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Bacterial infections in pregnancyBBacterial infections in pregnancyBacterial infections in pregnancyEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)BodyReproductive systemConditions and diseasesPrenatal Adult (19+)Pain;Fever;Painful urination2009-09-11T04:00:00ZNicolette Caccia, MEd, MD, FRCSCRory Windrim, MB, MSc, FRCSC12.000000000000035.00000000000001752.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about bacterial infections in pregnancy. Group B strep, listeria, urinary tract infections, and sexually transmitted diseases are discussed.</p><p>When you are pregnant, you need to careful about infections and infectious diseases. Unborn and newborn babies have weak immune systems compared with older children and adults, and therefore are very susceptible to infection. </p> <p>Infections in pregnancy can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or other organisms called protozoa. Below is a description of the numerous bacterial infections that can affect the growing baby during pregnancy. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Unborn and newborn babies have weak immune systems and are highly susceptible to infection.</li> <li>Group B streptococcus infections are the most common cause of life-threatening infections in newborn babies.</li> <li>Seek medical attention if you feel unwell or suspect you have a bacterial infection.</li></ul>
Infections bactériennes pendant la grossesseIInfections bactériennes pendant la grossesseBacterial infections in pregnancyFrenchPregnancyAdult (19+)BodyReproductive systemConditions and diseasesPrenatal Adult (19+)Pain;Fever;Painful urination2009-09-11T04:00:00ZNicolette Caccia, MEd, MD, FRCSC Rory Windrim, MB, MSc, FRCSC12.000000000000035.00000000000001752.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Apprenez-en davantage sur les infections bactériennes pendant la grossesse. Cette section fournit de l’information sur le streptocoque du groupe B, les infections urinaires et les maladies sexuellement transmissibles.</p><p>Si vous êtes enceinte, vous devez vous méfier des infections et maladies infectieuses. Le système immunitaire des bébés en gestation et des nouveaux-nés est plus faible que celui des autres enfants et des adultes, ce qui le rend très susceptible à l’infection.</p> <p>Les infections pendant grossesse sont imputables aux bactéries, aux virus et à d’autres organismes appelés protozoaires. Voici une description des multiples infections bactériennes susceptibles d’entraver la croissance du bébé en gestation.</p><h2>À retenir</h2> <ul><li>Les fœtus et les nouveau-nés ont un système immunitaire affaibli et sont hautement sensibles aux infections.</li> <li>Les infections aux streptocoques du groupe B sont les causes les plus fréquentes d’infections pouvant mettre la vie des nouveau-nés en danger.</li> <li>Consultez un professionnel de la santé si vous ne vous sentez pas bien ou si vous suspectez la présence d’une infection bactérienne. </li></ul>

 

 

Bacterial infections in pregnancy352.000000000000Bacterial infections in pregnancyBacterial infections in pregnancyBEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)BodyReproductive systemConditions and diseasesPrenatal Adult (19+)Pain;Fever;Painful urination2009-09-11T04:00:00ZNicolette Caccia, MEd, MD, FRCSCRory Windrim, MB, MSc, FRCSC12.000000000000035.00000000000001752.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about bacterial infections in pregnancy. Group B strep, listeria, urinary tract infections, and sexually transmitted diseases are discussed.</p><p>When you are pregnant, you need to careful about infections and infectious diseases. Unborn and newborn babies have weak immune systems compared with older children and adults, and therefore are very susceptible to infection. </p> <p>Infections in pregnancy can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or other organisms called protozoa. Below is a description of the numerous bacterial infections that can affect the growing baby during pregnancy. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Unborn and newborn babies have weak immune systems and are highly susceptible to infection.</li> <li>Group B streptococcus infections are the most common cause of life-threatening infections in newborn babies.</li> <li>Seek medical attention if you feel unwell or suspect you have a bacterial infection.</li></ul><h2>Streptococcus infections</h2> <p>There are two kinds of streptococcus infections: group A and group B. Group A streptococcus infections, caused by bacteria such as <em>Streptococcus pyogenes</em>, are rare today. This organism produces a toxic shock-like syndrome and scarlet fever, both of which are uncommon and treated with <a href="/Article?contentid=212&language=English">penicillin</a>. Group B streptococcus infections are common, and they are caused by a bacterium called <em>Streptococcus agalactiae</em>. Group B streptococcus infections are the most common cause of life-threatening infections in newborn babies. </p> <h3>Group B Streptococcus</h3> <p>According to a recent study, 15% to 20% of pregnant women are carriers of group B streptococcus. Half of newborn babies born to women with group B streptococcus infection acquire the infection at birth. Group B streptococcus is associated with a number of problems during pregnancy, including: </p> <ul> <li>infection or premature rupture of the fetal membranes </li> <li>a blood infection known as sepsis shortly after childbirth </li> <li>other infections in the unborn and newborn baby </li></ul> <p>Some babies born to mothers with group B streptococcus infection will develop sepsis themselves six to 12 hours after birth. This is called early-onset neonatal sepsis. The rate of this infection increases about four times if there is premature labour, membrane rupture, or fever during childbirth. Symptoms of sepsis in the baby include: </p> <ul> <li>respiratory distress </li> <li>interruptions in breathing during sleep, called <a href="/Article?contentid=1918&language=English">apnea</a> </li> <li>shock </li></ul> <p>Other babies born to mothers with group B streptococcus infection may develop late-onset sepsis, which may lead to <a href="/Article?contentid=761&language=English">meningitis</a> about a week or so after birth. These babies, and those who develop early-onset neonatal sepsis, are at risk of developing hearing loss, vision loss, learning disabilities, and other neurological problems later in life. </p> <p>Some doctors choose to test all pregnant mothers in their care between their 35th and 37th week of pregnancy. Any pregnant mothers who test postive for group B streptococcus are then given antibiotics when labour starts. Other doctors do not routinely test all pregnant mothers, but instead treat only those mothers who are at high risk for group B streptococcus.</p> <p>The group B streptococcus test is simple and painless. The doctor will do a swab of the vagina and rectum to check for the presence of the bacteria. If the test result is positive, the woman will need to receive preventive treatment, called prophylaxis during labour. Prophylaxis treatment involves giving the woman an antibiotic during childbirth. If a mother is high risk for group B streptococcus and either was not tested or the test results have not come back, she should be treated with antibiotics. </p> <p>After birth, the baby will be monitored for signs of infection and treated with antibiotics if needed.</p> <h2>Listeria infections</h2> <p>Listeria is an uncommon and perhaps underdiagnosed bacterial cause of sepsis in the newborn. The organism <i>Listeria monocytogenes</i> is found in soil, water, sewage, raw meat or fish, vegetables that are contaminated from fertilizer, and unpasteurized dairy products. Pregnant women are 20 times more likely to be infected with listeria and develop a condition called listeriosis. </p> <p>Pregnant women with listeriosis often have no symptoms. They may have fever with muscles aches, nausea, or diarrhea. If the baby gets listeriosis from their mother in the womb, it can lead to premature birth, low birth weight, infection of the newborn, or stillbirth. Newborn babies with listeriosis often develop sepsis, which can lead to meningitis. </p> <p>In pregnancy, listeria is diagnosed through the use of a blood test. Routine screening is not recommended. Listeriosis is treated with antibiotics such as ampicillin. Prevention is key, and the following recommendations should be followed to avoid listeria infection: </p> <ul> <li>Thoroughly cook raw meat. </li> <li>Thoroughly wash raw vegetables. </li> <li>Do not store raw meat with vegetables or cooked food. </li> <li>Avoid unpasteurized milk. </li> <li>After handling raw meat, wash hands and cooking utensils thoroughly. </li></ul> <h2>Urinary tract infections</h2> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=510&language=English">Urinary tract infections (UTIs)​</a> are common in women, and they are caused by a number of different types of bacteria. The symptoms of UTIs include a frequent and urgent need to urinate, and sometimes painful urination. However, not all UTIs are accompanied by symptoms. Also, the frequent and urgent urination can be mistaken for symptoms of normal pregnancy. UTIs can lead to an infection of the kidney called pyelonephritis, which causes chills, fever, and pains in the back, side, or abdomen. Pyelonephritis in pregnancy can lead to premature labour and delivery of a low birth weight baby. </p> <p>Because UTIs are a significant concern in pregnancy, your health-care provider will test your urine at each visit. UTIs are treated with antibiotics. </p> <h2>Bacterial vaginosis</h2> <p>Bacterial vaginosis is a mild infection in the vagina caused by bacteria. If you develop bacterial vaginosis, you may notice a light or heavy discharge that has a slight "fishy" smell. Bacterial vaginosis is not a sexually transmitted disease. Rather, it occurs when there are too many of the bacteria that normally live in the vagina. If left untreated, bacterial vaginosis can infect the uterus or fallopian tubes. Bacterial vaginosis has been associated with premature birth, premature rupture of the fetal membranes, and an infection of the fetal membranes and amniotic fluid called chorioamnionitis. Therefore, treatment is very important, especially in pregnancy. Bacterial vaginosis is treated with certain medications which are either taken orally or inserted as a cream or gel into the vagina. </p> <h2>Sexually transmitted diseases</h2> <h3>Syphilis</h3> <p>Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by a bacterium called <i>Treponema pallidum</i>. If a mother has untreated syphilis, there is a 100% chance that it will infect the unborn baby, and a 50% chance that the infected baby will die either shortly before or after birth. Infected infants who survive may have low birth weight and will develop symptoms of syphilis such as failure to thrive, nonspecific fever, rash, and wart-like sores on the mouth, anus, and genitals. Long-term effects include neurological problems, blindness, and deafness. </p> <p>There are three stages to the disease in pregnant and nonpregnant women. Stage one is the formation of painless, red ulcers on the vulva, cervix, and vagina. Stage two is a rash on the palms and soles of the feet. There may be a "quiet" phase with no symptoms. During this phase, a woman with syphilis can still pass the disease on to her unborn baby. Some people with syphilis move on to stage three, which can damage the heart, eyes, brain, nervous system, bones, or joints. </p> <p>Because of the serious nature of this disease and its ability to cross the placenta and affect the unborn baby, syphilis is routinely screened in pregnancy. Usually the screening test is done at the first prenatal visit. If you are considered to be high-risk for syphilis, another screening test will be done around 28 weeks into your pregnancy and again at delivery. If you test positive for syphilis in one of the tests, you may also need to be tested for other sexually transmitted diseases. Syphilis is treated with antibiotics such as penicillin. In pregnant women with syphilis, penicillin is the only acceptable drug that can be used. </p> <h3>Chlamydia</h3> <p>Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium <i>Chlamydia trachomatis</i>. The symptoms of chlamydia include frequent and painful urination, the presence of a green or yellow vaginal discharge, and bleeding during pregnancy. However, 75% of women with chlamydia do not have symptoms. Chlamydia is a risk factor for ectopic pregnancy, which is a serious condition where the fertilized egg cell implants in the fallopian tube instead of the uterus. During pregnancy, chlamydia can also cause an infection called chorioamnionitis, which affects the fetal membranes and amniotic fluid, and eventually leads to infection in the baby. Once the baby is infected, chlamydia can affect the baby’s eyes, ears, genitals, and lungs. </p> <p>Screening for chlamydia during pregnancy is very important. The test can be done using a urine sample or a swab from the cervix. Chlamydia is treated with antibiotics such as <a href="/Article?contentid=131&language=English">erythromycin</a>. </p> <p>Chlamydia is an important cause of eye infections in newborn babies. To prevent this potential complication, all babies are given an antibiotic eye ointment called <a href="/Article?contentid=131&language=English">erythromycin ​</a>immediately or up to two hours after birth. The ointment is known to cause blurry vision for a short time, and it may also produce a mild irritation in the baby’s eyes for 24 to 48 hours. </p> <h3>Gonorrhea</h3> <p>Gonorrhea is another common sexually transmitted disease. It is caused by the <i>Neisseria gonorrhoeae</i> bacterium. The symptoms of gonorrhea in women include a burning sensation when urinating and increased vaginal discharge. However, half of the people who are infected with gonorrhea show no symptoms. Gonorrhea can cause pelvic inflammatory disease, and can spread to the blood and joints. Gonorrhea can also infect the uterus, cervix, and fallopian tubes. Damage to the fallopian tubes can lead to ectopic pregnancy and infertility. </p> <p>Because many women with gonorrhea have no symptoms, it is important to screen for this infection during pregnancy. If you are considered high-risk, your health-care provider will test for gonorrhea at your first prenatal visit. Even if you are not high-risk, you may want to take the screening test to be on the safe side. The recommended screening test involves taking a swab of your cervix and sending it away for culture. Gonorrhea is treated with antibiotics such as ceftriaxone. </p> <p>Gonorrhea is passed to the baby during childbirth. Once infected, a newborn baby can develop problems with her eyes, joints, and blood. Newborn babies exposed to gonorrhea can develop a severe form of pink eye, which may lead to blindness. To prevent this potential complication, all newborn babies are given an antibiotic eye ointment called erythromycin immediately or up to two hours after birth. The ointment is known to cause blurry vision for a short time, and it may also produce a mild irritation in the baby’s eyes for 24 to 48 hours. </p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/bacterial_infections_in_pregnancy.jpgBacterial infections in pregnancy

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