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Effects of prematurity on behaviour and intellectual abilityEEffects of prematurity on behaviour and intellectual abilityEffects of prematurity on behaviour and intellectual abilityEnglishDevelopmentalPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years)NANANAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZVirginia Frisk, Ph.D., C. Psych11.000000000000046.00000000000001461.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the effect of prematurity on behavior and intellect. Disability can take many forms, be they physical, intellectual, or behavioural.</p><p>Prematurity’s effect on a child’s intellectual abilities, thinking, memory, verbal skills, ability to learn, and so on, are reasonably well known. The bad news is that in general, some premature babies are negatively affected intellectually by the complications associated with their early birth. The good news is that, for many of those affected, this intellectual impairment is not profound and, with the proper intervention and attention, these intellectual impairments can be minimized to the point that they should not be a major hindrance to a reasonably “normal” life. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Brain injury and chronic lung disease are associated with a higher risk of intellectual and behavioural problems.</li> <li>Providing a nurturing environment is a great way for parents to maximize their premature baby's outcome.</li> <li>Prematurity will have generalized effects on intellectual disability and behaviour, as well as specific effects on behaviour.</li></ul>
Conséquences de la prématurité sur les aptitudes mentales et comportementalesCConséquences de la prématurité sur les aptitudes mentales et comportementalesEffects of prematurity on behaviour and intellectual abilityFrenchNAPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years)NANANAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZVirginia Frisk, Ph.D., C. Psych11.000000000000046.00000000000001461.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Renseignez-vous au sujet des conséquences de la prématurité sur le comportement et l’intelligence. L’incapacité peut être physique, intellectuelle ou comportementale.</p><p>Les conséquences de la prématurité sur les aptitudes mentales d’un enfant, soit la pensée, la mémoire, les aptitudes verbales, la capacité à apprendre, etc., sont assez bien connues. La mauvaise nouvelle est qu’en général, certains bébés prématurés sont touchés intellectuellement de façon négative par les complications associées à leur naissance prématurée. La bonne nouvelle est que, pour bon nombre d’entre eux, cette déficience intellectuelle n’est pas profonde et, à l’aide d’une intervention et d’une attention appropriées, il est possible de réduire au minimum ces déficiences intellectuelles au point qu’elles ne devraient pas être un obstacle majeur à une vie relativement « normale ».</p><h2>À retenir</h2> <ul><li>Les lésions cérébrales et la maladie pulmonaire chronique sont associées à un risque plus élevé de troubles mentaux et comportementaux.</li> <li>Fournir un milieu stimulant est une bonne façon pour les parents de maximiser le résultat de leur bébé prématuré.</li> <li>La prématurité aura des effets généralisés sur les incapacités intellectuelles et sur le comportement, de même que des effets spécifiques sur le comportement.</li></ul>

 

 

Effects of prematurity on behaviour and intellectual ability1883.00000000000Effects of prematurity on behaviour and intellectual abilityEffects of prematurity on behaviour and intellectual abilityEEnglishDevelopmentalPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years)NANANAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZVirginia Frisk, Ph.D., C. Psych11.000000000000046.00000000000001461.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the effect of prematurity on behavior and intellect. Disability can take many forms, be they physical, intellectual, or behavioural.</p><p>Prematurity’s effect on a child’s intellectual abilities, thinking, memory, verbal skills, ability to learn, and so on, are reasonably well known. The bad news is that in general, some premature babies are negatively affected intellectually by the complications associated with their early birth. The good news is that, for many of those affected, this intellectual impairment is not profound and, with the proper intervention and attention, these intellectual impairments can be minimized to the point that they should not be a major hindrance to a reasonably “normal” life. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Brain injury and chronic lung disease are associated with a higher risk of intellectual and behavioural problems.</li> <li>Providing a nurturing environment is a great way for parents to maximize their premature baby's outcome.</li> <li>Prematurity will have generalized effects on intellectual disability and behaviour, as well as specific effects on behaviour.</li></ul><p>Injuries to the brain, such as intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), a type of bleeding into the ventricles of the brain, and/or hypoxic-ischemic damage, are most frequently associated with impaired intellectual ability and behavioural problems. Chronic lung disease, where the baby requires supplemental oxygen beyond 36 weeks gestation is also associated with a higher risk of intellectual and behavioral problems. In general, the more severe the degree of brain injury or the chronic lung disease, the more likely there may be a poor outcome. If sensory systems such as hearing and vision are also affected, these will have an additional, probably negative, effect. </p><h2>Other factors to keep in mind</h2><p>While it is known that the complications associated with prematurity have an effect on intellectual ability, so do a lot of other things. For example, children who grow up in stable, affluent homes are more likely to perform well on intellectual tests than children from lower income and less stable family environments. All parents should understand that providing a nurturing environment is a great way to maximize their premature baby’s outcome. Parents of premature babies should also understand that intellectual impairments happen to full-term babies as well as premature babies. In many cases, premature babies experience delays in their development that appear to disappear over time. Catch-up growth and development may be seen throughout the first year of life. </p><p>Catch-up growth does occur, but data for children born SGA shows that if we are talking about catch-up head growth after birth, this does not completely undo head growth compromise in the womb, since the regions compromised during pregnancy are not necessarily the regions where the catch-up head growth occurs after birth. </p><h2>A word on “miracle babies”</h2><p>Outcome statistics are probabilities that a certain outcome will occur in a group of babies, based on research conducted with large numbers of premature children over time. We can say a child born at 25 weeks gestation who suffered injuries to the brain is much more likely to have an intellectual impairment than a baby born at 30 weeks who did not suffer brain injury. These are general statements about groups of premature children based on evidence accumulated over the years. The effect prematurity will have on any <em>individual</em> premature baby is much more difficult to predict. </p><p>What this means is that every once in a while, a very premature baby with significant brain injury will grow up to have no discernible intellectual disability, while a mildly premature baby with no known brain injury will grow up intellectually and physically impaired. The general public’s impression on these matters is often skewed by the media. The “miracle baby” stories frequently hit the airwaves while the unfortunate experiences of the family of a mildly premature baby with very poor prospects does not. This leaves the public with the impression that “miracles” happen much more regularly that they actually do in reality. </p><p>Given these “miracle” stories, many parents facing grim statistics will ignore the evidence and hold on to the hope that their premature child will somehow escape the negative effects associated with their medical complications. Given the emotional circumstance in which the parents unexpectedly find themselves, taking this view is understandable. However, statistics are a fairly accurate way of predicting the likely outcome. Indeed, they are the only way we have currently of providing guidance to families about what they may expect. Nonetheless, parents are encouraged to have hope for their child while at the same time keeping that hope grounded in reality. When staff at the NICU let parents know that their child is at risk for and may have a long-term intellectual or physical disability, it is possible that they will be wrong. However, in the vast majority of cases, the prognosis is correct. </p><p>No one likes to give or receive bad news. Yet, with the possibilities for therapy and other interventions, it is very important that if a disability does exist or is likely to emerge over time, parents are aware of what might happen and they know what to look out for. As with most disabilities, early, timely intervention and therapy has a greater chance of minimizing any effects, particularly those related to an intellectual, behavioural, or learning impairment. </p><h2>Disability’s global effect</h2><p>Normal brain function is central to almost every aspect of life. Rarely does an intellectual impairment not have widespread implications. For example, intellectual impairments are likely to have consequences in learning and social behaviour, and vice versa. Moreover, physical disabilities will also tend to have some effect on behaviour and intellect and education. The lesson is that disability should be looked at in terms of a total effect. </p><h2>Generalized effects on intellectual disability due to prematurity</h2><p>In general, premature babies score lower on a variety of tests that measure intellectual ability. How much lower they score is in direct relation to how premature and small they were at birth, and if they suffered complications affecting the brain immediately following birth. Mildly premature babies tend to have only slightly lower scores than full-term babies. Extremely premature babies have more significantly lower scores than full-term babies. </p><p>It should be noted that IQ statistics may include children with various impairments, including sensory impairments, as well as children born prematurely without sensory impairments. The inclusion of this diverse range of children in IQ studies can skew results. </p><p>While many premature babies “catch up” physically in terms of their growth as time goes by, it appears that this is not the case for most who have an intellectual disability. While the newborn brain is considered “plastic” in the sense that it can have an incredible ability to recover following injury, there are limits to this ability. The effects of an intellectual impairment tend to remain through childhood, although there is some evidence to suggest that girls may be affected to a lesser extent intellectually than are boys. Although less well studied, it is likely that these impairments remain into adulthood. </p><h2>Generalized effects on behaviour due to prematurity</h2><p>There are standardized questionnaires to measure concerns with behaviour in children. They are usually completed by a parent or teacher. In general, there is a greater likelihood that the behavioural ratings on these questionnaires, in children born prematurely, will show problems with behaviours such as inattention or non-compliance, or problems with emotions. </p><p>In similar fashion to the risk of cognitive deficits, discussed above, the greater the risk associated with the premature baby, in terms of length of pregnancy or complicating factors, in particular those affecting the brain, the greater the risk of behavioural problems. </p><p>Although many premature babies “catch up” physically in terms of their growth as time goes by, it appears that behavioural issues do not dissipate; they tend to remain through childhood. Although less well studied, it is likely that these impairments also remain into adulthood. It is important to note that some of these problems can be treated effectively with early behavioural intervention. </p><h2>Specific effects on behaviour due to prematurity</h2><p>Behaviour problems are generally categorized into two groups: externalizing behaviours and internalizing behaviours. Examples of externalized behaviours include: defiance, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and aggression. Withdrawal and anxiety are considered internalizing behaviours. How these behaviours manifest themselves depends on the age of the child. </p><p>Babies born prematurely are at a greater risk of problems with focusing attention, including development of signs and symptoms associated with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). These signs and symptoms can have negative impact on their social, intellectual, and academic development. </p><p>Behavioural problems should be viewed and treated in the largest frame possible, taking into account the fact that, in all probability, there can be widespread consequences. </p>Effects of prematurity on behaviour and intellectual ability

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