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Nutrition: How a balanced diet and healthy eating habits can help your child's mental healthNutrition: How a balanced diet and healthy eating habits can help your child's mental healthNutrition: How a balanced diet and healthy eating habits can help your child's mental healthNEnglishNutritionBaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2016-07-18T04:00:00ZSharon Alexander, BSc, BEd, MEd;Suneeta Monga, MD, FRCPC9.3000000000000061.60000000000001058.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out which nutrients and routines can help with your child's mental wellbeing.</p><p>As a parent, you are in a powerful and unique position to decide how your child eats every day. You also have the power to role model healthy behaviour and attitudes around eating, body image, and lifestyle choices. These are all healthy habits that can serve as a foundation in lifelong health for your child.​</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Your child should eat regular recommended servings of a variety of whole foods when possible.</li> <li>Prepare meals together. Kids can take on different roles as they get older. It’s a great way to teach them about where food comes from and valuable cooking skills.</li> <li>Eat together as a family when you can. Eating as a family can help increase self-esteem and connectedness.</li> <li>Role model positive body image attitudes and behaviours around healthy eating and living.</li> <li>Please see your doctor if you have concerns about your child’s behaviours and attitudes around eating and body image.</li> </ul><h2>What does a healthy diet look like?</h2><p>A healthy diet consists of regular, recommended servings of snacks and meals made up of mostly whole foods (foods that have not been highly processed). It is important to consume a balance of macronutrients (<a href="/Article?contentid=1443&language=English">carbohydrates</a>, healthy <a href="/Article?contentid=1445&language=English">fats</a>, and <a href="/Article?contentid=1444&language=English">protein</a>) and micronutrients (<a href="/Article?contentid=1453&language=French">vitamins and minerals</a>). Your child should also consume an acceptable range of calories for their growth stage and activity level. </p><p>A balanced diet means that most of your child’s nutrition comes from the four food groups in Canada’s Food Guide: <a href="/Article?contentid=1437&language=English">vegetables and fruit</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=1438&language=English">grain products</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=1439&language=English">milk and alternatives</a> and <a href="/Article?contentid=1440&language=English">meat and alternatives</a>. Together, these foods provide essential nutrients for brain health, including <a href="/Article?contentid=1449&language=English">folate</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=1446&language=English">vitamin B12</a>, vitamin C, <a href="/Article?contentid=1450&language=English">iron</a> and omega 3 fatty acids.</p><h3>The value of whole foods over processed foods</h3><p>The brain and body work best when blood sugar levels remain steady throughout the day. Eliminating highs and lows in blood sugar levels can help eliminate ups and downs in your child’s mood and energy levels. The best way to do this is for your child to eat a diet rich in whole foods such as vegetables, fruit and whole grains. These are great sources of <a href="/Article?contentid=964&language=English">fibre</a>, which helps to promote feelings of fullness. Highly processed foods, on the other hand, are best viewed as an occasional treat. Their refined sugars can cause blood sugar levels to spike and then fall rapidly. This sudden drop in blood sugar can result in less long-term energy for your busy child. They are also less likely to help your child feel full and could create further cravings for sugary foods and drinks.</p><h2>Meal and snack ideas for a balanced diet</h2><ul><li> <strong>Breakfast</strong> is a vital meal to fuel your child for the day ahead. If they are not interested in cereal or toast, try giving them breakfast wraps or yogurt and fruit.</li><li> <strong>Packed lunches</strong> offer a great opportunity to try out a variety of foods. Include small portions of different foods that are easy to pack and not too messy. Paying attention to what comes home at the end of the day will help you understand the foods your child may need to be encouraged to try, or may simply dislike. ​​If you do not have time to pack a lunch some days and are sending your child to school with lunch money, be sure to discuss healthy options for <a href="/Article?contentid=1466&language=English">eating outside the home</a>, for example choosing dishes with lots of vegetables and lean protein such as stir fries, salads, sandwiches or soups.</li><li><strong>Dinner</strong> can be as simple as necessary, once you aim to include vegetables and a source of lean protein. Planning, cooking and eating with your family can make dinnertime a more fulfilling experience.</li><li><strong>Snacks</strong> are important to have on hand for children of all ages. Remember that availability often drives snack selection, so try to stack your cupboard full of nutritious food.</li></ul><p>The AboutKidsHealth Nutrition Resource Centre has a range of sample meal plans for <a href="/Article?contentid=1460&language=English">toddlers</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=1460&language=English">pre-schoolers</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=1464&language=English">school-age children</a> and <a href="/Article?contentid=1464&language=English">teens</a>.</p><h2>Developing positive eating habits</h2><h3>Planning and preparing meals</h3><p>You can help your child appreciate the benefits of a balanced diet by encouraging them to plan, shop and prepare meals with you. <a href="/Article?contentid=1465&language=English">Involving your kids in mealtime tasks</a> will help them learn to shop smartly, understand <a href="/article?contentid=1455&language=English">food safety</a> and appreciate the effort that goes into creating family meals. You can also use this opportunity to teach your child about balance. While most of their diet should be rich in nutrients, it is also ok to have some treats now and then. The less control you feel you need to exert over food, the healthier your attitude – and that of your children – towards food.</p><h3>Eating as a family</h3><p>Sharing a meal with those closest to you is a great way to strengthen family bonds. Relaxed and routine <a href="/article?contentid=1465&language=English">family mealtimes</a> help your child develop good habits at the dinner table and offer a way to share the highs and lows of their day. The opportunity to share laughter and support if needed can give kids a more positive outlook on life, boost their communication skills and improve their self-esteem. These all lead to improved performance in school and lower the incidence of weight issues and substance abuse.</p><h2>Encouraging a healthy body image</h2><p>Children and teens are often exposed to a constant stream of images and messages about physical appearance. With such highly publicised but narrow standards of beauty, it is hard to escape the idea that one should look a certain way. In some cases, the negative feelings associated with not looking the way they “should” can lead a child to develop an eating disorder such as <a href="/Article?contentid=268&language=English">anorexia</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=282&language=English">bulimia</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=277&language=English">binge eating disorder</a>.</p><p>As a parent, you can help your child <a href="/Article?contentid=625&language=English">feel good about their body</a> and what they eat by talking about diet trends, false information, peer pressure and media influences. You can also model a good body image yourself, for example by:</p><ul><li>snacking on nuts, vegetables and fruit instead of highly processed foods</li><li>avoiding talk about dieting or comments on your own or others’ weight</li><li>encouraging your child to treat food as fuel for a <a href="/Article?contentid=642&language=English">healthy, active and strong body</a>.</li></ul><p>If you are concerned about your child’s behaviour and attitude towards eating and their own body image, please speak to your doctor.</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Nutrition_how_a_balanced_diet.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Nutrition_how_a_balanced_diet.jpgNutrition and mental health
Reading and writing milestonesReading and writing milestonesReading and writing milestonesREnglishDevelopmentalPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2013-09-24T04:00:00ZJanine Flanagan, MD7.9000000000000065.10000000000001296.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out what reading and writing tasks a child can normally complete at different ages.</p><p>Once children start speaking, they move on to develop reading skills and later writing skills. This page describes the typical reading and writing achievements for a child at different grade levels from kindergarten to Grade 3.</p><p>The "milestones" below are a general guide. Not all children learn at the same pace.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Your child will go through a range of steps, or "milestones" as they develop their reading and writing skills. Not all children learn at the same pace.</li> <li>You can help your child develop their skills by asking them about the ideas they are reading about, sounding out letters in print and reading many different materials together.</li> <li>Other ways to support your child include praising them for their successes, keeping track of their progress and asking teachers for help if necessary.</li> </ul><h2>Reading skills </h2> <p>Children are eager learners and can develop their reading skills in a number of ways. You can help your child when they first learn to read and write by talking to them about the ideas they are reading about. This helps them build their comprehension skills and engage more fully with what they are reading. Over time, and with regular practice, your child will develop fluency in reading and learn to think more deeply about the stories or information that they read. </p> <h3>By the end of Senior Kindergarten (SK)</h3> <p>By the end of SK, your child should be able to:</p> <ul> <li>identify most letters of the alphabet</li> <li>recognize that words consist of beginning, middle and final sounds</li> <li>start matching written words to spoken words and seeing relationships between sounds and letters</li> <li>know most of the basic sound-letter associations</li> <li>read labels and familiar signs and break up and sound out simple words</li> <li>use word order and knowledge of sounds to identify and predict the next word in simple text</li> <li>start experimenting with reading and says words out loud when reading</li> <li>use pictures on the page or screen to help them understand the meaning of words</li> <li>ask lots of questions about their world and what they would like to learn.</li> </ul> <h3>By the end of Grade 1 (age 6 to 7)</h3> <p>By the end of Grade 1, your child should be able to:</p> <ul> <li>recognize many words</li> <li>know how to make sense of words</li> <li>be willing to try reading new things</li> <li>adapt their reading to different types of reading materials, such as comics, books or emails.</li> </ul> <h3>By the end of Grade 3 (age 8 to 9) </h3> <p>By the end of Grade 3, your child should be able to:</p> <ul> <li>use context, a dictionary and phonics (breaking a word into syllables) to figure out unfamiliar words</li> <li>use punctuation to help understand what they read</li> <li>tell fact from fiction​</li> <li>read a variety of fiction and non-fiction books</li> <li>read aloud clearly and with expression</li> <li>identify and restate the main idea in a story and cite supporting details</li> <li>identify and describe some elements of stories, such as the plot, central idea, characters and setting</li> <li>enjoy reading and do it out of choice</li> <li>predict events in a story</li> <li>connect ideas and experiences in print to their own knowledge and experience</li> <li>understand that media are used for different purposes, for example to educate, convey a message or sell something.</li> </ul> <h2>Writing skills </h2> <p>Writing skills fall into two broad categories. The first is the mechanics of writing, such as holding a pencil or making the shapes of letters. The second is written expression, which means using written language to communicate ideas. There is an important difference between the two categories: for example, a child might be able to make letter shapes but still be unable to clearly express ideas in writing.</p> <p>If your child has any problems with writing, note whether they relate to the mechanics or expression. This will affect the type of help that would most benefit your child.</p> <h3>By the end of Senior Kindergarten (SK)</h3> <p>By the end of SK, your child should be able to: </p> <ul> <li>show they understand that text is written left to right, words have spaces between them and words have capital and lowercase letters</li> <li>print most letters of the alphabet</li> <li>print their own name, names of family members and some short words, for example "cat" and "dad"</li> <li>use a variety of tools to communicate, including crayons, paper, the computer, chalkboard and markers</li> <li>contribute words or sentences to a class story written down by the teacher</li> <li>write messages using a combination of pictures, symbols, letters and phonics (letters to present sounds).</li> </ul> <h3>By the end of Grade 1 (age 6 to 7)</h3> <p>By the end of Grade 1, your child should be able to:</p> <ul> <li>use phonics to decode or spell unfamiliar words</li> <li>write simple but complete sentences</li> <li>correctly form the plural of single-syllable words</li> <li>use periods, commas and capitals when writing</li> <li>correctly spell words that have been identified by the teacher on charts or lists in the room or on individual word lists</li> <li>use capitals to begin sentences and to distinguish names, days of the week or months of the year</li> <li>print clearly</li> <li>leave spaces between words when writing.</li> </ul> <h3>By the end of Grade 3 (age 8 to 9)</h3> <p>By the end of Grade 3, your child should be able to:</p> <ul> <li>use correct subject-verb agreement when writing</li> <li>use nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs correctly</li> <li>use irregular plurals correctly such as deer, children</li> <li>use apostrophes in contractions, for example cannot = can't</li> <li>use exclamations</li> <li>use phonics (letter sounds) and spelling rules when spelling</li> <li>use different sources to check how to spell unfamiliar words</li> <li>divide words into syllables</li> <li>use prefixes, suffixes and compound words</li> <li>use titles and subheadings to organize writing</li> <li>print words clearly and start to use cursive writing (handwriting) instead of printing.</li> </ul> <p>If your child is having trouble mastering these skills, talk to their teacher to discuss a plan of action. This might include further evaluation with a psychologist or other support in or beyond the classroom.</p> <h2>How to help your child with reading and writing </h2> <h3>Talk to your child from an early age.</h3> <p>Sound out letters in print, ask your child questions about their ideas and give them time to think of an answer before they reply.</p> <h3>Get your child into the habit of understanding what they read.</h3> <p>Ask your child questions about a story you are reading together, for example, "Why is this happening?" or "What might happen next?"</p> <p>Allow your child time to figure out a word they do not know or to recognize a mistake in their reading. Good tactics include sounding out the word, looking at pictures or re-reading the words before and after the difficult word.</p> <h3>Read every day.</h3> <p>Read traffic, store and restaurant signs, food labels, flyers, instructions or advertisements with your child. Write shopping lists and telephone messages, and write the date and time of appointments and activities on a family calendar. You could also read and write greeting cards, thank you notes, letters, emails and text messages together. Having your child practise printing, cursive handwriting or using a keyboard is fine.</p> <h3>Make it fun, make it matter.</h3> <p>Talk to your child about the things they would like to read about. Choose different reading materials together, for example fiction and non-fiction books, newspapers, comics, baseball game cards, jokes or even song lyrics. Ask your child why an author might have written a story or if all the characters are represented fairly. This will help your child think more deeply about what they read and apply it to their own experience.</p> <h2>How to support your child as they develop their reading and writing skills</h2> <ul> <li>Praise your child for their successes.</li> <li>Do not dwell on mistakes.</li> <li>Encourage your child to ask a teacher for help.</li> <li>Help your child keep track of how they are doing.</li> </ul><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/reading_writing_milestones.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/reading_writing_milestones.jpgFamily Literacy Day, January 27 Find out the typical reading and writing milestones.
Smoke and carbon monoxide detectorsSmoke and carbon monoxide detectorsSmoke and carbon monoxide detectorsSEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2013-07-08T04:00:00ZElly Berger, BA, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, MHPE8.0000000000000060.0000000000000842.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Information about buying, installing and maintaining smoke and carbon monoxide detectors in your home.</p><p>In many countries, including Canada, having smoke and carbon monoxide detectors in the house is the law. The reason is simple: these alarms save lives.</p><h3>Danger of smoke</h3><p>Many house fires occur at night. If there is no smoke detector, those sleeping in the house may not notice the fire and will be overwhelmed by smoke. A working smoke detector can wake the family before it is too late.</p><h3>Danger of carbon monoxide</h3><p>Carbon monoxide is a colourless and odorless gas. It is produced by burning fuels such as gas, wood, oil and coal. Most homes have an appliance that runs on one of these fuels. If the appliance is not vented properly or is not working properly, the house can fill with carbon monoxide.</p><p>At first, carbon monoxide poisoning gives symptoms similar to those of the <a href="/Article?contentid=763&language=English">flu</a>: fatigue, <a href="/Article?contentid=29&language=English">headaches</a>, dizziness, nausea or <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a> and shortness of breath. After a few minutes, carbon monoxide can cause you to black out, resulting in serious, permanent damage to the body. Eventually, carbon monoxide inhalation leads to death. A working carbon monoxide detector can alert you and your family to this danger.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Smoke and carbon monoxide detectors save lives.</li> <li>Install a working smoke and carbon monoxide detector outside each bedroom and sleeping area and on each level of your home.</li> <li>Test and clean your smoke detectors regularly and replace the batteries every six months.</li> </ul><h2>Choosing a detector</h2> <p>Before buying a smoke or carbon monoxide detector, make sure your country’s safety stamp of approval is on the box. In Canada, the box should read “ULC”, in the USA, “UL”. Smoke detectors and carbon monoxide detectors are usually sold separately, but detectors that serve both purposes are also available. </p> <p>Some alarms are battery-operated and some are plug in with a back-up battery.</p> <h3>Types of smoke detector</h3> <ul> <li>An ionization type smoke detector is better at detecting fast, flaming fires. These fires make up nearly three-quarters of home fires. </li> <li>A photoelectric type smoke detector is better at detecting slow-burning smouldering fires that produce lots of smoke but little flame.</li> </ul> <p>Some smoke alarms use both types of detection. </p> <h3>Types of carbon monoxide detector</h3> <p>Currently, there is only one general type of carbon monoxide detector. </p> <h2>Installing an alarm</h2> <p>Ideally, smoke and carbon monoxide detectors should be installed outside each bedroom and sleeping area, and on each level of your home, including the basement. They should be installed high on the wall and away from bathrooms, the kitchen, heating equipment and ceiling fans. Read and follow the manufacturer's directions when you install your smoke detectors. </p> <h2>Maintenance</h2> <p>Smoke and carbon monoxide detectors need some maintenance and will eventually need to be replaced. </p> <h3>Test your alarm</h3> <p>Smoke and carbon monoxide detectors have a test button. You should push it once a month. If the unit does not signal an alarm, you will need to replace the battery and test again. </p> <h3>Replace the battery</h3> <p>Replace the battery every six months. A good way to remember this is to put in a fresh battery when clocks are changed in March and October. If you hear a warning beep, change the battery right away. </p> <h3>Cleaning</h3> <p>Smoke and carbon monoxide detectors become less effective if they are clogged with dust. Follow the manufacturer's directions for cleaning your unit. </p> <h2>Replace the alarm</h2> <p>Smoke alarms will not last indefinitely. A general rule is that the unit will have to be replaced every ten years. Write down the date you installed the alarm on the inside of the detector so you know when to replace it. If the alarm is no longer working, replace it right away</p> <h2>Around the house, sources of danger</h2> <p>It can be difficult to know if all your fossil fuel-burning appliances, such as the furnace, stove and water heater, are working properly. These appliances should be professionally inspected at least once a year. Chimneys and vent pipes should also be regularly inspected and cleaned out to prevent carbon monoxide build-up and reduce the risk of fires. </p> <h2> During emergencies</h2> <p>One of the most dangerous times for house fires and carbon monoxide poisoning is during power outages. When the heat and/or lights go out, people can sometimes use non-traditional methods to heat the house. They may burn things in a fireplace that has not been used or maintained in years. They may light camping stoves and lanterns or they may bring the barbeque inside to heat the house. Some may use a generator to provide power. These are all very dangerous things to do. Without proper ventilation, carbon monoxide can build up in the house. These items are also a major fire risk. </p> <h2>When the detector's alarm sounds</h2> <p>Your family should develop an escape plan in case of fire or carbon monoxide build-up. Practise following the plan and make sure the whole family, including children, understand what to do if the alarm sounds. The escape plan should include an arranged meeting point outside the home.</p> <h2>More information</h2> <p>For more information, please read our pages on <a href="/Article?contentid=1116&language=English">Burns: Household safety and prevention</a> and <a href="/Article?contentid=1939&language=English">Burns: Winter safety</a>.</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/smoke_carbon_monoxide_detectors.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/smoke_carbon_monoxide_detectors.jpg Discover how to protect your family from the dangers of smoke inhalation and carbon monoxide poisoning.
Winter tipsWinter tipsWinter tipsWEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2018-01-19T05:00:00Z000Landing PageLearning Hub<p>Winter is a time of year when we participate in outdoor activities and then gather around a fire. Unfortunately, we may also experience seasonal illnesses. Keep the family healthy during the cold weather with our winter tips.</p><p>Winter is a time when we experience cold weather, snow and ice. It is a time of year when we look forward to participating in outdoor activities and then gathering around a warm fire. Unfortunately, we may also experience those annoying seasonal illnesses. Keep the whole family safe, healthy and happy during the cold weather season with our winter tips.</p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Outdoor activity safety</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Playing outside can be fun for your child during the winter. Make sure your child is dressed properly for the cold weather and follow these handy safety tips.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1954&language=English">Outdoor winter safety: Staying safe during winter activities</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1940&language=English">Dressing for the cold</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1912&language=English">Cold weather injuries</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Stay healthy</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>The whole family made it through the summer and fall healthy and safe. Here is some advice on how to keep everyone healthy throughout winter.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1939&language=English">Preventing burns: Winter safety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=778&language=English">Nasal congestion: How to clear your baby's dry, stuffy nose</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=773&language=English">Eczema (atopic dermatitis)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1114&language=English">Eczema: Seasonal changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Winter bugs</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Winter brings everyone indoors and closer together, where we share warmth... and germs. Learn more about colds, the flu and other winter-associated illnesses. Also learn how to avoid them and how to treat them.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">Fever​</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=12&language=English">Colds (viral upper respiratory infections)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=765&language=English">Bronchiolitis​</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=764&language=English">Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=17&language=English">Croup</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=763&language=English">Influenza (flu): An overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=912&language=English">Influenza (flu): Protecting your family</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1111&language=English">Influenza (flu): The truth about vaccines</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=784&language=English">Pneumonia</a></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/winter_safety_landing_page.jpgwintersafetywintersafetyWinter safety tips Keep the whole family safe, healthy and happy during the cold weather season with our winter safety tips.
Mental healthMental healthMental healthMEnglishPsychiatryChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANANACaregivers Adult (19+)NALanding PageLearning Hub<p>Learn how to support your child’s wellbeing with activity, sleep and nutrition and how to recognize and manage various mental health conditions.<br></p><p>This hub includes resources for parents on how to support your child's mental health and general wellbeing through physical activity, sleep and nutrition. It also provides information on the signs, symptoms and treatments of different mental health conditions, including anxiety, bipolar disorder, depression, behavioural disorders, anorexia nervosa and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.<br></p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Wellbeing</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>The everyday pressures of growing up can put a strain on any child's mental wellbeing. Find out how physical activity, a healthy sleep routine, screen time limits and balanced nutrition can boost your child's mental health and support them through difficult times.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Physical Activity</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=642&language=English">Physical activity: Guidelines for children and teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=641&language=English">Physical activity: Benefits of exercise for health and wellbeing</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Sleep</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=645&language=English">Sleep: Benefits and recommended amounts</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=646&language=English">How to help your child get a good night's sleep</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=647&language=English">How to help your teen get a good night's sleep</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Screen time</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=643&language=English">Screen time: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=644&language=English">How to help your child set healthy screen time limits</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Nutrition</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=639&language=English">Nutrition: How a balanced diet and healthy eating habits can help your child's mental health</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Anxiety disorders</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Every child feels anxiety at some point as a natural part of growing up. An anxiety disorder, however, is when anxious feelings interfere with a child's everyday routine. Learn more about the signs, symptoms and range of anxiety disorders and how they ​are treated.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">Anxiety: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=271&language=English">Anxiety: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=270&language=English">Types of anxiety disorders</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=701&language=English">Anxiety: Treatment with medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=702&language=English">Anxiety: Psychotherapy and lifestyle changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Obsessive compulsive disorder</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) occurs when a person suffers from troubling and intrusive thoughts and/or follows repetitive or strict routines to feel less worried. Learn about the causes, signs and impact of this disorder and how you can help your child.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=285&language=English">Obsessive compulsive disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=288&language=English">OCD: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=286&language=English">How OCD affects your child's life</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=709&language=English">OCD: Psychotherapy and medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=287&language=English">OCD: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Depression</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Depression is an illness that causes someone to feel deep sadness or a lack of interest in activities that they once enjoyed. Discover how this condition affects a child's mood, sleep, concentration and energy levels, and how it can be treated.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">Depression: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=284&language=English">Depression: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=707&language=English">Depression: Treatment with medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=708&language=English">Depression: Psychotherapy and lifestyle changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Bipolar disorder</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>When a person has bipolar disorder, they alternate between low and elevated moods for days, weeks or months at a time. Learn about the bipolar disorder spectrum, the symptoms of manic and depressive episodes and how medications, therapy and lifestyle changes can help.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=279&language=English">Bipolar disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=280&language=English">Bipolar disorder: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=704&language=English">Bipolar disorder: Treatment with medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=705&language=English">Bipolar disorder: Psychotherapy and lifestyle changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Suicide and self-harm</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>A child who experiences thoughts of suicide or self-harm is often suffering from overwhelming emotional pain. Find out how to help your child cope with difficult emotions, how to support and protect your child and where to find professional help.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=291&language=English">Suicide in children and teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=289&language=English">Self-harm in children and teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=290&language=English">Signs and symptoms of suicide risk</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=293&language=English">How to help your child with difficult emotions</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=292&language=English">How to protect your child from harm</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Eating disorders</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>An eating disorder not only risks your child's health but can also disrupt family life. Find out about the symptoms and treatment of anorexia, bulimia, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder and binge eating disorder and how you can help your child recover.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Anorexia nervosa</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=268&language=English">Anorexia nervosa: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=269&language=English">Anorexia: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=267&language=English">Anorexia: Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=700&language=English">Anorexia: Treatment options</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=266&language=English">Anorexia: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Bulimia nervosa</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=282&language=English">Bulimia nervosa: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=283&language=English">Bulimia: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=281&language=English">Bulimia: Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=706&language=English">Bulimia: Treatment options</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=294&language=English">Bulimia: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID)</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=274&language=English">Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=275&language=English">ARFID: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=273&language=English">ARFID: Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=703&language=English">ARFID: Treatment options</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=272&language=English">ARFID: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Binge eating disorder (BED)</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=277&language=English">Binge eating disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=278&language=English">BED: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=640&language=English">Obesity: Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=276&language=English">BED: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) involves difficulties with controlling attention and regulating behaviour. Discover the main symptoms of ADHD in children and teens, how the disorder is diagnosed and how to help your child at home and at school.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1922&language=English">Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1923&language=English">ADHD: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1997&language=English">ADHD: How to help your child at home</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1999&language=English">ADHD: Communicating with your child's school</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1998&language=English">ADHD: Treatment with medications</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Behavioural disorders</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Behavioural disorders include oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Learn how these disorders differ from typical misbehaviour, how therapy and medications can help and how you can manage problematic behaviour at home.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1924&language=English">Behavioural disorders: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1925&language=English">Behavioural disorders: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2000&language=English">Behavioural disorders: Treatment with psychotherapy and medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2001&language=English">Behavioural disorders: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is triggered by experiencing or witnessing a terrifying event. Learn about the main symptoms of PTSD, how the condition is diagnosed and how psychotherapy and medications can help your child.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1927&language=English">Post-traumatic stress disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1928&language=English">PTSD: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2005&language=English">PTSD: Treatment with psychotherapy and medications</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Brain disorders and mental health</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>A brain disorder includes a condition, illness or injury that affects the brain and how it develops before or after birth. Find out how a brain disorder can affect your child's learning, mood and social skills, how its impact on mental health is assessed and how to help your child cope.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1926&language=English">Brain disorders and mental health: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2002&language=English">Brain disorders: Assessing your child for neuropsychological difficulties</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2003&language=English">Brain disorders: How to help your child cope</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2004&language=English">Brain disorders: Common treatments</a></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Mental_health_landing-page.jpgmentalhealthhealthyliving

 

 

Temperature takingTemperature takingTemperature takingTEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANANon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)Feverhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_temperature_oral_EN.jpg2016-04-27T04:00:00ZElana Hochstadter, MD;Tania Principi, MD, FRCPC, MSc​6.2000000000000069.10000000000001488.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to correctly take your child's temperature when they have a fever.</p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/aEy9ZIzoHOc?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> </div> <p>Children often feel warm to the touch when they have a <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a>, but putting your hand to your child's forehead is not enough to find out if your child has a fever. To confirm that your child has a fever, use a thermometer to measure your child's body temperature.</p><p> <strong>A temperature of 38°C (100.4°F) or higher is a fever</strong></p><h2>Converting Fahrenheit (°F) and Celsius (°C)</h2> <p>Temperatures are measured in degrees Celsius (°C) or degrees Fahrenheit (°F). The table below shows equivalent Celsius and Fahrenheit temperatures.</p> <table class="akh-table"> <thead> <tr><th>°C</th><th>°F</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td>37°C</td> <td>98.6°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>37.2°C </td> <td>99°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>37.5°C </td> <td>99.5°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>37.8°C </td> <td>100°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>38°C </td> <td>100.4°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>38.3°C </td> <td>101°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>38.9°C </td> <td>102°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>39.5°C </td> <td>103°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>40°C </td> <td>104°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>40.6°C </td> <td>105°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>41.1°C </td> <td>106°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>41.7°C </td> <td>107°F</td> </tr> </tbody> </table><br><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Use a thermometer to find out if a child has a temperature.</li> <li>The best way to take a temperature depends on a child’s age.</li> <li>Always wash thermometers before and after taking a temperature.</li> <li>See your doctor right away if your child has a temperature that last three days or if your child has a temperature and is less than three months old.</li> </ul><h2>When to see a doctor</h2> <h3>See your child's regular doctor or go to the nearest Emergency Department right away if your child has a fever and:</h3> <ul> <li>Your child is less than three months old.</li> <li>You have recently returned from travelling abroad.</li> <li>Your child develops a rash that looks like small purple dots that do not go away when you apply pressure with your fingers (blanching).</li> <li>Your child is not able to keep down any fluids, is not peeing and appears dehydrated.</li> <li>Your child's skin looks very pale or grey, or is cool or mottled.</li> <li>Your child is in constant pain.</li> <li>Your child is lethargic (very weak) or difficult to wake up.</li> <li>Your child has a stiff neck.</li> <li>Your child has a seizure associated with fever for the first time or a long seizure associated with fever.</li> <li>Your child is looking or acting very sick.</li> <li>Your child seems confused or delirious.</li> <li>Your child does not use their arm or leg normally or refuses to stand up.</li> <li>Your child has problems breathing.</li> <li>Your child cries constantly and cannot be settled.</li> </ul> <h3>See a doctor within 24 hours if your child has a fever and:</h3> <ul> <li>Your child is between three and six months old.</li> <li>Your child has specific pain, such as ear or throat pain that may require evaluation.</li> <li>Your child has had a fever for more than three days.</li> <li>The fever went away for over 24 hours and then came back.</li> <li>Your child has a bacterial infection that is being treated with an antibiotic, but the fever is not going away after two to three days of starting the antibiotic.</li> <li>Your child cries when going to the bathroom.</li> <li>You have other concerns or questions.</li> </ul> <p>If you are unsure, call Telehealth Ontario at 1-866-797-0000 (toll-free number) if you live in Ontario.</p><h2>Use a thermometer to measure a temperature</h2> <p>The easiest way to measure your child’s temperature is with a digital thermometer. These are available at most drug stores. </p> <p>You can also use a glass thermometer. Never use glass thermometers that contain mercury because mercury is toxic. If you only have access to a glass thermometer, take very special care. If the thermometer is cracked or damaged in any way, do not use it. Even an undamaged glass thermometer can be a risk for your child. If you believe your child may bite down on the thermometer, do not use it to take a temperature in the mouth.</p> <h3>Four places to take a child’s temperature</h3> <ul> <li>in the mouth</li> <li>in the anus (or rectum)</li> <li>under the armpit</li> <li>in the ear</li> </ul> <p>Do not use a rectal thermometer in the mouth or an oral thermometer in the rectum. Always wash any thermometer with soap and warm water before and after use.</p> <h3>The best way to take a temperature depends on your child’s age</h3> <table class="akh-table"> <thead> <tr><th rowspan="2" colspan="1">Age</th><th rowspan="1" colspan="2">Where to take the temperature</th></tr> <tr><th><em>Most accurate</em></th><th><em>Alternative method</em></th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td>Newborns to 3 years</td> <td>Rectal temperature (anus)</td> <td>Axial temperature (armpit)</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Children over 3 years</td> <td>Oral temperature (mouth)</td> <td>Ear or axial temperature</td> </tr> </tbody> </table><h2>How to take an oral (in the mouth) temperature</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">How to measure an oral temperature</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_temperature_oral_EN.jpg" alt="Girl lying under a blanket while her temperature is taken by mouth" /> </figure> <p>Taking a temperature in the mouth works with children who are old enough to hold the thermometer under their tongue and who will not bite the thermometer. A mouth thermometer is the most accurate way of measuring the temperature of an older child. Make sure your child has not had cold or hot drinks in the 30 minutes before taking their temperature.</p><ul><li>To get an accurate reading, carefully place the tip of the thermometer under your child’s tongue.</li><li>Ask your child to keep the thermometer in place by forming a seal with their lips. Make sure they do not bite down on the thermometer. If they cannot breathe through their nose, use one of the other methods to measure their temperature.</li><li>If you are using a digital thermometer, leave it in the mouth until you hear it beep.</li><li>Carefully read the temperature on the thermometer.</li><li>Turn off the digital thermometer, wash the tip with soap and warm (not hot) water, and wipe it off with alcohol. Dry well.</li></ul><h2>How to take a rectal (in the anus) temperature</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">How to measure a rectal temperature</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_temperature_rectal_EN.jpg" alt="Baby lying on tummy across a lap with thermometer inserted in the baby’s rectum" /> </figure> <p>Using the rectal method works best on babies and young children. Older children may resist having something put in their bum.</p><ul><li>Before taking your child’s temperature, make sure they are relaxed. Place your child on their stomach on a comfortable surface if they can hold their head and do <a href="/Article?contentid=296&language=English">tummy time</a>. Place your child on their back if they are still unable to safely lie on their stomach.</li><li>Before inserting the thermometer, make sure it is clean. Coat the end of it with petroleum jelly (Vaseline). This will make the insertion easier.</li><li>Insert the thermometer gently into your child’s rectum about 2 cm (1 inch). If there is any resistance, pull the thermometer back a little. Never try to force the thermometer past any resistance. You could injure your child by damaging the wall of the bowel.</li><li>Hold your child still while the thermometer is in.</li><li>If you are using a digital thermometer, take it out when you hear the signal (usually a beep or a series of beeps).</li><li>Read the temperature.</li><li>Turn off the digital thermometer, wash the tip with soap and warm (not hot) water. Dry well.</li></ul><h2>How to take an armpit (axillary) temperature</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">How to measure an armpit (axillary) temperature</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_temperature_armpit_EN.jpg" alt="Baby lying on their back with a thermometer held under the armpit" /> </figure> <p>Taking the temperature under the armpit may be less accurate than in the rectum or the mouth but easier in some babies or children. To take a temperature in the armpit, your child must be able to hold their arm to the body and not move it for up to two minutes.</p><ul><li>If you are using a digital thermometer, turn it on.</li><li>Put thermometer under your child’s dry armpit. The silver tip must touch the skin.</li><li>Hold the top of thermometer with one hand and hold down your child’s arm with the other hand.</li><li>If using a digital thermometer, wait until you hear the signal (usually a beep or a series of beeps).</li><li>Turn off the thermometer, wash the tip with soap and warm (not hot) water. Dry well.</li></ul><h2>How to take an ear (tympanic) temperature</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">How to measure an ear (tympanic) temperature</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/IMD_temperature_ear_EN.jpg" alt="Child having temperature taken by ear with one hand pulling the ear up and the other holding the thermometer in the ear" /> </figure> <p>Tympanic thermometers may be less accurate than oral or rectal thermometers. Tympanic thermometers are unsuitable for children under two years of age because their ear canal may be too small to allow for a temperature reading. Always clean the thermometer tip before use and follow the manufacturer’s instructions carefully.</p><ul><li>Gently tug on the ear, pulling it up and back. This will help straighten the ear canal and make a clear path inside the ear to the eardrum.</li><li>Gently insert the thermometer until the ear canal is fully sealed off.</li><li>Squeeze and hold down the button for one second.</li><li>Remove the thermometer and read the temperature.</li></ul><h2>Temperature checking methods to avoid</h2> <p>Digital electronic pacifier thermometers and temperature strips (which measure temperature on the forehead) are inaccurate and unreliable. Do not use these methods to take your child's temperature. </p> <p>Touching your child's forehead or neck may give you a hint that your child has a fever, but this is not a reliable way to check for fever. Confirm your suspicion of a fever by taking a true measurement using the methods explained above.</p><h2>References:</h2><p>Richardson M, Purssell E. (2015). Who's afraid of fever? <em>Arch Dis Child</em>. 100(9):818-20. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2015-309491. Retrieved on February 10th, 2016 <a href="http://adc.bmj.com/content/early/2015/05/14/archdischild-2014-307483.full.pdf+html">http://adc.bmj.com/content/early/2015/05/14/archdischild-2014-307483.full.pdf+html</a></p><p>Sullivan JE, Farrar HC. (2011). Fever and antipyretic use in children. <em>Pediatrics</em>.127(3):580-7. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-3852. Retrieved February 10th, 2016 <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/127/3/580.full-text.pdf">http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/127/3/580.full-text.pdf</a><br></p><p>Mistry N, Hudak A. (2014). Combined and alternating acetaminophen and ibuprofen therapy for febrile children. <em>Paediatrics & child health</em>. 19(10):531-2. Retrieved on February 10th, 2016 <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4276386/pdf/pch-19-531.pdf">http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4276386/pdf/pch-19-531.pdf</a> and Corrigendum. (2015). <em>Paediatrics & Child Health</em>, 20(8), 466–467. Retrieved on February 10th, 2016 <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4699537/">http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4699537/</a> </p>
Congenital hand anomaly (hand difference)Congenital hand anomaly (hand difference)Congenital hand anomaly (hand difference)CEnglishPlasticsChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Lower arm;Hand;Wrist;FingersSkeletal systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-06-20T04:00:00ZJocelyne Copeland, BHScOT Reg (ON);Howard Clarke, MD, PhD, FRCS(C), FACS, FAAP9.3000000000000056.10000000000001711.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>A congenital hand anomaly is a hand or arm deformity that develops during pregnancy or birth. Learn how to help your child function independently.</p><h2>What is a congenital hand anomaly?</h2><p>A congenital hand anomaly is a hand or arm deformity that is present at birth. The unborn baby develops the anomaly early during pregnancy. Some of the more common anomalies include:</p><ul><li>having more or fewer than five fingers</li><li>fingers that will not bend or will not straighten</li><li>fingers that are joined together</li><li>bones in the hand or arm that are too short or missing</li></ul><p>Congenital hand anomalies are sometimes diagnosed by <a href="/Article?contentid=1290&language=English">ultrasound</a> during pregnancy. But when they are not, they often come as a surprise to parents. </p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/i690lLdBI-M" frameborder="0"></iframe> <br></div><br><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Children with congenital hand anomalies can usually do anything they want to. Encourage them to participate in a variety of activities.</li> <li>A simple modification to a musical instrument or sports equipment may be all it takes to help your child participate in a chosen activity.</li> <li>In some cases, surgery will help improve your child's hand function or appearance. In many cases, treatment is not necessary.</li> <li>An occupational therapist and plastic surgeon can help you decide on treatment options.</li> <li>Children are much more likely to accept their hands the way they are if you do.</li> </ul><h2>The cause of congenital hand anomalies is unknown</h2> <p>The cause of a congenital hand anomaly cannot usually be determined. In most cases, we do not know exactly why it happens. Sometimes a congenital hand anomaly is directly associated with a type of syndrome or is passed along through families. Sometimes it "just happens" without explanation.</p> <p>Congenital hand anomalies are rare. The mother does not cause hand anomalies by something she did or did not do during pregnancy. Parents who have one child with a congenital hand anomaly will usually not have another.</p><h2>Treatment options for a congenital hand anomaly</h2> <p>Children with congenital hand anomalies function extremely well, often without any intervention. Some children may function better with surgical correction, therapy or simply with adaptations or changes to their environment.</p> <p>If your child is doing everything they want to be doing and are keeping up with their friends, then treatment is not necessary. Your child's needs will be re-evaluated as they grow and develop new interests.</p> <p>The most important goal of any treatment is to help the child function as independently as possible. If your child is having difficulty doing the things they want to do because of a congenital hand anomaly, treatment options may be available. Talk to your doctor about your child's issues.</p> <h3> Treatment is not always necessary</h3> <p>If your child is functioning well and is happy, treatment is not always necessary. The way your child does things may look different from the way you do them, but that does not mean it is wrong or should be changed.</p> <p>It is important to remember that not all options are possible or necessary for every child. Different children with the exact same diagnosis will not necessarily have the same treatment. All factors of a child's life are considered when deciding what to do. Often the child is the one who makes the decisions. An occupational therapist, in consultation with a plastic surgeon, will complete a functional hand evaluation to help you determine the best options for your child. The occupational therapist will engage your child in play activities to observe how your child grasps things and how they overall use their hands. Depending on the hand anatomy, your health-care team may suggest surgical or therapeutic solutions.</p> <h3>Occupational therapy</h3> <p>An occupational therapist can help teach your child different ways of doing things that will help them be as independent as possible. Your child may require a stretching or splinting program to help improve movement of their joints. Your child may perhaps benefit from special equipment or modifications to activities. The occupational therapist will look at the way your child does what they need to do and help make sure they are able to do everything they want to.</p> <h3>Artificial limbs</h3> <p>Depending on your child's condition and level of involvement in sports or music, they may benefit from a custom-made prosthesis (artificial limb) to help with a particular activity. If this is the case, you will be referred to a prosthetic centre.</p> <p>An adult who has lost a limb through injury or disease often needs or wants an artificial limb, but children born with missing limbs tend not to need or want artificial limbs in the same way. Children adapt to the way they were born. Adding an artificial limb is often bulky and awkward, and it does not provide sensory information or feedback from the environment. This means that adding an artificial limb usually does not improve the child's range of activities.</p> <h3>Surgery</h3> <p>You and your health-care team should consider surgery only if:</p> <ul> <li>It helps improve the way your child's hand works.</li> <li>It changes the appearance of the hand without decreasing function.</li> </ul> <p>Children as young as six to 12 months old may have surgery. But sometimes it is better to wait and see how your child will use their hand before making any decisions. In some cases, it is a good option to wait for your child to become old enough to be a part of the decision-making process.</p> <p>Just because surgery is possible, does not mean it should be done. Ask yourself if having the surgery will help your child take part in more activities. Also, if the surgery aims to improve the appearance of the hand, it should not compromise the function of the hand.</p> <p>An experienced occupational therapist and plastic surgeon can help you answer these questions. You do not have to decide right away.</p><h2>Prepare your child to handle teasing</h2> <p>Children experience and cope with teasing in a wide variety of ways. It is usually best to be open and honest with your child about their hand difference and not try to hide it from others. Help your child to be ready for questions about their hand and help them prepare an answer when faced with questions. Children are simply curious and wonder what happened. A good answer is "I was born this way." Children also like to be reassured that the hand deformity does not hurt and that the child can do everything they want to do. Often all it takes is letting others know why the hand looks the way it does. Once the other children see that your child can in fact do everything they can do, they no longer question things.</p> <p>Bullies exist everywhere and will always find something to tease or <a href="/Article?contentid=303&language=English">bully</a> about. A hand difference could be an easy target. In general, it is good to prepare your child to handle teasing. You cannot protect your child from teasing, but you can prepare your child with strategies for dealing with it. Many resources are available to help with this, such as:</p> <ul> <li><a href="http://www.prevnet.ca/" target="_blank">PREVNet</a></li> <li><a href="https://bullying.org/" target="_blank">Bullying.org</a></li> <li><a href="http://canadiansafeschools.com/" target="_blank">The Canadian Safe School Network</a></li> </ul> <p>For more information, visit <a href="http://www.prevnet.ca/resources/websites" target="_blank">PREVNet resources page</a>.</p> <h2>Getting ready for school</h2> <p>Children with hand anomalies attend regular classrooms in regular schools and usually do not need any special assistance. Your child may be able to write and type on a keyboard. Depending on the type of hand anomaly, your child may type or hold a pencil differently than most children. This does not matter as long as your child is able to keep up with the demands of the classroom. If your child needs special assistance, discuss this with your child's teacher and therapist if you have one.</p> <h3>What teachers need to know about a congenital hand anomaly</h3> <p>Your child's teacher may find the following information helpful.</p> <p>Most students with a congenital hand anomaly will find their own way of doing things and adapt extremely well. With your assistance, some children will feel more comfortable starting off the school year by explaining to everyone why their hand looks different. Discuss with the child and their family, and plan out so the child feels confident and comfortable.</p> <p>Students may have a different way of holding pencils and other utensils, but as long as they are keeping up with the class and are comfortable, do not try to change the way they hold their pencil or their hand dominance. Students who cannot keep up with the demands of the classroom may require modifications to the program or adaptations to equipment, including sports equipment, musical instruments and writing implements. An occupational therapist can help determine and make appropriate adaptations.</p> <h3>Advocating for your child</h3> <p>A congenital hand anomaly does not hurt your child. Your child will be able to do just about everything they want to do, as long as you advocate for them. Help teachers and sports instructors know that the way your child does things may look different, and that they may or may not require modifications to the activity. Your child can participate in many activities.</p> <h2>Accepting your child</h2> <p>Babies do not realize anything is different about them and are not experiencing any pain or loss because of a congenital hand anomaly. As a parent, you may be feeling anger, guilt or shock. However, it is important to know that this is not your fault and there is nothing you could have done differently.</p> <p>Whether or not your child accepts the way their hand is depends largely on whether you accept it. Many children grow up with significant hand anomalies without any emotional impact. Others struggle with acceptance, especially as teenagers. If you or your child are struggling, support networks and social workers are available.</p> <h2>Support for you and your child</h2> <p>An occupational therapist can help determine your child's quality of hand function and if they would benefit from any therapeutic intervention. Ask your family doctor for a referral.</p> <p>If you are struggling with accepting your child's diagnosis or with having to make a decision about surgery, a social worker may be able to help you.</p> <p>There are a number of support networks online, including the <a href="http://www.waramps.ca/champ.html" target="_blank">War Amps Program</a> (CHAMPS). </p><h2>At SickKids</h2> <p>Your family doctor can make a referral through SickKids' ARMs system to the plastic surgery clinic or to the department of rehabilitation services. Contact the <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/PlasticSurgery/Contact-Us/index.html" target="_blank">Plastic Surgery Clinic</a> for information about support services and events.</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/congenital_hand_anomaly.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" /> https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/congenital_hand_anomaly.jpgHand difference video A congenital hand anomaly is a hand or arm deformity that is present at birth. Learn how to help your child function independently.
Anaphylaxis: How to recognize and respond to a severe allergic reactionAnaphylaxis: How to recognize and respond to a severe allergic reactionAnaphylaxis: How to recognize and respond to a severe allergic reactionAEnglishAllergyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Abdominal pain;Cough;Diarrhea;Nausea;Vomiting;Rash2014-12-18T05:00:00ZVy​ Kim, MD, FRCPC;Anna Kasprzak, RN9.0000000000000056.2000000000000822.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>​​Learn how to prevent and identify anaphylaxis and how to respond when someone has a reaction.</p><h2>What is anaphylaxis?</h2><p>Anaphylaxis is a severe <a href="/Article?contentid=804&language=English">allergic reaction</a> to certain substances called allergens. When an allergen enters the body of a child with an allergy, the child's immune system treats it as an invader and overreacts. This reaction happens a few minutes to an hour after the child is exposed to an allergen and can be life threatening.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Anaphylaxis is a severe reaction to an allergen such as certain foods, medications and insect bites or stings.</li> <li>Common symptoms of anaphylaxis include difficulty breathing, dizziness, hives, swollen eyes and rapid heartbeat. If left untreated, anaphylaxis can be life threatening.</li> <li>If someone has anaphylaxis, call 911 or go to your nearest emergency department immediately.</li> <li>If it is your child's first episode of anaphylaxis, see an allergist for a full diagnosis. Your child may be prescribed an epinephrine injector, which they should carry with them at all times.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis</h2> <p>The signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis may include:</p> <ul> <li>abdominal (belly) pain, nausea, <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a> or sudden onset of <a href="/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a></li> <li>difficulty breathing, throat constriction (tightening) or difficulty swallowing</li> <li>coughing</li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=779&language=English">fainting</a>, light-headedness or dizziness</li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=789&language=English">hives</a>, itching, redness of the skin<br></li> <li>swollen eyes, lips or face</li> <li>rapid or irregular heartbeats</li> <li>slurred speech.</li> </ul><h2>Common causes of anaphylaxis</h2> <p>Common allergens include drugs, such as penicillin, foods, such as <a href="/Article?contentid=809&language=English">peanuts</a>, and <a href="/Article?contentid=800&language=English">insect bites</a> or stings, such as bee stings.</p> <p>An allergen can enter the body in different ways. </p> <ul> <li>A child may inhale (breathe in) or eat an allergen. It is best to speak to your child's allergist about the inhaled allergens that would be a problem for your child, as not all of these allergens will cause a reaction. </li> <li>A child might receive an injection that contains an allergen.</li> </ul> <p>When the body is exposed to an allergen, it releases chemicals called histamines. These and other chemicals released by the body cause the common signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis.</p><h2>What your child's doctor can do for anaphylaxis</h2> <p>It is very important for a doctor to see your child right away, even if symptoms have not yet appeared or have come and gone. Symptoms can disappear and then return a few hours later.<br></p> <p>Your child's doctor may give your child an injection of <a href="/Article?contentid=130&language=English">epinephrine</a> or steroid or other medicine. Your child may also receive antihistamines to reduce any skin symptoms of their allergic reaction. </p> <p>If you take your child to the emergency department, a tube may be placed through their nose or mouth and into their airways to help them breathe. A child with anaphylaxis should stay in the hospital for observation after their first allergic reaction.</p><h2>Complications of anaphylaxis</h2> <p>If left untreated, anaphylaxis may cause your child to have blocked airways, go into shock or have a heart attack (cardiac arrest).</p><h2>What you can do for your child during anaphylaxis</h2> <p>Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency. If your child has anaphylaxis, see a doctor <strong>right away</strong>.</p> <ul> <li>Call 911 or take your child to your nearest emergency department.</li> <li>If your child has emergency allergy medication, such as epinephrine (EpiPen or Allerject), inject it right away.</li> <li>Calm and reassure your child.</li> <li>Check your child's airway and breathing. A hoarse or whispered voice and high-pitched breathing sounds are signs that your child's throat is swollen.</li> <li>Do not give any medication by mouth if your child is having trouble breathing.</li> </ul><h2>How to prevent shock in your child with anaphylaxis</h2> <ul> <li>Calm and reassure your child.</li> <li>Lay your child flat on the floor or ground. Do not place a pillow under your child's head, as this makes it more difficult for them to breathe.</li> <li>Use cushions or other supports to keep your child's feet raised above the level of their heart.</li> <li>Cover your child with a blanket to keep them warm.</li> </ul> <p>You may need to perform CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) to assist or restore blood circulation. There are different instructions for <a href="/Article?contentid=1044&language=English">CPR on a baby</a> and <a href="/Article?contentid=1041&language=English">CPR on a child</a>.</p> <h2>How to prevent repeated episodes of anaphylaxis</h2> <p>The best way to prevent anaphylaxis is for your child to avoid any known allergens. Many people are not aware of an allergy until they are exposed to an allergen and have an anaphylactic reaction.</p> <p>Following their first episode of anaphylaxis, your child should see an allergist. This is a doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating allergies. </p> <p>The doctor will diagnose the allergen responsible for your child's anaphylaxis and may also prescribe an automated epinephrine injector such as EpiPen or Allerject. Your child should carry this injector with them at all times in case of emergency. Ideally, your child will carry one injector and a second will be readily available nearby.</p> <p>Your child should also wear a <a target="_blank" href="https://www.medicalert.ca/">Medic Alert</a> or similar bracelet that indicates their allergies to others so that they can get help right away if they need it.</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/anaphylaxis.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />anaphylaxisanaphylaxishttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/anaphylaxis.jpgAnaphylaxis
FolateFolateFolateFEnglishNutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NADigestive systemHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+) Educators Hospital healthcare providers Community healthcare providers Remote populations First nationsNA2013-09-27T04:00:00ZTheresa Couto, RD;Elly Berger, BA, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, MHPE;Francy Pillo-Blocka RD, FDC000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Discover the role of folate in the body.</p><p></p><p>Folate is another name for vitamin B9. It keeps the heart and blood vessels healthy and reduces the risk of some birth defects such as spina bifida.</p> <figure class="asset-c-100"> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/INM_NRC_track1-8-4_illustration_food_folate.jpg" alt="Grain products and vegetables and fruits containing folate" /> </figure><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Folate, also known as folic acid, is mostly found in grain products, green leafy vegetables, peas and orange juice. </li> <li>Women of childbearing age need a supplement of 400 µg folic acid each day in addition to the folate found in a healthy diet.</li> <li>Pregnant women need to take a multivitamin containing 400 - 1000 µg of folic acid.</li></ul><h2>Supplements</h2><ul><li>Women of childbearing age need a supplement of 400 µg (0.4mg) folic acid each day in addition to the amount of folate found in a healthy diet. </li><li>Pregnant women should take a multivitamin containing 400-1000 µg of folic acid and iron.</li><li>Speak to your doctor about the level of folic acid that is appropriate for you in pregnancy if:</li><ul><li>you have a family history of or a previous pregnancy affected by an open neural tube defect (for example spina bifida or anencephaly) </li><li>you are on certain medications, including anti-seizure medications.</li></ul></ul><p> <a href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/INM_NRC_track1-8-1_micronutrients_pdf.pdf" target="_blank">Print-Friendly Version</a><br></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/INM_NRC_track1-8-4_illustration_food_folate.jpg

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