Diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in premature babiesDDiagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in premature babiesDiagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in premature babiesEnglishNeonatology;GastrointestinalPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)Small Intestine;Large Intestine/ColonDigestive systemNAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZChris Tomlinson, MBChB, BSc12.000000000000037.0000000000000656.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about diagnosing necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in premature babies. Symptoms of NEC can include vomiting food and possibly bile from the stomach.</p><p>Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a condition affecting the large and small intestine. Several diagnostic tests will be done if NEC is suspected in a premature baby. Additional tests will also be given to look for complications.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a condition in which the tissues of the large or small intestine become inflamed and sometimes die. </li> <li>NEC usually occurs three to 10 days following birth but may occur within the first 24 hours or as late as three months of age.</li> <li>Initial symptoms of NEC include vomitting food and possibly stomach bile; distended or abnormally large belly; diarrhea; and blood in the stool.</li> <li>Abdominal X-rays are used to determine severity and sometimes cause, while abdominal ultrasounds are used to fully examine serious problems and other signs of NEC.</li> <li>In addition to imaging, a baby suspected of having NEC will be given blood tests to look for any complications.</li></ul>
Diagnostic de l’entérocolite nécrosante néonatale (ENN) chez les bébés prématurésDDiagnostic de l’entérocolite nécrosante néonatale (ENN) chez les bébés prématurésDiagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in premature babiesFrenchNeonatology;GastrointestinalPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)Small Intestine;Large Intestine/ColonDigestive systemNAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZChris Tomlinson, MBChB, BSc12.000000000000037.0000000000000656.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Lisez au sujet de diagnostic de l’entérocolite nécrosante néonatale (ENN) chez les bébés prématurés. Les symptômes de l’ENN peuvent inclure les vomissements d’aliments et peut-être de la bile provenant de l’estomac.</p><p>L’entérocolite nécrosante néonatale est une maladie qui atteint le gros intestin et l’intestin grêle. Plusieurs tests diagnostic seront effectués si on suspecte une entérocolite nécrosante néonatale chez un bébé prématuré. Des tests additionnels seront effectués afin de diagnostiquer des complications.</p><h2>À retenir</h2> <ul><li>L’entérocolite nécrosante néonatale (ENN) est un trouble qui inflamme les tissus du côlon ou de l’intestin grêle, ce qui peut causer la mort d’une partie de l’intestin.</li> <li>L’entérocolite nécrosante néonatale apparaît généralement dans les trois à dix jours suivant la naissance, mais peut se manifester aussi tôt que dans les 24 premières heures ou aussi tardivement qu’à l’âge de trois mois.</li> <li>Les premiers symptômes de l’entérocolite nécrosante néonatale peuvent comprendre des régurgitations d’aliment et parfois de la bile provenant de l’estomac, un ventre distendu ou anormalement large, de la diarrhée et du sang dans les selles.</li> <li>Des radiographies abdominales sont utilisées pour déterminer l’étendue du problème et parfois la cause, alors qu’une échographie abdominale est utilisée afin d’examiner des problèmes graves et d’autres symptômes de l’entérocolite nécrosante néonatale. </li> <li>En plus de recourir à l’imagerie, des prises de sang seront effectuées chez le bébé afin de repérer des complications.</li></ul>

 

 

Diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in premature babies1805.00000000000Diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in premature babiesDiagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in premature babiesDEnglishNeonatology;GastrointestinalPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)Small Intestine;Large Intestine/ColonDigestive systemNAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZChris Tomlinson, MBChB, BSc12.000000000000037.0000000000000656.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about diagnosing necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in premature babies. Symptoms of NEC can include vomiting food and possibly bile from the stomach.</p><p>Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a condition affecting the large and small intestine. Several diagnostic tests will be done if NEC is suspected in a premature baby. Additional tests will also be given to look for complications.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a condition in which the tissues of the large or small intestine become inflamed and sometimes die. </li> <li>NEC usually occurs three to 10 days following birth but may occur within the first 24 hours or as late as three months of age.</li> <li>Initial symptoms of NEC include vomitting food and possibly stomach bile; distended or abnormally large belly; diarrhea; and blood in the stool.</li> <li>Abdominal X-rays are used to determine severity and sometimes cause, while abdominal ultrasounds are used to fully examine serious problems and other signs of NEC.</li> <li>In addition to imaging, a baby suspected of having NEC will be given blood tests to look for any complications.</li></ul><figure> <img alt="Baby with distended belly in the NICU" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/baby-NICU-distended-bellyBR_EN.jpg" /> </figure> <p>Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a condition in which the tissues of the large or small intestine become inflamed and sometimes die. The affected area can be small or large, and may affect the inner lining of the bowel or the entire thickness of the bowel. NEC can also lead to other complications. As with most complications due to immaturity, the younger the premature baby’s gestational age, the more at risk they are.</p><p>Generally speaking, NEC is frequently associated with a lack of blood flow to the intestines or an intestinal infection. Somehow the presence of milk in the intestines is also important as NEC almost always occurs in babies who have begun to feed milk rather than those who are still receiving nutrition intravenously. Medical researchers agree that there are many factors that can influence NEC; however, they have different opinions about what actually causes the condition. Moreover, since there is no set manner in which NEC can appear, predicting which babies will get it is difficult, as is an initial diagnosis. Additionally, some of its symptoms, such as vomiting or diarrhea, are similar to signs of other feeding problems due to immaturity, which are often not nearly as serious. To make matters more complex, early symptoms of NEC, such as apnea and rapid breathing, body temperature changes, and changes in blood sugar levels, are also similar to those of some respiratory and heart problems.</p><p>Feeding is almost always necessary for NEC to develop. Formula fed babies are more at risk than those who are breastfed. Additionally, babies with polycythemia, an overabundance of red blood cells, also seem to be more at risk.</p><h2>Diagnosing NEC</h2><p>NEC usually occurs three to 10 days following birth but may appear as early as the first 24 hours or as late as three months of age. Initial symptoms of NEC can include vomiting food and possibly bile from the stomach, a distended or abnormally large belly, diarrhea, and blood in the stool. There may also be reduced or completely absent bowel sounds indicating that very little or nothing is moving through the system. This may also be reflected in the fact that the baby is having few or no bowel movements. Most babies with NEC appear to be sick in general.</p><p>Abdominal X-rays will be used to provide a detailed picture of NEC, revealing the extent of the problem and, sometimes though rarely, a cause. X-rays may be frequent during the evaluation of both suspected and proven cases of NEC. Specifically, doctors will be looking for abdominal distension, cysts in the walls of the intestines which are also called pneumatosis intestinalis, free air in the abdominal cavity which is also called pneumoperitoneum, and air in the blood vessels of the liver. If NEC is severe, it may tear a hole through the bowel wall, which is known as a perforated bowel. Abdominal ultrasound may also be used to fully examine these and other possible signs of NEC. If these imaging techniques do provide a definitive diagnosis and the baby is getting sicker, or if surgery is being considered to repair a perforated bowel, the doctor may wish to perform a diagnostic laparotomy, whereby the abdomen is opened and the bowel is examined. Laparotomy may also be performed if there is a strong suspicion that the bowel is about to tear.</p> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) X-ray</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/NEC_pneumatosis_XRAY_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.png" alt="" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">In necrotizing enterocolitis, there are air filled pockets in the walls of the intestines. The bowel appears distended and dilated. The abdomen also appears distended.</figcaption> </figure> <p>Given that NEC can significantly affect digestion, which is the absorption of nutrients and the excretion of waste products, NEC can have a significant impact on metabolic processes. Therefore, in addition to imaging, a baby suspected of having NEC will be given the usual blood tests to look for evidence of infection, electrolyte imbalances, hypoglycemia, and metabolic acidosis, among others.</p><h4>More information</h4><ul><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=1769&language=English">Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) </a></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=1844&language=English">Treatment of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)</a> </li></ul><br>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/baby-NICU-distended-bellyBR_EN.jpgDiagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in premature babies

Thank you to our sponsors

AboutKidsHealth is proud to partner with the following sponsors as they support our mission to improve the health and wellbeing of children in Canada and around the world by making accessible health care information available via the internet.