AboutKidsHealth

AboutKidsHealth is a health education website for children, youth and their caregivers.

 

 

Keeping kids on the moveKeeping kids on the moveKeeping kids on the moveKEnglishPreventionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-07-16T04:00:00ZShaw​na Silver, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, PEng8.7000000000000060.70000000000001059.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out how active transportation and child-friendly communities can help children be more independent and physically active.</p><p>The growing popularity of cars in North America over the past 50 years has created suburbs and towns that require many people to drive every day. As a result, children are often travelling by car instead of walking, bicycling or using another form of transportation. This reliance on cars can have a major impact on children’s health and development and on the types of neighbourhoods in which they live.</p><h2>Key points<br></h2> <ul> <li>Heavy car use can make children less active, less connected from the environment and less independent.</li> <li>Active transportation involves travelling on foot or by bike for some journeys instead of relying on a car.</li> <li>Parents can encourage active transportation by taking part in car-free days, helping a child find the best walking and cycling routes nearby and getting involved in making a child’s school safer for those who walk or cycle there.</li> <li>Child-friendly communities can make active transportation more realistic because they are safe and accessible and integrate nature, local amenities and the needs of different age groups.<br></li> </ul><h2>How car use affects children</h2><p>Car use affects children's health, development and safety in a number of ways.</p><ul><li>Children who are less <a href="/Article?contentid=642&language=English">physically active</a> have an increased risk of health problems, including being <a href="/Article?contentid=640&language=English">overweight</a>.</li><li>Children who see life mainly “through the car windshield” are less connected with the environment around them.</li><li>Heavy traffic reduces children's ability to travel independently. <a href="/Article?contentid=1955&language=English">Safety</a> concerns may mean that they cannot walk or bicycle around their neighbourhood or go to nearby parks, schools and stores.</li><li>Traffic limits children's ability to play in the front yard or the street, which in turn limits how long they play and the richness of that play.</li></ul><p>Urban planners, local government, real estate developers and public transit authorities, among others, all influence how neighbourhoods develop and what type of transport is available. But despite the involvement of many groups in creating communities, there are still ways for parents to get children moving differently to and from school and make communities safer.</p><h2>How parents can create child-friendly journeys</h2><h3>Encourage active transportation</h3><ul><li>Active transportation means making a journey on foot or by bicycle instead of by car or bus. Next time you make a trip, consider if walking or bicycling could get you and your child to your destination instead.</li><li>Involve your child in decisions about how to get around. Given the choice, many children would prefer walking, bicycling or in-line skating to taking the car to get where they want to go.</li><li>Be a role model. Use active transportation for your own journeys whenever you can.</li><li>Walk and bicycle with your child. Help them find the best routes to where they want to go and teach them how to get around safely.</li><li>If your child must use public transit, start teaching them how to use it at a young age.</li><li>Take part in car-free days. Encourage your neighbours and co-workers to take part as well.</li><li>Start a "walking school bus" to get your child and your neighbours' children to school. A physically active school commute can be a fun social time for kids.</li><li>Get involved in making your child's school safer for children who walk there. Try to get the school to give priority to pedestrians instead of cars and reduce engine idling and traffic congestion at drop-off points.</li><li>Find out if your child's school has safe and secure storage for bicycles. If not, encourage the school to provide it.</li></ul><h3>Advocate for a "child-friendly community"</h3><p>Sometimes, certain conditions need to be in place for active transportation to be a realistic option. This is where the concept of a "child-friendly community" arises.</p><p>In his Bill of Rights for Kids, Colorado architect Harry Teague advocates for child-friendly communities that:</p><ul><li>are safe and accessible</li><li>are built to an appropriate scale</li><li>integrate nature, work and the needs of different ages and sexes into the surroundings</li><li>show elements of tradition</li></ul><p>The following sample questions can help you decide if your own neighbourhood is a healthy, friendly place for your family.</p><p> <em>Safety</em></p><ul><li>Is there a lot of traffic? What is the speed limit?</li><li>Are there sidewalks on at least one side of every street?</li><li>Are there bike paths or bike lanes?</li><li>Are there narrow streets to slow down drivers and help pedestrians and cyclists cross?</li><li>On busier streets, are there many crosswalks and traffic lights?</li><li>Are there "eyes on the street" - neighbours and workers who will keep an eye out for trouble and be able to give help if needed? Do homes have front porches and windows facing the street?</li><li>Is there enough street lighting?</li></ul><p> <em>Accessibility</em></p><ul><li>Is the neighbourhood close enough to where children need and want to go - schools, parks, playgrounds, recreational facilities, stores, libraries, friends and family - for them to walk or bicycle there?</li><li>Is it cut off by a major road or highway?</li><li>Is it near public transit that goes somewhere useful or will kids have to take a number of buses?</li><li>Are there places to park a bicycle when shopping or going to the library?</li><li>Do other people walk or bicycle?</li></ul><p> <em>Integration</em></p><ul><li>Do other kids live nearby?</li><li>How easy is it for kids in the neighbourhood to play together in a casual, unstructured way?</li><li>Can you and your family get to know neighbours and local shopkeepers?</li><li>Does the community have a mix of features such as schools, parks, recreational facilities, places of worship, stores, a library, doctor, dentist or opportunities for after-school or summer jobs?</li><li>Do people of different ages and backgrounds live in the area?</li><li>Have natural areas in the neighbourhood been preserved?</li><li>If your housing needs change, are different types of housing – large and small houses or apartments – available in the neighbourhood?</li></ul><p> <em>Tradition</em></p><ul><li>Are there monuments, landmarks or natural areas that can anchor kids to their community?</li><li>What are the plans to develop the area in the future?</li></ul><p>If your neighbourhood falls short in some areas, you might decide to share your findings with neighbours and bring your requests as a group to your local government representative.</p><h2>Why child-friendly communities matter</h2><p>A neighbourhood that is good for kids is good for the whole family and the whole community. Specifically, child-friendly communities give children the best opportunity to make active transportation a reality for their regular journeys.</p> <br>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/keeping_kids_on_the_move_the_role_of_active_transportation.jpgMain
Back to schoolBack to schoolBack to schoolBEnglishNAPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2018-01-19T05:00:00Z000Landing PageLearning Hub<p>From homework tips to keeping kids active, our back to school tips will help you prepare for a fun and successful year ahead.</p><p>To most parents, September means one thing: time to send kids back to school. From homework tips, to dealing with bullying, to keeping kids active and healthy, our back to school tips will help you and your child prepare for a fun and successful year ahead.</p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Learning</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Academics are the main reason that kids go to school. Here, find helpful tips on everything from homework help to teaching your child math skills.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=651&language=English">Reading and writing milestones</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1903&language=English">Reading problems: How to help your child</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=722&language=English">Mathematics milestones</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1899&language=English">Mathematics: How to help your child</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=649&language=English">Spatial reasoning skills: How to foster in children</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Screen time</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>These days we all spend a lot of time in front of electronic devices. Find out about the impacts of too much “screen time” and how to set limits.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=643&language=English">Screen time: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=644&language=English">How to help your child set healthy screen time limits</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Relationships</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Learn how to help your kids navigate some of the more difficult aspects of relationships with their peers on and off of school grounds.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Bullying</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=303&language=English">Bullying</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=736&language=English">Cyberbullying part one</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=737&language=English">Cyberbullying part two</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=738&language=English">Cyberbullying: Talking to your children</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Sex</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=716&language=English">Sex education: What children should learn and when</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=718&language=English">Sex education for children: Why parents should talk to their kids about sex</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=717&language=English">Sex education for children: Eight tips for parents</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Mental health</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>While in school, kids may struggle with social and academic pressures that affect their mental health. Here are some tips to help them cope.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">Anxiety: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">Depression: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=289&language=English">Self-harm in children and teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=291&language=English">Suicide in children and teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=625&language=English">Promoting a positive body image</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=626&language=English">Resilience</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=630&language=English">Self-efficacy in children</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1964&language=English">Self-efficacy: How to foster in children</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Physical health</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Good physical health can help your child to feel great and achieve better academic success. From being active to eating right, we have you covered.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Sleep</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=645&language=English">Sleep: Benefits and recommended amounts</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=646&language=English">Sleep tips: How to help your child</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=647&language=English">Sleep tips: How to help your teen</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Physical activity</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=642&language=English">Physical activity: Guidelines for children and teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=641&language=English">Physical activity: Benefits of exercise for health and wellbeing</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1950&language=English">Enhancing movement skills in your child</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Nutrition</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1436&language=English">Canada's Food Guide</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=639&language=English">How a balanced diet and healthy eating habits can help your child's mental health</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1464&language=English">School-aged child, tween and teen meal ideas</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=638&language=English">Healthy eating for teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1466&language=English">Healthy food and drink choices outside the home</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">After school</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Back to school also means a return to after school activities. Check out these articles on everything from sports to safely crossing the street.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1982&language=English">Helmets: How they prevent injury</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1983&language=English">Helmets: How to get your child to wear one</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1953&language=English">Organized sports: A winning formula for children</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1957&language=English">Playground safety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1955&language=English">Pedestrian safety for children</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1968&language=English">Water safety and drowning prevention</a></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/back_to_school_learning_hub.jpgBackToSchoolbacktoschool,healthyliving From homework, to dealing with bullying, to keeping kids active, our tips will help you prepare for a fun and successful year ahead.Main
Café-au-lait macules (CALMs)Café-au-lait macules (CALMs)Café-au-lait macules (CALMs)CEnglishDermatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)SkinSkinConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_CALM_light_brown_EN.jpg2015-05-06T04:00:00ZCarmen Liy Wong, MD;Irene Lara-Corrales, MSc, MD​7.6000000000000062.2000000000000552.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Café-au-lait macules are flat marks on the skin. Find out how CALMs are diagnosed, how they affect the body and how they are treated.<br></p><h2>What are café-au-lait macules?</h2> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_CALM_light_brown_EN.jpg" alt="Café au lait macules on light skin" /> </figure> <p>Café-au-lait macules (CALMs), or café-au-lait spots, are flat, oval lesions (marks) on the skin. Café-au-lait means "coffee with milk" in French. The name refers to the colour of the spots, as they are at least a shade darker than your child’s skin tone.<br></p><p>Café-au-lait macules commonly appear at birth but may develop later, during the first year of life. Their colour varies from light brown to dark brown.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Café-au-lait macules are harmless light to dark brown, oval, well-defined spots.</li> <li>They are normally present from birth and can increase in number and size over time.</li> <li>Multiple café-au-lait macules are associated with different genetic disorders.</li> <li>See a doctor if your child has undefined hyperpigmented lesions, more than six CALMs or has CALMs with lumps and bumps on the skin.</li> </ul><h2>How do CALMs affect the body?</h2> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_CALM_dark_brown_EN.jpg" alt="Café au lait macules on darker skin" /> </figure> <p>CALMs are benign (harmless). They do not hurt or itch and never progress to anything serious such as skin cancer. The spots can become darker throughout childhood or with sun exposure, but this is not a cause for concern.</p><h2>How common are CALMs?</h2> <p>The size and number of café-au-lait macules vary from child to child. About one in five healthy children have one or two CALMs. Up to one in 100 children have three CALMs.</p><h2>How are CALMs diagnosed?</h2> <p>CALMs are easily diagnosed by a skin examination. "Typical" CALMs range from light to dark brown and are well defined, even coloured and often round or oval. They vary in size and can appear anywhere on the skin, although they rarely appear on the face.</p><h2>How are CALMs treated?</h2> <p>No therapy is needed for CALMs. If your child is concerned about how their CALMs look, you can consider covering the CALMs with camouflage make-up to make them less noticeable. Some people consider laser treatment to reduce the colour, but this is painful and expensive. It also carries side effects and may not be very effective in reducing the colour of the CALMs. </p><h2>Are CALMs ever a feature of another condition?</h2> <p>CALMs can sometimes indicate an underlying genetic disorder. See your child’s doctor if your child has:</p> <ul> <li>six or more CALMs measuring more than 5 mm before puberty</li> <li>six or more CALMs measuring more than 15 mm during puberty</li> </ul> <p>If a genetic disorder is present, tiny CALMs, which look like freckles, may be visible under the arms or around the groin.</p> <p>The most common genetic disorder linked with multiple CALMs is <a href="/Article?contentid=864&language=English">neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1)</a>. Other conditions with CALMs as a symptom include McCune-Albright syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, Noonan syndrome, Legious syndrome and Fanconi anaemia.</p><h2>When to see a doctor for CALMs</h2> <p>See your child’s doctor or dermatologist if your child has:</p> <ul> <li>an undiagnosed pigmented lesion</li> <li>more than six café-au-lait macules measuring more than 5mm before puberty or more than 15 mm after puberty<br></li> <li>freckling around the armpit or groin</li> <li>CALMs with lumps and bumps on the skin</li> <li>other family members with multiple CALMs or a diagnosis of NF-1</li> <li>many CALMs with any learning problems or speech, language or other developmental delays<br></li> </ul><h2>​Further information</h2><p> <a href="https://www.ctf.org/" target="_blank">Children's Tumor Foundation</a></p><p> <a href="https://www.dermnetnz.org/" target="_blank">Dermnet New Zealand Trust: Facts about the skin</a></p><p> <a href="http://www.nfon.ca/" target="_blank">Neurofibromatosis Society of Ontario</a></p>Café-au-lait macules (CALMs)Main
Mental healthMental healthMental healthMEnglishPsychiatryChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANANACaregivers Adult (19+)NALanding PageLearning Hub<p>Learn how to support your child’s wellbeing with activity, sleep and nutrition; and how to recognize and manage various mental health conditions.</p><p>This hub includes resources for parents on how to support your child's mental health and general wellbeing through physical activity, sleep and nutrition. It also provides information on the signs, symptoms and treatments of different mental health conditions, including anxiety, bipolar disorder, depression, behavioural disorders, anorexia nervosa and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.<br></p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Wellbeing</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>The everyday pressures of growing up can put a strain on any child's mental wellbeing. Find out how physical activity, a healthy sleep routine, screen time limits and balanced nutrition can boost your child's mental health and support them through difficult times.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Physical activity</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=642&language=English">Physical activity: Guidelines for children and teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=641&language=English">Physical activity: Benefits of exercise for health and wellbeing</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Sleep</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=645&language=English">Sleep: Benefits and recommended amounts</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=646&language=English">How to help your child get a good night's sleep</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=647&language=English">How to help your teen get a good night's sleep</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Screen time</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=643&language=English">Screen time: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=644&language=English">How to help your child set healthy screen time limits</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Nutrition</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=639&language=English">Nutrition: How a balanced diet and healthy eating habits can help your child's mental health</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Anxiety disorders</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Every child feels anxiety at some point as a natural part of growing up. An anxiety disorder, however, is when anxious feelings interfere with a child's everyday routine. Learn more about the signs, symptoms and range of anxiety disorders and how they ​are treated.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">Anxiety: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=271&language=English">Anxiety: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=270&language=English">Types of anxiety disorders</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=701&language=English">Anxiety: Treatment with medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=702&language=English">Anxiety: Psychotherapy and lifestyle changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Obsessive compulsive disorder</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) occurs when a person suffers from troubling and intrusive thoughts and/or follows repetitive or strict routines to feel less worried. Learn about the causes, signs and impact of this disorder and how you can help your child.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=285&language=English">Obsessive compulsive disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=288&language=English">OCD: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=286&language=English">How OCD affects your child's life</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=709&language=English">OCD: Psychotherapy and medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=287&language=English">OCD: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Depression</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Depression is an illness that causes someone to feel deep sadness or a lack of interest in activities that they once enjoyed. Discover how this condition affects a child's mood, sleep, concentration and energy levels, and how it can be treated.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">Depression: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=284&language=English">Depression: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=707&language=English">Depression: Treatment with medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=708&language=English">Depression: Psychotherapy and lifestyle changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Bipolar disorder</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>When a person has bipolar disorder, they alternate between low and elevated moods for days, weeks or months at a time. Learn about the bipolar disorder spectrum, the symptoms of manic and depressive episodes and how medications, therapy and lifestyle changes can help.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=279&language=English">Bipolar disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=280&language=English">Bipolar disorder: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=704&language=English">Bipolar disorder: Treatment with medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=705&language=English">Bipolar disorder: Psychotherapy and lifestyle changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Suicide and self-harm</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>A child who experiences thoughts of suicide or self-harm is often suffering from overwhelming emotional pain. Find out how to help your child cope with difficult emotions, how to support and protect your child and where to find professional help.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=291&language=English">Suicide in children and teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=289&language=English">Self-harm in children and teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=290&language=English">Signs and symptoms of suicide risk</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=293&language=English">How to help your child with difficult emotions</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=292&language=English">How to protect your child from harm</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Eating disorders</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>An eating disorder not only risks your child's health but can also disrupt family life. Find out about the symptoms and treatment of anorexia, bulimia, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder and binge eating disorder and how you can help your child recover.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Anorexia nervosa</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=268&language=English">Anorexia nervosa: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=269&language=English">Anorexia: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=267&language=English">Anorexia: Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=700&language=English">Anorexia: Treatment options</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=266&language=English">Anorexia: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Bulimia nervosa</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=282&language=English">Bulimia nervosa: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=283&language=English">Bulimia: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=281&language=English">Bulimia: Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=706&language=English">Bulimia: Treatment options</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=294&language=English">Bulimia: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID)</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=274&language=English">Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=275&language=English">ARFID: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=273&language=English">ARFID: Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=703&language=English">ARFID: Treatment options</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=272&language=English">ARFID: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Binge eating disorder (BED)</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=277&language=English">Binge eating disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=278&language=English">BED: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=640&language=English">Obesity: Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=276&language=English">BED: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) involves difficulties with controlling attention and regulating behaviour. Discover the main symptoms of ADHD in children and teens, how the disorder is diagnosed and how to help your child at home and at school.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1922&language=English">Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1923&language=English">ADHD: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1997&language=English">ADHD: How to help your child at home</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1999&language=English">ADHD: Communicating with your child's school</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1998&language=English">ADHD: Treatment with medications</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Behavioural disorders</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Behavioural disorders include oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Learn how these disorders differ from typical misbehaviour, how therapy and medications can help and how you can manage problematic behaviour at home.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1924&language=English">Behavioural disorders: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1925&language=English">Behavioural disorders: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2000&language=English">Behavioural disorders: Treatment with psychotherapy and medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2001&language=English">Behavioural disorders: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is triggered by experiencing or witnessing a terrifying event. Learn about the main symptoms of PTSD, how the condition is diagnosed and how psychotherapy and medications can help your child.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1927&language=English">Post-traumatic stress disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1928&language=English">PTSD: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2005&language=English">PTSD: Treatment with psychotherapy and medications</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Brain disorders and mental health</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>A brain disorder includes a condition, illness or injury that affects the brain and how it develops before or after birth. Find out how a brain disorder can affect your child's learning, mood and social skills, how its impact on mental health is assessed and how to help your child cope.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1926&language=English">Brain disorders and mental health: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2002&language=English">Brain disorders: Assessing your child for neuropsychological difficulties</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2003&language=English">Brain disorders: How to help your child cope</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2004&language=English">Brain disorders: Common treatments</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Parenting a child with a chronic condition</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>A chronic conditions can affect a child's mental health and everyday routines. Discover how parents and caregivers can help manage both their child's health care and routines, and support their own mental health.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3400&language=English">Living with a chronic condition: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3401&language=English">Living with a chronic condition: Helping your child manage their health</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3402&language=English">Living with a chronic condition: Maintaining your child's everyday routines</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3403&language=English">Living with a chronic condition: Supporting yourself as a caregiver</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Substance use disorder</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Substance use is the use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs for pleasure or enjoyment. Learn about the signs and symptoms of substance use and how you can help your teen if you suspect they have a substance use disorder.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3663&language=English">Substance use disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3664&language=English">Substance use disorder: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3665&language=English">Substance use disorder: How to help your teen at home</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Understanding somatization</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Somatization involves expressing distress through physical symptoms. Find out about the mind-body connection, signs of somatization and the various ways to support your child or teen.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3667&language=English">Mind-body connection</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3668&language=English">Somatization: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3669&language=English">Somatization: Common treatments</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3770&language=English">Somatization: How to help your child or teen cope</a></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Mental_health_landing-page.jpgmentalhealthhealthylivingMain
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and diabetesPolycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and diabetesPolycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and diabetesPEnglishEndocrinologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Pancreas;OvariesEndocrine system;Reproductive systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/polycystic_ovaries_syndrome_MED_ILL_EN.jpg2017-11-20T05:00:00ZCatherine Pastor, RN, MN, HonBScVanita Pais, RD, CDEAndrea Ens, MD, FRCPCJennifer Harrington, MBBS, PhD8.9000000000000056.3000000000000257.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>An overview of polycystic ovary syndrome and how it relates to type 2 diabetes.</p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=10&language=English">Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)</a> is a condition that can affect <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=sex-development">girls undergoing puberty</a>. Girls with PCOS suffer from hormone imbalance. Their ovaries tend to produce unusually high amounts of certain hormones called androgens.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Teenage girls and women with PCOS often have insulin resistance, which can lead to weight gain, a factor in the development of type 2 diabetes.</li> <li>In Canada, 12% of children and teens with type 2 diabetes also have PCOS.</li></ul><p>The ovaries are two small organs that belong to the female reproductive system and are located on either side of the belly. They contain eggs and release hormones.</p><p>Girls with PCOS may have enlarged ovaries because they contain many cysts (sacs filled with fluid). Teenage girls and women with PCOS often have insulin resistance, which typically causes the pancreas to produce more insulin than normal. Increased insulin can cause weight gain, which is a factor in the development of both PCOS and <a href="/Article?contentid=1721&language=English">type 2 diabetes</a>. The cause of PCOS is not well understood.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)<br></span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/polycystic_ovaries_syndrome_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Location of an ovary in relation to the uterus shown with a side by side close up comparison of a normal ovary versus a polycystic ovary typical seen with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The ovaries produce tiny fluid-filled sacs that contain eggs. These sacs are called follicles or cysts. In girls with PCOS, the follicles do not release the eggs properly and they grow into multiple small cysts.</figcaption> </figure> <p>In Canada, PCOS was found in 12% of children and youth diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.<br></p><p>For information on signs and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment, read our <a href="/Article?contentid=10&language=English">Health A-Z on PCOS​</a>.</p> ​​ PCOS and diabetes Insulin resistance often accompanies polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Learn more about how PCOS can lead to the development of type 2 diabetes.Main

 

 

Acne (acne vulgaris)Acne (acne vulgaris)Acne (acne vulgaris)AEnglishDermatologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)SkinSkinConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2015-01-14T05:00:00ZMiriam Weinstein, MD, FRCPC8.2000000000000058.50000000000001522.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Acne is the most common skin condition in teens. Discover the different types and causes and how they can be treated.<br></p><p>Acne, clinically known as acne vulgaris, is the most common skin disease. It affects 85% of teenagers, some as young as 12, and often continues into adulthood. It is also called "pimples," "zits" or "blemishes".</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disease in teenagers.</li><li>Acne occurs deep within the skin, and severity and outcomes vary from person to person.</li><li>Acne causes comedones (whiteheads and blackheads), papules, pustules or even nodules.</li><li>Picking, squeezing and popping can lead to scarring.</li><li>Acne is manageable with the appropriate treatment. Ask your doctor or your dermatologist about your options.<br></li></ul><h2>What causes acne?</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Anatomy of the skin</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_skin_anatomy_EN.jpg" alt="Identification of a hair, sebaceous gland, sweat gland and blood vessels in the skin" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Acne occurs when the sebaceous glands produce more oil, clogging different parts of skin tissue.</figcaption> </figure> <p>The skin is formed by many layers of tissue, containing hair, glands, muscles, sensory receptors and blood vessels. During puberty, a group of hormones are released called androgens. Androgens allow the sebaceous glands in the skin to produce an oily substance called sebum. Acne is in part caused by this increase in sebum that naturally occurs during puberty.<br></p><p>Normal amounts of sebum keep skin and hair from drying out. However, excess oil can mix with dead skin cells and clog hair follicles (the tiny tunnels that lead to the root of the hair) and pores (the opening in the skin where the hair passes through).</p><p>A common type of bacteria that lives on the skin, known as <em>Propionibacterium acnes</em>, sometimes contributes to acne by causing inflammation. The acne signals white blood cells to the area, which damage the tissue and cause an inflammatory response. This causes swelling and infection.</p><p>Acne leads to persistent redness and inflammation, especially on the face, scalp, back and chest, where the most sebum is produced.</p><p>Acne varies from mild to severe, depending on what kind of blemishes appear. The different types of acne include:<br></p><ul><li>comedones</li><li>papules</li><li>pustules</li><li>nodules</li></ul><p>Comedones are pores that are blocked with oil and dead skin cells. They can be open ("blackheads") or closed by the skin ("whiteheads").</p><p>A blackhead is generally level with the skin surface and cannot be removed by normal washing of the face.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Open comedo (blackhead)</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_acne_blackhead_EN.png" alt="Cross section of skin with an oxidized sebum, which appears black at the top, and a surface view of skin with blackheads" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The pore of a blackhead is open. When the sebum comes into contact with the air, oxygen exposure causes it to appear black.</figcaption></figure> <p>A whitehead is slightly raised from the skin, but there is no inflammation.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"><span class="asset-image-title">Closed comedo (whitehead)</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_acne_whitehead_EN.png" alt="Cross section of skin with a trapped sebum and clogged pore, and a surface view of skin with whiteheads" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">A whitehead is formed when pores are blocked with sebum and dead skin cells. The pore in a whitehead is not open at the top.</figcaption> </figure> <p>Papules are red, small, hard bumps that are slightly raised on the skin. In clusters, they can feel like sandpaper to the touch. White blood cells enter the follicle, causing inflammation.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Papule</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_acne_papule_EN.png" alt="Cross section of skin with inflammation and white blood cells around sebum, and surface view of skin with papules" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Papules are red, painful bumps caused by inflammation of the hair follicles.</figcaption></figure> <p>When the white blood cells in a papule make it to the surface of the skin, a pustule is formed. Pustules appear as red, inflamed circles with a central, raised bump that is yellowish or white. The bump is filled with pus. Pus is the result of inflammation and contains white blood cells, dead skin cells and bacteria.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Pustule</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_acne_pustule_EN.png" alt="Cross section of pus under the skin and white blood cells that have moved toward the surface, and surface view of pustules" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Pustules form a few days after the white blood cells in a papule make it to the surface of the skin. Pustules are typically called "pimples" or "zits".</figcaption></figure> <p>When a papule or pustule expands, it can cause more severe inflammation in the surrounding skin. This can lead to nodules, which are deep, red, round bumps that can have a diameter of 6 to 20 mm. They are sometimes referred to as cysts.</p><p>Nodules are formed by irritated, inflamed hair follicles that have ruptured deep under the skin. They can be throbbing and painful, even without touching.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Nodule</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_acne_nodule_EN.png" alt="Cross section of pus and inflammation under the skin with large swollen bump on skin surface, and surface view of nodule" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Nodules are often large, inflamed, red, swollen and painful to the touch.</figcaption></figure><h2>Psychological impact of acne</h2> <p>Acne can have a profound impact on a person's quality of life, particularly for teenagers. Reactions can range from minimal distress to more significant depression, anxiety and, less commonly, thoughts of suicide or self-harm. For these reasons, treating acne matters.</p> <h2>Treatment of acne</h2> <p>Treatment depends on the severity and type of acne. An effective treatment will help reduce future breakouts and improve the skin's appearance. Keep in mind that up to six weeks of treatment might be necessary to start noticing results.</p> <p>In most cases, your doctor or dermatologist will prescribe topical treatments (applied directly on the skin). Sometimes the doctor may prescribe an oral treatment (taken by mouth).</p> <h3>Cleansing skin</h3> <p>Acne is a process deep within the skin. Washing your face regularly helps remove dead skin cells and excess oil, but does not play a significant role in the prevention or management of acne.</p> <p>If you have acne, avoid scrubbing your face when washing, because this may worsen inflammation and irritation. Instead, gently wash your face with warm water. You may also use a mild cleansing product if you want.</p> <h3>Topical retinoids</h3> <p>Topical retinoids unplug comedones and improve the process of shedding the old cells. They may also help reduce any inflammation.</p> <p>Some side effects may occur when using a topical retinoid. These include mild irritation, redness (erythema), dryness, peeling and sensitivity to sun. If you are pregnant, or thinking about having a baby, talk to your doctor or dermatologist before using a topical retinoid, as they should not be used during pregnancy.</p> <p>Avoid skin damage, such as waxing or exfoliation (e.g., facials) when taking retinoids.</p> <p>Common topical retinoids are available in cream and gel form. There are benefits to both creams and gels, depending on the severity of acne and the sensitivity of your skin. Retinoids are also available in many strengths and formulations. Therefore, there is no one better option; your doctor will recommend a retinoid most appropriate for you.</p> <h3>Topical antimicrobials</h3> <p>Topical antimicrobials are used to kill bacteria that contribute to inflammation. They also help fight inflammation directly. One option is benzoyl peroxide, which is available over the counter. When benzoyl peroxide touches the skin, oxygen is created. <em>P. acnes</em> cannot survive in the presence of oxygen.</p> <p>Use caution when applying benzoyl peroxide because it is a potent bleaching agent that can damage fabrics. The pharmacist can answer any questions you might have.</p> <h3>Oral antibiotics</h3> <p>An oral antibiotic (taken by mouth) is sometimes used to treat more significant acne, especially in cases where the acne has spread to the back and chest. Such as topical treatments, oral antibiotics reduce inflammation.</p> <p>Antibiotics can also stop <em>P. acnes</em> from multiplying. However, the use of antibiotics should be limited because bacteria can develop a resistance to them.</p> <h3>Combined treatment</h3> <p>A combined treatment can be an effective means of treating acne. In this case, a topical retinoid and an antimicrobial cream or gel can be used together. Sometimes they are combined into one product, while other times they are used separately. For example, a topical antimicrobial may be applied in the morning and a topical retinoid may be used at night.</p> <p>Oral medications are also used in combination with a topical treatment. Most people taking a pill benefit from a topical cream or gel.</p> <p>Your doctor or dermatologist will advise you on how and when to use a combined treatment for acne.</p> <h3>Oral isotretinoin</h3> <p>Isotretinoin (known as Accutane in North America; Clarus and Epuris in Canada; and Roaccutane in Europe) is a chemical compound related to vitamin A. In most cases, isotretinoin is used to treat severe nodular and scarring acne because:</p> <ul> <li>it reduces sebum secretion</li> <li>it prevents the formation of comedones</li> <li>it acts as an anti-inflammatory</li> <li>it stops <em>P. acnes</em> from generating in hair follicles and sebaceous glands</li> </ul> <p>However, this type of acne treatment must be closely monitored because isotretinoin has a number of side effects. More common side effects include dry skin, lips, nose and eyes. All side effects will begin to disappear when treatment stops.</p> <p>However, there are more severe side effects. For example, isotretinoin can interfere with the development of a fetus. If you are pregnant or thinking about having a baby, talk to your doctor or dermatologist about the side effects of isotretinoin. There are also concerns about depression, inflammatory bowel disease and impact on liver.</p> <h3>Hormonal therapy</h3> <p>Treating acne with female hormones is an effective treatment option for some female patients. This means taking an oral contraceptive (the birth control pill). This type of treatment limits sebum secretion by reducing androgen levels. Other topical and oral treatments can be used along with oral hormonal therapy.</p> <p>Treating acne using hormones is not for everybody. For more information, talk to your doctor or dermatologist.</p><h2>Scar prevention</h2> <p>If left untreated, some acne can cause scarring. It is not always easy to predict which acne will cause scarring; it is a complex problem.</p> <p>Handle acne with care. Manipulating, squeezing and popping increases the likelihood of scarring. The best way to prevent scarring is to actively treat the acne. Treatment is not only for those who have severe acne; no matter how little or how much acne you might have, you can seek treatment for your skin.</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/acne_vulgaris.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/acne_vulgaris.jpg Discover the different types and causes of acne and how they can be treated.Main
Peanut allergyPeanut allergyPeanut allergyPEnglishAllergyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-12-18T05:00:00ZVy Kim, MD, FRCPC;Anna Kasprzak, RN​9.2000000000000057.7000000000000885.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>A peanut allergy is a life-long reaction to the proteins in found peanuts. Find out how to help your child manage it.<br></p><h2>What is a peanut allergy?</h2><p>A peanut allergy occurs when the body reacts to the proteins in peanuts. This allergy is treated separately from other <a href="/Article?contentid=812&language=English">nut allergies</a>. While other nuts grow on trees, peanuts (like beans, peas and lentils) belong to the legume family and grow underground.<br></p> ​ <h2>If my child has an allergy to peanuts, must they avoid all other nuts?</h2><p>People who are allergic to peanuts might not have an allergy to tree nuts. However, a person can be allergic to both.</p><h2>How serious is a peanut allergy?</h2><p>A peanut allergy carries the risk of <a href="/Article?contentid=781&language=English">anaphylaxis</a>, a severe and life threatening allergic reaction.</p><p>Some children are so sensitive to peanuts that inhaling a small amount of peanut protein (for example a tiny amount of shelled peanut in the air) can trigger a reaction. However, a person with a peanut allergy will not develop symptoms when exposed to the smell of peanuts, for example in peanut butter. The smell may trigger a response in a child with a peanut allergy because of their fear of peanuts, but this is not the same as physical allergic symptoms.</p><h2>Will my child always have a peanut allergy?</h2><p>Yes, a peanut allergy can be severe and life-long.</p><h2>Other names for peanuts</h2> <p>Peanuts can have different names in ingredient lists. Learning these names can help you catch any hidden sources of peanuts in food.</p> <p>When buying packaged foods, always check the list of ingredients in the store and again when you bring the product home. It is also a good idea to check the ingredients every time you buy the food in case the recipe has changed. You can also call the manufacturer to ask about any recipe changes.</p> <p>The following table lists some names for peanuts. Use it when you are grocery shopping or calling food manufacturers.</p> <table class="akh-table"> <tbody> <tr> <td>Arachis oil</td> <td>Beer nuts</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Cacahouette</td> <td>Goober nuts, goober peas (boiled peanuts)</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Ground nuts​</td> <td> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>A peanut allergy can be life long and carries the risk of anaphylaxis, a severe and sometimes life-threatening allergic reaction. </li> <li>Peanuts are treated as a separate allergen from tree nuts because they are part of the legume family.</li> <li>Many different products contain peanuts, including baked goods, curries, egg rolls, cereals, chocolate, sauces and hydrolyzed plant or vegetable protein.</li> <li>To prevent an allergic reaction, always read food product labels, avoid foods if you are not sure of the ingredients and avoid using utensils or containers that might have come in contact with peanuts.</li> <li>If your child's diet is limited because of a peanut, a registered dietitian can offer advice on getting a balanced diet.</li> </ul><h2>Possible sources of peanuts</h2> <p>Peanuts are used in a range of dishes, packaged food and snacks. Below is a list of some of the many food products that contain peanuts.</p> <table class="akh-table"> <tbody> <tr> <td>African, Chinese, Indonesian, Mexican, Thai and Vietnamese dishes, for example curries, chilies, egg rolls or satays</td> <td>Artificial nuts (peanuts that have been altered to look and taste like almonds, pecans and walnuts), such as mandelona or Nu-Nuts​</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Baked goods and baking mixes</td> <td>Cereals and muesli</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Chocolate and other snack foods</td> <td>Desserts</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Fried foods</td> <td>Hydrolyzed plant protein/vegetable protein (source may be peanut)</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Nut meats, nut butter</td> <td>Peanut oil</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Soup, sauces and gravy</td> <td> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table><h2>Reducing the risk of cross-contamination</h2> <p>Cross-contamination occurs when a harmless substance comes in contact with a harmful substance, for example a potential allergen or harmful bacteria. If the substances mix together, the harmful substance taints the other substance, making it unsafe to eat.</p> <p>Food allergens can contaminate other foods when, for example, the same containers, utensils or frying pans hold a range of foods.</p> <p>Bulk food containers pose a high risk of cross-contamination because they are often used for different products.</p> <p>Be sure to avoid using utensils or containers that may have come in contact with allergy-causing foods and ask about possible cross-contamination when eating out.</p> <h2>How can my child get the right mix of nutrients if they must avoid peanuts?</h2> <p>The main nutrients in peanuts include protein, omega-3 fats, fibre, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, folate and vitamin E. Your child can still get these nutrients even if they must avoid peanuts.</p> <h3>Nutrients in peanuts that are found in other foods</h3> <table class="akh-table"> <thead> <tr><th>Nut​rie​nt</th><th>Where to find it</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td>Protein</td> <td>Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, cheese, milk, beans, soy</td> </tr> <tr> <td>​Omega 3</td> <td>Salmon, tuna, mackerel, flaxseed oil, walnuts, edamame (soy beans), radish seeds, omega-3 eggs fortified with DHA</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Fibre</td> <td>Vegetables, fruit, whole grains</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Magnesium</td> <td>Wheat germ, peas, pumpkin, squash or sesame seeds</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Phosphorus​</td> <td>Wheat germ, rice bran, wheat bran, cheese, beans, sardines, tempeh</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Potassium​</td> <td>Bananas, papaya, sweet potato, leafy green vegetables, milk, yogurt, beans (navy, pinto, black), lentils, chickpeas, beef, pork, fish</td> </tr> <tr> <td>​Folate</td> <td>Leafy green vegetables, beans (navy, pinto, kidney, garbanzo), lentils</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Vitamin E​</td> <td>Spinach, red pepper, Swiss chard, wheat germ cereal, egg, sunflower seeds</td> </tr> </tbody> </table><h2>When to see a dietitian for a peanut allergy</h2> <p>If you have removed many foods from your child's diet because of a peanut or tree nut allergy, it may be a good idea to speak to a registered dietitian. The dietitian can review the foods your child still eats to decide if they are getting enough nutrients. If necessary, they can also recommend alternative foods that your child can eat safely.</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/peanut_allergy.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/peanut_allergy.jpgPeanut allergyMain
Strep throatStrep throatStrep throatSEnglishInfectious DiseasesPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years)Mouth;Trachea;EsophagusMouth;Esophagus;TracheaConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Fever;Sore throat2014-08-14T04:00:00ZShawna Silver, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, PEng7.4000000000000066.5000000000000988.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Strep throat is a throat infection caused by a type of bacteria called streptococci. Learn how you can take care of your child.</p><br><h2>What is strep throat?</h2><p>Strep throat is a throat infection caused by a type of bacteria called streptococcus. </p><p>Strep throat is more common in children four to eight years old and is rare in children younger than two years of age. </p><p>The most common cause of strep throat is Group A beta-haemolytic streptococcus (GABS). This bacteria can also cause complications in other parts of the body.​</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>The main symptoms of strep throat are fever and sore throat.</li> <li>If you suspect that your child might have strep throat, see a doctor for a throat swab.</li> <li>Make sure your child finishes any antibiotics they are prescribed to prevent relapse and complications.</li> <li>Use soft foods, cold drinks and pain medications, if needed, to reduce any pain.</li> <li>Make sure that any other family members or close contacts with similar symptoms see their healthcare provider.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of strep throat</h2> <p>The symptoms for strep throat are similar to symptoms for a sore throat caused by a virus or other illnesses. The most common symptoms are:</p> <ul> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English" style="line-height:18px;background-color:initial;">fever</a></li> <li><a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=748&language=English">sore throat</a></li> <li>loss of interest in eating or drinking because of pain</li> <li>difficulty swallowing</li> <li><a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=748&language=English">enlarged red tonsils</a>, sometimes covered with white-yellow coating.</li> </ul> <p>Some children may have other symptoms such as <a href="/Article?contentid=29&language=English">headache</a>, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and muscle pain.<br></p><h2>Reduce the spread of the infection</h2> <p>Strep throat can spread easily to family members and your child's classmates. Any child or adult who lives in your home and has the same symptoms in the five days after your child is diagnosed should have a throat swab.</p> <p>Your child's infection is no longer contagious after your child has been on antibiotics for 24 hours. This means that your child can return to school after one day if they are feeling better.</p> <h3>Other tips to prevent the spread of infection</h3> <ul> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=1981&language=English">Wash hands</a> with warm soapy water or alcohol-based hand rub often.</li> <li>Do not let your child share drinking glasses or eating utensils with friends or classmates.</li> <li>Be sure to wash your child's glasses and utensils in hot soapy water or a dishwasher.</li> <li>Have your child sneeze into their elbow or cover their mouth and nose when coughing.</li> <li>Avoid kissing and having close facial contact with your child until they are better.</li> </ul> <h2>How is strep throat diagnosed?</h2> <p>To find out the cause of your child's sore throat, the doctor will take a throat swab. This involves wiping a thin cotton bud along the side and back of your child's throat. The swab is then sent to a lab to be tested for GABS bacteria. Your doctor will normally receive the results within a day or two.</p> <p>Some clinics may use a rapid test (which gives results within minutes) to identify strep. Rapid tests are only useful if they show that your child has the streptococcus bacteria (known as a positive result). A negative rapid test result does not always mean that your child does not have strep throat. The result should always be checked by taking a throat swab.</p> <p>A throat swab is very important for diagnosis as strep throat looks similar to <a href="/Article?contentid=748&language=English">viral pharyngitis</a>, which cannot be treated with antibiotics.</p> <h2>How is strep throat treated?</h2> <p>If the throat swab is positive for GABS, the doctor will prescribe oral antibiotics (antibiotics to be taken by mouth) for your child. Strep throat can sometimes get better without medication, but a GABS infection can cause complications if it is not treated.</p> <h2>Complications of strep throat</h2> <h3>Throat abscess</h3> <p>A throat abscess (a collection of pus in the throat tissues) can develop from strep throat. The symptoms include high fever, muffled voice, difficulty opening the mouth, increased salivation and drooling and neck swelling. See a doctor if these symptoms occur.</p> <h3>Rheumatic fever</h3> <p>Although rare, rheumatic fever can also develop as a complication of strep throat. The condition can involve the skin, joints, heart and brain. Treating the strep throat with antibiotics almost always prevents rheumatic fever.</p> <h3>Other complications</h3> <p> These can include joint inflammation (arthritis) and kidney inflammation. GABS is also the bacteria responsible for <a href="/Article?contentid=751&language=English">scarlet fever</a>.</p> <h2>Taking care of your child at home</h2> <h3>Manage the fever and pain</h3> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=62&language=English">Acetaminophen</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=153&language=English">ibuprofen</a> can be used to treat fever or pain. <a href="/Article?contentid=77&language=English">ASA (acetylsalicylic acid)</a> should not be given to children.</p> <h3>Complete the antibiotics</h3> <p>The fever and the throat pain usually improve about three days after your child starts taking antibiotics. However, even if your child seems to be better, it is very important to complete the entire course of antibiotics. This will make sure the infection does not return and will also prevent complications and antibiotic resistance.</p> <h3>Offer your child soft foods and a liquid diet</h3> <p>Eating and drinking may be painful for a child with strep throat. Here are some tips to make it easier for them.</p> <ul> <li>If your child is having trouble swallowing, give soft foods that are easy to swallow, such as soups, ice cream, pudding or yogurt.</li> <li>Give plenty of liquids. Sipping with a straw or sippy cup may help.</li> <li>If your child is more than 12 months old, try giving one or two teaspoons (5 to 10 mL) of pasteurized honey to soothe the throat and ease the cough.</li> <li>Let an older child try gargling with warm salt water to soothe their throat.</li> </ul> <p>Ice cubes and lozenges may provide some relief for older children or teens. Do not give them to younger children, however, because they are a choking hazard.</p><h2>When to get medical attention</h2> <p>Call your child's regular doctor if:</p> <ul> <li>the fever does not go away within three days of starting antibiotics</li> <li>your child develops a fever, a rash, joint swelling, blood in the urine or shortness of breath.<br></li> </ul> <p>Go to the nearest Emergency Department or call 911 if your child:<br></p> <ul> <li>is unable to drink or eat and is becoming dehydrated</li> <li>has trouble breathing.<br></li> </ul> <img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/strep_throat.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />strepthroatstrepthroathttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/strep_throat.jpgStrep throatMain
Acute pain: How to assess in infants and toddlersAcute pain: How to assess in infants and toddlersAcute pain: How to assess in infants and toddlersAEnglishPain/AnaesthesiaNewborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months)NANervous systemSymptomsAdult (19+) CaregiversPain2019-01-25T05:00:00ZRebecca Pillai Riddell, PhD, CPsych10.500000000000042.50000000000001136.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Find out how your infant's or toddler's acute pain is assessed at home and in medical settings.<br></p><h2>What causes acute pain in infants and toddlers?</h2><p>In infants and toddlers, common causes of acute pain include:</p><ul><li>teething</li><li>a bump or fall</li><li>ear infections</li><li>vaccinations by needle</li><li>heel lances to obtain a blood sample</li><li>procedures such as inserting a catheter (thin tube) or doing a lumbar puncture.</li></ul><p>​As a rule, anything that causes pain in older children or adults (such as inserting a needle or catheter) will also cause pain in your infant or toddler. So if your young child is having a procedure that you would find painful, they are likely experiencing at least as much pain as you would experience.</p><p>Indeed, certain procedures may be more painful for young children because their brains cannot yet help them cope with pain, for example by using distraction. Never discount your young child's pain-related distress even if they have an injury or procedure that you would not find painful.<br></p><h2>​Key points</h2><ul><li>In infants and toddlers, common causes of acute pain include teething, bumps or falls and vaccinations by needle.</li><li>Signs of acute pain in this age group include irritability, whimpering, sudden changes to facial expression and flailing of arms or legs.<br></li><li>In medical settings, health-care providers assess pain by using standard tools and checking your baby's heart and breathing rate and their oxygen levels.</li><li>Always feel free to share your own opinion and any concerns about your child's pain with the health-care team.</li></ul><h2>Assessing acute pain at home </h2><p>Because your young child cannot speak yet, you can only tell how much pain they are experiencing through the painful situation and their behaviour. In this case, the context means thinking about whether the procedure would be painful for an older child or could be painful for a young child even if not painful for someone older. Based on this information, you would then watch for any changes in your child's behaviour.</p><p>Behavioural signs of acute pain include:<br></p><ul><li>irritability</li><li>sharp changes in facial expressions (for example grimacing with eyes shut and brow bulging)</li><li>crying or whimpering</li><li>flailing or thrashing arms or legs</li><li>changes in their feeding, playing, sleeping routines</li><li>rigidness or limpness</li><li>changes in breathing</li><li>changes in how they interact with people and things around them. <br></li></ul><h2>Assessing acute pain in medical settings</h2><p>In the hospital, your child's health-care team uses a range of tools determine how much pain an infant is feeling. </p><p>In the NICU setting, one of the most common tools for assessing pain in infants is the <a href="https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-premature-infant-pain-profile-revised-%28PIPP-R%29:-Stevens-Gibbins/76e49d44432665d7dffd5a9a7a2fdd55466f7f32/figure/0" target="_blank">Premature Infant Pain Profile-Revised (PIPP-R)</a>. This tool rates many of the behaviours that a child might display at home as well as physiological signs (signs inside the body), such as your infant's:</p><ul><li>heart rate<br></li><li>oxygen saturation (how much oxygen is in their blood)<br></li><li>breathing rate.</li></ul><p>For older infants and children aged up to two, health-care providers usually use the <a href="http://www.olchc.ie/Healthcare-Professionals/Nursing-Practice-Guidelines/Pain-FLACC-Behavioural-Pain-Assessment-Scale-2015.pdf" target="_blank">Faces, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability (FLACC) scale</a>. This tool looks at several of the behaviours described above.<br></p><p><span aria-hidden="true"></span>In medical settings, your child's health-care team plays an important role in clarifying the level and cause of pain, but feel free to share your opinions and concerns about your infant's pain with them. <br></p><h2>Websites</h2><p>Comforting Your Baby in Intensive Care<br> <a href="http://familynursing.ucsf.edu/comforting-your-baby-intensive-care" target="_blank">http://familynursing.ucsf.edu/comforting-your-baby-intensive-care</a></p><h2>Videos</h2><p><a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9OgCQKOnn-I" target="_blank">Bringin' up Baby: Soothing the Pain</a> (3 mins 50 secs)<br>Psychological and physical strategies for parents to reduce vaccination pain in healthy infants</p><p><a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Oqa1Fag5eQ" target="_blank">Reduce the pain of vaccination in babies</a> (13 mins 08 secs)<br> Tips for parents on helping healthy infants get through vaccinations</p><p><a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-Y49FOGtmwo" target="_blank">Easing your baby's pain: A mother's story</a> (3 mins 07 secs)<br> Three ways to instantly reduce your infant's pain in the NICU</p><p><a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3nqN9c3FWn8" target="_blank">The Power of a Parent's Touch</a> (2 mins 40 secs)<br> How breastfeeding and skin-to-skin contact can help when an infant is experiencing a painful procedure</p><p>Content developed by Rebecca Pillai Riddell, PhD, CPsych, OUCH Lab, York University, Toronto, in collaboration with:<br>Lorraine Bird, MScN, CNS, Fiona Campbell, BSc, MD, FRCA, Bonnie Stevens, RN, PhD, FAAN, FCAHS, Anna Taddio, BScPhm, PhD<br> Hospital for Sick Children</p> <h3>References</h3><p>Anand, K.J.S. (2012). Assessment of neonatal pain. In J. A. Garcia-Prats & M. S. Kim (Eds.), UpToDate. UpToDate: Waltham, MA.</p><p>International Association for the Study of Pain (2010) Fact Sheet on Mechanisms of Acute Pain.  <a href="https://s3.amazonaws.com/rdcms-iasp/files/production/public/Content/ContentFolders/GlobalYearAgainstPain2/AcutePainFactSheets/3-Mechanisms.pdf" target="_blank">https://s3.amazonaws.com/rdcms-iasp/files/production/public/Content/ContentFolders/GlobalYearAgainstPain2/AcutePainFactSheets/3-Mechanisms.pdf</a> [Accessed March 29, 2018]</p><p>Mathew, P.J., & Mathew, J.L. (2003). Assessment and management of pain in infants. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 79(934), 438-443.</p><p>McGrath, P.J. (1985). CHEOPS: a behavioral scale for rating postoperative pain in children. Adv Pain Res Ther, 9, 395.</p><p>Merkel, S., Voepel-Lewis, T., & Malviya, S. (2002). Pain Assessment in Infants and Young Children: The FLACC Scale: A behavioral tool to measure pain in young children. AJN The American Journal of Nursing, 102(10), 55-58.</p><p>Ohlsson, A., & Shah, P.S. (2015). Paracetamol (acetaminophen) for prevention or treatment of pain in newborns. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 6(6).</p><p>Pillai Riddell, R., Lisi, D., Campbell, L. (2013).  Pain Assessment in Neonates. In Encyclopedia of Pain, 2<sup>nd</sup> edition.</p><p>Pillai Riddell, R.R, Racine, N.M., Gennis H.G., Turcotte, K., Uman, L.S., Horton, R.E., Ahola Kohut, S., Hillgrove Stuart, J., Stevens, B., & Lisi, D.M. (2015). Non-pharmacological management of infant and young child procedural pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD006275</p><p>Pillai Riddell, R., O'Neill, M., Campbell, L., Taddio, A., Greenberg, S., Garfield, H. (2018). The ABCDs of Pain Management: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial for a Brief Educational Video for Parents of Young Children undergoing Vaccination. <em>Journal of Pediatric Psychology.</em> Volume 43, Issue 3, 1 April 2018, Pages 224-233, <a href="https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsx122" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsx122</a></p><p>Pillai Riddell, R.R., Racine, N.M., Gennis, H.G., Turcotte, K., Uman, L.S., Horton, R.E., ... & Lisi, D.M. (2015). Non‐pharmacological management of infant and young child procedural pain. The Cochrane Library.</p><p>Stevens, B., Yamada, J., Campbell-Yeo, M. Gibbins, S., Harrison D., Dionne, K., Taddio, A., McNar C Willan, A., Ballantyne, M., Widger, K., Sidani, S., Estabrooks, C., Synnes, A., Squires J., Victor, C., and Riahi, S. (2018). 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(2015). Reducing pain during vaccine injections: clinical practice guideline. <em>Canadian Medical Association Journal</em>, <em>187</em>(13), 975-982.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/ear_infections_sore_throat_babies.jpgAcute pain: Infants and toddlers Find out how acute pain is identified and assessed, at home and in medical settings, in children not old enough to speak.Main

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