Typical breathing, heart rate and temperature ranges in childrenTTypical breathing, heart rate and temperature ranges in childrenTypical breathing, heart rate and temperature ranges in childrenEnglishRespiratoryChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Lungs;TracheaRespiratory systemNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+) Hospital healthcare providersNA2017-06-29T04:00:00ZReshma Amin, MD, FRCPC, MSc;Faiza Syed, BHSc, RRT;Tuyen Tran, RRT000Flat ContentHealth A-Z

 

 

Typical breathing, heart rate and temperature ranges in children2912.00000000000Typical breathing, heart rate and temperature ranges in childrenTypical breathing, heart rate and temperature ranges in childrenTEnglishRespiratoryChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Lungs;TracheaRespiratory systemNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+) Hospital healthcare providersNA2017-06-29T04:00:00ZReshma Amin, MD, FRCPC, MSc;Faiza Syed, BHSc, RRT;Tuyen Tran, RRT000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Breathing is a two-stage process:</p><ul><li>inhalation (breathing in)</li><li>exhalation (breathing out).<br></li></ul><p>When we breathe in, oxygen enters the lungs. When we breathe out, carbon dioxide exits the lungs.<br></p><h2>Breathing in</h2><p>During inhalation, the diaphragm flattens and the lungs get bigger. In addition, the intercostal muscles pull the ribcage upwards and outwards.</p><p>Air enters through the nose or mouth and passes into the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and finally into the alveoli. In the alveoli, oxygen that was breathed in from the air is transferred into the capillaries. It is then pumped by the heart all over the body to deliver oxygen.</p> <figure class="asset-c-100"> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/respiration_breath_in_out_EN.png" alt="The diaphragm flattens and the lungs expand when breathing in. The diaphragm relaxes and the lungs get smaller when breathing out." /></figure> <h2>Breathing out</h2><p>During exhalation, the lungs get smaller as the diaphragm relaxes and the intercostal muscles pull the ribcage downwards and inwards (towards the spine).</p><p>As the diaphragm relaxes, it moves back up. Carbon dioxide, the waste gas of the lung, moves from the capillaries to the alveoli. It then passes into the bronchioles, bronchi and trachea before leaving the body through the nose and mouth. The lungs, like a stretched spring, recoil back to their unstretched state and the air is squeezed out.</p><p>This process of breathing usually takes place without you thinking much about it. The diaphragm and intercostal muscles are usually relaxed when you breathe out. However, you can contract these muscles to push air out quickly, for example when you cough or sneeze.</p><h2>Standard heart rate, respiratory rate and temperature ranges </h2><p>When you are measuring your child's vital signs (their heart rate, respiratory rate, temperature or blood pressure), make sure you measure the rate for 60 seconds (one minute). </p><p>The tables below from the Canadian Paediatric Society show the standard heart rate, respiratory rate and temperature ranges for children from birth to 18 years. Your healthcare team will let you know the target heart rate and respiratory rate ranges for your child.</p><table class="akh-table" border="1" style="width:100%;"><thead><tr><th colspan="3" style="text-align:left;">Normal heart rate and respiratory rate ranges</th></tr><tr><th colspan="1">Age​</th><th colspan="1">Heart rate (beats/min)</th><th colspan="1">Respiratory rate (breaths/min)</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td></td><td> 93-182</td><td> 26-65</td></tr><tr><td> 1-3 months</td><td> 120-178</td><td> 28-55</td></tr><tr><td>3-6 months</td><td> 107-197</td><td> 22-52</td></tr><tr><td> 6-12 months</td><td> 108-178</td><td>22-52</td></tr><tr><td>1-2 years</td><td>90-152</td><td>20-50</td></tr><tr><td>2-3 years</td><td> 90-152</td><td> 20-40</td></tr><tr><td> 3-5 years</td><td> 74-138</td><td> 20-30</td></tr><tr><td> 5-7 years</td><td> 65-138</td><td> 20-26</td></tr><tr><td>8-10 years</td><td> 62-130</td><td>14-26</td></tr><tr><td> 11-13 years</td><td> 62-130</td><td> 14-22</td></tr><tr><td>14-18 years</td><td> 62-120</td><td> 12-22</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><table class="akh-table" border="1" style="width:100%;"><thead><tr><th colspan="3" style="text-align:left;">Temperature ranges</th></tr><tr><th colspan="1">Method<br></th><th colspan="1">Normal range (°C)<br></th><th colspan="1">Fever (°C)</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>Oral</td><td> 35.5 - 37.5</td><td> 38</td></tr><tr><td> Rectal</td><td> 36.6 - 38</td><td> 38</td></tr><tr><td>Axillary (arm pit)</td><td> 36.5 - 37.5</td><td> 38</td></tr></tbody></table><p></p><h2>​Signs of respiratory distress </h2><p>When a child is experiencing respiratory distress (difficulty breathing), you may see one or more of the following signs.</p><h3>Early signs of respiratory distress</h3><ul><li>Increased effort to breathe</li><li>Faster breathing</li><li>Head bobbing</li><li>Abnormal breathing sounds such as wheezing or grunting</li></ul><p>Some children may experience respiratory distress along with a fever.</p><p>If your child's breathing is faster than usual, try to calm them down and see if their breathing rate returns to normal.</p><h3>Late (more urgent) signs of respiratory distress</h3><ul><li>“Rattling” in your child’s chest or back</li><li>Obvious distress or agitation</li><li>Retractions (pulling in of the skin of the neck or chest with each breath, nasal flaring) </li><li>Tripod position (sitting or standing while leaning forward and supporting the upper body with hands on the knees or on another surface)</li><li>Cyanosis (pale or blue skin around the eyes, mouth, fingernails and toenails)</li><li>Sleepiness or unresponsiveness</li></ul><p>If there is a “rattling” sound when your child breathes, encourage them to try to cough up the mucus to clear their lungs. Cyanosis indicates that your child is not getting enough oxygen. Unresponsiveness indicates that your child has a high level of carbon dioxide in their lungs.</p><p></p><div class="caution"><h3>Precaution</h3><p>Call 911 or go to the nearest emergency department immediately if you see any late signs of respiratory distress in your child.<br></p></div> <a class="btn btn-primary" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/trachvent">Return to trach-vent learning hub</a> Typical breathing, heart rate and temperature ranges in childrenTruehttps://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=2913&language=Englishhttps://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=2911&language=English

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