trigger faster breathing, which can lead to respiratory distress. These responses, while they may be effective in the short term, will cause problems in the long term.</p><p>Poor heart function leading to low cardiac output can also be caused or further complicated by several other factors. The most common are:</p><ul><li>asphyxia, or lack of oxygen getting into the blood, causing damage to the heart muscle</li><li>hypoglycemia, or a low blood sugar level, which can reduce heart function</li><li>sepsis, or infection of the blood, which can reduce heart function</li></ul><p>Congenital heart malformations, of which there are several types, can also lead to heart pump failure and lower cardiac output.</p><h2>Congenital heart defects</h2><p>Congenital heart defects are malformations of the heart that occur before birth. Put simply, some part of the heart did not develop properly in the womb and the functioning of the heart has been affected. Congenital heart defects, also known as congenital cardiovascular malformations or CCVMs, are rare. Although they are not found only in premature babies, some heart defects may put a baby at risk for premature birth.</p><p>Despite advances in ultrasound and other imaging technologies, congenital heart defects usually only become apparent after birth. When premature babies are born with these types of heart problems, treatment is often complicated by the baby’s immaturity and small size, the relative fragility of the premature baby, and other coexisting complications of prematurity.</p><p>Congenital heart defects have varying degrees of severity. Some malformations are minor and only mildly affect heart function. Others are more serious.</p><p>There are many different types of congenital heart defects. The following is a list of the more common forms. Click an item on the list for a description and explanation of the defect with accompanying images.</p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=1606&language=English">Aortic Stenosis </a></p> <a href="/Article?contentid=1607&language=English">Atrial Septal Defect </a> <p></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=1608&language=English">Atrioventricular Septal Defect (AVSD) </a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=1610&language=English">Coarctation of the Aorta </a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=1611&language=English">Complete Transposition of the Great Arteries (TGA) </a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=1613&language=English">Ebstein’s Anomaly </a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=1614&language=English">Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS) </a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=1618&language=English">Pulmonary Atresia </a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=1619&language=English">Pulmonary Stenosis </a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=1620&language=English">Single Ventricle Anomalies</a> </p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=1621&language=English">Tetralogy of Fallot </a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=1622&language=English">Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR) </a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=1623&language=English">Tricuspid Atresia </a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=1624&language=English">Truncus Arteriosus </a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=1626&language=English">Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) </a></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/heart_conditions_in_premature_babies.jpgHeart conditions in premature babies

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