Gastrointestinal infections in babiesGGastrointestinal infections in babiesGastrointestinal infections in babiesEnglishNABaby (1-12 months)Stomach;Small Intestine;Large Intestine/Colon;RectumDigestive systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)Abdominal pain;Constipation;Diarrhea;Vomiting;Fever;Nausea;Fatigue2009-10-18T04:00:00ZAndrew James, MBChB, FRACP, FRCPC Douglas Campbell, MD, FRCPC12.000000000000037.00000000000001910.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about the symptoms and treatment of various gastrointestinal infections that can arise during infancy, including rotavirus and Norwalk virus.<br></p><p>Gastrointestinal problems can arise from time to time in infancy. They are usually caused by a viral infection in the stomach. Rotavirus and Norwalk virus infection are common causes of gastroenteritis in babies and children. <em>Escherichia coli</em> , campylobacter, and salmonella are important bacterial causes of gastroenteritis. Some of the more common causes of gastrointestinal upset are described below, along with their symptoms and treatment. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Gastrointestinal infections are usually caused by a virus or bacterial infection.</li> <li>Some of the common causes of gastrointestinal upset are rotavirus, Norwalk virus, <em>Escherichia coli</em>, campylobacter and salmonella infections.</li></ul>
Infections gastro-intestinales chez les bébésIInfections gastro-intestinales chez les bébésGastrointestinal infections in babiesFrenchNABaby (1-12 months)Stomach;Small Intestine;Large Intestine/Colon;RectumDigestive systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)Abdominal pain;Constipation;Diarrhea;Vomiting;Fever;Nausea;Fatigue2009-10-18T04:00:00ZAndrew James, MBChB, FRACP, FRCPC Douglas Campbell, MD, FRCPC12.000000000000037.00000000000001910.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Apprenez-en davantage sur les symptômes des diverses infections gastro-intestinales qui peuvent survenir durant la petite enfance, y compris le rotavirus et le virus de Norwalk, ainsi que sur les traitements à apporter.<br></p><p>Des problèmes gastro-intestinaux peuvent survenir de temps à autre chez les enfants en bas âge. Habituellement, une infection virale dans l'estomac est l'origine de ces problèmes. L'infection à rotavirus et l'infection à l'agent de Norwalk sont des causes courantes de gastro-entérite chez les bébés et les enfants. <em>Escherichia coli</em>, la campylobactérie et la salmonelle sont d’importantes causes bactériennes de la gastro-entérite. Certaines causes courantes de problèmes gastro-intestinaux, ainsi que leurs symptômes et les traitements appropriés, sont décrits ci-dessous. </p><h2>À retenir</h2> <ul><li>Les infections gastro-intestinales sont habituellement causées par un virus ou une infection bactérienne.</li> <li>Les causes fréquentes des inconforts gastro-intestinaux sont des infections aux rotavirus, au virus de Norwalk, à l’Escherichia coli, aux campylobactéries et aux salmonelles.</li></ul>

 

 

Gastrointestinal infections in babies509.000000000000Gastrointestinal infections in babiesGastrointestinal infections in babiesGEnglishNABaby (1-12 months)Stomach;Small Intestine;Large Intestine/Colon;RectumDigestive systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)Abdominal pain;Constipation;Diarrhea;Vomiting;Fever;Nausea;Fatigue2009-10-18T04:00:00ZAndrew James, MBChB, FRACP, FRCPC Douglas Campbell, MD, FRCPC12.000000000000037.00000000000001910.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about the symptoms and treatment of various gastrointestinal infections that can arise during infancy, including rotavirus and Norwalk virus.<br></p><p>Gastrointestinal problems can arise from time to time in infancy. They are usually caused by a viral infection in the stomach. Rotavirus and Norwalk virus infection are common causes of gastroenteritis in babies and children. <em>Escherichia coli</em> , campylobacter, and salmonella are important bacterial causes of gastroenteritis. Some of the more common causes of gastrointestinal upset are described below, along with their symptoms and treatment. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Gastrointestinal infections are usually caused by a virus or bacterial infection.</li> <li>Some of the common causes of gastrointestinal upset are rotavirus, Norwalk virus, <em>Escherichia coli</em>, campylobacter and salmonella infections.</li></ul><h2>Rotavirus infection</h2><p>Rotavirus is the most common cause of a gastrointestinal upset and severe diarrhea in babies and children. Infected children usually start showing symptoms a couple of days after being exposed to the rotavirus. Typical symptoms include vomiting and watery diarrhea, and they usually last about three to seven days. Fever and abdominal pain occur frequently. </p><p>The rotavirus is transmitted by the so-called fecal-oral route. This is when a person comes into contact with the infected feces of another person. For example, if a child at daycare has rotavirus, and a daycare worker changes the child’s diaper without washing their hands thoroughly afterwards, the virus can be easily spread to other children at the daycare. It can also be transmitted if a person eats food that has been contaminated with the rotavirus, drinks contaminated water, or touches a contaminated surface. Rotavirus is contagious and outbreaks occur from time to time in daycare centres. Therefore, if your baby develops a rotavirus infection, make sure to keep them away from other children until the symptoms have gone away. </p><p>Make sure hands are washed well with soap and water after every trip to the bathroom or diaper change.</p><p>In countries with a temperate climate, such as the U.S.A. and Canada, rotavirus infections are most common during the winter months, from November to April. The disease is most common in babies and young children, and most children acquire the disease by the age of two years. In adults, the disease is usually mild. The diagnosis is confirmed by identifying the presence of rotavirus in a stool specimen. </p><h3>Treating rotavirus infection</h3><p>Because the disease is caused by a virus, antibiotics are not effective against rotavirus gastroenteritis. Treatment consists of preventing dehydration by ensuring an adequate intake of oral fluids. Sometimes this involves giving a baby or child an oral rehydration solution. Some babies or children who have very severe diarrhea require hospitalization so they can be given fluids intravenously. <a href="/Article?contentid=62&language=English">Acetaminophen</a> can be given to help reduce discomfort and treat the fever. </p><h3>Preventing rotavirus infection</h3><p>The best way to prevent rotavirus is to wash your baby’s and your own hands often and thoroughly, especially after changing your baby’s diaper. </p><p>Vaccines active against rotavirus became available at the beginning of 2006. There are two brands of rotavirus vaccine. A baby should get either two or three doses, depending on which brand is used.</p><ul><li>First dose: two months of age</li><li>Second dose: four months of age</li><li>Third dose (if needed): six months of age</li></ul><p>Your child’s physician or a public health nurse will be able to provide information about the availability of these vaccines and discuss vaccination for your child. </p><h2>Norwalk virus infection</h2><p>Norwalk is a family of viruses that commonly cause gastrointestinal upset. Typical symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Sometimes headache and low grade fever may occur. The symptoms of Norwalk virus infection typically arise one to two days after someone has eaten food or water that has been contaminated with the Norwalk virus. The symptoms are usually mild and go away in one to three days. Severe illness is very rare. </p><p>Norwalk virus is usually transmitted by the fecal-oral route. The infection occurs more frequently in adults and older children than in the very young. The disease is contagious for as long as the person has symptoms. If your child develops symptoms of a Norwalk virus infection, keep them away from other children until their symptoms have disappeared, to help limit the spread of the infection. </p><h3>Treating Norwalk virus infection</h3><p>Because Norwalk is a virus, antibiotics are not effective against it. Therefore, your doctor should not prescribe antibiotics if they suspect that your child has an infection caused by the Norwalk virus. Treatment consists of preventing the dehydration that can be caused by diarrhea. Sometimes an oral electrolyte solution is required to help prevent dehydration. </p><h3>Preventing Norwalk virus infection</h3><p>The best way to prevent Norwalk virus is to wash your baby’s and your own hands often and thoroughly, especially after changing your baby’s diaper. </p><h2> <em>Escherichia coli</em> infection </h2><p> <em>Escherichia coli</em> ( <em>E. coli</em>) is a bacterium that causes gastrointestinal upset. There are actually hundreds of strains of <em>E. coli</em>, many of which are harmless and live in the intestines of healthy humans and animals. However, one particular strain is toxic and can cause severe stomach upset. The symptoms of <em>E. coli</em> infection include stomach cramps, diarrhea, blood in the stool, and fever. The symptoms usually go away in five to 10 days. People with <em>E. coli</em> infection are contagious for a week or two after their illness resolves. </p><p> <em>E. coli</em> can contaminate meat when animals are slaughtered and the bacteria can get mixed into beef during the grinding process. <em>E. coli</em> can also pass from cow udders and milking equipment into unpasteurized milk. Unwashed vegetables may also carry <em>E. coli</em>, and sometimes a town’s water supply can become contaminated. The bacteria can also be spread from one infected person to another person if they do not wash their hands carefully. </p><h3>Testing for <em>E. coli</em> infection </h3><p>All people who suddenly develop diarrhea with blood in their stool should be tested for <em>E. coli</em> infection. This is done by giving a stool sample, which the doctor will send away for culture. Many laboratories do not specifically test for <em>E. coli</em> in stool samples, so the doctor will need to specify that this test be performed. </p><p>One reason to test for <em>E. coli</em> is because this infection can sometimes lead to a complication called hemolytic uremic syndrome, which can cause life-threatening kidney failure. Most cases of hemolytic uremic syndrome are caused by <em>E. coli</em>. </p><h3>Treating <em>E. coli</em> infection </h3><p>Although <em>E. coli</em> is a bacterial infection, most people recover without antibiotics within five to 10 days. Antibiotics do not reduce the severity of the infection or shorten the course of the illness. Antidiarrheal agents should be avoided, as they can mask the problem. However, <a href="/Article?contentid=62&language=English">acetaminophen</a> can be given to help your baby or child feel more comfortable, especially if they have a fever. Most people who only have diarrhea as a symptom recover fully. </p><p>Hemolytic uremic syndrome needs to be treated in hospital, sometimes within the intensive care unit. Blood transfusions and kidney dialysis may be necessary. </p><h3>Preventing <em>E. coli</em> infection </h3><p>There are numerous ways to prevent the spread of <em>E. coli</em> infection: </p><ul><li>Cook meat, especially ground beef, thoroughly to kill off the bacteria. Make sure ground beef patties are completely browned on the inside. Insert a meat thermometer into the patty, and make sure it reads 71°C (160°F) in the thickest part. </li><li>Drink pasteurized milk, juice, and cider, as they have been treated to kill any harmful bacteria.</li><li>Wash raw vegetables and fruit thoroughly.</li><li>Wash counters and cutting utensils with hot soapy water after they touch raw meat.</li><li>Wash your baby's and your own hands often and thoroughly, especially after changing your baby’s diaper.</li></ul> <h2>Campylobacter infection</h2><p>Campylobacteriosis is a bacterial infection that causes stomach cramps, diarrhea, blood in the stool, and fever. The symptoms usually last about two to five days. People who have this infection are contagious for the time that they have symptoms. </p><p>The infection is spread by eating meat that has been contaminated by bacteria called <em>Campylobacter jejuni</em>, or by drinking contaminated water. Unpasteurized milk and raw eggs are other sources of contamination. Occasionally, the infection can be spread through contact with infected people or animals. </p><h3>Treating campylobacter infection</h3><p>If your baby or child has a fever above 38.5°C (101°F), try giving them some <a href="/Article?contentid=62&language=English">acetaminophen​</a>. This will also help to reduce their discomfort. They may need extra fluids to prevent dehydration from diarrhea. Usually people with campylobacter get better without any specific treatment, but sometimes the doctor may prescribe antibiotics. The symptoms should go away in two to five days, but if your baby or child is prescribed antibiotics, make sure they take the entire prescription even if they feel better within a day or two. </p><p>Because this infection is contagious, children who are not yet toilet trained and who have this infection should be kept away from other children until their symptoms have cleared. </p><h3>Preventing campylobacter infection</h3><p>Campylobacter infection can be prevented by:</p><ul><li>avoiding raw eggs or unpasteurized milk</li><li>avoiding the consumption of raw or undercooked meat</li><li>washing cutting boards thoroughly after using them for food preparation</li><li>cooking raw meat to the correct internal cooking temperature</li><li>refrigerating foods promptly</li><li>carefully washing hands before and after food preparation</li><li>making sure that children wash their hands often and properly</li></ul><h2>Salmonella infection</h2><p>Salmonellosis is an infection with a group of bacteria called salmonella. About 12 to 72 hours after being infected with the bacteria, most people will develop symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever. Symptoms usually last for four to seven days. However, babies and other high-risk groups such as the elderly and those with compromised immune systems may develop severe infection. A severe infection may spread from the intestines to the bloodstream, and then to other body sites. </p><p>Most people who develop salmonella infection recover fully, although their bowel movements may take months to get back to normal. There are many illnesses that can cause diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever, and salmonella is just one of them. Salmonellosis can be diagnosed by testing the stool of the person who is ill. Further testing can be done to determine the specific type of salmonella bacteria that is causing the infection. </p><h3>Treating salmonella infection</h3><p>Most people with salmonellosis get better without treatment with antibiotics. Treatment consists of preventing dehydration, and sometimes this involves giving the baby or child an oral rehydration solution such as Pedialyte. </p><p>However, sometimes the illness is so severe that the person needs to be hospitalized. If they have become severely dehydrated because of the diarrhea, they may need to receive rehydration therapy at the hospital. People who develop severe infection that spreads to other parts of the body need to be treated with antibiotics. Unfortunately, some types of salmonella bacteria have developed resistance to antibiotics. </p><h3>Preventing salmonella infection</h3><p>Salmonella bacteria live in the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. If people eat food that is contaminated with animal feces, they can get the disease. It is sometimes difficult to tell if a food is contaminated, because contaminated foods look and smell normal. The main sources of contaminated food are beef, poultry, milk, and eggs. However, vegetables can also become contaminated. </p><p>Salmonella can also be found in the feces of pets such as reptiles and turtles.</p><p>Here are a few ways to prevent salmonellosis:</p><ul><li>Do not eat raw or undercooked eggs, poultry, or meat.</li><li>Do not eat or drink unpasteurized milk or dairy products.</li><li>Cook all raw foods of animal origin thoroughly, to kill the bacteria. Poultry and meat, including hamburgers, should be fully cooked, not pink in the middle. </li><li>Thoroughly wash all vegetables and fruits before eating.</li><li>Keep uncooked foods away from cooked and ready-to-eat foods.</li><li>Thoroughly wash cutting boards, utensils, and your hands after handling uncooked foods.</li><li>Wash your hands thoroughly after handling any reptiles. Reptiles, especially turtles, are not suitable pets for children because they carry salmonella. They should be kept away from babies. </li><li>If you have salmonellosis, do not prepare any food or drinks for others until tests show that you are no longer carrying the bacteria. </li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/gastrointestinal_infections.jpgGastrointestinal infections in babies

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