Diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome in premature babiesDDiagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome in premature babiesDiagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome in premature babiesEnglishNeonatology;RespiratoryPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)LungsRespiratory systemNAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZAndrew James, MBChB, MBI, FRACP, FRCPCJaques Belik, MD, FRCPC11.000000000000047.0000000000000846.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), which is caused by a lack of surfactant within the immature lung. X-rays are used to diagnose RDS.</p><p>Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), also called hyaline membrane disease, is caused by a lack of surfactant within the immature lung. Surfactant is a solution produced in the lungs that prevents the insides of the lungs from sticking together during breathing. The more immature a baby is, the more likely it is that they will not have enough surfactant in their lungs.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is caused by a lack of surfactant within the immature lung.</li> <li>Symptoms of RDS include rapid breathing, noisy breathing that sounds like a grunt, powerful sucking in of the chest with each breath, and a bluish tinge to the skin known as cyanosis.</li> <li>X-rays are used to confirm diagnosis of RDS.</li> <li>Various tests will be used to monitor the baby and diagnosis severity of RDS including a blood gases test, transcutaneous devices and pulse oximetry. The presence and amount of white blood cells and blood cultures is also measured.</li></ul>
Diagnostic du syndrome de détresse respiratoire (SDR) chez les bébés prématurésDDiagnostic du syndrome de détresse respiratoire (SDR) chez les bébés prématurésDiagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome in premature babiesFrenchNeonatology;RespiratoryPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)LungsRespiratory systemNAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZAndrew James, MBChB, MBI, FRACP, FRCPCJaques Belik, MD, FRCPC11.000000000000047.0000000000000846.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Lisez au sujet du syndrome de détresse respiratoire (SDR), qui est occasionné par un manque de surfactant dans les poumons immatures. Les radiographies sont utilisées pour diagnostiquer le SDR.</p><p>Le syndrome de détresse respiratoire (SDR), aussi appelé maladie des membranes hyalines, est causé par un déficit en surfactant à l’intérieur de poumons immatures. Le surfactant est une forme de lubrifiant : il rend les parois des poumons glissants empêchant l’intérieur des poumons d’être collabées lorsque l’air est expiré, ce qui permet aux poumons de se dilater à nouveau avec l’air de chaque respiration. Plus le bébé est prématuré, plus il est susceptible de ne pas avoir suffisamment de surfactant dans ses poumons.</p><h2>À retenir</h2> <ul><li>Le syndrome de détresse respiratoire (SDR) est causé par un manque de surfactant à l’intérieur des poumons immatures.</li> <li>On compte parmi les symptômes associés au syndrome de détresse respiratoire une respiration accélérée, un grognement respiratoire bruyant, l’inspiration ou l’aspiration puissante de la poitrine avec chaque respiration et une teinte bleutée de la peau qu’on nomme cyanose.</li> <li>Les radiographies permettent de confirmer le diagnostic du syndrome de détresse respiratoire.</li> <li>Plusieurs tests seront pratiqués afin de surveiller le bébé et de déterminer la gravité du syndrome de détresse respiratoire, dont un test des gaz sanguins, des mesures transcutanées et l’oxymétrie de pouls. La présence et la quantité de leucocytes en plus de cultures sanguines seront aussi effectuées.</li></ul>

 

 

Diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome in premature babies1797.00000000000Diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome in premature babiesDiagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome in premature babiesDEnglishNeonatology;RespiratoryPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)LungsRespiratory systemNAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZAndrew James, MBChB, MBI, FRACP, FRCPCJaques Belik, MD, FRCPC11.000000000000047.0000000000000846.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), which is caused by a lack of surfactant within the immature lung. X-rays are used to diagnose RDS.</p><p>Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), also called hyaline membrane disease, is caused by a lack of surfactant within the immature lung. Surfactant is a solution produced in the lungs that prevents the insides of the lungs from sticking together during breathing. The more immature a baby is, the more likely it is that they will not have enough surfactant in their lungs.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is caused by a lack of surfactant within the immature lung.</li> <li>Symptoms of RDS include rapid breathing, noisy breathing that sounds like a grunt, powerful sucking in of the chest with each breath, and a bluish tinge to the skin known as cyanosis.</li> <li>X-rays are used to confirm diagnosis of RDS.</li> <li>Various tests will be used to monitor the baby and diagnosis severity of RDS including a blood gases test, transcutaneous devices and pulse oximetry. The presence and amount of white blood cells and blood cultures is also measured.</li></ul><p>Surfactant usually appears in the lungs at about the 24th week of pregnancy. It gradually builds up to its full level by the 37th week. When labour begins, the mother’s body produces a natural substance that makes its way to the baby through the placenta and umbilical cord. This substance increases production of surfactant in the baby’s lungs in preparation for their first breath. Exactly what spurs on development of surfactant once a baby is born is still not known. </p><h2>How RDS is diagnosed</h2><p>A baby with RDS will likely have the following symptoms:</p><ul><li>rapid breathing, which may indicate that the baby is working harder to eliminate the carbon dioxide from the blood by increasing the frequency of breaths. Carbon dioxide is tthey werete product of breathing. </li><li>noisy breathing that sounds like a grunt. As the baby closes their glottis with each exhalation, they forcibly try to hold a little bit of volume in their lung with each breath. The goal is to recruit some alveoli that may have become collapsed or filled with fluid by holding in small amounts of their breath. The noise produced is referred to as a “grunt.” However, many premature babies are not mature/strong enough to co-ordinate and produce this particular sign. </li><li>powerful sucking in of the chest with each breath exposing the ribs beneath the skin. Indrawing often looks as if the chest wall is collapsing inward with each respiration and can be mild to severe. </li><li>a bluish tinge to the skin, which is a sign of a low amount of oxygen in the blood. </li></ul><p>The presence of all or some of these symptoms does not necessarily indicate RDS. All of these characteristics are non-specific signs of respiratory distress in a premature baby. In other words, these characteristics are also typical of other types of breathing problems such as lung infection. </p> <figure class="asset-c-80"><span class="asset-image-title">Respiratory distress syndrome X-ray</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Respiratory_distress_XRAY_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.png" alt="" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The normal lungs appear dark as they contain more air. The lungs with respiratory distress syndrome look quite dense and white due to the collapse of the lung tissue. The amount of air in the lungs is very small.</figcaption> </figure> <p>To confirm the diagnosis, the medical team may want to take X-rays of the premature baby’s chest. An X-ray of a preemie with RDS will likely show: </p><ul><li>small lung volume </li><li>air bronchograms or air in the airways of the lung that are black in comparison to the surrounding white areas that do not contain air </li><li>granular-looking areas on the lung where the lung resembles white salt and black pepper being sprinkled on the film. The more pepper, the more aeration; the more salt, the more collapse or fluid. </li></ul><p>In suspected cases of RDS, X-rays are not always taken immediately because sometimes the baby needs to be placed on a ventilator urgently. The chest X-ray is taken after the baby has been stabilized on the ventilator. </p><p>Often a newborn baby suspected of having a surfactant deficiency, especially if they are less than 30 weeks gestation, will be given surfactant replacement therapy immediately and will then be monitored for signs of improved lung function. Although this does not confirm RDS, it is a sensible, rational, and safe way to proceed. </p><p>All premature babies with breathing problems of any type are carefully monitored to assess the severity of the breathing problem, to detect changes in the severity of the problem, and to follow progress. The blood gases test measures the amount of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and acid in the blood. These three measures indicate the severity of the baby’s respiratory distress. The blood gas specimen is obtained from an artery or by heel prick. It is also possible to estimate the oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood by using transcutaneous devices that make these measurements through the skin. Transcutaneous measurements may be inaccurate if the skin is too thick, contains too much fluid, or has a reduced blood flow. </p><p>Pulse oximetry, or the transcutaneous measurement of oxygen saturation, is another non-invasive approach to monitoring. A small light is attached to one of the baby’s extremities, usually the hand or foot. As the light passes through the child’s body, the light is measured to indicate how much oxygen is in the blood. Oximetry can confirm that a baby is breathing the appropriate amount of oxygen. </p><p>Pneumonia and infection elsewhere in the body sometimes accompany RDS. Because the physical signs of RDS can also be the result of lung infection, the newborn’s blood will also be tested: </p><ul><li>The presence and amount of white blood cells (WBCs), which are instrumental in fighting off infection, will be measured. </li><li>Blood cultures, which indicate the presence and type of infection, will also be obtained. </li></ul><h4>More information</h4><ul><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=1764&language=English">Respiratory distress syndrome in premature babies</a></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=1835&language=English">Treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in premature babies</a></li></ul>Diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome in premature babies

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