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Holiday safetyHoliday safetyHoliday safetyHEnglishPreventionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2018-11-12T05:00:00ZElly Berger, BA, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, MHPE7.0000000000000069.00000000000001089.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>The holiday season is a great time for children, but it can also lead to injuries. Read these simple tips to keep kids safe during the holidays.</p><p>The holiday season is a great time for children. But unfamiliar items, distractions and changes in routine can lead to injuries. Here are some simple steps to keep children safe during the holidays.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>At holiday parties and events make sure there is someone designated to supervise the children. Consider hiring a babysitter for the evening.</li> <li>Show guests where to dispose of items that may be dangerous to small children such as toothpicks, cigarette butts and beverage cans.</li> <li>Keep holly and mistletoe out of reach of children because they are poisonous. In addition, poinsettia plants can cause skin irritation and stomach upset.</li> <li>Buy toys that are labelled for the correct age range. Age recommendations on toys are about safety, not the ability of the child.</li> </ul><h2>Safe celebrations</h2><h3>Keep an eye on the kids</h3><p>If you are planning on having, or attending, a party with your children this holiday season, make sure that a designated adult is supervising the children during the festivities. Different adults that you trust might want to take turns supervising the children over the course of the evening.</p><p>If you are hosting a party at your home, consider hiring a trained babysitter or designating a family member to look after the children. This will allow everyone time to enjoy the party. Remember, if you assume that everyone at the party is watching your children, you might end up with no one watching them.</p><h3>Clean as you go</h3><p>Some holiday party items might pose a risk or choking hazard to small children. Show guests where to safely dispose of items such as beer cans, cigarette butts and toothpicks used for hors d’oeuvres. This will reduce the risk of children putting these items in their mouths.</p><p>Keep visitors' purses and coats in a designated area, out of reach of young children. Visitors' coats may contain items such as medicines and lighters that could harm a child.</p><h2>Fireside safety</h2><p>To avoid chimney fires, it is important to have your fireplace and chimney cleaned and inspected every year by a certified professional.</p><h2>Safe decorating</h2><p>When decorating the house and the Christmas tree, use these tips to prevent fire and injury.</p><h3>Tree safety</h3><p>When purchasing an artificial tree, look for one that is fire resistant. When purchasing a cut tree, look for one that is freshly cut. To tell if a tree is freshly cut, follow this simple checklist.</p><ul><li>Needles do not break when you bend them between your fingers.</li><li>Needles do not fall off the tree easily.</li><li>The tree stump is sticky with resin.</li></ul><p>If you buy a cut Christmas tree, make sure to maintain it properly over the holidays.</p><ul><li>Keep the tree away from heat sources such as radiators, televisions, fireplaces, heating ducts and sunny windows. This will reduce the risk of the tree catching fire.</li><li>Dry Christmas trees pose a fire hazard – make sure to keep the tree stump in water at all times to reduce the risk.</li><li>Even with frequent watering, trees dry out over time. When the holidays are over, remove the Christmas tree as soon as possible.</li></ul><p>Always choose a sturdy base for your Christmas tree. A weighted, wide-spread base will provide better support and prevent the tree from being tipped over by a small child.</p><h3>Light and electrical safety</h3><ul><li>Use Canadian Standards Association (CSA) approved light sets only. It may be tempting to buy cheaper lights, but these may pose a greater fire risk.</li><li>Use the right lights in the right place. Indoor lights are not weatherproofed for the outdoors. Outdoor lights may burn too hot for the indoors. LED lights generate almost no heat, and are the safest option.</li><li>Check all lights, bulbs, sockets and extension cords every year. Make sure nothing is frayed, cracked or broken.</li><li>Never hang electric lights on metallic trees. Build-up of electricity could shock people who touch them, or short out the lights and cause an electrical fire.</li><li>Be careful not to overload electrical cords and outlets; never have more than 1,400 watts on one circuit.</li><li>Do not coil or bunch electrical cords; this can cause them to heat up and pose a fire hazard. Running cords under carpets or rugs may also pose a fire hazard.</li><li>Turn off tree lights when you go to bed or leave the house.</li></ul><h3>Decoration safety</h3><p>Young children are naturally curious, and the draw of a decorated Christmas tree might be too much for them to resist. This is why it is important to choose your holiday decorations wisely.</p><p>If you choose to use decorations that are small, breakable or sharp, make sure to hang these near the top of the tree, out of reach of children. Use only soft, unbreakable ornaments near the base of the tree.</p><h3>Plant safety</h3><p>Holly and mistletoe are poisonous; it is important to keep these items out of reach of children. If your child has eaten berries from these plants, call your local poison information centre.</p><p>Poinsettia plants are not poisonous, but they can still cause skin irritation and stomach upset if eaten.</p><h3>Candle safety</h3><p>If you have small children, use battery-operated candles where possible. This will help to avoid the potential for burns.</p><p>If you decide to use flame-burning candles, make sure that they are out of reach of children, and that candle holders have a sturdy base. Never leave burning candles unattended, and be sure to keep them away from curtains and other flammable objects. Do not use lit candles on Christmas trees.</p><h2>Toy safety</h2><p>Keep these tips in mind when buying toys for your children. Make sure that gifts from friends and family are also safe.</p><ul><li>Always buy toys that are labelled for the correct age range, even if your child is advanced for their age. Age recommendations on toys are about safety, not the ability of a child to master the toy or game. Toys for children under three should be bigger than the child's fist to avoid the risk of choking.</li><li>Inspect toys before giving them to your child. Make sure they are in good condition and that they do not have parts that could break off and be swallowed.</li><li>Avoid toys with long strings or cords for babies and toddlers, as they may pose a risk of strangulation.</li><li>Old batteries can leak and cause corrosive burns, and if swallowed, batteries can cause internal chemical burns or poisoning. If you give your child battery-operated toys, make sure that the batteries are in good condition, and secure inside the toy.</li><li>Magnets can cause serious injury or death if children swallow them. Do not give toys with magnets to small children.</li></ul><h2>Travel safety</h2><p>Over the holidays, many drivers spend more time than usual on the road, running errands, and going to holiday events. This can lead to extra frustration and exhaustion while driving. It is important to drive with caution during the holiday season. Give yourself extra time when heading to holiday events to avoid the desire to rush while on the roads.</p><p>If your holiday plans include a flight out of town, remember to pack appropriate <a href="/Article?contentid=495&language=English">car seats or booster seats</a> for younger children.</p><h2>Sources</h2><p>Tips for holiday safety. <em>Government of Canada</em>. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/home-safety/tips-holiday-safety.html?_ga=1.68067601.1644699692">https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/home-safety/tips-holiday-safety.html?_ga=1.68067601.1644699692</a>. </p><p>Holiday Fire Safety. <em>Ontario Association of Fire Chiefs</em>. Retrieved from <a href="http://www.oafc.on.ca/holiday-fire-safety">http://www.oafc.on.ca/holiday-fire-safety</a>. </p><p>Winter holidays: Tips for parents on holiday safety. <em>Parachute Canada</em>. Retrieved from <a href="http://www.parachutecanada.org/injury-topics/item/winter-holidays">http://www.parachutecanada.org/injury-topics/item/winter-holidays</a>. </p><p>Home Fire Safety Checklist. <em>United States Fire Administration</em>. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.usfa.fema.gov/downloads/pdf/home_safety_checklist.pdf">https://www.usfa.fema.gov/downloads/pdf/home_safety_checklist.pdf</a>.</p><p>Holiday, candle and Christmas tree fire safety outreach materials. <em>United States Fire Administration</em>. Retrieved from <a href="http://www.usfa.fema.gov/prevention/outreach/holiday.html">http://www.usfa.fema.gov/prevention/outreach/holiday.html</a>.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/holiday_safety.jpg The holiday season is officially here! Check out these simple holiday safety tips to keep the entire family safe while you celebrate.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)REnglishRespiratoryChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Trachea;LungsTrachea;LungsConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Cough;Fever;Runny nose2013-10-29T04:00:00ZAndrea Riekstins, RN, MN, APN;Arlene Chaves, RN, MN, APN;Allan Coates, MD, CM;Brenda O'Doherty, RN;Krista Keilty-Lau, MN, APN;Marilyn Cranis, RN;Theo J Moraes, MD, PhD, FRCPC8.0000000000000062.00000000000001097.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>RSV is a virus that infects the lungs and airways, causing flu like symptoms. Learn how you can help prevent your child from getting RSV.</p><h2>What is respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)?</h2><p>Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects the lungs and airways. It causes colds and is the most common cause of <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=765&language=English">bronchiolitis</a> in young infants and toddlers. Most children will have an RSV infection by the age of two. Children are more likely to catch it during the RSV season, from November to April, when the virus is most active. Most children will have a mild infection and not require any medical attention.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Respiratory system</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Respiratory_system_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Location of the lungs, trachea, bronchus, bronchioles and diaphragm in a boy, with close-up on bronchioles and alveoli" /> </figure><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a virus. It is very common and causes mild symptoms in most infants and children. It can cause serious lung infections in some babies and children.</li><li>You can help prevent spreading the virus by regularly washing your hands, avoiding close contact with your baby if you are unwell, keeping your baby away from sick people.</li><li>If your baby is at high risk for serious lung infections, your baby will need treatment once a month during RSV season (November to April).</li><li>You can help by reminding your health-care provider that your baby needs the medicine. Use the tables to help you keep track.<br></li></ul><h2>Signs and symptoms caused by respiratory syncytial virus</h2><p>A baby or child with this infection may:</p><ul><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=774&language=English">cough</a></li><li>have a runny nose</li><li>have a <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a></li><li>sometimes wheeze</li></ul><p>Because these are common symptoms, it is easy to mistake RSV for the flu or another virus.</p><p>In most cases, you can take care of your child with RSV at home as long as they are breathing comfortably, their skin does not look blue and they are drinking and peeing as usual. The infection usually last a few days.</p><p>In healthy adults, RSV is often not serious. But adults can pass the virus to children.</p><h2>Respiratory syncytial virus can be serious</h2><p>Some babies and children can develop a severe form of RSV. This may be <a href="/Article?contentid=784&language=English">pneumonia</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=765&language=English">bronchiolitis</a>. These illnesses can be serious. Your child may need to visit your family doctor or paediatrician, or go to the emergency department.</p><h3>Your baby or child may have a higher risk of getting very ill from RSV if:</h3><ul><li>your baby was born prematurely (before 33 weeks of pregnancy) and is less than six months old when the RSV season starts in November.</li><li>your child is less than two years old and has certain lung conditions, congenital heart disease, <a href="/Article?contentid=9&language=English">Down syndrome</a> or has problems with their immune system. Your child's doctor will speak to you about this.</li><li>your child has other specific medical problems that your doctor will talk to you about.</li></ul><h2>Respiratory syncytial virus can be spread by touching:</h2><ul><li>mucus from the nose or mouth of a person who has the virus</li><li>soiled tissues, surfaces, clothes and toys a person with the virus has touched</li><li>the unwashed hands of a person with the virus</li></ul><p>RSV can live on countertops and other hard objects for more than six hours. It can live on clothes and hands for up to one hour. After someone is exposed to RSV, it can take two to eight days before they become sick from the virus.</p><h2>Treatment of respiratory syncytial virus</h2><p>When a child is fighting RSV, treatment is mainly to relieve the symptoms. Antibiotics have no effect on viruses. They will not help your child get better faster.</p><h2>Babies at high risk need medicine during respiratory syncytial virus season</h2><p>No medicine can stop your baby from catching RSV and getting RSV once does not prevent infection. The average person may have an RSV infection multiple times during their lifetime.</p><p>There is no vaccine available for the general public yet. But there is one medicine that can help prevent RSV from becoming very serious and it is recommended for babies at high risk of serious RSV infection. Your health-care provider will decide if your child needs this medicine. The name of the medicine is <a href="/Article?contentid=208&language=English">palivizumab</a>. This treatment is sometimes called RSV prophylaxis (say: pro-full-AX-iss), which means prevention.</p><p>Palivizumab is given by a needle (injection) into a muscle. It does not interfere with normal childhood immunizations. This medicine works by giving your baby <a href="/Article?contentid=926&language=English">antibodies</a> that help fight an RSV infection. These antibodies help reduce the chances that an RSV infection will become severe.</p><p>A palivizumab dose works for about 30 days. This means that your child needs a dose of the medicine every month during RSV season. If you delay or skip the next appointment, the medicine stops working. Your child will no longer be protected against the virus.</p><h3>Reactions are rare</h3><p>The most common side effects of palivizumab are fever, rash or redness at the injection site. Serious allergic reactions are very rare. Ask your baby's doctor or nurse for the most recent information.</p><h3>Remind your baby's doctor or nurse if your baby needs medicine to prevent RSV</h3><p>Your baby can take the medicine in the hospital, the doctor's office or an RSV clinic. A doctor or a nurse can give it.</p><h3>To help your baby get the right treatment each month, you should:</h3><ul><li>Keep notes of the dates of the treatment. Use your baby's regular immunization card to keep track. You can also print out the tables below to help you keep track of your baby's treatment.</li><li>Remind your baby’s doctor or nurse that your baby needs the medicine once a month during RSV season.</li></ul><h2>RSV prophylaxis</h2><table class="akh-table"><thead><tr><th>Palivizumab</th><th>Date</th><th>Location</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>Dose #1</td><td> </td><td> </td></tr><tr><td>Dose #2</td><td> </td><td> </td></tr><tr><td>Dose #3</td><td> </td><td> </td></tr><tr><td>Dose #4</td><td> </td><td> </td></tr><tr><td>Dose #5</td><td> </td><td> </td></tr><tr><td>Dose #6</td><td> </td><td> </td></tr></tbody></table><h2>Positive tests for RSV and RSV hospitalizations</h2><table class="akh-table"><thead><tr><th> </th><th>Date</th><th>Date</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>RSV positive</td><td> </td><td> </td></tr><tr><td>RSV admission to hospital</td><td> </td><td> </td></tr><tr><td>Discharged from hospital</td><td> </td><td> </td></tr></tbody></table><p>Visit the <a href="https://www.ontario.ca/page/get-full-coverage-certain-drugs#section-4" target="_blank">Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care website</a> to find more information about RSV prophylaxis.</p><h2>Preventing respiratory syncytial virus</h2> <p>Do not expose your baby to cigarette smoke. Smoking has been associated with increased infection rates.</p> <p>You can help stop the spread of RSV by:</p> <ul> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=1981&language=English">washing your hands</a> with soap and water or by using alcohol-based hand sanitizer before and after touching your child. Ask others to do the same.</li> <li>coughing or sneezing into your sleeve instead of your hands and putting used tissue into the garbage right away.</li> <li>avoiding kissing or similar close contact with your baby's face and hands when you are unwell.</li> <li>staying away from your hospitalized premature baby if you are sneezing, coughing or have a runny nose or a fever.</li> <li>keeping your baby away from crowds and anyone with sneezing, coughing, a runny nose or a fever, especially during RSV season (from November to April). Infections spread more easily when there are more people around.</li> <li>cleaning surfaces in your home that are touched often on a regular basis, more often during RSV season.<br></li> </ul><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/respiratory_syncytial_virus.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />RSVRSVhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/respiratory_syncytial_virus.jpg
HIV and AIDSHIV and AIDSHIV and AIDSHEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/HIV_cell_invasion_step1_MED_ILL_EN.jpg2013-12-18T05:00:00ZDebra Louch, RN;Ari Bitnun, MD, MSc, FRCPC;Stanley Read, MD, PhD, FRCPC, FAAP;Georgina MacDougall, RN;Miriam Kaufman, BSN, MD, FRCPC8.0000000000000061.00000000000002315.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn more about HIV, AIDS and the test and treatment options that are available.</p><h2>What is HIV?</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">HIV infects cell</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/HIV_cell_invasion_step1_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="HIV viruses around and attached to a CD4 cell" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">HIV attaches to the CD4 cell and then enters the cell.</figcaption> </figure> <p>HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. HIV is a virus that infects certain white blood cells of the <a href="/Article?contentid=926&language=English">immune system</a>. These cells have several names: CD4 cells, CD4+ cells, T cells, helper cells or CD4 lymphocytes. CD4 cells fight off infections. HIV infects and destroys CD4 cells and makes the immune system weaker over time. This puts a person at risk of other serious infections.</p><p>People who are infected with HIV are called HIV-positive. People who are not infected with HIV are called HIV-negative.</p><h3>HIV weakens the immune system and makes you sick</h3><div class="akh-series"><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/HIV_cell_invasion_step2_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="HIV viruses inside of and around a CD4 cell" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">HIV makes copies of itself inside CD4 cells. This destroys the CD4 cells.</figcaption> </figure> <p>When HIV enters the CD4 cell, it uses the cell machinery to make copies of itself. This is called viral replication. The process of viral replication destroys the cells.</p><p>Without medication the amount of viruses in the blood rises. The amount of viruses in the blood is called viral load. The higher the viral load, the more viruses there are in the blood.</p></div></div><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/HIV_cell_invasion_step3_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Person with treatment holding one HIV and many CD4 cells, and person without treatment holding few CD4 and many HIV cells" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Without medication, the number of the CD4 cells becomes very low as the viral load goes up, and the immune system is weakened.</figcaption> </figure> <p>Without treatment, the number of CD4 cells decreases because they are destroyed by an increasing number of HIV. The number of CD4 cells in the blood is called CD4 cell count. When the CD4 cell count drops, it becomes harder for the immune system to fight off infections and the person becomes ill. These infections that are normally harmless for HIV-negative people are called opportunistic infections or opportunistic diseases.</p></div></div></div><h3>Difference between HIV and AIDS</h3><p>HIV infection means that the virus is in the person's body. Some people will remain healthy with their infection for some time, while others will get sick sooner. Once HIV is in your child's body, it never goes away.</p><p>AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. It is a late stage of HIV infection, which happens when the immune system is so damaged that opportunistic diseases have developed. This occurs when:</p><ul><li>the CD4 count is very low</li><li>certain types of serious infections or cancers develop</li></ul> <br><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>HIV is a virus that takes over and destroys certain types of white blood cells that fight infections.</li><li>If left untreated, HIV weakens the immune system.</li><li>Children can get HIV from their mothers during pregnancy, at birth or through breastfeeding, through blood or blood products that are infected with HIV, or through infected needles or surgical equipment.</li><li>Many problems can be prevented if the HIV infection is caught early on.</li><li>Children with HIV can live healthy, normal lives if they go to their clinic regularly for health care and take their medicines as prescribed.</li></ul><h2>How children get HIV</h2> <p>Children can get HIV in the following ways:</p> <ul> <li>A woman infected with HIV can unknowingly pass it onto her baby during pregnancy, at birth or after pregnancy through breastfeeding. Some women do not know they have HIV until they are pregnant and get tested. Most children are infected this way. If you are HIV-positive and having a baby, please visit our page on <a href="/Article?contentid=908&language=English">HIV and pregnancy</a>. It explains how to lower the risk that your baby will get HIV and how to find out if your baby is infected.</li> <li>Some children get HIV through blood or blood products that have HIV in them. This is very rare now as the blood supply in most countries is tested for HIV. Some children also get HIV through contaminated needles or surgical equipment. This usually happens in countries where the blood supply is not tested and surgical equipment and needles are not properly cleaned and sterilized.</li> <li>Teenagers who have unprotected sex or children who have been abused can become infected with HIV.</li> <li>Sharing needles that have been in contact with contaminated blood, such as in drug use, tattooing or body piercing.</li> </ul><h2>Tests for HIV</h2><p>The doctor cannot tell if your child has HIV just by looking at them. Most of the time, children with HIV look the same as HIV-negative children. If a child becomes sick with other infections, this could be related to HIV. It could also be an infection that the child would have had anyway.</p><h3>Tests for HIV in babies</h3><p>Your child's doctor needs to test your baby's blood soon after birth and two more times, usually when your baby is one month old and two months old. The test looks for HIV in your baby's blood. It takes about a month to get the test results back. If the tests do not find any virus, it means your baby is not infected with HIV.</p><h3>Tests for HIV in children</h3><p>For older children and adults, the regular HIV test is an antibody test. <a href="/Article?contentid=926&language=English">Antibodies</a> are what the immune system makes to help fight off infections. When someone has an infection or receives a vaccine, their body makes antibodies against the bug that made them sick or was used in the vaccine.</p><p>If someone has HIV antibodies in their blood, it usually means they have HIV. Unfortunately HIV antibodies do not protect against HIV.</p><p>The antibody test does not work for babies because when a woman is pregnant, she passes some of her own antibodies to her baby. This means that if a woman has HIV, the antibody test will always find HIV antibodies in her baby's blood, even if the baby does not have HIV infection.</p> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">HIV antibodies cross the placenta</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/HIV_crossing_placenta_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="HIV viruses in placenta and antibodies in placenta, umbilical cord and baby" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The mother's antibodies against HIV can be passed to the baby during pregnancy. Therefore, antibody testing for newborn babies cannot accurately check for the presence of HIV.</figcaption> </figure> <h3>Tests to monitor HIV infection</h3><p>Every three to four months, blood work will be done to assess how your child is doing with the HIV infection. Two tests will be done:</p><ul><li>The viral load will be checked to measure the amount of HIV in the blood. Viral load is measured in copies of virus per millilitre of blood (cpm).</li><li>The CD4 cell count will be checked to measure the number of CD4 cells present in the blood. This test tells the health-care team how well the immune system is doing. The normal number of CD4 cells for a child depends on the age of the child.</li></ul><h2>Treatments for HIV</h2> <p>Two main types of treatment are given to children and teenagers with HIV:</p> <ul> <li>medicines to treat the HIV</li> <li>medicines to prevent other infections</li> </ul> <h3>Medicines to treat the HIV</h3> <p>Medicines that treat HIV prevent the virus from making more copies of itself or entering CD4 cells. These medicines are called anti-retrovirals (ARVs).</p> <p>Most of the time HIV treatment consists of taking three or more types of medication. When given in combination, the treatment is often referred to as combination antiretroviral therapy or highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Using HAART decreases the chance that resistance will develop to any one medication, making the treatment more effective in the long-term. The combination products lower the number of pills needed each day.</p> <p>To work properly, these medicines must be taken as prescribed, without any missed doses. If your child follows their treatment properly, they can live a healthy, normal life.</p> <p>For more information on specific medications, visit SickKids <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/Go-Positive/Medications/index.html">Positively Good 2 Go</a> website.</p> <h3>Medicines to prevent other infections</h3> <p>Other medicines are given to prevent other infections. These include medications such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Septra), which is given to prevent a certain type of bad pneumonia. Not all children need these preventive medicines. They are given only when the child's immune system is too weak to prevent these kinds of infections.</p> <p>Managing HIV medication</p> <p>Your child (or teenager) may need to take anti-HIV medicine. Some of the things that your health-care team will consider when deciding to start a treatment include:</p> <ul> <li>your child's medical history (time since diagnosis, symptoms, other infections)</li> <li>your child's CD4 count</li> <li>your child's viral load</li> </ul> <p>The health-care team will discuss your child's treatment options with you. There are many possible medicine combinations. You and your health-care team need to decide on a combination that will work for your child.</p> <p>As you learn to manage your child's HIV medications, you will learn about:</p> <ul> <li>Efficacy: How well they work to lower your child's viral load and increase their CD4 count.</li> <li>Durability: How long they remain effective.</li> <li>Tolerability: How easy it is for your child to take the medications, what side effects may occur and how serious they are.</li> </ul> <h3>How to take HIV medication</h3> <p>Each medication has different dosing and frequency. Your health-care team will tell you how and when your child should take the medication.</p> <p>The medications will only work if your child takes them at the right time every day. Sticking to the schedule (adherence) can be difficult but is important for your child's long-term health.</p> <h3>The importance of not forgetting your child's medicines</h3> <p>Missing doses of medicines can allow the virus to replicate more easily. This will lead to an increase in the amount of HIV in your child's blood (increased viral load). When this happens the virus can become resistant to the medication your child is taking. This also risks your child's immune system being further damaged. A few missed doses can be enough for this to happen. If the virus becomes resistant to the medications your child is taking, other antiretroviral medications that work in a similar way may also become ineffective.</p> <p>Do NOT stop your child's medication without speaking to your doctor first.</p> <h2>Side effects of anti-HIV medication</h2> <p>Most people do not have side effects from the anti-HIV medication. When side effects happen they can range from very mild to very severe. Every medication has its own unique side effects but there are some common ones listed below. They are examples listed from the most common to the most uncommon.</p> <h3>Digestive problem</h3> <p>Stomach or bowel problems are the most commonly noticed side effects by people taking anti-HIV medicines. They include nausea, <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a>, loss of appetite, <a href="/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a> and excess gas. The health-care team may call these gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms.</p> <p>HIV disease can also cause digestive problems.</p> <p>Here are some tips to help you with GI symptoms:</p> <ul> <li>Eat small but frequent meals.</li> <li>Eat salty snacks before taking medications.</li> <li>Eat cool, bland and odourless foods.</li> </ul> <h3>Rash</h3> <p>Skin rash is another relatively common side effect of antiretroviral medications. In many cases the rash is mild and resolves over time without stopping the medication. In some cases rash can be a serious side effect. You should let your doctor know about a new rash, especially if it appears within one or two months of starting a new medicine.</p> <h3>Allergic reactions</h3> <p>Before starting any anti-HIV medication, tell your doctor about any allergic reactions to other medications your child has had.</p> <p>A rash caused by anti-HIV medications is usually mild or moderate and not dangerous. However, in rare cases, the reaction may become more severe and have more serious consequences. A more severe allergic reaction could be a rash that is accompanied by fever, nausea or vomiting, blisters, or muscle or joint pain. For this reason, it is best that you bring your child to see a doctor if a rash appears.</p> <h3>Lipodystrophy Syndrome</h3> <p>Lipodystrophy syndrome can happen when taking certain kinds of anti-HIV medication. The body fat is relocated in other places. For example fat may decrease on the face and increase on the belly. Lipodystrophy syndrome may also increase sugar, insulin or fat levels in the blood which may have long-term effects on your health.</p> <h3>Liver toxicity</h3> <p>Very rarely, anti-HIV medications may cause damage to the liver. Symptoms may include:</p> <ul> <li>nausea and vomiting</li> <li>abdominal pain (belly ache)</li> <li>dark coloured urine</li> <li>yellowing of the eyes or skin</li> </ul> <p>The damage can be reversed if the medication is stopped early enough. Your child will have regular blood tests to monitor the effect of the medications on their liver.</p> <h3>Managing side effects</h3> <p>Always talk with your health-care team as soon as possible about any symptoms your child has. It may be a side effect of a medication. If the side effect is not too serious, waiting it out may be an option. Sometime side effects improve or go away on their own.</p> <p>If the side effect is severe, or bothers your child too much, the medicine may need to be stopped.</p> <p>Make sure your health-care team knows all the medications and supplements (such as vitamins and herbal medicine) your child is taking because sometimes side effects can be due to interactions between medications.</p> <p>You should speak to your health-care team about possible side effects before your child starts any new treatments (including natural and herbal).</p> <h3>Medication interactions</h3> <p>Antiretroviral medications may interact with other medications. Other medications may lower or increase the effect of antiviral medications, or in some cases, the antiviral medication may lower or increase the effect of other medications.</p> <p>Keep a list of all medications your child is taking, including other prescription medications, medications that you can buy in the pharmacy without a prescription, and vitamins or herbal supplements.</p><h2>HIV disclosure</h2> <p>Disclosure means telling someone about your HIV status. You do not have to tell everyone that you and/or your child have HIV. This is private information.</p> <p>However, it is in your child's and your best interest to disclose your HIV status to your doctors and other health-care professionals, such as your dentist. This way, you will get the best care possible.</p> <p>Disclosing your status before having sex is also something you and/or your teen need to consider and discuss. In Canada it is now the law that you must inform your partner of your status before having sex. You may face criminal charges if you knowingly keep your HIV status from a sexual partner. Disclosure is one way of protecting yourself and your partner. You or your teen can adopt safer sex practices and protect everyone from sexually transmitted infections (STIs).</p> December 1 is World AIDS Day. Learn more about HIV, AIDS and the test and treatment options that are available.
Winter tipsWinter tipsWinter tipsWEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2018-01-19T05:00:00Z000Landing PageLearning Hub<p>Winter is a time of year when we participate in outdoor activities and then gather around a fire. Unfortunately, we may also experience seasonal illnesses. Keep the family healthy during the cold weather with our winter tips.</p><p>Winter is a time when we experience cold weather, snow and ice. It is a time of year when we look forward to participating in outdoor activities and then gathering around a warm fire. Unfortunately, we may also experience those annoying seasonal illnesses. Keep the whole family safe, healthy and happy during the cold weather season with our winter tips.</p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Outdoor activity safety</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Playing outside can be fun for your child during the winter. Make sure your child is dressed properly for the cold weather and follow these handy safety tips.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1954&language=English">Outdoor winter safety: Staying safe during winter activities</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1940&language=English">Dressing for the cold</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1912&language=English">Cold weather injuries</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Stay healthy</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>The whole family made it through the summer and fall healthy and safe. Here is some advice on how to keep everyone healthy throughout winter.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1939&language=English">Burns: Winter safety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=778&language=English">Nasal congestion: How to clear your baby's dry, stuffy nose</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=773&language=English">Eczema (atopic dermatitis)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1114&language=English">Eczema: Seasonal changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Winter bugs</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Winter brings everyone indoors and closer together, where we share warmth... and germs. Learn more about colds, the flu and other winter-associated illnesses. Also learn how to avoid them and how to treat them.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">Fever​</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=12&language=English">Colds (viral upper respiratory infections)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=765&language=English">Bronchiolitis​</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=764&language=English">Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=17&language=English">Croup</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=763&language=English">Influenza (flu): An overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=912&language=English">Influenza (flu): Protecting your family</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1111&language=English">Influenza (flu): The truth about vaccines</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=784&language=English">Pneumonia</a></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/winter_safety_landing_page.jpgwintersafetywintersafetyWinter safety tips Keep the whole family safe, healthy and happy during the cold weather season with our winter safety tips.
Mental healthMental healthMental healthMEnglishPsychiatryChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANANACaregivers Adult (19+)NALanding PageLearning Hub<p>Learn how to support your child’s wellbeing with activity, sleep and nutrition and how to recognize and manage various mental health conditions.<br></p><p>This hub includes resources for parents on how to support your child's mental health and general wellbeing through physical activity, sleep and nutrition. It also provides information on the signs, symptoms and treatments of different mental health conditions, including anxiety, bipolar disorder, depression, behavioural disorders, anorexia nervosa and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.<br></p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Wellbeing<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>The everyday pressures of growing up can put a strain on any child's mental wellbeing. Find out how physical activity, a healthy sleep routine, screen time limits and balanced nutrition can boost your child's mental health and support them through difficult times.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Physical activity</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=642&language=English">Physical activity: Guidelines for children and teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=641&language=English">Physical activity: Benefits of exercise for health and wellbeing</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Sleep</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=645&language=English">Sleep: Benefits and recommended amounts</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=646&language=English">How to help your child get a good night's sleep</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=647&language=English">How to help your teen get a good night's sleep</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Screen time</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=643&language=English">Screen time: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=644&language=English">How to help your child set healthy screen time limits</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Nutrition</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=639&language=English">Nutrition: How a balanced diet and healthy eating habits can help your child's mental health</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Anxiety disorders<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Every child feels anxiety at some point as a natural part of growing up. An anxiety disorder, however, is when anxious feelings interfere with a child's everyday routine. Learn more about the signs, symptoms and range of anxiety disorders and how they ​are treated.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">Anxiety: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=271&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=270&language=English">Types of anxiety disorders</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=701&language=English">Treatment with medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=702&language=English">Psychotherapy and lifestyle changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Obsessive compulsive disorder<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) occurs when a person suffers from troubling and intrusive thoughts and/or follows repetitive or strict routines to feel less worried. Learn about the causes, signs and impact of this disorder and how you can help your child.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=285&language=English">Obsessive compulsive disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=288&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=286&language=English">How OCD affects your child's life</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=709&language=English">Psychotherapy and medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=287&language=English">How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Depression<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Depression is an illness that causes someone to feel deep sadness or a lack of interest in activities that they once enjoyed. Discover how this condition affects a child's mood, sleep, concentration and energy levels, and how it can be treated.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">Depression: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=284&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=707&language=English">Treatment with medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=708&language=English">Psychotherapy and lifestyle changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Bipolar disorder</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>When a person has bipolar disorder, they alternate between low and elevated moods for days, weeks or months at a time. Learn about the bipolar disorder spectrum, the symptoms of manic and depressive episodes and how medications, therapy and lifestyle changes can help.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=279&language=English">Bipolar disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=280&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=704&language=English">Treatment with medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=705&language=English">Psychotherapy and lifestyle changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Suicide and self-harm</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>A child who experiences thoughts of suicide or self-harm is often suffering from overwhelming emotional pain. Find out how to help your child cope with difficult emotions, how to support and protect your child and where to find professional help.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=291&language=English">Suicide in children and teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=289&language=English">Self-harm in children and teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=290&language=English">Signs and symptoms of suicide risk</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=293&language=English">How to help your child with difficult emotions</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=292&language=English">How to protect your child from harm</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Eating disorders<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>An eating disorder not only risks your child's health but can also disrupt family life. Find out about the symptoms and treatment of anorexia, bulimia, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder and binge eating disorder and how you can help your child recover.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Anorexia nervosa</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=268&language=English">Anorexia nervosa: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=269&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=267&language=English">Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=700&language=English">Treatment options</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=266&language=English">How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Bulimia nervosa</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=282&language=English">Bulimia nervosa: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=283&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=281&language=English">Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=706&language=English">Treatment options</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=294&language=English">How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID)</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=274&language=English">Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=275&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=273&language=English">Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=703&language=English">Treatment options</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=272&language=English">How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Binge eating disorder (BED)</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=277&language=English">Binge eating disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=278&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=640&language=English">Obesity: Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=276&language=English">How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) involves difficulties with controlling attention and regulating behaviour. Discover the main symptoms of ADHD in children and teens, how the disorder is diagnosed and how to help your child at home and at school.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1922&language=English">Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1923&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1997&language=English">How to help your child at home</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1999&language=English">Communicating with your child's school</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1998&language=English">Treatment with medications</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Behavioural disorders</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Behavioural disorders include oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Learn how these disorders differ from typical misbehaviour, how therapy and medications can help and how you can manage problematic behaviour at home.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1924&language=English">Behavioural disorders: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1925&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2000&language=English">Treatment with psychotherapy and medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2001&language=English">How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is triggered by experiencing or witnessing a terrifying event. Learn about the main symptoms of PTSD, how the condition is diagnosed and how psychotherapy and medications can help your child.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1927&language=English">Post-traumatic stress disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1928&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2005&language=English">Treatment with psychotherapy and medications</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Brain disorders and mental health</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>A brain disorder includes a condition, illness or injury that affects the brain and how it develops before or after birth. Find out how a brain disorder can affect your child's learning, mood and social skills, how its impact on mental health is assessed and how to help your child cope.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1926&language=English">Brain disorders and mental health: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2002&language=English">Assessing your child for neuropsychological difficulties</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2003&language=English">How to help your child cope</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2004&language=English">Common treatments</a></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Mental_health_landing-page.jpgmentalhealthhealthyliving



How to give acetaminophen and ibuprofen for feverHow to give acetaminophen and ibuprofen for feverHow to give acetaminophen and ibuprofen for feverHEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANADrug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversFever2018-06-19T04:00:00ZKelly Anderson, RN;Elana Hochstadter, MD;Komail Nadeem, PharmD, RPh;Elaine Lau, BScPhm, PharmD, MSc, RPh;Wendy Chen, PharmD, RPh55.00000000000009.600000000000001071.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn how acetaminophen and ibuprofen can be used to help make your child more comfortable and bring down their fever. Also learn how to use acetaminophen and ibuprofen together if using only one medication is not working.</p><h2>Does my child have a fever?</h2><h3>A temperature of 38°C (100.4°F) or higher is a fever</h3><p>Children often feel warm to the touch when they have a fever. To confirm that your child has a <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a>, use a thermometer to measure your child's body temperature. A temperature of 38°C (100.4°F) or higher means that your child has a fever.</p><p>Fever itself is not a disease or illness. Fever is a signal that something is going on in the body. How your child looks and acts are more important than how high their fever is.</p><h2>What medications treat fever?</h2><h3>When should I treat a fever with medication?</h3><p>You should use medication to keep your child comfortable. You should not base your judgment on how high the fever is but rather on how your child is feeling. If your child has a fever but is still playing, drinking well and is happy, it may not be necessary to use medication to treat their fever.</p><h3>Medications used to treat a fever</h3><p> <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=62&language=English"><strong>Acetaminophen</strong></a> (e.g. Tylenol, Tempra) and <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=153&language=English"><strong>ibuprofen</strong></a> (e.g. Advil, Motrin) are two medications that are commonly used to treat fever in children. It is best to use only one of these medications to treat a fever. You can choose which one you prefer to use, both work equally well.</p><p>The correct dose of acetaminophen or ibuprofen for a child is based on their body weight. An estimated dose is usually provided on the medication package. Note that acetaminophen and ibuprofen have different doses and different lengths of time between doses. Also it may take up to an hour for the medication to start helping.</p><p>If using only one of these medications is not helping to make your child feel more comfortable or bring down their fever, you can try giving the two medications together. This may help make your child feel more comfortable because acetaminophen and ibuprofen help to treat fever in different ways. These medications are safe to take at the same time, or within a short amount of time of one another.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>When deciding whether or not to give your child medication to treat their fever you should take into consideration not just how high their temperature is but also how they look and are acting.</li><li>Two common medications that are used to treat fever are acetaminophen and ibuprofen.</li><li>If using only one medication is not making your child more comfortable then you can try giving acetaminophen and ibuprofen together.</li><li>When giving acetaminophen and ibuprofen together make sure you do not give acetaminophen more often than once every four hours, and ibuprofen more often than once every six hours.</li></ul><h2>How do you give acetaminophen and ibuprofen together?</h2><p>Doses of acetaminophen (e.g. Tylenol, Tempra) should be given at least four hours apart. Doses of ibuprofen (e.g. Advil, Motrin) should be given at least six hours apart. There are limits on how much of each medication can be given in a 24-hour period. Please look at your medication bottle for daily dosage limits or ask your pharmacist.</p><p>When you are giving acetaminophen and ibuprofen to your child it is important to keep track of which medication you have given, how much you have given and when you gave it.</p><h3>Here is an example of how to give acetaminophen and ibuprofen together</h3><table class="akh-table"><tbody><tr><td><ul><li>It is 12:00 p.m. and your child has a temperature of 39.0°C (102.2°F) and is feeling unwell. Give <strong>ibuprofen</strong> (e.g. Advil, Motrin).</li><li>Check your child’s temperature one hour later <strong>(1:00 p.m.)</strong>. If they still have a fever and are still feeling unwell, give <strong>acetaminophen</strong> (e.g. Tylenol, Tempra).</li><li>Check your child’s temperature each hour for the next three hours <strong>(2:00 p.m., 3:00 p.m. and 4:00 p.m.)</strong>. Even if they still have a fever and are still feeling unwell, you cannot give any medication at this time.</li><ul><em> <li>You cannot give ibuprofen because it has not been six hours since the last dose.</li> <li>You cannot give acetaminophen because it has not been four hours since the last dose.</li> <li>Try other methods to help cool your child such as a cold cloth on the forehead or take off extra layers of clothing.</li></em> </ul><li>Check your child’s temperature another hour later <strong>(5:00 p.m.)</strong>. If they still have a fever and are still feeling unwell, give <strong>acetaminophen</strong>.</li><ul><li> <em>It is safe to give acetaminophen again at this time because it has been four hours since the last dose of acetaminophen.</em></li></ul><li>Check your child’s temperature one hour later <strong>(6:00 p.m.)</strong>. If they still have a fever, give ibuprofen.</li><ul><li> <em>It is safe to give ibuprofen again because it has been six hours since the last dose of ibuprofen.</em></li></ul></ul></td></tr></tbody></table><p> <strong>Here is a chart to explain the above example:</strong></p><table class="akh-table"><thead><tr><th width="19%">Time</th><th width="25%">Temperature (example)</th><th width="28%">Give ibuprofen (e.g. Advil, Motrin)</th><th width="28%">Give acetaminophen (e.g. Tylenol, Tempra)</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>12:00 p.m.</td><td> <strong>39.0°C (102.2°F)</strong></td><td style="text-align:center;"> <strong>X</strong></td><td></td></tr><tr><td>1:00 p.m.</td><td> <strong>38.5°C (101.3°F)</strong></td><td></td><td style="text-align:center;"> <strong>X</strong></td></tr><tr><td>2:00 p.m.</td><td> <strong>38.0°C (100.4°F)</strong></td><td colspan="2" style="text-align:center;">Cannot give any medication at this time</td></tr><tr><td>3:00 p.m.</td><td> <strong>38.4°C (101.1°F)</strong></td><td colspan="2" style="text-align:center;">Cannot give any medication at this time</td></tr><tr><td>4:00 p.m.</td><td> <strong>38.5°C (101.3°F)</strong></td><td colspan="2" style="text-align:center;">Cannot give any medication at this time</td></tr><tr><td>5:00 p.m.</td><td> <strong>38.2°C (100.8°F)</strong></td><td></td><td style="text-align:center;"> <strong>X</strong></td></tr><tr><td>6:00 p.m.</td><td> <strong>38.5°C (101.3°F)</strong></td><td style="text-align:center;"> <strong>X</strong></td><td></td></tr></tbody></table><h2>Important reminders when giving medication for fever</h2><p>Always check your child’s temperature before giving medication for fever. If your child does not have a fever, they do not need the medication. Remember that if a child has a fever but is still playing, drinking well and is happy, they may not need medication to treat the fever at that time.</p><p>It is important to keep track of when you have given medication to your child, especially if you are giving doses of acetaminophen and ibuprofen together.</p><p>Many children’s cough and cold medications contain acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Check the ingredients of any other medications you are giving your child to see if they contain acetaminophen or ibuprofen. If they do, you will need to reduce the dose of acetaminophen and ibuprofen you are giving your child to make sure they are not receiving too high of a dose.</p><p><strong>Whether or not you are treating your child’s fever, if you are concerned that your child is not well please seek medical care.</strong></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/ICO_DrugA-Z.pngAcetaminophen and ibuprofen for fever Learn how acetaminophen and ibuprofen can be used to help make your child more comfortable and bring down their fever.
BullyingBullyingBullyingBEnglishPsychiatryPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2010-01-27T05:00:00ZDebra J. Pepler, PhD, Cpsych000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Bullying is mean behaviour that is done on purpose, over and over again. There are different types such as physical or social bullying.</p><h2>What is bullying?</h2> <p>Bullying is a relationship problem. It requires relationship solutions.</p> <p>Bullying is mean behaviour that happens over and over again. Bullying is done on purpose. A person who bullies wants to hurt the other person. The person who bullies has more power. They might be older, bigger, more popular or stronger than the person who gets bullied. Sometimes a group of children will get together to bully another child.</p><h2>Different types of bullying</h2><h3>Physical bullying</h3><ul><li>pushing, hitting, or kicking someone</li><li>throwing things at someone</li><li>taking or breaking someone's things</li><li>making fun of people</li><li>calling someone mean names</li><li>teasing someone in a mean way</li><li>threatening to harm someone</li></ul><h3>Social bullying</h3><ul><li>spreading rumours</li><li>breaking up friendships</li><li>leaving someone out on purpose</li><li>telling people not to be friends with someone</li></ul> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Bullying_taunting_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="A girl whispering into another girl’s ear behind a boy looking down with a sad expression" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Social exclusion is a common type of bullying.</figcaption> </figure> <h3>Cyber bullying​</h3><ul><li>taking pictures of someone without asking and posting them on the internet<br></li><li>sending mean instant messages, e-mails or text messages</li><li>posting mean messages on social networking sites</li><li>creating a website that makes fun of someone</li></ul><h3>Racial/ethnic bullying</h3><ul><li>treating people badly because of their racial or ethnic background</li><li>saying bad things about a cultural background</li><li>calling someone racist names</li><li>telling racist jokes</li></ul><h3>Sexual bullying</h3><ul><li>leaving someone out, treating them badly, or making them feel uncomfortable because they are a boy or girl</li><li>making sexist comments</li><li>touching, pinching or grabbing someone in a sexual way</li><li>making crude comments about someone's sexual behaviour</li><li>spreading sexual rumours</li><li>calling someone mean names because of their sexual orientation</li></ul><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Bullying is a problem with how children relate to each other. All children involved need support in learning how to have positive relationships.</li> <li>Children who bully learn to use power and aggression to control others.</li> <li>Children who see bullying without reporting it may not know that they are helping to make the bullying worse.</li> <li>Adults need to encourage children who are bullied, and children who see bullying, to report it.</li> <li>Children who are bullied should be assertive and tell the bully to stop. They should not fight back because this can lead to more severe bullying.</li> <li>All adults involved with children are responsible for their safety. Children involved in bullying in any role are not safe. They need support to build positive skills and healthy relationships.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of bullying</h2> <p>Children who are bullied often show a change in behaviour and/or emotions: </p> <ul> <li>not wanting to go to school</li> <li>not wanting to participate in extra-curricular activities</li> <li><a href="/article?contentid=18&language=English">anxious</a>, fearful, over-reactive</li> <li>low self-esteem</li> <li><a href="/article?contentid=289&language=English">threatens to hurt themselves</a> or others</li> <li>lower interest and performance in school</li> <li>loses things, needs money, reports being hungry after school</li> <li>injuries, bruising, damaged clothing, broken things</li> <li>unhappy, irritable, little interest in activities</li> <li><a href="/article?contentid=29&language=English">headaches</a> and stomach aches</li> <li>trouble <a href="/article?contentid=646&language=English">sleeping</a>, nightmares, <a href="/article?contentid=16&language=English">bedwetting</a></li> </ul> <p>Children who bully may show signs that they are using power aggressively: </p> <ul> <li>little concern for others' feelings</li> <li>does not recognize impact of their behaviour on others</li> <li>aggressive with siblings, parents, teachers, friends and animals</li> <li>bossy and manipulative to get own way</li> <li>possesses unexplained objects and/or extra money</li> <li>secretive about possessions, activities and whereabouts</li> <li>holds a positive attitude towards aggression</li> <li>easily frustrated and quick to anger</li> </ul><h2>Causes and Risk Factors</h2> <h3>Children who are bullied</h3> <p>Children who are bullied may have few friends. Sometimes they have overprotective or restrictive parents. Children who are repeatedly bullied can become trapped in abusive relationships. They need help shifting the power dynamics so they can be safe.</p> <h3>Children who bully</h3> <p>Children who bully others often experience power and aggression from those close to them. They learn to use power and aggression to control others. These children tend to have the following in common: </p> <ul> <li>Parents may show power and aggression by yelling, hitting or rejecting the child.</li> <li>Parents may show power and aggression with each other.</li> <li>Siblings may bully the child at home.</li> <li>The child may have friends who bully and are aggressive.</li> <li>The child may have trouble standing up to peer pressure.</li> <li>Teachers or coaches may show power and aggression by yelling, excluding or rejecting.</li> </ul><h2>What to do if you are bullied or you see bullying</h2><p>Here are a few tips to tell your child.</p> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Bullying_friends_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Two boys standing side-by-side, facing forward, with one boy’s arm around the other" />​ <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Try to stay in a group and use your friends, siblings and peers for support.</figcaption> </figure> <h3>What to do if you are bullied:</h3><ul><li>Tell your parents.</li><li>Tell an adult at school.</li><li>Be assertive: Stand up to the student doing the bullying. Tell the child to stop bullying. It's not fair!</li><li>Do not be aggressive: Do not fight back as this can make the bullying worse. Children who fight back tend to experience prolonged and more severe bullying.</li></ul><h3>What to do if you see bullying:</h3><ul><li>Tell your parents.</li><li>Tell an adult at school.</li><li>Help the student being bullied.</li><li>Get someone to help you stop the bullying.</li><li>Stand up to the student doing the bullying if you feel safe. Tell the child to stop bullying.</li></ul><h2>Prevention of bullying</h2> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Bullying_parenting_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="A mother and daughter sitting on a bed, turned toward each other, with the mother’s arm around the girl’s back" />​​​ <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Remain calm and supportive. Trust your child and listen carefully to what they have to say.</figcaption> </figure> <h3>Ways to help the bullied child </h3><p>Children who are bullied need to be encouraged to report bullying. Adults must show that they want to know about the child's experiences. It is the adult's job to make the bullying stop.</p><p>Children who are bullied need to be protected from those who are bullying them. They also need protection from the peers who support the bully by watching and joining in.</p><p>It may help to teach these children how to anticipate when bullying might occur. Then they can rehearse ways to address and avoid such situations. They should be given opportunities to make new friendships. Having one friend can really help.</p><p>They need to receive support from their parents, teachers, other adults in their lives, and their peers.</p><h3>Ways to help the child who bullies</h3><p>Children who bully need to learn how to:</p><ul><li>use their power in positive ways</li><li>build positive relationships</li><li>stay cool when having a problem</li><li>think of how the other person feels</li><li>remember expectations</li></ul><p>They need consistent messages and supportive interventions from their parents, teachers, and the other adults in their lives.</p><h3>Ways to help children who see bullying<br></h3><p>Children who see bullying without intervening or reporting it may not realize the role they play in making bullying worse. They need to be taught to intervene when they see bullying if it is safe to do so. They should be encouraged to report all bullying incidents to a trusted adult.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/bullying.jpg
Keratosis pilarisKeratosis pilarisKeratosis pilarisKEnglishDermatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)SkinSkinConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_keratosis_pilaris_EN.jpg2015-05-06T04:00:00ZBlanca Del Pozzo-Magana, MD;Irene Lara-Corrales, MSc, MD​​10.000000000000054.0000000000000496.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Keratosis pilaris is a common rash that results in bumps on the skin. Learn what causes keratosis pilaris and how it is diagnosed and treated.</p><figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_keratosis_pilaris_EN.jpg" alt="Skin affected by keratosis pilaris" /> </figure> <h2>What is keratosis pilaris?</h2><p>Keratosis pilaris (KP) is a very common skin rash that affects at least one in five children around the world. The rash consists of many rough follicular papules (small bumps in the hair follicles) that look like “goose flesh”. Usually the bumps are skin colour, but they can sometimes have a blotchy appearance or a white top that make them look like “white heads”.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Keratosis pilaris is a very common and harmless skin condition that occurs when there is too much protein in the hair follicles.</li> <li>It is usually inherited from one or both parents.</li> <li>Keratosis pilaris causes the skin to appear blotchy and bumpy and can be itchy if it occurs with dry skin.</li> <li>Moisturizers and special creams may improve the appearance of keratosis pilaris and ease any discomfort, but they cannot cure it.</li> </ul><figure><span class="asset-image-title">Areas of the body affected by keratosis pilaris</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_keratosis_pilaris_sites_EN.jpg" alt="Girl with markings on cheeks, upper arms, buttocks and thighs" /> </figure> <h2>How does keratosis pilaris affect the body?</h2><p>Keratosis pilaris is harmless. It usually appears on the upper arms and thighs, but it sometimes affects other parts of the body such as the buttocks and cheeks.<br></p><p>Most people are not bothered by keratosis pilaris, but some might be bothered by the skin’s appearance. Most of the time, the skin only becomes irritated if it is very dry and becomes itchy or if your child picks at the bumps. Keratosis pilaris usually resolves with time or improves during summer, but, in some people, it remains the same for many years.</p><p>Very few children have keratosis pilaris as a sign of an underlying genetic disease or have severe keratosis pilaris across their body.</p><figure><span class="asset-image-title">Keratosis </span><span class="asset-image-title"></span><span class="asset-image-title">pilaris</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_keratosis_pilaris_EN.jpg" alt="Cross section of skin affected by keratosis pilaris" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">An</figcaption><figcaption class="asset-image-caption"></figcaption><figcaption class="asset-image-caption"> excess of keratin in the hair follicles forms a hard plug that feels like a bump.</figcaption> </figure> <h2>What causes keratosis pilaris?</h2><p>Keratin is a protein that makes up a big part of our skin. Keratosis pilaris occurs when there is too much keratin in the hair follicles. The excess keratin forms hard plugs, which in turn create the skin bumps.</p><p>Keratosis pilaris is a genetic condition. This means that it can be inherited from one or both parents.</p><h2>How is keratosis pilaris diagnosed?</h2> <p>A doctor can diagnose keratosis pilaris simply by looking at your child’s skin and asking about their medical history.</p><h2>How is keratosis pilaris treated?</h2> <p>Keratosis pilaris does not need to be treated unless it causes a lot of trouble. Unfortunately, no treatment can completely resolve keratosis pilaris, but moisturizers and special creams with urea and lactic acid may improve how it looks. These creams can sometimes irritate the skin, however, and are not recommended for small children.</p> <p>Laser treatment has been used lately to treat severe cases of keratosis pilaris, but its main success has been in reducing the redness of the skin, not the bumpiness.</p><h2>When to see a doctor for keratosis pilaris</h2> <p>See your child’s doctor if your child’s keratosis pilaris is itchy or if it affects many parts of their body (including their eyebrows, knees or elbows, for example).</p>
Concussion: Managing your child's return to everyday activitiesConcussion: Managing your child's return to everyday activitiesConcussion: Managing your child's return to everyday activitiesCEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeadBrainNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)Headache;Nausea2017-06-14T04:00:00ZShawna​ Silver, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, PEng9.8000000000000054.60000000000001792.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Find out how best to respond to a child's concussion and plan their safe return to everyday activities.</p><p>A concussion is a head injury that should be taken seriously and managed properly. When your child is diagnosed with a concussion, the key to their recovery is physical and cognitive (mental) rest.</p><p>Every child’s brain responds differently to a concussion and recovers at a different pace. Some concussions have mild symptoms at first and heal quickly, but others may have more intense symptoms that take longer to resolve. Most people recover fully after a concussion, but how long this takes depends on factors such as the severity of the concussion, their health before they received the concussion and how they managed their recovery.</p><p>A gradual return to regular activities, including school and sports, will allow you and your child to assess their concussion symptoms and adjust their activity as needed. It also gives the brain more time to heal.</p><h2>Symptoms after a concussion</h2> <p>Concussion may cause a variety of effects in your child.</p> <h3>Physical signs and symptoms</h3> <ul> <li><a href="/article?contentid=29&language=English">Headache</a></li> <li>Nausea</li> <li>Dizziness</li> <li>Being bothered by light or sound</li> <li>Poor co-ordination</li> <li>Sleeping more or less than usual</li> </ul> <h3>Cognitive symptoms</h3> <ul> <li>Confusion</li> <li>Feeling dazed</li> <li>Difficulty concentrating or remembering</li> </ul> <h3>Emotional symptoms</h3> <ul> <li>Irritability</li> <li>Anxiety</li> <li>Emotional ability</li> </ul> <p>The most common mistake among concussion sufferers is to return to their normal activities too soon. Until your child’s concussion symptoms go away completely, assume that they have not fully recovered from their concussion.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>After a concussion, your child needs plenty of rest to help them recover.</li> <li>A post-concussion management plan involves a gradual return to mental and physical activity.</li> <li>Your child should rest at home for at least a few days if their concussion symptoms make it difficult for them to think or concentrate.</li> <li>Accommodations should be made once they return to school.</li> <li>A gradual return to sport is important to prevent the risk of multiple concussions.</li> </ul><h2>Avoiding driving until fully recovered</h2><p>Teenagers should not drive until they have completely recovered from their concussion and have been medically cleared by a doctor. Driving requires many mental functions, such as spatial awareness, co-ordination and quick reaction time. These are all impaired by a concussion.<br></p><h2>When to see your child’s doctor for a concussion</h2> <p>Your child should have regular follow-up appointments with their doctor until symptoms disappear. Their doctor can help manage symptoms, create an individualized program for returning to play and school and provide medical clearance once your child has recovered. They can also recommend other ways to manage symptoms such as persistent headaches and any mental health disorders and advise on how to promote good sleep and alertness.</p> <p>If your child is still suffering from post-concussion symptoms after a month of proper mental and physical rest, your child’s doctor may refer them to a specialist.</p><h2>Reasons for slow recovery after a concussion</h2> <p>Your child’s recovery might be slow for a number of reasons.</p> <ul> <li>Your child has suffered from previous concussions, especially within the last year. Children who have received multiple concussions often take more time to recover with each additional concussion.</li> <li>Your child is suffering from a mood disorder, anxiety or a sleep disorder.</li> <li>Your child has a history of headaches. Migraine in particular can result in slower recovery.</li> <li>Your child is taking medication that is masking their physical symptoms or interfering with their recovery.<br></li> </ul><h2>How to manage recovery immediately after a concussion</h2> <p>If you are concerned that your child has a concussion, have them assessed by a health-care professional to confirm the diagnosis and see if they need any immediate treatment. A health-care professional can also help create a return-to-activity program tailored for your child.</p> <h3>First night of sleep</h3> <p>During your child’s first night of sleep after their concussion, check on them a few times to make sure their concussion symptoms have not worsened. Check that their breathing is normal and that they are not moaning, vomiting or having seizures. Nudge them lightly to make sure they are responsive, but, if possible, do not wake them fully. A full night’s sleep is very important for recovery. If there are any signs of poor sleep, take your child to the emergency department.</p> <p>It was once common to wake concussion patients during their first night of sleep to make sure they did not fall into a coma. This practice is recommended less often now unless your child lost consciousness, lost their memory or was still experiencing concussion symptoms before going to sleep.</p> <h3>Recovery at home</h3> <ul> <li>Make sure your child sleeps and rests as much as possible. Keep their sleep schedule regular with no sleepovers or late nights.</li> <li>Give your child acetaminophen or ibuprofen for headaches.</li> <li>Avoid activities that are physically demanding or need a lot of concentration for at least the first 24 to 48 hours after injury.</li> <li>Although rest is important, extreme extended rest can delay your child’s recovery.</li> </ul><h2>Returning to school after a concussion</h2> <p>During recovery from a concussion, students can have difficulty with concentration, memory and processing speed. These can all hinder how well your child learns and performs at school.</p> <p>The brain needs proper rest to recover from a concussion. Trying to complete schoolwork before the brain has fully recovered can overuse the brain when it needs to heal. Allowing your child time to rest sometimes means excusing them from school. It is important to strike a balance between the importance of returning to school and brain recovery.</p> <p>After your child spends a few days at home and their symptoms improve, they can try some brief cognitive challenges, such as chores, homework or TV, to see if symptoms return. If symptoms do not increase with these activities, or they recur but reduce after breaks, your child can return to school with a lighter workload. Once your child is back at school, make sure that you arrange proper accommodations for their schoolwork.</p> <h3>Possible accommodations for a schoolchild with concussion</h3> <ul> <li>Speak to your child’s teachers or give them a note to discuss a gradual return to schoolwork. Your doctor can communicate with the school to arrange appropriate accommodations.</li> <li>Allow your child to take half days or frequent breaks if their symptoms get worse during the school day.</li> <li>Encourage your child to take mental or physical breaks (leaving the classroom) every 20 minutes if they have trouble concentrating.</li> <li>For headaches, give your child enough acetaminophen or ibuprofen to help with pain throughout the day. Make sure that your child is well hydrated and takes frequent breaks.</li> <li>Excuse your child from certain classes, for example gym, shop, music or any class with computers.</li> <li>If sound or light is bothering your child, they can use sunglasses and earplugs. They should avoid noisy areas such as the cafeteria and assemblies.</li> <li>Excuse your child from tests or exams until they feel mentally prepared to write them.</li> <li>Limit homework time to 20-minute blocks. Slowly increase this as their symptoms improve.</li> </ul> <p>Once you feel your child’s symptoms are gone or at least much improved, they can start returning to their standard workload at school. If symptoms worsen at any time, they should reduce their activity levels. If symptoms persist, speak to your child’s doctor, as your child may need more tests or accommodations.</p> <h2>Returning to sports after a concussion</h2> <p>Physical rest is as important as mental rest for your child’s recovery. If your child is an active athlete, they should take a similar gradual approach to their return to athletic activities.</p> <p>A child should never return to play their sport the same day that they receive a concussion. This not only slows recovery but may actually make the injury worse or cause complications.</p> <p>Your child should only resume physical activities when all concussion signs and symptoms have resolved and:</p> <ul> <li>they are back to full-time school attendance without accommodations</li> <li>they have been medically cleared.</li> </ul> <p>They can then progress through a medically supervised activity protocol in stages. Your child should spend at least one day on each stage and move to the next stage only if their symptoms do not return. If their symptoms return during any of the stages, they should sit out and rest immediately. Once their symptoms disappear again, they should return to the last stage they completed without experiencing any symptoms.</p> <h3>Stages of a return to sport</h3> <ul> <li>Rest stage: Your child should not do any physical activity besides light stretching and walking. They should stay at this stage until they are symptom-free and for a few days afterwards, especially if it takes longer than a week for their initial symptoms to go away. Your child should stop taking acetaminophen or ibuprofen after this stage to properly gauge how their brain is recovering.</li> <li>Light exercise stage: Suggested activities include walking, swimming, light jogging and stationary cycling and at no more than 50 percent intensity. The goal is to test how your child’s brain responds to an increase in their heart rate.</li> <li>Sport-specific exercise stage: Your child can add running or skating drills at a moderate intensity, but they should still avoid contact or complex training drills. They should also avoid all types of weight and resistance training.</li> <li>Non-contact training drills stage: Suggested activities for your child include more complex training drills that include passing, shooting, advanced movements and quick decision making. Teenagers who play sports can add light intensity resistance and weight training.</li> <li>Full-contact practice stage: Once your child has been cleared by their doctor, they can start taking part in normal full-contact training activities, including hitting, blocking and tackling. Make sure your child still keeps track of their symptoms very carefully during this stage.</li> <li>Return-to-play stage: At this stage, your child may return to normal game play. Your child’s concussion symptoms are gone and you are confident that they have fully recovered.</li> </ul> <p>Children who play full-contact sports should be especially careful as they return to practice after a concussion. They should always be cleared for a return to practice by their doctor and make a gradual return to full-contact practice.</p> <p>Your child faces a higher risk of having another concussion if they return to active play before they recover fully from the symptoms of their first concussion. With this second concussion, symptoms may be worse and last longer.</p> <p>If your child has a history of multiple concussions, they should follow these stages even more strictly.</p> <h3>Baseline cognitive testing</h3> <p>Some contact sport leagues are implementing baseline neuro-cognitive or neuropsychological assessments.</p> <p>This type of testing allows coaches, parents and medical professionals to compare test results from before and after a concussion to see if your child’s brain has fully recovered from the injury. Neuropsychological testing is also useful for athletes who have had multiple concussions or children whose symptoms worsen or fail to improve despite physical and cognitive rest.</p> <p>These tests are a very useful, objective way of evaluating your child’s recovery progress and may identify specific cognitive deficits and help guide educational planning.</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/concussion_managing_return_to_activity.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/concussion_managing_return_to_activity.jpgConcussion

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