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Mental healthMental healthMental healthMEnglishPsychiatryChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANANACaregivers Adult (19+)NALanding PageLearning Hub<p>Learn how to support your child’s wellbeing with activity, sleep and nutrition and how to recognize and manage various mental health conditions.<br></p><p>This hub includes resources for parents on how to support your child's mental health and general wellbeing through physical activity, sleep and nutrition. It also provides information on the signs, symptoms and treatments of different mental health conditions, including anxiety, bipolar disorder, depression, behavioural disorders, anorexia nervosa and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.<br></p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Wellbeing</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>The everyday pressures of growing up can put a strain on any child's mental wellbeing. Find out how physical activity, a healthy sleep routine, screen time limits and balanced nutrition can boost your child's mental health and support them through difficult times.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Physical Activity</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=642&language=English">Physical activity: Guidelines for children and teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=641&language=English">Physical activity: Benefits of exercise for health and wellbeing</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Sleep</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=645&language=English">Sleep: Benefits and recommended amounts</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=646&language=English">How to help your child get a good night's sleep</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=647&language=English">How to help your teen get a good night's sleep</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Screen time</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=643&language=English">Screen time: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=644&language=English">How to help your child set healthy screen time limits</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Nutrition</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=639&language=English">Nutrition: How a balanced diet and healthy eating habits can help your child's mental health</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Anxiety disorders</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Every child feels anxiety at some point as a natural part of growing up. An anxiety disorder, however, is when anxious feelings interfere with a child's everyday routine. Learn more about the signs, symptoms and range of anxiety disorders and how they ​are treated.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">Anxiety: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=271&language=English">Anxiety: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=270&language=English">Types of anxiety disorders</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=701&language=English">Anxiety: Treatment with medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=702&language=English">Anxiety: Psychotherapy and lifestyle changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Obsessive compulsive disorder</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) occurs when a person suffers from troubling and intrusive thoughts and/or follows repetitive or strict routines to feel less worried. Learn about the causes, signs and impact of this disorder and how you can help your child.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=285&language=English">Obsessive compulsive disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=288&language=English">OCD: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=286&language=English">How OCD affects your child's life</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=709&language=English">OCD: Psychotherapy and medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=287&language=English">OCD: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Depression</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Depression is an illness that causes someone to feel deep sadness or a lack of interest in activities that they once enjoyed. Discover how this condition affects a child's mood, sleep, concentration and energy levels, and how it can be treated.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">Depression: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=284&language=English">Depression: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=707&language=English">Depression: Treatment with medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=708&language=English">Depression: Psychotherapy and lifestyle changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Bipolar disorder</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>When a person has bipolar disorder, they alternate between low and elevated moods for days, weeks or months at a time. Learn about the bipolar disorder spectrum, the symptoms of manic and depressive episodes and how medications, therapy and lifestyle changes can help.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=279&language=English">Bipolar disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=280&language=English">Bipolar disorder: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=704&language=English">Bipolar disorder: Treatment with medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=705&language=English">Bipolar disorder: Psychotherapy and lifestyle changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Suicide and self-harm</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>A child who experiences thoughts of suicide or self-harm is often suffering from overwhelming emotional pain. Find out how to help your child cope with difficult emotions, how to support and protect your child and where to find professional help.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=291&language=English">Suicide in children and teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=289&language=English">Self-harm in children and teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=290&language=English">Signs and symptoms of suicide risk</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=293&language=English">How to help your child with difficult emotions</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=292&language=English">How to protect your child from harm</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Eating disorders</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>An eating disorder not only risks your child's health but can also disrupt family life. Find out about the symptoms and treatment of anorexia, bulimia, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder and binge eating disorder and how you can help your child recover.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Anorexia nervosa</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=268&language=English">Anorexia nervosa: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=269&language=English">Anorexia: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=267&language=English">Anorexia: Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=700&language=English">Anorexia: Treatment options</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=266&language=English">Anorexia: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Bulimia nervosa</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=282&language=English">Bulimia nervosa: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=283&language=English">Bulimia: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=281&language=English">Bulimia: Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=706&language=English">Bulimia: Treatment options</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=294&language=English">Bulimia: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID)</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=274&language=English">Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=275&language=English">ARFID: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=273&language=English">ARFID: Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=703&language=English">ARFID: Treatment options</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=272&language=English">ARFID: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Binge eating disorder (BED)</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=277&language=English">Binge eating disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=278&language=English">BED: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=640&language=English">Obesity: Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=276&language=English">BED: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) involves difficulties with controlling attention and regulating behaviour. Discover the main symptoms of ADHD in children and teens, how the disorder is diagnosed and how to help your child at home and at school.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1922&language=English">Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1923&language=English">ADHD: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1997&language=English">ADHD: How to help your child at home</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1999&language=English">ADHD: Communicating with your child's school</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1998&language=English">ADHD: Treatment with medications</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Behavioural disorders</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Behavioural disorders include oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Learn how these disorders differ from typical misbehaviour, how therapy and medications can help and how you can manage problematic behaviour at home.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1924&language=English">Behavioural disorders: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1925&language=English">Behavioural disorders: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2000&language=English">Behavioural disorders: Treatment with psychotherapy and medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2001&language=English">Behavioural disorders: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is triggered by experiencing or witnessing a terrifying event. Learn about the main symptoms of PTSD, how the condition is diagnosed and how psychotherapy and medications can help your child.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1927&language=English">Post-traumatic stress disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1928&language=English">PTSD: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2005&language=English">PTSD: Treatment with psychotherapy and medications</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Brain disorders and mental health</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>A brain disorder includes a condition, illness or injury that affects the brain and how it develops before or after birth. Find out how a brain disorder can affect your child's learning, mood and social skills, how its impact on mental health is assessed and how to help your child cope.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1926&language=English">Brain disorders and mental health: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2002&language=English">Brain disorders: Assessing your child for neuropsychological difficulties</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2003&language=English">Brain disorders: How to help your child cope</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2004&language=English">Brain disorders: Common treatments</a></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Mental_health_landing-page.jpgmentalhealthhealthyliving
Binge eating disorder: OverviewBinge eating disorder: OverviewBinge eating disorder: OverviewBEnglishPsychiatryTeen (13-18 years)BodyNAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2016-02-02T05:00:00Z​Se​ena Grewal, MD, MSc, FRCP(C);Robyn Legge, PhD;Jessica Watts, RN10.300000000000045.0000000000000560.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Discover the main features and causes of binge eating disorder and who is most likely to be affected by it.</p><h2>What is binge eating disorder?</h2><p>Binge eating disorder occurs when someone has recurring episodes of binge-eating and related psychological distress.</p><h2>Is binge eating the same as overeating?</h2> <p>No, binge eating is different from overeating.</p> <p>Overeating is consuming more food than your body needs at a given time, for instance having a second serving of dessert after a full meal because the food is available and very appealing. Most people overeat from time to time. This is entirely normal.</p> <p>Binge eating is much less common and is marked by psychological distress. A binge eating episode involves:</p> <ul> <li>eating an amount of food that is larger than what most people would eat in the same situation<br></li> <li>feeling out of control regarding what and how much is eaten and when to stop</li> </ul> <p>Although binge eating can occur with a number of different medical conditions, binge eating disorder (BED) is a particular mental health condition that involves psychological distress associated with binge episodes. Many individuals with BED may have struggled with dieting before their binge episodes began.</p> <p>Someone who has binge eating disorder does not compensate for the binges, for example by purging or exercising. Compensation is seen in <a href="/Article?contentid=282&language=English">bulimia nervosa</a>.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Binge eating disorder involves repeated episodes of eating a larger than usual amount of food in a limited time and feeling psychological distress as a result. It is not the same as overeating.</li><li>People who experience binge eating disorder often feel out of control. However, they do not compensate for their binge episodes through purging or excessive exercise.</li><li>Binge eating disorder is usually caused by social and psychological factors and/or genetics.</li><li>Binge eating usually starts in late adolescence or early adulthood. Teens with depression or anxiety might be at increased risk of developing BED.</li></ul><h2>What causes binge eating disorder?</h2><p>The exact causes of binge eating disorder are unknown, but a number of factors are thought to contribute.</p><h3>Social factors</h3><p>Some studies have shown that social pressures or messages to be thin can contribute to emotional eating.</p><h3>Psychological factors</h3><p>Emotional eating, poor self-esteem and body dissatisfaction are all associated with binge eating disorder. It is unclear if these activities or feelings cause BED, but someone who starts to diet to manage these feelings may be at risk of developing BED.</p><p>Teens who struggle with <a href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">depression</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">anxiety</a> may also be at increased risk of developing BED.</p><h3>Genetics </h3><p>A family history of eating disorders may make someone more vulnerable to developing binge eating disorder.</p><h2>Who is affected by binge eating disorder?</h2><p>Binge eating most commonly starts in a person's late teens or early adulthood. It usually follows a period of extreme dieting or weight loss. </p><p>Psychiatric disorders that are often linked with binge eating disorder include:</p><ul><li><a href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">depression</a></li><li><a href="/Article?contentid=279&language=English">bipolar disorder</a></li><li><a href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">anxiety​</a><br></li><li>substance use disorders.</li></ul><h2>Further information</h2><p>For more information on binge eating disorder (BED), please see the following pages:</p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=278&language=English">BED: Signs and symptoms</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=640&language=English">Obesity: Medical complications</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=276&language=English">BED: How to help your child at home</a></p><h2>Resources</h2><p> <a href="http://www.nedic.ca/" target="_blank">NEDIC – National Eating Disorder Information Centre</a> (Canada)<br></p><p> <a href="https://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/" target="_blank">NEDA – National Eating Disorder Association</a> (United States)</p><p>American Academy of Pediatrics – <em> <a href="https://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/emotional-problems/Pages/Eating-Disorders-in-Children.aspx" target="_blank">​Eating Disorders in Children</a> ​</em></p><p> <a href="http://www.b-eat.co.uk/" target="_blank">B-EAT – Beating Eating Disorders</a> (United Kingdom)</p><p> <a href="http://www.keltyeatingdisorders.ca/" target="_blank">Kelty Eating Disorders​</a> (Kelty Mental Health Resource Centre, BC Children's Hospital)</p><p>Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario – <a href="https://www.cheo.on.ca/en/eating_disorder_info" target="_blank"> <em>Eating Disorders​</em></a></p> ​​​​https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/chocolate_chip_cookies.jpgEating Disorders Week, Feb. 1–7: Find out about binge eating disorder.
LeukemiaLeukemiaLeukemiaLEnglishOncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyNAConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2018-04-03T04:00:00ZLanding PageLearning Hub<p>Information about the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of leukemia. Also learn about the challenges that parents may face while caring for their child during and after treatment.</p><p>This learning hub will help you understand the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of leukemia. It also discusses the challenges that parents may face while caring for their child during treatment and many of the late-term outcomes of leukemia treatment.</p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">About leukemia</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Leukemia is the general term for cancer of the blood. There are different forms of leukemia; the two most common are acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML).</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2825&language=English">About leukemia</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2832&language=English">Blood, marrow and the lymphatic system</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2833&language=English">The leukemia health care team </a></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2826&language=English">Acute lymphoblastic leukemia: An overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2827&language=English">Subtypes of ALL</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2828&language=English">Genes and ALL</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2829&language=English">Signs and symptoms of ALL</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Acute myeloid leukemia (AML)</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2830&language=English">Acute myeloid leukemia: An overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2831&language=English">Subtypes of AML</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=9999&language=English">Signs and symptoms of AML</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Diagnosis</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Learn the roles of the complete blood count test, bone marrow aspiration, and lumbar puncture in diagnosing leukemia.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2834&language=English">Leukemia: Understanding diagnosis</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2839&language=English">Complete blood count (CBC)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2840&language=English">Lumbar puncture</a></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Bone marrow aspirate and biopsy</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2835&language=English">Bone marrow aspirate and biopsy</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2836&language=English">Cell morphology test</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2838&language=English">Immunophenotyping</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2837&language=English">Cytogenetics and molecular tests</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Treating leukemia</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>The goal of treatment is to bring your child into remission. Find treatment options for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia and precautions to take during treatment.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2841&language=English">Treating leukemia</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2854&language=English">Other considerations during therapy for leukemia</a></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Treating acute lymphoblastic leukemia</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2842&language=English">Treating acute lymphoblastic leukemia</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2843&language=English">Acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Risk categories</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2849&language=English">Chemotherapy for acute childhood leukemias</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2846&language=English">Acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Chemotherapy phases</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2845&language=English">Acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Radiation therapy</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2844&language=English">Acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Bone marrow transplant</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2852&language=English">Leukemia: Central venous line</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2853&language=English">Medicines for leukemia</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Treating acute myeloid leukemia</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2847&language=English">Treating aute myeloid leukemia</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2849&language=English">Chemotherapy for acute childhood leukemias</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2851&language=English">Acute myeloid leukemia: Chemotherapy phases</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2848&language=English">Acute myeloid leukemia: Bone marrow transplant</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2850&language=English">Treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2852&language=English">Leukemia: Central venous line</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2853&language=English">Medicines for leukemia</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Living with leukemia</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Learn about impacts of leukemia treatment on your child and the family and why good nutrition is an important part of your child’s leukemia therapy.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2855&language=English">Living with leukemia</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2864&language=English">Good nutrition during leukemia treatment</a></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Living with acute lymphoblastic leukemia</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2858&language=English">Parenting a child with leukemia</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2856&language=English">Leukemia and financial issues</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2860&language=English">Helping your child cope with leukemia</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1652&language=English">Coping with pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2861&language=English">Leukemia and behavioural changes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2862&language=English">Self-image and changes to appearance from leukemia </a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2857&language=English">School and leukemia</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2863&language=English">Living with leukemia and helping siblings cope</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Living with acute myeloid leukemia</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2858&language=English">Parenting a child with leukemia</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2856&language=English">Leukemia and financial issues</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2860&language=English">Helping your child cope with leukemia</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2859&language=English">In the hospital</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1652&language=English">Coping with pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2861&language=English">Leukemia and behavioural changes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2862&language=English">Self-image and changes to appearance from leukemia </a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2857&language=English">School and leukemia</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2863&language=English">Living with leukemia and helping siblings cope</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Looking ahead for leukemia survivors</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Depending on factors like your child’s age at diagnosis, gender, and life transitions they experience as a survivor, they may respond differently at different times after completing leukemia treatment.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2865&language=English">Looking ahead for leukemia survivors</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2876&language=English">Social and emotional effects of having leukemia</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2878&language=English">Leukemia relapse</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2877&language=English">Palliative care for children with leukemia</a></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>After treatment ends</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2866&language=English">After treatment ends</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2867&language=English">Self-care after leukemia treatment</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2868&language=English">Leukemia follow-up visits</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2869&language=English">Transitioning into adulthood after leukemia</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Potential late effects of acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment </h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2870&language=English">Potential late effects of acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment </a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2871&language=English">Leukemia and weight gain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2872&language=English">Leukemia and bone health</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2873&language=English">Secondary cancers</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2874&language=English">Leukemia treatment and learning and memory</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2875&language=English">Other late effects of leukemia</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Potential late effects of acute myeloid leukemia treatment </h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2878&language=English">Potential late effects of acute myeloid leukemia treatment </a></li></ol></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/leukemia_learning_hub.jpgleukemialeukemiaLeukemia Resource Centre Learn about leukemia symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.
Post-traumatic stress disorder: OverviewPost-traumatic stress disorder: OverviewPost-traumatic stress disorder: OverviewPEnglishPsychiatryPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2017-07-27T04:00:00ZDiane Benoit, MD, FRCPC10.000000000000050.0000000000000563.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Discover the causes and rates of post-traumatic stress disorder in children and teens.</p><h2>What is post-traumatic stress disorder?</h2><p>Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that is triggered by witnessing or experiencing a terrifying event. Examples of terrifying events include:</p><ul><li>abuse or neglect</li><li>domestic or community violence</li><li><a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=303&language=English">bullying</a></li><li>war</li><li>accidents</li><li><a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=933&language=English">burns</a></li><li><a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=1040&language=English">animal attacks or bites</a></li><li>natural disasters</li><li>painful medical procedures.</li></ul><p>Children and teens with PTSD may experience flashbacks, nightmares, uncontrolled <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=18&language=English">anxiety</a> and uncontrollable thoughts about the event. As a result, they will often avoid reminders of the traumatic event.</p> <h2>How does PTSD differ from other reactions to stressful or disturbing events?</h2> <p>PTSD is different from a typical reaction to stress in two ways.<br></p> <ul> <li>It lasts for over a month after the traumatic event.</li> <li>Its symptoms significantly interfere with everyday life.</li> </ul><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>PTSD may be suspected if a child’s difficulties with coping in response to traumatic events last longer than a month and interfere with everyday life.</li> <li>Factors associated with PTSD include a family history of mental health conditions, a person’s response to stress and previous exposure to a traumatic event. However, even without these risk factors, PTSD can affect children and teens who are exposed to a traumatic event.</li> <li>If your child has symptoms of PTSD, talk to them about their feelings and see your child’s doctor for further evaluation.</li> </ul><h2>What causes PTSD?</h2> <p>By definition, PTSD occurs <em>after</em> a person experiences or witnesses a traumatic event. Not everyone who experiences a traumatic event develops PTSD, however. Some children and teens are more likely to develop PTSD due to:</p> <ul> <li>biological factors</li> <li>psychological factors</li> <li>social factors.</li> </ul> <h3>Biological factors</h3> <p>Biological factors include genetics (traits that can be passed down from one generation to another) and a family history of mental health conditions.</p> <h3>Psychological factors</h3> <p>Psychological factors include a person's individual response to stress. Those who tend to experience more negative emotions in response to a stressor are at greater risk for PTSD.</p> <h3>Social factors</h3> <p>Social factors refer to a person's environment, including their family life and community. PTSD can be more common in those with previous experience of traumatic events and/or those who may lack supports to help them cope.</p> <h2>How common is PTSD in children and teens?</h2> <p>No Canadian statistics are available for PTSD in children and teens. However, US data suggest that 5 per cent of teens (one teen in 20) aged 13 to 18 meet the conditions for a PTSD diagnosis. Within this group, PTSD is more common in girls and is more common as teens get older.</p> <p>There are no clear studies on rates of PTSD in younger children, but US data indicate that the condition occurs in 60 per cent of children and teens exposed to domestic or family violence.</p><h2>Does PTSD occur with other conditions?</h2> <p>PTSD commonly occurs with other conditions, especially <a href="/Article?contentid=270&language=English">anxiety disorders</a>. It also commonly occurs with <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=19&language=English">depression</a> and substance use disorders.</p><h2>How can I help my child if they appear to have PTSD?</h2> <p>If your child seems to be showing <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1928&language=English">signs and symptoms of PTSD</a> after a traumatic event, first talk to them about their feelings. Listen to your child and offer support.</p> <p>If your child has developed PTSD, it is important that they receive a proper assessment and <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=2005&language=English">formal treatment</a>. As a first step, take your child to their doctor.</p><h2>Further information</h2> <p>For more information on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), please see the following pages:</p> <p><a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1928&language=English">PTSD: Signs and symptoms</a></p> <p><a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=2005&language=English">PTSD: Treatment with psychotherapy and medications</a><br></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/post_traumatic_stress_disorder_overview.jpgPost-traumatic stress disorder: Overview Discover what triggers PTSD in youths.

 

 

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathyHypertrophic cardiomyopathyHypertrophic cardiomyopathyHEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2018-10-26T04:00:00ZJennifer Russell, MD, FRCPC;Aamir Jeewa, MD, FAAP, FRCP(C)11.300000000000044.0000000000000610.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a condition in which the heart muscle is unusually thick. This can affect the amount of blood pumped to the body and cause heart rhythm problems.</p><figure class="swf-asset-c-80"><span class="asset-image-title">Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy</span> <div class="asset-animation"> src="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/Style%20Library/akh/swfanimations/swf.html?swffile=Hypertrophic_Cardiomyopathy_MED_ANI_EN.swf" </div> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">With this condition, the muscle in the heart is unusually thick. This can reduce the size of the left ventricle or make the walls of the ventricle stiffer, which affects the ability of the heart to pump and relax effectively and send blood to the body.</figcaption> </figure> <p>For patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the muscle in the heart, usually in <a href="/Article?contentid=1577&language=English">the ventricles</a>, is unusually thick. This is known as hypertrophy. This can reduce the size of the left ventricle or make the walls of the ventricle stiffer, which affects the ability of the heart to pump and relax effectively and send blood to the body and/or the lungs. The altered arrangement of muscle fibres from the thickened muscle can cause abnormal heart rhythms, which are potentially fatal. HCM can develop at any age.</p><p>Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is less common in babies and children and more often diagnosed during adolescence. It occurs in 1 in every 500 people.</p><h2>What is cardiomyopathy</h2><p>Cardiomyopathy is a disorder affecting the heart muscle. The heart may have a normal structure but there are problems in the way it develops or functions. Cardiomyopathy usually results in the heart being unable to pump effectively, also known as <a href="/Article?contentid=1586&language=English">heart failure</a>. </p><p>Cardiomyopathy can be caused by a number of factors, including infections, conditions affecting the body’s metabolism and genetics. </p><p>There are several different types of cardiomyopathy. The main four types are: </p><ul><li>hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=1628&language=English">dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)</a></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=1630&language=English">restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM)</a></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=1631&language=English">arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC)</a>.<br></li></ul><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>With hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the muscle in the heart is unusually thick, affecting its ability to pump blood to the body.</li><li>This condition is usually genetic and passed through families.</li><li>Doctors may recommend an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) to treat this condition when the heart thickness reaches a certain size.<br></li></ul><h2>Symptoms of HCM in children</h2><p>Symptoms of HCM include: </p><ul><li>shortness of breath</li><li>chest pain</li><li>dizziness</li><li>fainting </li><li>palpitation</li><li>cardiac arrest (only in some cases). </li></ul><p>Some people with HCM may not experience any symptoms for a long time.</p><h2>What causes HCM in babies and children?</h2><p>HCM can occur spontaneously, however most often, the cause is genetic, meaning it is passed along through families. For this reason, it is usually recommended that anyone who is a first-degree relative (parent, sibling, or child) of someone with HCM have a cardiac evaluation even if they do not have any health concerns or heart-related symptoms.</p><h2>Treatment of HCM</h2><p>Implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICD) are recommended when the heart thickness reaches a certain size, even in the absence of abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias). ICDs may reduce the risk of significant arrhythmias in certain types of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients.</p><p>Many children will be on beta blocker medicine, a type of medicine that is used to slow the heart rate and ease the workload of the heart. On rare occasions, this condition may require a heart transplant.</p><h2>Complications of HCM</h2><p>HCM has been associated with sudden cardiac events in children and adolescents often due to either the blockage of blood getting out of the heart or an <a href="/Article?contentid=890&language=English">abnormally fast heart rhythm (arrhythmia)</a>. HCM is one of the most common causes of sudden death in young athletes.</p><p>Arrhythmias have been seen in up to 30-40% of patients with HCM and ongoing research shows this may be related to the healthy, normal heart muscle (or myocardium) being replaced by abnormal or scar tissue called myocardial fibrosis.</p><p>Infants with HCM may also have an underlying metabolic condition that may involve other muscle groups or organs.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/PST_ICCP_girl_consulting_doctor_EN.jpgHypertrophic cardiomyopathy Learn about hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a condition in which the heart muscle is unusually thick.
Slings: How to make a basic slingSlings: How to make a basic slingSlings: How to make a basic slingSEnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)ArmBonesNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_slings_forearm_03_EN.jpg2015-02-12T05:00:00ZElizabeth Berger, BA, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, MHPE​6.3000000000000078.8000000000000725.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to make simple but effective forearm and collarbone slings.</p><p>If your child injures their arm, they may need to wear a sling while it heals. A sling will keep the arm still to relieve any pain and prevent an injury from getting worse.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Before applying a sling, check for any serious cuts and make sure any bleeding is under control.</li> <li>For forearm slings, use padding for the injured arm and tie the sling around your child’s neck on the uninjured side.</li> <li>For shoulder or collarbone slings, drape the long side of the bandage down from the shoulder on the uninjured side, bring it over your child’s arm and tie it behind their back.</li> <li>Make sure the sling keeps your child’s arm in place but is not so tight that it limits blood flow.</li> <li>See a doctor if there is severe bleeding or if your child has dislocated a joint or broken a bone.</li> </ul><h2>When to see a doctor for an arm injury</h2><p>See a doctor if you think your child has dislocated a joint or if they have a broken bone or severe bleeding.</p><h2>How to put on a sling</h2><p>There are two main types of sling: one for a forearm injury and one for a collarbone or shoulder injury.</p><h3>Forearm sling</h3><ol class="akh-steps"><li> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_slings_forearm_01_EN.jpg" alt="Holding triangular bandage at one corner up to child’s shoulder on uninjured side" /> </figure> <p>Place the triangular bandage lengthwise against your child’s upper body. The long side of the bandage should extend down from their shoulder on the uninjured side. The shorter sides should point to the injured arm and meet near the elbow. Leave the top of the bandage over your child’s shoulder for now.</p></li><li> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_slings_forearm_02_EN.jpg" alt="Placing child's injured arm over the bandage across their chest" /> </figure> <p>Gently place your child’s injured arm over the bandage and across their chest. Their wrist should be slightly higher than their elbow and at the middle of the cloth’s long edge.</p></li><li> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_slings_forearm_03_EN.jpg" alt="Wrapping towel around child's injured arm, keeping the arm held over triangular bandage" /> </figure> <p>Support the injured arm with one hand. With your other hand, place a generous layer of padding, such as a rolled newspaper or folded towel, around the injured arm. </p></li><li> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_slings_forearm_04_EN.jpg" alt="Passing triangular bandage under and over the child’s injured arm and tying the corners behind the neck to create a sling" /> </figure> <p>Bring the bottom of the bandage up over the injured arm and behind your child’s neck.</p></li><li><p>Tie the two ends of the bandage behind your child’s neck on the uninjured side. This will avoid placing any strain on their injury.</p></li><li> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_slings_forearm_05_EN.jpg" alt="Child wearing a sling tied behind the neck and held together at the elbow with safety pins to hold the arm across their chest" /> </figure> <p>To stop your child’s arm from slipping out of the sling, use paper tape or safety pins to secure the point of the sling at your child’s elbow.</p></li></ol><h3>Collarbone or shoulder sling</h3><ol class="akh-steps"><li> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_slings_collarbone_01_EN.jpg" alt="Child holding the hand of their injured arm up to their shoulder on the opposite side" /> </figure> <p>Gently place your child’s fingertips on their shoulder on the uninjured side. </p></li><li> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_slings_collarbone_02.jpg" alt="Triangular bandage held up to child with one corner held over their fingertips" /> </figure> <p>Take one end of the triangular bandage and hold it near your child’s fingertips.</p></li><li><p>Tuck the bandage under the elbow so it supports your child’s arm on the injured side.</p></li><li> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_slings_collarbone_03.jpg" alt="Bandage held over shoulder of uninjured side and wrapped under elbow of injured arm, up to the opposite shoulder" /> </figure> <p>Bring the other end of the bandage behind your child’s back and tie the two ends behind their neck.</p></li><li> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_slings_collarbone_04.jpg" alt="Child wearing sling tied over shoulder on uninjured side and held together at the elbow of the other arm with safety pins" /> </figure> <p>Tuck any extra fabric behind the sling, near the elbow, or use paper tape or safety pins to keep it in place. </p> </li></ol><p>A first aid course can teach you more about applying different types of slings.</p><h2>Check the fit of the sling</h2> <p>Once the sling is in place, occasionally check that there is enough blood flow in your child’s injured arm.</p> <p>You will need to loosen the sling if: </p> <ul> <li>your child’s skin appears pale or blue or feels cool</li> <li>your child’s arm becomes numb or starts to tingle</li> <li>there is a weak pulse.</li> </ul> <h2>How to keep your child’s arm completely still</h2> <p>Depending on your child’s injury, you might need to tie the sling to their chest to keep their arm completely still. To do this, wrap a second cloth around your child’s body and tie it on the uninjured side.<br></p><h2>What to use for a sling</h2> <p>A sling is a triangular bandage that you can find in most <a href="/Article?contentid=1038&language=English">first aid kits</a>. If you do not have a special first aid sling, you can make one from a piece of cloth. In emergencies, you can use a shirt or a sweater. Whatever material you use, make sure it does not stretch.</p> <h2>Checking your child for cuts and bleeding</h2> <p>Before you put a sling on your child, check their arm for any serious cuts that need to be treated. Make sure any <a href="/Article?contentid=1043&language=English">bleeding</a> is under control and clean the skin as well as possible before applying the sling.</p>Slings: How to make a basic sling Learn how to make simple but effective forearm and collarbone slings.
Blocked tear ductsBlocked tear ductsBlocked tear ductsBEnglishOphthalmologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)EyesLacrimal glandsNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)Eye discomfort and rednesshttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Tear_duct_MED_ILL_EN.png2014-07-21T04:00:00ZYasmin Shariff, RN;Robert C. Pashby, MD, FRCSC;Dan D. DeAngelis, MD, FRCSC6.4000000000000073.70000000000001752.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn how your child's blocked tear duct can be treated.</p><h2>How do tears work?</h2><p>Tears clean the eyes and keep the surface of the eyes moist. They are produced all the time by the tear glands (lacrimal glands) and flow down across the surface of the eye. They then drain through a small opening (punctum) near the corner of the eye into the tear sac (lacrimal sac). From there, they flow down a tube called the tear duct (nasolacrimal duct) into the nose and throat.</p><h2>What is a blocked tear duct?<br></h2><p>A tear duct that is blocked stops the flow of tears from the eye down into the nose. It can affect one or both eyes. </p> <figure class="asset-c-80"><span class="asset-image-title">Blocked tear </span> <span class="asset-image-title">duct</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Tear_duct_MED_ILL_EN.png" alt="Eye with normal tear production and eye with blocked tear duct causing tear backup in the lacrimal sac and watery eyes" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Tears</figcaption> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption"> normally travel from the eyes to the inside of the nose through a tiny pathway. When this pathway becomes blocked it is called a blocked tear duct. </figcaption> </figure><h2>Causes of a blocked tear duct</h2> <p>A blocked tear duct usually occurs when the nasolacrimal duct fails to open at its lower end in the nose.</p> <p>The condition can be congenital (it is present at birth) or acquired (it develops later in life). A congenital blocked tear duct affects about one in 25 babies.</p> <h2>Symptoms of blocked tear ducts</h2> <ul> <li>Your child will have wet eyelashes or extra tears. Since the tears cannot drain out of the tear duct, they spill over the lashes, often onto the cheeks. </li> <li>Your child's eyelids may stick together with mucus, especially in the morning. Mucus is a sticky liquid that is normally dissolved in the tears. When tears do not flow well, however, the mucus stays on the outside of the eye. This mucus is normal. It is not the same as pus (a yellowish or greenish liquid), which is a sign of an infection.</li> <li>Your child may often have a red eye. This is caused by infections, which are more common when tears do not drain properly.</li> </ul> <h3>Extra tears do not always mean the tear ducts are blocked</h3> <p>Extra tears are not always caused by blocked tear ducts. If your child has extra tears, an eye doctor should check your child's eye(s).</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>A blocked tear duct stops the flow of tears from the eye down the lacrimal duct into the nose. </li> <li>Extra tears are not always caused by blocked tear ducts.</li> <li>There are many treatments for blocked tear ducts. Your child will only have surgery if other medical treatments do not work.</li> <li>If your child has surgery, follow all after-care instructions properly and attend follow-up appointments.</li> </ul><h2>How to care for your child after tear duct surgery</h2> <h3>Cool water compresses</h3> <p>Some doctors will suggest putting cool water or ice water compresses on the eyes to ease discomfort and reduce swelling after surgery. Ask your child's doctor if your child can have cool compresses.</p> <p>To make a cool compress, follow these steps:</p> <ol> <li>Fill a clean container with cool water. Cool tap water is fine. If you have well water, boil it and cool it in the refrigerator before you use it.</li> <li><a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1981&language=English">Wash your hands</a>.​</li> <li>Soak a clean face cloth in the cool water.</li> <li>Squeeze any extra water out of the cloth, then place the cloth on the swollen eye(s).</li> <li>Leave the cloth on for no more than two minutes at a time.</li> <li>Repeat a few times.</li> <li>Wash your hands again.</li> </ol> <p>Ask the doctor how often your child can have a cool compress. Several times a day for the first one or two days after surgery is often fine. Always wash your hands before and after touching your child's eyes.</p> <h3>Antibiotic drops</h3> <p>Your child's doctor may prescribe antibiotic ointment or eye drops for the affected eye and the surgery site. Make sure you get the prescription and carefully follow the instructions for <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=996&language=English">applying the ointment</a> or <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=995&language=English">putting in the eye drops</a>.</p> <h3>Nose blowing and wiping</h3> <p>Your child should not blow their nose for the first two weeks after surgery. It is fine to wipe the nose gently instead.<br></p> <h3>Tubes</h3> <p>Tubes placed in the tear duct do not generally cause any problem. If your child has a tube and the loop becomes very visible in the corner of the eye, attach it to your child's face with a piece of tape and call your child's doctor to inform them about it.</p> <h3>Gentle play only for the first week </h3> <p>For the first week after surgery, your child should only do light activities such as gentle playing indoors, using computers or watching TV.</p> <p>During this time, your child must avoid rough activities, sandbox play, contact sports such as soccer or hockey or anything else that would cause your child to bump into another child. Your child should also avoid bending and any activities that could cause them to get out of breath.</p> <p>If you have any questions about other possible activities, ask your child's doctor.</p> <h3>School and day care</h3> <p>Generally, children should not go to school or day care for the first two days after surgery, sometimes longer. Please check with your child's doctor. Tell your child's caregiver or teacher about the activities your child must avoid.</p> <h3>Swimming</h3> <p>Generally, swimming is not allowed for one week after the surgery until your child is seen by the doctor. Your child's doctor can tell you when your child can return to swimming.</p> <h3>Baths and showers</h3> <p>Ask your doctor about baths and showers. Some doctors recommend a bath instead of a shower for the first week after surgery.</p> <h3>Sun exposure</h3> <p>Your child should avoid going out in the sun right after surgery. Ask your child's doctor when your child is allowed to go back out in the sun. </p><h2>When to call the doctor</h2> <p>Please call the surgeon after the operation if:</p> <ul> <li>your child cannot see properly</li> <li>your child's pain gets worse</li> <li>your child has a tummy upset</li> <li>your child's eye suddenly gets more puffy</li> <li>your child's eye is bleeding.</li> </ul> <h3>Write down your child's doctor's name and phone number here:</h3> <p>Name: ________________________________________</p> <p>Phone number: _________________________________</p><h2>Follow-up appointments</h2> <p>You will need to bring your child to a follow-up appointment one or two weeks after surgery. Check with your child's doctor about when the follow-up appointment should happen.</p> <h3>Write the date and time of the first appointment here:</h3> <p>_____________________________________________</p> <p>Sometimes, the surgery may need to be repeated. Your child's doctor will tell you if your child needs another operation.</p> <p>If your child has a tube in the tear duct, you will need to make a follow-up appointment a few weeks or months after surgery to have it removed.</p> <h3>Write the date and time of the appointment here:</h3> <p>_____________________________________________</p><h2>Treatments for blocked tear ducts</h2> <p>There are different treatments for blocked tear ducts. Your doctor will explain which treatment is best for your child.</p> <p>Medical treatments include massage and <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1120&language=English">antibiotics</a> for any infections. If these do not work, your doctor will recommend surgery (an operation).</p> <h3>Massaging the eye<br></h3> <p>Gently rubbing (massaging) the lacrimal sac will often help open the tear duct. You will usually need to do this four to six times a day. Your doctor will explain how to massage the lacrimal sac.</p> <h3>Antibiotics</h3> <p>If your child has an infection, the doctor may prescribe antibiotic drops or ointment​. Make sure you apply the <a href="/Article?contentid=996&language=English">ointment</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=995&language=English">eye drops</a> correctly.</p> <h3>Surgery for blocked tear ducts</h3> <p>If medical treatments have not worked after several months, your child may need surgery. Your child might also need surgery if the lacrimal sac is infected and the skin between the eyeball and the side of the nose is red and swollen.</p> <p>Different types of surgery are available. Your doctor will discuss with you which surgery is best for your child. This will be based on your child's age and how serious the blockage is. Your doctor will also discuss the risks involved with any surgery.</p><h2>What happens during tear duct surgery?</h2> <p>Before the surgery, your child will have a special "sleep medicine" called a <a href="/Article?contentid=1261&language=English">general anaesthetic</a>. This will make sure your child sleeps through the operation and does not feel any pain.</p> <p>Three types of surgery are available:</p> <ul> <li>probing and irrigating</li> <li>silicone tube insertion</li> <li>dacryocystorhinostomy.</li> </ul> <h3>Probing and irrigating</h3> <p>Probing and/or irrigating is the most common surgery for blocked tear ducts.</p> <ol> <li>A thin blunt probe is inserted from the punctum into the lacrimal duct to open the blockage.</li> <li>A second probe is inserted into the nose to make contact with the first probe and make sure the duct is open.</li> <li>If the surgeon decides to irrigate (flush) the duct, a blunt needle will be inserted and saline solution (sterile salt water) will be flushed through it.</li> <li>The needle and probes are removed.</li> </ol> <h3>Silicone tube insertion</h3> <p>In this type of surgery, the surgeon puts a thin tube into the lacrimal duct. The tube is left in for a number of weeks to stop the tear duct from blocking again.</p> <h3>Dacryocystorhinostomy</h3> <p>Dacryocystorhinostomy (say: DACK-ree-oh-SISS-toe-rye-NOSS-toe-mee) is surgery to make a new opening in the tear sac and through the bone into the nose. This lets the tears drain into the nose.</p> <p>All three types of operation are done as day surgery. This means that your child does not stay in the hospital overnight afterwards.</p><h2>What to expect after surgery</h2> <h3>Pain or discomfort</h3> <p>Your child may have some pain in and near the operated eye. Ask your doctor if you can give your child any pain relief medicine.</p> <h3>Discharge from the eyes</h3> <p>Your child's tears and the discharge coming out of the nose may be stained with blood for a day or two. This is normal.</p> <p>There will also be some blood-stained discharge from the area that was operated on. If this happens, apply slight pressure to the operated area with a clean dressing.</p> <p>Tell your doctor if the discharge or bleeding continues for more than a couple of days or if the discharge becomes yellow or green.</p> <h3>Eye patch</h3> <p>Your child does not usually need a patch after this surgery. If your child does get an eye patch, however, your child's doctor will tell you when to remove it.</p> <h3>Tubes in the eye</h3> <p>If your child has a tube placed in the tear duct, they will return to the doctor usually a few weeks or months after surgery to have it taken out while they are awake. Your doctor will give you instructions to follow while the tube is in place.</p><h2>At SickKids</h2> <p>If your child's doctor is not available, call the hospital at 416 813-7500 and ask to speak to the eye doctor on call.</p>Blocked tear duct Learn how your child’s blocked tear duct can be treated.
All About the HeartAll About the HeartAll About the HeartAEnglishhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/J4K_all_about_the_heart_promo.pngKids ContentKids<p>Learn about the heart<br></p><figure class="swf-asset-c-80"> <div class="akh-video">src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/-s5iCoCaofc?rel=0"</div></figure><br><br>All About the Heart Show your child how their heart transports blood around the body.all-about-the-heart

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