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Lyme diseaseLLyme diseaseLyme diseaseEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Fatigue;Fever;Headache;Joint or muscle pain;Swollen glands2011-09-20T04:00:00ZJonathan Gubbay, MBBS, MSc, FRCPC8.0000000000000063.00000000000001331.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to prevent, recognize and treat Lyme disease.<br></p><h2>What is Lyme disease?</h2><p>Lyme disease is a bacterial infection transmitted by the blacklegged tick, also known as the deer tick. The infection is caused by the bacterium <em>Borrelia burgdorferi</em>, which is spread through tick bites.</p><p>When treated early with the appropriate medications, children can recover completely from deer tick bites. However, if it is undiagnosed or untreated, Lyme disease can lead to serious recurring or long-term health problems.</p><p>Lyme disease is often called "the great imitator" because it can look like different diseases or neurological disorders. Lyme disease is often misdiagnosed as a number of other conditions and illnesses, for example multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, <a href="/Article?contentid=1493&language=English">autism</a> or schizophrenia.</p>​ <h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Lyme disease is a bacterial infection transmitted by the deer tick.</li><li>The first sign of infection is usually a circular red rash at the location of the tick bite, which then spreads in a "bulls eye" pattern. Not everyone with Lyme disease has this rash.</li><li>If your child is diagnosed with Lyme disease, the doctor will prescribe antibiotics.</li><li>To help prevent tick bites and Lyme disease, keep skin covered, apply insect repellent to your child's skin and check for ticks on clothing and skin after playing or hiking in tick-infested areas.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of Lyme disease</h2><p>Symptoms of Lyme disease may occur in three stages. Not all children infected by Lyme disease go through these stages.</p><h3>Stage 1 Lyme disease</h3><p>For most people, the first sign of infection may be a circular rash at the site of the tick bite. The rash can appear from a day to a month after a tick bite. The most common sites for a rash are the thigh, groin and armpit.</p> <figure><img alt="Lyme disease rash on a leg" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/lyme_disease_rash.jpg" /> </figure> <p>When the rash starts, it is usually flat, but it can sometimes be slightly raised. Patients often describe the skin as burning or occasionally painful or itchy. Over time, the redness becomes wider, measuring anything from 1 cm to 30 cm (1/2 to 12 inches) across. It may look like a bull's eye, with a red ring surrounding a clear area and a red centre.<br></p><p>The rash usually fades after three to four weeks, but it can persist for over a year. It is often accompanied by the following symptoms:</p><ul><li>fatigue</li><li>chills</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=29&language=English">headache</a></li><li>muscle and joint pain</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=777&language=English">swollen lymph nodes</a>.</li></ul><h3>Stage 2 Lyme disease</h3><p>Left untreated, Lyme disease can spread in the body over the following days and weeks and progress to a second stage. The symptoms of stage 2 Lyme disease may include:</p><ul><li>nervous system disorders</li><li>multiple skin rashes</li><li>arthritis and arthritic symptoms</li><li>heart palpitations (occasional skipped and/or faster heartbeats)</li><li>extreme fatigue and general weakness.</li></ul><h3>Stage 3 Lyme disease</h3><p>If Lyme disease is still left untreated, it can progress to the third stage over the following months or years. The symptoms of stage 3 Lyme disease can last for months or years and may include:</p><ul><li>chronic arthritis</li><li>neurological problems like <a href="/Article?contentid=761&language=English">meningitis</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=850&language=English">Bell's palsy</a></li><li>numbness or weakness in the arms and legs</li><li>impaired muscle movement</li><li>memory loss</li><li>difficulty concentrating</li><li>changes in mood or sleep habits.</li></ul><p>Children who are treated with antibiotics in the first or second stage of Lyme disease almost never develop third-stage disease.</p><h2>Risk factors for Lyme disease</h2> <p>If your child plays in a tick-infested forest or in grassy fields, they will be at a greater risk for Lyme disease. Since ticks attach easily to bare skin, having exposed skin is also a risk factor.</p> <p>If a tick attaches to your child's skin, it is important to remove the tick as soon as possible. Removing ticks with a tweezers within 24 to 36 hours usually prevents infection.</p><h2>How a doctor can help your child with Lyme disease</h2> <p>Lyme disease is not always easy to diagnose because its symptoms can resemble those of other diseases. In addition, not everyone who gets a tick bite develops a rash.</p> <p>Your child's doctor will evaluate your child's symptoms and may order a blood test if they suspect Lyme disease. Blood test results can be negative or positive. A negative result means that no antibodies to the bacteria causing Lyme disease have been found in the blood.</p> <p>If your child gets a negative result to a blood test that is done when symptoms first appear, it does not always mean that they are free of Lyme disease. Blood tests become more reliable as the condition progresses. If the first blood tests are negative, repeat blood tests are recommended several weeks later to test for any antibodies.</p><h2>Treatment of Lyme disease</h2> <p>It is important to treat Lyme disease very quickly so that your child's condition does not get worse. If your child is diagnosed with Lyme disease, the doctor will likely prescribe antibiotics.</p> <p>Most children will recover after two to four weeks of antibiotic treatment. If your child's Lyme disease has had a chance to progress, they may need to take antibiotics for longer. If your child has other symptoms, like neurological disorders, they may require other medications. </p><h2>Complications of Lyme disease</h2> <p>Lyme disease in pregnant women has been associated with stillbirths.</p><h2>​Further information</h2> <p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US) <a title="Lyme Disease: CDC" href="http://www.cdc.gov/lyme/" target="_blank">Lyme Disease</a></p> <p>Public Health Agency of Canada. <a href="http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/ccdr-rmtc/14vol40/dr-rm40-05/assets/pdf/14vol40_05-eng.pdf" target="_blank"><em>Canada Communicable Disease Report CCDR:​ Lyme Disease​</em></a>. Volume 40-5, March 6, 2014. Ottawa, ON: Government of Canada.</p>
Maladie de LymeMMaladie de LymeLyme diseaseFrenchInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Fatigue;Fever;Headache;Joint or muscle pain;Swollen glands2011-09-20T04:00:00ZJonathan Gubbay, MBBS, MSc, FRCPC8.0000000000000063.00000000000001331.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Apprenez comment prévenir, reconnaître et traiter la maladie de Lyme.</p><p>La maladie de Lyme est une infection d’origine bactérienne transmise par la tique à pattes noires, aussi connue sous le nom de « tique du chevreuil ». L’infection est causée par la bactérie Borrelia burgdorferi, qui se transmet par la morsure de la tique.</p><p>Le traitement rapide d’une morsure par une tique à pattes noires à l’aide des médicaments appropriés permet à un enfant de se rétablir complètement. Toutefois, si la maladie de Lyme n’est pas diagnostiquée ou traitée, elle peut entraîner de graves affections récurrentes à long terme.</p><p>La maladie de Lyme est souvent appelée « le grand imitateur », car ses symptômes s’apparentent à ceux d’autres maladies ou troubles neurologiques.Il arrive souvent que la maladie de Lyme fait l’objet d’erreurs de diagnostic et est confondue avec d’autres affections comme la sclérose en plaques, la maladie de Parkinson, l’<a href="/Article?contentid=1493&language=French">autisme</a> ou la schizophrénie.</p> <br><h2>À retenir</h2> <ul> <li>La maladie de Lyme est une infection d’origine bactérienne transmise par la tique du chevreuil.</li> <li>Le premier signe d’une infection est habituellement une éruption rougeâtre de forme circulaire là où la tique a mordu, qui par la suite s’étend en forme de cercles concentriques. Les personnes qui ont contracté la maladie de Lyme ne présentent pas toutes ce genre d’éruption cutanée.</li> <li>Si le médecin a diagnostiqué la maladie de Lyme chez votre enfant, il prescrira probablement un antibiotique.</li> <li>Pour éviter les morsures de tiques et la maladie de Lyme chez votre enfant, couvrez-lui la peau, appliquez un insectifuge sur les zones exposées et vérifiez s’il y a des tiques sur ses vêtements et sa peau lorsqu’il a joué ou s’est promené dans des endroits infestés de tiques.<br></li> </ul><h2>Signes et symptômes de la maladie de Lyme</h2><p>Les symptômes de la maladie de Lyme peuvent se manifester en 3 stades. Certains enfants infectés par la maladie de Lyme ne passent pas par les trois. </p><h3>Stade 1 de la maladie de Lyme</h3><p>Chez la plupart des gens, le premier signe d’une infection peut être une éruption cutanée de forme circulaire là où se trouve la morsure de tique. L’éruption peut se manifester entre un jour et un mois après que la personne a été mordue. Les endroits les plus courants des morsures sont les cuisses, l’aine et les aisselles.<br></p> <figure><img alt="Lyme disease rash on a leg" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/lyme_disease_rash.jpg" /> </figure> <p>Lorsque l’éruption apparaît, la peau est habituellement plate ou parfois légèrement boursouflée. Les gens disent souvent qu’ils ont une sensation de brûlure ou qu’ils ressentent parfois des douleurs ou des démangeaisons. Au fil du temps, la zone des rougeurs peut s’élargir et mesurer de 1 à 30 cm (de 1/2 po à 12 po). Elle peut ressembler à une cible sous la forme d’un point rouge entouré d’une zone pâle, puis d’un cercle rouge.</p><p>L’éruption disparaît souvent au bout de trois à quatre semaines, bien qu’elle puisse persister plus d’un an. Elle est souvent accompagnée des symptômes suivants:</p><ul><li>fatigue</li><li>frissons</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=French">fièvre</a></li><li><a href="/Article?contentid=29&language=French">maux de tête</a></li><li>douleurs musculaires et articulaires</li><li><a href="/Article?contentid=777&language=French">ganglions enflés</a>. </li></ul><h3>Stade 2 de la maladie de Lyme</h3><p>Si la maladie de Lyme n’est pas traitée, elle peut s’étendre à tout l’organisme au cours des jours et des semaines qui suivent l’infection et évoluer vers son deuxième stade. Voici quelques symptômes du stade 2:</p><ul><li>troubles neurologiques</li><li>éruptions cutanées multiples</li><li>arthrite et ses symptômes</li><li>palpitations cardiaques (battements de coeur parfois manqués ou plus fréquents)</li><li>fatigue extrême et faiblesse généralisée.</li></ul><h3>Stade 3 de la maladie de Lyme</h3><p>Si la maladie de Lyme reste intraitée, elle peut évoluer vers le troisième stade au cours des mois ou des années qui suivent. Les symptômes de ce stade, qui sont présentés ci-dessous, peuvent durer des années:</p><ul><li>arthrite chronique</li><li>affections neurologiques comme la <a href="/Article?contentid=761&language=French">méningite</a> ou la <a href="/Article?contentid=850&language=French">paralysie de Bell</a></li><li>engourdissement ou faiblesse des bras et des jambes</li><li>problèmes cinétiques d’ordre musculaire</li><li>perte de mémoire</li><li>difficulté à se concentrer</li><li>changements d’humeur et des habitudes de sommeil.</li></ul><p>Les enfants qui sont traités à l’aide d’antibiotiques au cours du premier ou du deuxième stade de la maladie de Lyme n’évoluent presque jamais vers son troisième stade.</p><h2>Facteurs de risque associés à la maladie de Lyme</h2> <p>Si votre enfant joue dans une forêt ou des prés infestés de tiques, il courra un risque plus important de contracter la maladie de Lyme. Comme les tiques s’agrippent facilement à la peau nue, l’exposition de celle-ci constitue aussi un facteur de risque. Le fait d’enlever la tique (à l’aide d’une pince à sourcils) dans les 24 à 46 heures permet habituellement de prévenir l’infection.</p><h2>Évaluation par un médecin</h2> <p>Il n’est pas toujours simple de diagnostiquer la maladie de Lyme étant donné que ses symptômes ressemblent à ceux d’autres affections. De plus, les tiques ne provoquent pas toujours des réactions cutanées.</p> <p>Le médecin de votre enfant évaluera ses symptômes. S’il soupçonne la maladie de Lyme, il peut prescrire une analyse de sang. Le résultat de l’analyse peut être négatif ou positif. Un résultat négatif signifie qu’aucun anticorps permettant de combattre les bactéries causant la maladie de Lyme n’a éré décelé dans le sang.</p> <p>Cependant, si les analyses sanguines effectuées au moment de l’apparition des symptômes sont négatives, cela n’indiquera pas nécessairement que votre enfant n’a pas été infecté. La fiabilité des analyses de sang augmente à mesure que la maladie progresse. Si les premières analyses de sang sont négatives, il est recommandé de les répéter quelques semaines plus tard pour déterminer s’il y a alors présence d’anticorps.</p><h2>Traitement de la maladie de Lyme<br></h2><p>Il est important de traiter la maladie de Lyme très rapidement afin que l'état de votre enfant ne s'aggrave pas. Si votre enfant est diagnostiqué avec la maladie de Lyme, le médecin vous prescrira probablement des antibiotiques.</p><p>La plupart des enfants se rétablissent après deux à quatre semaines de traitement antibiotique. Si la maladie de Lyme de votre enfant a eu une chance de progresser, il se peut qu'il doive prendre des antibiotiques plus longtemps. Si votre enfant présente d'autres symptômes, comme des troubles neurologiques, il peut avoir besoin d'autres médicaments.<br></p><h2>Complications de la maladie de Lyme</h2> <p>Chez les femmes enceintes, la maladie de Lyme a été associée à des mortinaissances.</p><h2>​Renseignements supplémentaires</h2> <p>Agence de la santé publique du Canada. <a title="Lyme Disease: CDC" href="http://www.cdc.gov/lyme/" target="_blank">Maladie de Lyme</a></p> <p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (États-Unis). <a href="http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/ccdr-rmtc/14vol40/dr-rm40-05/assets/pdf/14vol40_05-eng.pdf" target="_blank"><em>Lyme Disease (disponsible en anglais seulement)​</em></a>. </p>

 

 

Lyme disease909.000000000000Lyme diseaseLyme diseaseLEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Fatigue;Fever;Headache;Joint or muscle pain;Swollen glands2011-09-20T04:00:00ZJonathan Gubbay, MBBS, MSc, FRCPC8.0000000000000063.00000000000001331.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to prevent, recognize and treat Lyme disease.<br></p><h2>What is Lyme disease?</h2><p>Lyme disease is a bacterial infection transmitted by the blacklegged tick, also known as the deer tick. The infection is caused by the bacterium <em>Borrelia burgdorferi</em>, which is spread through tick bites.</p><p>When treated early with the appropriate medications, children can recover completely from deer tick bites. However, if it is undiagnosed or untreated, Lyme disease can lead to serious recurring or long-term health problems.</p><p>Lyme disease is often called "the great imitator" because it can look like different diseases or neurological disorders. Lyme disease is often misdiagnosed as a number of other conditions and illnesses, for example multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, <a href="/Article?contentid=1493&language=English">autism</a> or schizophrenia.</p>​ <h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Lyme disease is a bacterial infection transmitted by the deer tick.</li><li>The first sign of infection is usually a circular red rash at the location of the tick bite, which then spreads in a "bulls eye" pattern. Not everyone with Lyme disease has this rash.</li><li>If your child is diagnosed with Lyme disease, the doctor will prescribe antibiotics.</li><li>To help prevent tick bites and Lyme disease, keep skin covered, apply insect repellent to your child's skin and check for ticks on clothing and skin after playing or hiking in tick-infested areas.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of Lyme disease</h2><p>Symptoms of Lyme disease may occur in three stages. Not all children infected by Lyme disease go through these stages.</p><h3>Stage 1 Lyme disease</h3><p>For most people, the first sign of infection may be a circular rash at the site of the tick bite. The rash can appear from a day to a month after a tick bite. The most common sites for a rash are the thigh, groin and armpit.</p> <figure><img alt="Lyme disease rash on a leg" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/lyme_disease_rash.jpg" /> </figure> <p>When the rash starts, it is usually flat, but it can sometimes be slightly raised. Patients often describe the skin as burning or occasionally painful or itchy. Over time, the redness becomes wider, measuring anything from 1 cm to 30 cm (1/2 to 12 inches) across. It may look like a bull's eye, with a red ring surrounding a clear area and a red centre.<br></p><p>The rash usually fades after three to four weeks, but it can persist for over a year. It is often accompanied by the following symptoms:</p><ul><li>fatigue</li><li>chills</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=29&language=English">headache</a></li><li>muscle and joint pain</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=777&language=English">swollen lymph nodes</a>.</li></ul><h3>Stage 2 Lyme disease</h3><p>Left untreated, Lyme disease can spread in the body over the following days and weeks and progress to a second stage. The symptoms of stage 2 Lyme disease may include:</p><ul><li>nervous system disorders</li><li>multiple skin rashes</li><li>arthritis and arthritic symptoms</li><li>heart palpitations (occasional skipped and/or faster heartbeats)</li><li>extreme fatigue and general weakness.</li></ul><h3>Stage 3 Lyme disease</h3><p>If Lyme disease is still left untreated, it can progress to the third stage over the following months or years. The symptoms of stage 3 Lyme disease can last for months or years and may include:</p><ul><li>chronic arthritis</li><li>neurological problems like <a href="/Article?contentid=761&language=English">meningitis</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=850&language=English">Bell's palsy</a></li><li>numbness or weakness in the arms and legs</li><li>impaired muscle movement</li><li>memory loss</li><li>difficulty concentrating</li><li>changes in mood or sleep habits.</li></ul><p>Children who are treated with antibiotics in the first or second stage of Lyme disease almost never develop third-stage disease.</p><h2>Risk factors for Lyme disease</h2> <p>If your child plays in a tick-infested forest or in grassy fields, they will be at a greater risk for Lyme disease. Since ticks attach easily to bare skin, having exposed skin is also a risk factor.</p> <p>If a tick attaches to your child's skin, it is important to remove the tick as soon as possible. Removing ticks with a tweezers within 24 to 36 hours usually prevents infection.</p><h2>How ticks spread Lyme disease</h2> <p>The bacteria that cause Lyme disease are usually carried in squirrels, mice, birds and other small animals. Blacklegged ticks (deer ticks) spread Lyme disease to humans by feeding on infected animals and then feeding on people. The tick must be attached to the skin for at least two days to transmit the Lyme bacteria.</p> <h3>How to identify a deer tick</h3> <p>Deer ticks are usually red or dark brown and can be 3 mm to 5 mm (1/8 to 1/4 inch) long. After feeding on an animal or human, the tick can swell to the size of a grape.</p> <h3>How ticks are transported</h3> <p>Ticks travel from southern regions on the wings of migrating birds. Household pets, like cats and dogs, may also transport ticks on their fur into your home. Ticks can also be found in forest bushes and overgrown areas between the woods and open spaces.</p> <p>Ticks attach to a person by their mouth when that person's bare skin brushes up against long grasses or bushes or comes in contact with surfaces (such as animal fur) where ticks are already present.</p> <h3>Where deer ticks are most common</h3> <p>Deer ticks are found in Europe, Asia and many parts of North America. In Canada, the western blacklegged tick can be found in British Columbia's lower mainland, on Vancouver Island and in British Columbia's Fraser Valley. The blacklegged tick has been found in southern and eastern Ontario, southeastern Manitoba and parts of Nova Scotia. Because the tick is carried on migrating birds, it can also be found in other locations.</p><h2>How a doctor can help your child with Lyme disease</h2> <p>Lyme disease is not always easy to diagnose because its symptoms can resemble those of other diseases. In addition, not everyone who gets a tick bite develops a rash.</p> <p>Your child's doctor will evaluate your child's symptoms and may order a blood test if they suspect Lyme disease. Blood test results can be negative or positive. A negative result means that no antibodies to the bacteria causing Lyme disease have been found in the blood.</p> <p>If your child gets a negative result to a blood test that is done when symptoms first appear, it does not always mean that they are free of Lyme disease. Blood tests become more reliable as the condition progresses. If the first blood tests are negative, repeat blood tests are recommended several weeks later to test for any antibodies.</p><h2>Treatment of Lyme disease</h2> <p>It is important to treat Lyme disease very quickly so that your child's condition does not get worse. If your child is diagnosed with Lyme disease, the doctor will likely prescribe antibiotics.</p> <p>Most children will recover after two to four weeks of antibiotic treatment. If your child's Lyme disease has had a chance to progress, they may need to take antibiotics for longer. If your child has other symptoms, like neurological disorders, they may require other medications. </p><h2>Complications of Lyme disease</h2> <p>Lyme disease in pregnant women has been associated with stillbirths.</p><h2>Preventing Lyme disease</h2> <p>If your child plans to play in tick-infested grasses or fields, there are some ways that you can reduce their exposure to ticks.</p> <ul> <li>Apply insect repellent on exposed skin.</li> <li>Wear long pants, closed-toe shoes (no sandals) and socks to protect bare skin from ticks.</li> <li>Wear light-coloured clothing so ticks are easier to spot.</li> <li>Avoid areas where there are many insects.</li> <li>Wear clothing treated with insecticide. </li> <li>Check for ticks on clothing and skin after playing or hiking in tick-infested areas.</li> </ul> <p>If you find a tick on your child's skin, carefully remove it with tweezers. Do not squash or crush the tick while it is attached to the skin, as this can increase the chance of spreading infection. You can save the tick in a plastic bag to show to a doctor later.</p> <h3>Be careful with DEET insect repellent</h3> <p>DEET-based insect repellents work very well against ticks, but a high concentration of DEET can be harmful to your child. Make sure that your child's insect repellent is specially formulated for children and contains 10% DEET or less. Natural insect repellents, such as citronella, also work but may need to be re-applied more frequently.</p><h2>​Further information</h2> <p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US) <a title="Lyme Disease: CDC" href="http://www.cdc.gov/lyme/" target="_blank">Lyme Disease</a></p> <p>Public Health Agency of Canada. <a href="http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/ccdr-rmtc/14vol40/dr-rm40-05/assets/pdf/14vol40_05-eng.pdf" target="_blank"><em>Canada Communicable Disease Report CCDR:​ Lyme Disease​</em></a>. Volume 40-5, March 6, 2014. Ottawa, ON: Government of Canada.</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/lyme_disease.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/lyme_disease.jpgLyme diseaseFalse

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