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Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)NNecrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)EnglishNeonatology;GastrointestinalPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)Stomach;Small Intestine;Large Intestine/Colon;EsophagusDigestive systemConditions and diseasesPrenatal Adult (19+) CaregiversNA2018-11-20T05:00:00ZHailey Barootes, MBChB (Hons), BSc (Hons);Aideen Moore, MD, FRCPC, MRCPI, MHSc;Nicole de Silva, RN, BScN, MSc9.8000000000000054.9000000000000420.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a rare but serious disease that affects the bowels of premature or newborn infants. Learn more about the symptoms, causes and treatment of the condition.</p><p>Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a condition that typically affects the <a href="/Article?contentid=1467&language=English">small or large bowels (intestines)</a> of babies who are born prematurely or at a low birth weight (<1500g). NEC can also affect full-term infants who have underlying health problems, such as heart defects or serious infections. NEC may affect only one part of the bowel or it may affect several parts. In rare cases, it can affect the entire bowel. </p><p>NEC causes inflammation and infection of the bowels. This disrupts the blood supply to the gut, making the bowels become very weak. In severe cases, the bowel becomes so weak that a hole forms (perforation). This hole allows bacteria and waste products, which are normally contained in the bowels, to leak into the abdomen and cause a dangerous infection. </p><p>NEC can be a life-threatening disease, however most babies respond well to treatment. The bowel recovers and resumes normal function in most babies.</p> <figure class="asset-c-100"> <span class="asset-image-title">Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/NEC_V7.png" alt="Cross section of healthy small intestine compared to cross section of NEC intestine showing inflamed wall with gas bubbles" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Necrotizing enterocolitis is a condition that affects the small or large intestine (bowels) of premature or low birth weight babies. A portion of the bowel can become inflamed and infected. This can cut off blood flow causing the bowel to become weak and damaged.</figcaption> </figure> <br><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a condition that affects the small or large intestines of newborn infants. Most commonly, it affects those born prematurely or with low birth weight.</li><li>Several factors can increase a newborn’s risk of developing NEC, including: prematurity, formula feeding, difficult birth delivery, and an overgrowth of germs or bacteria in the intestines.</li><li>Symptoms of NEC include poor feeding, a swollen belly and bloody stools.</li><li>Treatment depends on the severity of the disease. NEC may be treated with antibiotics or in some cases, surgery to remove the affected bowel.</li><li>Most babies respond well to treatment and grow up without any bowel problems.</li></ul> <h2>Signs and symptoms of NEC</h2><p>NEC usually occurs three to ten days following birth. Signs and symptoms of NEC include:</p><ul><li>a red, swollen belly</li><li>problems tolerating feeds</li><li>bloody stools, including diarrhea containing blood</li><li>vomit, containing bile<br></li><li>irregular breathing</li><li>low blood pressure</li><li>a high, low or unstable temperature.</li></ul><p>Diagnosing NEC can be difficult since its symptoms, such as not tolerating feeds, vomiting, and altered bowel movements, are similar to signs of other less serious bowel conditions.</p><h2>Causes and risk factors of NEC</h2><p>While NEC can occur in any newborn baby, most cases are seen in premature babies. It is estimated that NEC affects approximately 5% of infants weighing less than 1500 grams at birth.</p><p>It is not known exactly what causes NEC, but several different factors may contribute.</p><h3>Prematurity</h3><p>Babies born <a href="/prematurebabies">prematurely</a> typically have underdeveloped immune systems and may not be able to fight infection on their own. The lower the birth weight, the more at risk a premature baby is of developing NEC.</p><h3>Formula feeding</h3><p>Babies who are given breast milk have a lower chance of developing NEC.</p><h3>Difficult delivery</h3><p>In some difficult deliveries, not enough blood, oxygen and nutrients get to the bowels. The lack of oxygenated blood to the bowels can cause damage to the intestinal wall.</p><h3>Bacteria growth</h3><p>A premature baby’s immature immune system is not able to protect the bowels from an overgrowth of bacteria and germs. This can cause swelling and infection. Taking antibiotic medication for more than ten days may also impact bacterial growth in the bowel, increasing the risk of developing NEC.</p><h2>Diagnosis of NEC</h2><p>An abdominal X-ray is used to confirm a diagnosis of NEC and to determine how severe it is. Doctors will look for swelling of the bowels, gas in the bowel walls (pneumatosis intestinalis) and free air in the belly (air outside of the bowels), which indicates that a hole has formed in the weak bowel. </p> <figure class="asset-c-100"> <span class="asset-image-title">Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) abdominal X-ray</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/NEC_pneumatosis_XRAY_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.png" alt="X-ray of healthy small and large intestines and x-ray of intestine affected by necrotizing enterocolitis" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">In necrotizing enterocolitis there is typically swelling of the bowels, gas in the bowel walls and free air in the abdomen (belly). This makes the baby’s belly appear swollen. </figcaption> </figure> <p>An ultrasound of the abdomen can also help confirm NEC by identifying parts of the bowel that have become thinner or if there is a change in blood flow to certain parts of the bowel.</p><p>NEC can significantly affect the absorption of nutrients into the body and the removal of waste products. In addition to imaging scans, a baby with suspected NEC will have blood tests to check for:</p><ul><li>evidence of infection (white blood cell count, blood culture, c-reactive protein)</li><li>the balance of nutrients and chemicals in their blood.</li></ul><h2>Treatment of NEC</h2><p>When there is a concern that a baby may have NEC or when the diagnosis has been confirmed, the baby is not given any food into their stomach. Liquids and nutrients (fat, sugar and salt) are given intravenously. A tube is placed into the stomach, either through the nose – <a href="/Article?contentid=984&language=English">nasogastric (NG)</a>—or the mouth—orogastric (OG)—to remove any extra liquids or air. Babies may be given IV (intravenous) antibiotics to treat the infection. The baby will be on antibiotics for seven to 14 days. In most cases, this treatment is effective and surgery will not be required. </p><p>About one third of babies may need surgery to remove the diseased bowel. In most surgical cases, the diseased bowel is removed and the healthy pieces are joined back together. </p><p>However, if there is disease in several areas of the bowel the surgeon may pull the end of the healthy section through the abdomen, creating an opening in the skin called an ostomy. Stool or poop will pass through the ostomy into a bag. This allows the affected areas of the bowel to heal. </p> <figure class="asset-c-100"> <span class="asset-image-title">Surgery as treatment for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/NEC_surgeryv2.png" alt="Removing diseased part of bowel and creating ostomy in first surgery and joining cut ends of bowel in second surgery" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">One third of babies with NEC may require surgery for treatment. Two separate surgeries will be performed. The first surgery is to remove the diseased part of the bowel (1a). A healthy end of the bowel will then be attached to the abdomen, creating an opening in the skin called an ostomy (1b). After several weeks a second surgery will attach the end of the bowel used for the ostomy to another healthy end of the bowel.</figcaption> </figure> <p>Once the bowel has healed, the baby will need a second surgery to close the stoma and reconnect the healthy section to the healed part of the bowel. Your child will no longer have an ostomy and will be able to pass stool normally through the anus.<br></p><p>While your baby’s bowel heals, fluids and nutrients will be given by IV into their bloodstream. Once the bowel becomes healthy enough, approximately one to two weeks after treatment, your baby may be fed milk through an NG tube into their stomach. </p><p>If possible, it is best to feed your baby breast milk once they can receive feedings again.</p><p>SickKids Neonatology Clinic: <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/Neonatology/">http://www.sickkids.ca/Neonatology/</a></p><p>American Pediatric Surgical Association: <a href="http://www.eapsa.org/parents/conditions/f-o/necrotizing-enterocolitis-%28nec%29/">http://www.eapsa.org/parents/conditions/f-o/necrotizing-enterocolitis-(nec)/</a> </p><p>Children’s Hospital Los Angeles: <a href="https://www.chla.org/necrotizing-enterocolitis">https://www.chla.org/necrotizing-enterocolitis</a></p><p>The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia: <a href="https://www.chop.edu/conditions-diseases/necrotizing-enterocolitis">https://www.chop.edu/conditions-diseases/necrotizing-enterocolitis</a><br></p><p>Gephart SM, McGrath JM, Effken JA, Halpern MD. Necrotizing Enterocolitis Risk: State of the Science. Adv Neonatal Care 2012; 77–89.</p><p>Neu J. Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis. Karger Publishers, 2013: 122–7.</p><p>Alexander V, Northrup V, Bizzarro M. Antibiotic Exposure in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit and the Risk of Necrotizing Enterocolitis. The Journal of Pediatrics 2011; 392-397.</p><p>Necrotizing Enterocolitis. Child. Hosp. Los Angeles. 2016. <a href="http://www.chla.org/necrotizingenterocolitis">http://www.chla.org/necrotizingenterocolitis</a> (accessed June 22, 2018).</p><p>Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC). Am. Pediatr. Surg. Assoc. <a href="http://www.pediatricsurgerymd.org/">http://www.pediatricsurgerymd.org</a> (accessed June 22, 2018).</p>
Entérocolite nécrosante néonatale (ENN)EEntérocolite nécrosante néonatale (ENN)Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)FrenchNeonatology;GastrointestinalPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)Stomach;Small Intestine;Large Intestine/Colon;EsophagusDigestive systemConditions and diseasesPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZChris Tomlinson, MBChB, BSc12.000000000000037.0000000000000259.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Lisez au sujet de l’ENN, une condition rare mais potentiellement grave qui peut tuer des portions de l’intestin du bébé prématuré. L’ENN a plusieurs causes et traitements.</p><p>L’ENN est une condition rare mais potentiellement grave qui peut tuer des portions de l’intestin du bébé prématuré. L’ENN a plusieurs causes et traitements.</p><h2>À retenir</h2> <ul><li>L’entérocolite nécrosante néonatale (ENN) est une maladie rare, mais grave, qui est caractérisée par une inflammation des tissus du gros intestin ou de l’intestin grêle et un risque de réduction du flot sanguin, ce qui pourrait entraîner la mort d’une partie de l’intestin.</li> <li>Les causes possibles de l’entérocolite nécrosante néonatale comprennent une absence de circulation sanguine dans les intestins, une infection intestinale et la présence de lait non digéré stagnant dans le tube digestif.</li> <li>Le diagnostic de l’entérocolite nécrosante néonatale peut être difficile, car les symptômes sont similaires à d’autres problèmes d’alimentation de moindre gravité qui sont fréquents chez les bébés prématurés.</li> <li>Dans la plupart des cas, l’entérocolite nécrosante néonatale est traitée avec succès en utilisant l’alimentation parentérale, des antibiotiques à large spectre ou, dans certains cas, une intervention chirurgicale.</li></ul>

 

 

Entérocolite nécrosante néonatale (ENN)1769.00000000000Entérocolite nécrosante néonatale (ENN)Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)EFrenchNeonatology;GastrointestinalPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)Stomach;Small Intestine;Large Intestine/Colon;EsophagusDigestive systemConditions and diseasesPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZChris Tomlinson, MBChB, BSc12.000000000000037.0000000000000259.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Lisez au sujet de l’ENN, une condition rare mais potentiellement grave qui peut tuer des portions de l’intestin du bébé prématuré. L’ENN a plusieurs causes et traitements.</p><p>L’ENN est une condition rare mais potentiellement grave qui peut tuer des portions de l’intestin du bébé prématuré. L’ENN a plusieurs causes et traitements.</p><h2>À retenir</h2> <ul><li>L’entérocolite nécrosante néonatale (ENN) est une maladie rare, mais grave, qui est caractérisée par une inflammation des tissus du gros intestin ou de l’intestin grêle et un risque de réduction du flot sanguin, ce qui pourrait entraîner la mort d’une partie de l’intestin.</li> <li>Les causes possibles de l’entérocolite nécrosante néonatale comprennent une absence de circulation sanguine dans les intestins, une infection intestinale et la présence de lait non digéré stagnant dans le tube digestif.</li> <li>Le diagnostic de l’entérocolite nécrosante néonatale peut être difficile, car les symptômes sont similaires à d’autres problèmes d’alimentation de moindre gravité qui sont fréquents chez les bébés prématurés.</li> <li>Dans la plupart des cas, l’entérocolite nécrosante néonatale est traitée avec succès en utilisant l’alimentation parentérale, des antibiotiques à large spectre ou, dans certains cas, une intervention chirurgicale.</li></ul><figure><span class="asset-image-title">Système digestif</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Digestive_system_infant_MED_ILL_FR.jpg" alt="L’emplacement de l’œsophage, de l’estomac, du foie, du gros intestine et de l’intestin grêle dans le systmème digestif" /> </figure> <p>ENN atteint les tissus du colon ou de l’intestin grêle d’une inflammation, et ces derniers risquent d’avoir une irrigation sanguine faible, ce qui peut causer la mort d’une partie de l’intestin. La région affectée peut être petite ou grande. Tout comme la plupart des complications attribuables à l’immaturité, plus l’âge gestationnel du bébé est jeune, plus il est à risque d’être victime d’ENN. Cependant, seulement 5 % de tous les bébés prématurés développent cette condition. Dans la plupart des cas, l’ENN est soignée avec succès, soit avec de la médication ou, si nécessaire, avec une intervention chirurgicale. Plusieurs bébés atteints d’ENN n’ont aucune complication plus tard dans la vie; cependant, bien qu’il s’agisse d’un événement rare, l’ENN est maintenant l’une des principales causes de décès chez les bébés prématurés. </p><p>La cause exacte de l’ENN n’est pas très bien comprise mais plusieurs raisons sont reconnues comme augmentant les facteurs de risques de l’acquérir, y compris:</p><ul><li>le manque de flux sanguin aux intestins; </li><li>l’infection intestinale; </li><li>le lait non digéré demeurant dans les intestins. </li></ul><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=1805&language=French">Diagnostiquer l’ENN</a> peut être difficile puisque les symptômes, tels qu’une intolérance à l’alimentation, des vomissements ou des aspirations et ne pas passer de selles, sont similaires à d’autres problèmes d’alimentation attribuables à l’immaturité, lesquels sont souvent loin d’être aussi graves. </p><p>Habituellement, <a href="/Article?contentid=1844&language=French">l’ENN est traitée</a> en cessant l’alimentation et en la remplaçant par l’alimentation parentérale, et en administrant des antibiotiques à large spectre. En cas d’échec de cette intervention, on peut devoir opérer pour retirer la portion affectée de l’intestin et ensuite regreffer les sections saines de l’intestin. </p>Entérocolite nécrosante néonatale (ENN)False

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