AboutKidsHealth is a health education website for children, youth and their caregivers.


 

 

Cancer-related pain in childrenCancer-related pain in childrenCancer-related pain in childrenCEnglishOncology;Pain/AnaesthesiaChild (0-12 years)BodyNAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Pain2019-09-03T04:00:00ZLindsay Jibb, RN, M.Sc.;Jennifer Tyrrell, RN, MN, CNeph(c)8.7000000000000062.3000000000000935.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the different types of pain a child with cancer may experience, what causes pain and how long these types of pain last.</p><h2>What is pain?</h2><p>Pain is felt when special nerve fibres in the body sense something unpleasant, such as a pin prick or extreme pressure, and send a message to the brain, which reads it as pain. Although pain is unpleasant, can be a useful warning sign from our bodies telling us that something is wrong. </p><p>Patients and their caregivers are often very concerned and scared about the pain associated with cancer. They may think that if someone has cancer, they are bound to have pain and that nothing can be done to relieve it. But this isn’t true. </p><p>Cancer-related pain can be managed. With the help of your child’s health-care team, cancer-related pain can be prevented or reduced so that your child can do the activities that are important to them. Never think that it is “weak” or a burden when asking for help with your child’s pain. Nobody will think you are just complaining. The sooner you speak up about your child’s pain, the easier it is to treat! There are also specialized pain services available to help if needed.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Pain is felt when the body's tissues are damaged from injuries, infections or painful procedures.</li><li>Your child might experience pain from the tumour, painful procedures, side effects of treatment, mucositis, or nerve damage.</li><li>Acute pain is a temporary pain that your child might feel from a needle poke or an inflamed joint, while chronic pain typically lasts longer than three months, even after an injury or illness have passed .</li></ul><h2>What kind of pain might a child feel with cancer? </h2><p>Cancer-related pain can come from many sources.</p><ul><li>Pain from the tumour: Your child may feel pain from the tumour pressing on bones, nerves or body organs. This pain usually gets milder or disappears completely as treatment removes the cancer cells from their body. </li><li>Pain from procedures: Cancer treatment means many procedures involving needles, so this may be your child’s most feared part of having cancer. </li><li>Pain from side effects of the cancer treatment: Side effects of cancer treatment can include stomach aches and pain from surgical incisions (cuts). </li><li>Mucositis (say: moo-cus-eye-tis): Some chemotherapies cause painful sores in your child’s mouth and throughout their digestive tract (including the stomach and intestines).</li><li>Neuropathic (say: NOO-roe-path-ik) pain: Sometimes cancer treatment can cause nerve damage. Your child might experience this as pain, burning, tingling, numbness, weakness, clumsiness, trouble walking, or unusual sensations in the hands, arms, legs or feet. Be sure to tell your child’s doctor or nurse practitioner right away if you notice any of these symptoms in your child.</li></ul><h2>How long might the pain last?</h2><h3>Acute pain</h3><p>Most commonly, children with cancer-related pain will experience <a href="/Article?contentid=2982&language=English&hub=acutepain#pain">acute pain</a>. Acute pain is what you feel when normal nerves send messages from the injured or affected body tissues to the brain.</p><p>Our bodies sense acute pain through specialized nerve cells called nociceptors. These cells are located around the body and sense when organs and tissues receive painful stimulation (for instance a pinprick to the skin).</p><p>The nociceptors send messages to the brain through nerve pathways to tell us that there is tissue damage. Because of how nociceptors send messages through the spinal cord, our body can react quickly to acute pain before our brain even knows it exists. For instance, if you accidentally touch a hot stove, your body reacts before your brain has figured out what has happened.</p><p>Acute pain is the type of pain you feel from a needle poke for blood work, or from an inflamed joint. This pain is temporary. Acute pain goes away when the healing occurs.</p><h3>Chronic pain</h3><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=2983&language=English&hub=chronicpain#pain">Chronic pain</a> refers to pain that lasts longer than expected (typically longer than three months). Unlike acute pain, chronic pain persists even after regular healing times for injuries and illness have passed. </p><p>Chronic pain can be associated with a disease (such as cancer), but many chronic pains occur even when there is no obvious cause. Sometimes chronic pain is a condition or disease in its own right with specific diagnoses and treatments. Chronic pain may occur in young children with cancer and can take many different forms. Examples include: </p><ul><li>pain in the muscular-skeletal system (bones, muscles and tendons), often described as aching or soreness</li><li>nerve-type pain, often described as tingling, burning or like an electric shock </li><li>abdominal pain</li><li>headaches</li></ul><p>Cancer-related pain can occur as acute pain and can sometimes develop into chronic pain. Because pain is invisible, it is very important to let your child know that you believe their pain is real, whether it is acute or chronic pain. </p><p>Remember that not all pain your child experiences is related to cancer. There’s no need to fear that every new pain they feel means the cancer is getting worse or has come back. Like all children, your child can get headaches, muscle strains and other aches and pains. However, if they are taking prescription pain medicines, check with your child’s health-care team before giving any over-the-counter pain relief medicines for these aches and pains.</p><h2>Mechanisms of pain</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">How we feel pain</span><iframe class="asset-animation-swf" src="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Style%20Library/akh/swfanimations/swf.html?swffile=HowWeFeelPain_MED_ANI_EN.swf" frameborder="0"></iframe> </figure> <p>Pain has different mechanisms: </p><ul><li>nociceptive </li><li>neuropathic </li><li>unclear</li></ul><h3>Nociceptive</h3><p>This type of pain occurs when special nerve endings in the body (called nociceptors) are irritated, usually after surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy. </p><h3>Neuropathic</h3><p>This type of pain occurs when pain nerves send inaccurate signals to the brain. It can happen when there is direct damage to nerves (for example an amputation) or, sometimes, when pain nerves send inaccurate signals even after tissues have healed.</p><h3>Unclear</h3><p>Pain may sometimes have a mixed mechanism, for example if it is caused by tissue inflammation and nerve damage. Other times, no clear biological mechanism can be found to explain a child’s chronic pain. However, this does not necessarily mean that the pain is psychogenic.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Cancer-related_pain_in_children.jpgMain
DiabetesDiabetesDiabetesDEnglishEndocrinologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)PancreasPancreasConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2018-01-19T05:00:00Z000Landing PageLearning Hub<p>This resource contains information, illustrations and animations to help you understand diabetes, from symptom recognition, to diagnosis, treatment and long-term outcomes. Learn about managing and living with diabetes on a daily basis.</p><p>This resource contains information about diabetes, from symptom recognition, to diagnosis, treatment and long-term outcomes. Learn about managing and living with diabetes on a daily basis. Throughout the resource you will find many illustrations and animations to help you understand the condition, its management and long-term consequences.</p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">What is diabetes?</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Diabetes is a chronic condition that occurs when the body is not able to use sugar as energy. Find out more about the different types of diabetes and their causes such as genetic factors, environmental events, diseases or medications.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1717&language=English">What is diabetes?</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1718&language=English">Types of diabetes</a></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Type 1 diabetes</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1719&language=English">Type 1 diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1720&language=English">Management of type 1 diabetes</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Type 2 diabetes</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1721&language=English">Type 2 diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1722&language=English">Management of type 2 diabetes</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Balancing blood sugar levels</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Diabetes management requires balancing the amount of sugar that enters the body through food with physical activity and potential diabetes medication. Learn about monitoring and controlling of blood sugar levels in this section.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1723&language=English">Balancing blood sugar levels</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1724&language=English">Measuring blood sugar levels</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1725&language=English">Monitoring blood sugar levels</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1726&language=English">Handling high and low blood sugar levels</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1727&language=English">Diabetic ketoacidosis</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Insulin in diabetes management</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Some children with diabetes need insulin to help manage their condition. Insulin is a chemical messenger (hormone) that helps the body use sugar as energy. Learn more about the different types of insulins and injection devices to deliver it.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Overview</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1728&language=English">Insulin in diabetes management</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Understanding insulin</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1729&language=English">Understanding insulin</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1730&language=English">Buying and storing insulin</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Insulin injections</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1731&language=English">Insulin injections</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1732&language=English">Pens and cartridges</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1733&language=English">Insulin pumps</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1734&language=English">Other devices for insulin injections</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1735&language=English">Selecting the injection site</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Insulin regimen</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1736&language=English">The insulin regimen</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1737&language=English">Changing insulin requirements</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1738&language=English">Insulin dose adjustment on a multiple daily routine</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3021&language=English">Insulin dose adjustment on a TID or BID insulin routine</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3022&language=English">Insulin dose adjustment when using an insulin pump</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Questions</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1739&language=English">Tips and questions about insulin</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Maintaining a healthy diet</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Keeping a healthy diet benefits everyone, not only children with diabetes. This section will help you understand what foods hide sugar, plan meals and snacks, and integrate this new diet in your family’s daily life.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Overview</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1740&language=English">Maintaining a healthy diet</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1741&language=English">Meal planning for children with diabetes</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>The meal plan</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1742&language=English">Setting up the meal plan</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1743&language=English">Meal planning with consistent carbohydrate intakes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1744&language=English">Meal planning with changing carbohydrate intakes</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Management</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1745&language=English">Avoiding high and low blood sugar episodes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1746&language=English">The glycemic index</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1747&language=English">Eating out and special occasions</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1748&language=English">Food issues at different ages</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Adjusting to illness and activity</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Changes in your child’s routine can disturb their blood sugar levels and contribute to health issues. Illness, which increases stress, and exercise, which speeds up insulin activity, can contribute to rocketing or dropping blood sugar levels.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Overview</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1749&language=English">Adjusting to illness and activity</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Sick day</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1750&language=English">Diabetes and sick day management</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1751&language=English">Insulin injection management during illness</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1752&language=English">Sick days and insulin pumps</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Exercise</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1753&language=English">Diabetes and exercise</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Hemoglobin A1c</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>The hemoglobin A1c test (also called A1c test) measures the average blood sugar level over a three-month period. It can tell you how well your child’s blood sugar levels are overall controlled.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Overview</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1754&language=English">Hemoglobin A1c</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1755&language=English">What is a good A1c reading?</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Living with diabetes</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Diabetes can affect your child's life at home, at school and on vacation. With effective management and support your child should be able to participate in many of the same activities as other children or teenagers their age.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Overview</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2509&language=English">Living with diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2510&language=English">Effective management of diabetes care at home</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2511&language=English">The diabetes team</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Growth and development</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2512&language=English">Growth and development</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2513&language=English">Infants, toddlers and preschoolers with diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2514&language=English">School-aged children with diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2515&language=English">Teenagers with diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2516&language=English">Thrill-seeking and risky behaviour in teenagers</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Management</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2517&language=English">Diabetes in the classroom</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2518&language=English">Diabetes and vacations</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Looking ahead</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2519&language=English">Transitioning to adult health care</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Complications of diabetes</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Diabetes can lead to health complications such as eye disease, kidney problems or thyroid problems. Controlling blood sugar levels and eating well can help prevent complications.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Overview</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2520&language=English">Complications of diabetes</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Complications</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2521&language=English">Screening for complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2522&language=English">Eye damage and diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2523&language=English">Kidney disease and diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2524&language=English">Other late effects of diabetes</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Related conditions</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2525&language=English">Screening for related conditions to diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2526&language=English">Thyroid diseases and diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2527&language=English">Celiac disease and diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2528&language=English">Addison's disease and diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2529&language=English">Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2530&language=English">Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and diabetes</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Looking ahead</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2531&language=English">Setting the stage for a healthy future</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Resources</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find some additional resources to help you manage your child’s diabetes. Find additional information about the importance of nutrition, physical activity, mental health, sleep and more.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://meant2prevent.ca/">Meant2Prevent</a></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/diabetes_learning_hub.jpgdiabetesdiabetesDiabetes Awareness Month November is Diabetes Awareness Month. Learn about how to help your child manage and live with diabetes day-to-day.Main
Nasal congestion: How to clear your baby's dry, stuffy noseNasal congestion: How to clear your baby's dry, stuffy noseNasal congestion: How to clear your baby's dry, stuffy noseNEnglishNANewborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)NoseNoseConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Nasal congestion2019-02-04T05:00:00ZShawna Silver, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, PEng6.3000000000000074.70000000000001005.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Some newborns are born with a stuffy nose. Learn why and check out some simple tips for parents on how to clear your baby's stuffy nose.</p><p>In the first few days of life, a newborn may sound like they have a stuffy nose because in the womb they were surrounded by fluid. Sometimes they sneeze for the first couple of days as they try to get rid of this leftover fluid in their nasal passages. A newborn with a stuffy nose may snort when breathing and sound "snuffly."</p><p>Stuffy nose or nasal congestion in babies happens when the tissues inside the nose swell or produce mucus. If your baby has a stuffy nose they may breathe through their mouth, which can make it harder for them to feed. In rare cases, a stuffy nose can cause breathing problems. Usually, nasal congestion goes away on its own within a week.</p><p>Extremely dry air can cause the sensitive lining of a baby's nose to dry up. The blood vessels inside a dry nose may break and bleed. If your baby's nose has not been injured but it bleeds, it may be because of a dry nose. This dryness may also make it easier for a baby to get a cold.</p><p>Nasal dryness often worsens during cold winter months, when heating makes the air inside the home dry.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Newborns may sound like they have a stuffy nose because of leftover fluid in their nose from the womb.</li><li>Usually, newborn stuffy nose goes away on its own within a few days.</li><li>In babies, nasal congestion or stuffy nose happens when the tissues inside the nose swell.</li><li>Use salt water nasal drops or an infant nasal aspirator or suction bulb to help clear mucus from your baby's nose.</li><li>If your baby has trouble breathing, see your doctor right away. </li></ul><h2>What causes stuffy nose in babies?</h2><ul><li>dry air</li><li>irritants such as dust, cigarette smoke, or perfumes</li><li>viral illnesses (such as a cold)</li></ul> <p>Try the measures below to help your baby's dry or stuffy nose. If your baby keeps having difficulty breathing or feeding, check with your baby's doctor to rule out any infection or condition that may be causing the stuffy nose.</p><h2>How to soothe your baby's dry nose</h2><p>If a dry or irritated nose seems to be bothering your baby, try these tips:</p><h3>Moisten your baby's nose</h3><p>You can buy salt water (saline) drops at the drug store.</p><ol><li>Lay your child on their back. Place a rolled towel or a small blanket beneath their shoulders or gently press on the tip of the nose to make it easier for the drops to go in.</li><li>Put two or three saline drops into each nostril. Wait 30 to 60 seconds before draining your baby's nose.</li></ol><h3>Run a humidifier or cool-mist vaporizer near your baby's crib</h3><p>If your baby has a dry nose they may also have a stuffy nose. Water vapor can help moisten and loosen the mucus inside your baby's nose. Clean out and re-fill the vaporizer every day.</p><h2>How to clear your baby's stuffy nose</h2><p>In addition to running a humidifier or vaporizer near your baby's crib, you can also clear the mucus using saline nose drops.</p><h3>Clearing mucus using saline nose drops</h3><ol><li>Lay your child on their back. Place a rolled towel or a small blanket beneath their shoulders or gently press on the tip of the nose to make it easier for the drops to go in.</li><li>Put two or three saline nose drops into each nostril. Wait 30 to 60 seconds.</li><li>Turn your child onto their stomach to help their nose drain. Catch the mucus outside the nostril with a tissue or swab. Your baby might cough or sneeze the mucus and saline out.</li><li>Roll the swab or tissue around the outside of the nostril to draw the fluid out of the nose. Do not insert a cotton swab into your child's nostrils.</li></ol><h3>Clearing mucus using an infant nasal aspirator or nasal suction bulb</h3><p>If you have trouble removing the mucus, try using an infant nasal aspirator or nasal suction bulb. A nasal aspirator is a tube that is placed in your baby’s nostril, while you inhale through the mouthpiece of the tube to draw out any mucus. The mucus is then caught in a filter. A suction bulb is inserted into your baby’s nostril and acts as a vacuum to remove mucus. Suction bulbs are generally less effective in clearing mucous and secretions.</p><p>How to use a nasal aspirator:</p><ol><li>Before the first use, rinse the aspirator with hot water and dry thoroughly.</li><li>Place a clean filter in the filter chamber and reconnect the aspirator.</li><li>Lay the child on their back with their head tilted to the right. Carefully place one to two saline drops into the nostril. Follow the same procedure in the opposite nostril after turning the child’s head to the left.</li><li>Place the nasal aspirator soft tip at the entrance of the baby’s nostril. Inhale through the mouthpiece to gently draw out the mucus. Mucus will be collected in the hygienic filter and cannot pass through the inhalation tube. Repeat in the other nostril. Gently lift the baby to allow any remaining mucus to drain out or their nose.</li><li>Soak a tissue or cotton ball in saline solution and use it to gently wipe the child’s nostrils.</li><li>After each use, unclip the aspirator at its base, remove and discard the used filter, rinse the nasal aspirator with hot water and dry. Do not sterilize or boil the nasal aspirator. </li></ol><p>How to use a nasal suction bulb: </p><ol><li>Pinch the air out of the bulb.</li><li>Gently place the tip into the nostril, just inside the opening. Do not go too deep or you can cause damage to the inner part of the nose. Let the air come back into the bulb, pulling the mucus out of the nose with it.</li><li>Release the mucus onto a tissue.</li><li>Rinse the bulb well with fresh water before and after each use.</li></ol><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/0gQqI2gz0Z4?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> </div><h2>When to see a doctor</h2><p>Call your doctor if your child develops any of the following symptoms.</p><ul><li><a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">Fever</a></li><li>Rash</li><li>A stuffy nose together with swelling of the forehead, eyes, side of the nose or cheek</li><li>A stuffy nose that lasts longer than two weeks</li><li>Difficulty breathing or breathing quickly</li><li>Significant trouble feeding or not interested in feeding</li><li>Your baby is extremely fussy or seems to be in pain</li></ul><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/nasal_congestion.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />congestedbabycongestedbabyhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/nasal_congestion.jpgNasal congestion in babiesMain
PneumoniaPneumoniaPneumoniaPEnglishRespiratoryChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)LungsLungsConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Abdominal pain;Cough;Fever;Vomiting2013-11-28T05:00:00ZElly Berger, BA, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, MHPE​​7.0000000000000065.9000000000000624.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs and lower respiratory tract. Learn about the signs and symptoms and how to take care of your child. </p><h2>What is pneumonia?</h2><p>Pneumonia is an infection in the lungs. It may also be called a lower respiratory tract infection. Most cases of pneumonia are caused by viruses in children age three and younger. In older children and teenagers, most cases of pneumonia are caused by bacterial infections. A child could start out by having a viral pneumonia which then becomes complicated by a bacterial pneumonia.</p> <figure class="asset-c-100"><span class="asset-image-title">Pneumonia</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Pneumonia_XRAY_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.png" alt="An x-ray of normal left and right lungs and an x-ray of lungs with pneumonia in the right side" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">In the lung with pneumonia, the affected part of the lung will appear white in a chest X-ray. The white shadow is caused by fluid in the lung's air sacs.</figcaption> </figure> <h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Pneumonia is an infection deep in the lungs. It can be caused by viruses or bacteria.</li> <li>If your child is given antibiotics, be sure to finish all of them, even if your child is feeling better.</li> <li>Keep your child comfortable and give them lots of fluids.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of pneumonia</h2><p>Pneumonia symptoms can vary greatly in children. Common signs and symptoms of pneumonia include:</p><ul><li>high and/or persistent <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=774&language=English">cough</a></li><li>fast breathing</li><li>trouble breathing</li><li>crackly noises in the lung</li><li>loss of appetite</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a> due to the cough or from swallowing mucus</li><li>feeling unwell</li><li>abdominal (belly) pain or chest pain</li></ul> ​<h2>What your doctor can do for pneumonia</h2> <p>Your doctor will listen to your child's lungs with the stethoscope and observe your child's breathing. If your doctor suspects pneumonia, your child may have a <a href="/article?contentid=1647&language=English">chest X-ray</a> to see what your child's lungs look like. Viral pneumonia does not need antibiotic treatment. If your doctor suspects a bacterial infection as a cause of the pneumonia, then your doctor will prescribe antibiotics. Your child's doctor will look at many factors before deciding the best treatment.</p><h2>Taking care of your child at home</h2> <h3>Finish all antibiotics</h3> <p>If your child was given antibiotics, they must finish all the pills or liquid, even if they are feeling better. This is important to prevent the infection from coming back and to decrease the chance of antibiotic resistance.</p> <h3>Monitor and treat the fever</h3> <p>To treat the fever or achy muscles, use <a href="/Article?contentid=62&language=English">acetaminophen</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=153&language=English">ibuprofen</a>. You can give these medicines even if you child is also on antibiotics. They do not interact. DO NOT give your child <a href="/Article?contentid=77&language=English">acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)</a>.</p> <h3>Keep your child fed and hydrated.</h3> <p>Make sure your child drinks plenty of fluids to stay <a href="/Article?contentid=776&language=English">hydrated</a>. Your child may not want to eat much at first. Once the infection begins to clear and your child starts to feel better, they will want to eat more.</p> <h3>Avoid smoky places</h3> <p>Keep your child away from smoke and other lung irritants.</p> <h3>Cough symptoms</h3> <p>Your child's cough may get worse before it gets better. As the pneumonia goes away, your child will cough to get rid of the mucus. The cough may continue for two to three weeks.</p><h2>When to see a doctor</h2><h3>See your child's regular doctor if:</h3><ul><li>Your child's cough lasts for more than three to four days and is not improving</li><li>Your child has a fever for more than two to three days</li><li>Your child's fever lasts more than three days after starting antibiotics<br></li></ul><h3>Take your child to the nearest Emergency Department, or call 911 if your child:</h3><ul><li>has difficulty breathing</li><li>becomes very pale or blue in the lips</li><li>vomits antibiotic doses or will not take fluid</li><li>appears more sick<br></li></ul><h2>Hospital admission if needed</h2><p>Most children can be cared for at home. Very sick children may need to go to the hospital. They may need oxygen and other medicines. They may need antibiotics given intravenously (into a vein) at first, and then by mouth as they get better.</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/pneumonia.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />pneumoniapneumoniahttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/pneumonia.jpgMain
Sexuality: What children should learn and whenSexuality: What children should learn and whenSexuality: What children should learn and whenSEnglishAdolescentToddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2019-06-06T04:00:00ZMiriam Kaufman, MD; Catherine Maser, NP-Paediatrics, MN10.000000000000052.60000000000001279.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>​​​When you talk to your child about sexuality and reproduction, you want to be sure they understand what you are saying. This guide outlines what children are able to understand at different stages.</p><p>Beginning a conversation about sexuality early and continuing that conversation as the child grows is the best sex education strategy. It lets parents avoid giving one big talk when the child reaches adolescence, when they may think they already have the information and won’t be receptive. When talking to your kids about sex, it’s important to explain things in a way that your child can understand, given their age and level of development. <br></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>When talking to your children about sexuality, make sure you explain things in a way that is developmentally appropriate.​</li><li>You do not have to explain everything at once. Younger children tend to be more interested in pregnancy and babies, rather than the act of sex.</li></ul><p>Every child is different, but here is a rough guide to what children should be able to understand about sexuality and reproduction at different stages.<br></p><h2>Toddlers: 13 to 24 months<br></h2><p>Toddlers should be able to name all the body parts including the <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/body/interactive?module=sex-development">genitals</a>. Using the correct names for body parts will allow them to better communicate any health issues, injuries or sexual abuse. It also helps them understand that these parts are as normal as any others, which promotes self-confidence and a positive body image. </p><p>Most two-year-olds know the difference between male and female, and can usually figure out if a person is male or female. They should have a general understanding that a person’s gender identity is not determined by their genitals and that gender can be expressed in different ways. Caregivers can help by not connecting sexual biology to gender (e.g., say “people with penises” or “people with vaginas”).</p><p>Toddlers should know that their body is private. It is normal for toddlers to explore their bodies, which includes touching their genitals, but they should understand when and where it is appropriate to do so.</p><h2>Preschoolers: Two to four years old</h2><p>Most preschoolers are able to understand the very basics of reproduction: the sperm and the egg join, and the baby grows in the uterus. Depending on their level of understanding and interest, you might tell children about their birth story and let them know that this isn’t the only way families are made. Do not think you have to cover everything at once. Younger kids are interested in pregnancy and babies, rather than the act of sex.</p><p>Children should understand their body is their own and no one can touch their body without their permission. They should know other people can touch them in some ways but not other ways and that no one should be asking to touch their genitals except for their parents or health-care providers. If they know what is appropriate and what is not, they will be more likely to tell you if they experience sexual abuse.</p><p>By this age, children should also learn to ask before they touch someone else (e.g., hugging, tickling) and should start to learn about boundaries (e.g., understanding that when someone takes a step away, your child should respect that person’s signal for space). </p><p>Teach children about privacy around body issues. For example, they should know when it’s appropriate to be naked. </p><p>Children should also learn more about other body parts and body functions. Some children of this age think that girls only have one opening for stool and urine, and many children believe that babies grow in tummies, the same place their food goes.</p><h2>School-age children: Five to eight years old</h2><p>Children should have a basic understanding that some people are heterosexual, homosexual or bisexual, and that there is a range of gender expression; gender is not determined by a person's genitals. They should also know what the role of sexuality is in relationships.<br></p><p>Children should know about the basic social conventions of privacy, nudity and respect for others in relationships. Most children have begun to explore their bodies by this age. They should understand that while it is normal, it is something that should be done in private.</p><p>Teach children how to use the computer and mobile devices safely. Children toward this age span should start learning about privacy, nudity and respect for others in the digital context. They should be aware of rules for talking to strangers and sharing photos online and what to do if they come across something that makes them uncomfortable.</p><p>Children should be taught the basics about puberty toward the end of this age span, as a number of children will experience some pubertal development before age 10. They should not only learn about the changes they will experience, but about other bodies too — boys and girls should not have separate lessons. Children should also know about the importance of hygiene and self-care in puberty. Having these discussions early will prepare them for the changes that will happen during puberty and will reassure them that these changes are normal and healthy. </p><p>Children’s understanding of <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/body/interactive?module=genetics/inheritanceintroduction/pages/humanreproduction.aspx">human reproduction​</a> should continue. This may include the role of sexual intercourse, but they should also know that there are other means of reproduction. This information could be incorporated into discussions of puberty. </p><h2>Pre-teens: Nine to 12 years old</h2><p>In addition to reinforcing all the things above that they have already learned, pre-teens should be taught about safer sex and contraception and should have basic information about pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). They should know that being a teenager does not mean they have to be sexually active.</p><p>Pre-teens should understand what makes a positive relationship and what makes for a bad one.</p><p>Pre-teens should have increased knowledge of internet safety, including bullying and sexting. They should know the risks of sharing nude or sexually explicit photos of themselves or their peers.</p><p>Pre-teens should also understand how the media influences the way people view their bodies and should be able to think critically about how sexuality is portrayed in the media. This means being able to judge whether depictions of sex and sexuality are true or false, realistic or not, and whether they are positive or negative. </p><h2>Teenagers: 13 to 18 years old</h2><p>Teens should receive more detailed information about menstruation and nocturnal emissions (wet dreams) and should know that they are normal and healthy. They should also know more about pregnancy and STIs and about different contraception options and how to use them to practise safer sex.</p><p>Learning how to practise safer sex also means learning how alcohol and drugs impact judgment.</p><p>Teens should continue learning the difference between a healthy relationship and an unhealthy relationship. This includes learning about pressures and dating violence and understanding what consent means in sexual relationships. Teens should be equipped with negotiation and refusal skills and methods for ending a relationship.</p><p>Teens are generally very private people. However, if parents have spoken to their child early about sex, it increases the chance that teens will approach parents when difficult or dangerous things come up later or when they have questions or concerns about their changing bodies and identities.</p><p>Alberta Health Services (n.d.). <em>Information by age: Understanding your child’s development</em>. Retrieved from: <a href="https://teachingsexualhealth.ca/parents/information-by-age/">https://teachingsexualhealth.ca/parents/information-by-age/</a></p><p>Alberta Health Services (n.d.). <em>Sexual & gender diversity</em>. Retrieved from: <a href="https://teachingsexualhealth.ca/parents/information-by-topic/sexual-diversity/">https://teachingsexualhealth.ca/parents/information-by-topic/sexual-diversity/</a></p><p>Alberta Health Services (n.d.). <em>Understanding consent</em>. Retrieved from: <a href="https://teachingsexualhealth.ca/parents/information-by-topic/understanding-consent/">https://teachingsexualhealth.ca/parents/information-by-topic/understanding-consent/</a></p><p>Canadian Paediatric Society — Caring for Kids (2017). <em>How to talk with your teen</em>. Retrieved from: <a href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/talk_with_your_teen">https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/talk_with_your_teen</a></p><p>Canadian Paediatric Society — Caring for Kids (2018). <em>Gender identity</em>. Retrieved from: <a href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/gender-identity">https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/gender-identity</a><a></a></p> <a> </a> <p>Canadian Paediatric Society — Caring for Kids (2018). <em>Sexual orientation</em>. Retrieved from: <a href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/teens_sexual_orientation">https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/teens_sexual_orientation</a></p><p>Planned Parenthood (n.d.). <em>Get the facts on sexual health</em>. Retrieved from: <a href="https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn">https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn</a></p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/sex_education_what_when.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/sex_education_what_when.jpg This guide outlines what children can understand about sexuality and reproduction at different stages.Main

 

 

Antibiotic resistanceAntibiotic resistanceAntibiotic resistanceAEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemDrug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2015-06-29T04:00:00ZSarah Lord, MD;Shaun Morris, MD, MPH, FRCPC, FAAP, DTM&H​​11.500000000000038.5000000000000674.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health concern. Learn what it is, what causes it and how you can prevent it.</p><h2>What are antibiotics?</h2> <p>Infections can be caused by bacteria (germs), viruses, parasites or <a href="/Article?contentid=794&language=English">fungi</a>. Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections, such as <a href="/Article?contentid=784&language=English">pneumonia</a> or a <a href="/Article?contentid=935&language=English">urinary tract infection</a>. Antibiotics do not help to treat viral infections such as the <a href="/Article?contentid=12&language=English">common cold</a>, a viral cough or <a href="/Article?contentid=763&language=English">influenza (the flu)</a>.</p> <h2>What is antibiotic resistance?</h2> <p>Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria change in a way that causes antibiotics to become less effective or to not work at all. <br></p><h2>How does antibiotic resistance happen?</h2> <p>When bacteria come in contact with an antibiotic or antibacterial, the weaker bacteria die, but stronger ones survive. When the strong bacteria multiply, more and more strong bacteria are produced that are resistant to the antibiotic. </p> <p>Bacteria become stronger when they change, which reduces the effectiveness of antibiotics. For example, some bacteria can break down antibiotics or prevent the antibiotic from attaching to the site it needs to work. </p> <p>Bacteria can change more than once so that they are resistant to several antibiotics. This makes some bacteria very hard to kill.</p> <h2>Why is antibiotic resistance a problem?</h2> <p>Antibiotic resistance is a problem because we need antibiotics to treat bacterial infections that our bodies need help to get rid of. </p> <p>When bacteria are resistant to antibiotics, doctors have a hard time finding other antibiotics that will work to kill the bacteria. This means that if your child gets an infection from antibiotic-resistant bacteria, they can become very sick and more difficult to treat. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Most infections like the common cold or flu are caused by viruses and should not be treated with antibiotics.</li> <li>Antibiotic resistance is a serious problem that causes people to have infections that are difficult to treat.</li> <li>Using antibiotics properly, including the right antibiotic at the right dose for the right person can help prevent antibiotic resistance.</li> <li>Plain soaps and household cleaners are safer and just as effective as antibacterial ones for use at home.</li> <li>Disposing of antibiotics properly (not in the water supply) is important to help stop the problem of antibiotic resistance.</li> </ul><h2>Causes of antibiotic resistance</h2> <p>Antibiotic resistance happens for many reasons. One reason is because antibiotics are used when they should not be, such as:</p> <ul> <li>Taking an antibiotic when it is not needed (such as to treat a viral illness).</li> <li>Taking the wrong antibiotic or the wrong dose.</li> <li>Stopping an antibiotic too soon.</li> <li>Using an antibiotic that was prescribed for somebody else.</li> </ul> <p>Antibacterial cleaning products that are used in the home, such as household cleaners or bath products, can also lead to antibiotic resistance. Studies have shown that plain soap is just as good at killing bacteria in the home as products labeled antibacterial. In addition, giving animals antibiotics to promote growth or prevent illness can generate resistance in animal bacteria that can later be transmitted to humans. </p><h2>Prevention of antibiotic resistance</h2> <p>The following are ways that you can help prevent antibiotic resistance:</p> <ul> <li>Ask your doctor if antibiotics are the right treatment for your child.</li> <li>If your child needs antibiotics, always give them the full dose that is prescribed.</li> <li>Give your child the full course of antibiotics even if they feel better before the antibiotics are finished.</li> <li>Give antibiotics only to the child for whom they were prescribed.</li> <li>If you have old antibiotics leftover in your house, take them to a medicine disposal program if there is one available in your area.</li> <li>Use plain soaps and household cleaners instead of ones that are labeled as antibacterial.</li> </ul><h2>Safe disposal of antibiotics</h2><p>Antibiotics that end up in our water supply make the problem of antibiotic resistance worse. This usually happens if antibiotics are flushed down the toilet or poured down the sink. </p><p>Many pharmacies have drug take-back programs. If possible, return your unused over-the-counter and prescription drugs to your pharmacy. If your pharmacy does not have a drug take-back program check with your municipality about how to dispose of hazardous household waste, including over-the-counter and prescription drugs.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Oral_Med_pills_liquid_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpgMain
CPR in a child (from age 1 to puberty)CPR in a child (from age 1 to puberty)CPR in a child (from age 1 to puberty): First aidCEnglishNAToddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years)Heart;LungsHeartNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_CPR_child_chest_compressions_EN.jpg2016-10-17T04:00:00ZEmily Louca, BSc, RRT​​7.6000000000000065.8000000000000770.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>CPR is a life-saving technique that combines chest compressions and rescue breaths (mouth-to-mouth resuscitation).<br></p><h2>What is CPR?</h2> <p>CPR stands for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. CPR is an emergency procedure that involves chest compressions (pushing hard down on the chest) and rescue breaths (mouth-to-mouth resuscitation). When given properly, CPR can help deliver oxygen to the brain and other organs until help arrives or until your child recovers.</p> <p>The method described on this page applies to children between one year of age and puberty. Once puberty has begun, children should receive CPR as adults.</p><p>Causes of cardiac arrest in children and teens are usually a result of a major injury or illness and rarely from underlying heart disease.</p> <h3>Other causes may include: </h3> <ul><li><a href="/Article?contentid=1968&language=English">drowning</a></li> <li>suffocation</li> <li>electrocution</li> <li>poisoning or intoxication</li> <li>life-threatening (<a href="/Article?contentid=781&language=English">anaphylactic</a>) allergic reactions</li> </ul> <p>This information can refresh your memory if you have already undergone a CPR course. It does not replace real, hands-on CPR training. CPR courses are often available through local recreation programs, advanced swim programs and first aid programs. In Canada, such programs are offered by the <a href="http://www.redcross.ca/training-and-certification" target="_blank">Canadian Red Cross</a>, <a href="https://resuscitation.heartandstroke.ca/courses/firstaid/sfa?_ga=1.85792092.479256543.1450713783" target="_blank">Heart and Stroke Foundation</a> and <a href="https://www.sja.ca/English/Courses-and-Training/Pages/Course%20Descriptions/CPR-AED-Courses.aspx">St. John Ambulance</a> for example. The basic skills are simple and usually only take a few hours to learn.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Take an official course to learn real, hands-on CPR. </li> <li>CPR involves both chest compressions and rescue breathing (mouth-to-mouth resuscitation). Give 30 compressions and two rescue breaths; repeat this cycle until help arrives or your child recovers.</li> <li>If your child is unresponsive and not breathing or only gasping despite stimulation, start CPR right away and have someone else call 911.</li> <li>Once your child starts breathing, put them in the recovery position. This will keep their airway open.</li> </ul><h2>Giving CPR to your child</h2><p>Check to see if your child is responsive by tapping them on the shoulder and asking loudly, “Are you OK?”. If your child does not answer, follow these instructions depending on your situation:<br></p><ul><li>If you are not alone, have someone else call 911 and get an AED (automated external defibrillator) right away, if available, while you are doing CPR. </li><li>If you are alone and have a cell phone, start CPR while calling 911 from your cell phone on speaker. After two minutes of CPR (five cycles), go get an AED if available.</li><li>If you are alone and have no cell phone, start CPR for two minutes (five cycles) and then call 911 from a landline and get an AED if available.</li></ul><ol class="akh-steps"><li> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_CPR_child_chest_compressions_EN.jpg" alt="Positioning child for CPR chest compressions" /> </figure> <h2>Chest compressions: Push hard, push fast</h2><p>Begin CPR by laying your child down on a firm, flat surface. Do not spend time trying to find a pulse. Place the heel of one or two hands over the lower third of your child's breastbone and give them 30 quick chest compressions (push fast). Be sure to push hard enough so their chest moves approximately 5 cm (2 inches) down (push hard). </p><p>Count out loud. You should deliver about 100-120 compressions a minute. Wait for the chest to come all the way back to its initial position between compressions. This will get the blood flowing to your child's brain and other vital organs.</p></li><li> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_CPR_child_open_airway_EN.jpg" alt="Opening child's airway for rescue breaths" /> </figure> <h2>Rescue breaths: Open the airway</h2><p>After the first 30 chest compressions, place the palm of your hand on your child’s forehead. Place two fingers on the hard, bony tip of their chin and gently tilt their neck back. This will open your child's airway. </p></li><li> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_CPR_child_breathe_airway_EN.jpg" alt="Giving child CPR rescue breaths" /> </figure> <h2>Two rescue breaths </h2><p>Pinch your child's nose and place your mouth over their mouth and give two breaths. Each breath should be just enough to make your child’s chest rise and should be no more than one second in length. Make sure you see your child's chest rise with each breath. </p></li><li> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_CPR_child_chest_compressions_EN.jpg" alt="Repeating CPR chest compressions" /> </figure> <h2>Repeat </h2><p>Give cycles of 30 chest compressions and two breaths during two minutes and repeat until the ambulance arrives or your child starts breathing again. Two minutes usually allow for five cycles of 30 chest compressions and two breaths.</p><p>A two-minute CPR cycle is usually tiring. If you are not alone, switch who is giving CPR every two minutes.</p></li><li> <figure class="”asset-c-100”"> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_CPR_child_recovery_position_EN.jpg" alt="Putting child in recovery position" /> </figure> <h2>Recovery position</h2><p>Once your child has recovered and started breathing again on their own, put them in the <a href="/Article?contentid=1037&language=English">recovery position</a> until help arrives. The recovery position will help keep your child’s airway open and prevent them from choking on their own vomit. If your child vomits, wipe it away. Make sure nothing is blocking or covering their mouth and nose. </p></li></ol><br>​​​​<p>The <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/" target="_blank">Hospital for Sick Children​</a> offers the Heart and Stroke Foundation’s <a href="http://www.cvent.com/events/hospital-for-sick-children-standard-first-aid-heart-stroke-foundation-/event-summary-d989cebc9ab14e1281c6db68ab161d7c.aspx" target="_blank">First Aid program​</a>. It provides CPR and resuscitation training for patients, families and the general public.​</p>Main
Eczema: Seasonal changesEczema: Seasonal changesEczema: Seasonal changesEEnglishDermatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)SkinSkinNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-01-10T05:00:00ZMiriam Weinstein, MD, FRCPC;Jackie Su, RN6.1000000000000073.8000000000000612.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Atopic dermatitis (eczema) can be worse in cold, dry weather or when your child is hot and sweaty. Find out how you can help your child.</p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=773&language=English">Atopic dermatitis</a> is a chronic (long-lasting) skin condition that comes in many forms. It is also called eczema.</p><p>With eczema, the skin becomes dry, very itchy and rash may appear. There are usually times when the condition is worse, and times when the condition is better. When the condition worsens, this a called a flare-up. Flare-ups often occur in the winter months when the air is drier, but it can happen any time throughout the year.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>You may find that your child's eczema is worse in the colder, dryer months. Use a humidifier and keep moisturizing your child's skin.</li><li>In the warmer months, help your child stay cool to avoid sweating.</li><li>Protect your child's skin from the sun.</li></ul><h2>Colder months</h2><p>You may find that your child's eczema is worse in the colder, dryer months. During this time, the air becomes very dry and holds less moisture. This can cause dryer skin. Also, the heating in some houses can cause skin to dry out and flare-ups to occur. It is important that you keep your child covered in the winter and maintain your regular bathing and moisturizing schedule.</p><ul><li>In the colder months, your child should avoid wearing wool or other rough fabrics. These fabrics can be very irritating to the skin and may lead to flare-ups.</li><li>Dress your child warmly when they go outside. Layers are preferred because too much clothing may make your child sweat and increase itch. Protect the sensitive areas of the face and hands by having your child wear a scarf and gloves when going outside.</li><li>Use a humidifier. It helps keep the air moist and helps to prevent the skin from becoming dry. Using a humidifier in your child's room as well as in other often used rooms may be helpful. Keep the humidifier's filter clean of mould and dust because they could <a href="/Article?contentid=1484&language=English">trigger asthma attacks</a>.</li><li>Moisturize, moisturize, moisturize!</li></ul><h2>Warmer months</h2><p>In the warmer months, humidity can increase sweating and can cause flare-ups in some people. It is important for your child to stay cool. Sweating causes itchiness and can make the symptoms of eczema worse.</p><ul><li>Have your child wear loose-fitting cotton clothing. Cotton allows the air to circulate better and helps to absorb body moisture. This helps to keep the body cool and dry.</li><li>During flare-ups, it may be a good idea to lessen activities in which the child may sweat a lot, or try to participate in these activities earlier or later in the day when it is not as hot.</li></ul><h2>Sun exposure</h2><p>Many people with eczema find their symptoms get better when they go out in the sun. Other people may find their symptoms get worse. No matter what the case is for your child, you still need to <a href="/Article?contentid=308&language=English">protect their skin from the sun's harmful rays</a>. Some sunscreens can make eczema worse:</p><ul><li>Sunscreens may contain ingredients that can irritate some people's skin.</li><li>Test any new product on a small area before using it on the rest of the body.</li><li>Apply a small amount to the inside of your child's arm and wait 24 hours to see if any reaction happens.</li><li>If your child's skin becomes red or itchy after you have tested the sunscreen, do not use it.</li><li>Sunscreen with SPF 30 and above should be used.<br></li><li>If you are having trouble, ask your pharmacist, nurse or doctor for advice.</li></ul><h2>Resources</h2><ul><li>The <a target="_blank" href="https://eczemahelp.ca/">Eczema Society of Canada</a></li><li> <a target="_blank" href="http://www.leo-pharma.ca/Home.aspx">EASE Program</a></li><li> <a target="_blank" href="https://nationaleczema.org/">National Eczema Association</a></li><li> <a target="_blank" href="http://www.eczema.org/">National Eczema Society</a></li></ul><p>DermNet NZ. [http://www.dermnetnz.org]. Hamilton, New Zealand: DermNet NZ; 2008</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/eczema_seasonal_changes.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/eczema_seasonal_changes.jpgMain
Swollen lymph nodesSwollen lymph nodesSwollen lymph nodesSEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NAImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Swollen glands2019-05-10T04:00:00ZShawna Silver, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, PEng7.6000000000000066.0000000000000752.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Swollen lymph nodes occur when the body is fighting an infection. Learn how to identify and treat swollen lymph nodes in your child.</p><h2>What are lymph nodes?</h2><p>Lymph nodes are an important part of the immune system. They act like tiny filters, catching viruses and bacteria for white blood cells to destroy. They also produce substances that help kill infection-causing germs.</p><p>The body has over 600 lymph nodes. These are located all around the body except for the brain and heart. Most lymph nodes are found in groups near the armpit, groin and neck. They are also in the chest and abdomen away from the surface of the skin.</p><p>Lymph nodes usually measure 0.5 to 1.5 cm across, depending on where they are located. In general, lymph nodes are about the size of a pea.</p><h2>What are swollen lymph nodes?</h2><p>Swollen lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy) occur when the body is fighting an infection. Young children are constantly being exposed to new infections, so their lymph nodes are often larger than those of adults.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Most often, lymph nodes swell when they are fighting an infection.</li> <li>Treatment for swollen lymph nodes depends on the cause.</li> <li>Swelling due to viral infections, such as the common cold, will disappear on its own.</li> <li>Swelling due to bacterial infections, such as strep throat, will disappear with antibiotics.</li> <li>Give your child acetaminophen or ibuprofen to treat pain or fever.</li> <li>See your child's doctor if your child develops unusual bruising or is losing weight or if their lymph nodes do not shrink after a few weeks.</li> </ul> ​<h2>Causes of swollen lymph nodes</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Lymphatic system</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Lymphatic_system_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Identification of the adenoid, tonsil, thymus gland, spleen and lymph vessels in a boy" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The lymphatic system is an important part of the body's immune system. It is made up of a network of lymph nodes and vessels which make and move substances that fight infection by destroying micro-organisms in the body. Examples of lymph nodes include the tonsils and adenoids.</figcaption> </figure> <p>Lymph nodes can swell because they are reacting to an infection or they are infected.</p><h3>Reactive lymph nodes</h3><p>Your child's lymph nodes will swell in a certain part of the body when they are fighting an infection nearby. If the lymph nodes are infected by a virus, such as a <a href="/Article?contentid=12&language=English">cold</a>, or a bacteria, as in <a href="/Article?contentid=11&language=English">strep throat</a>, they can grow to about two centimetres in the neck area. This slight enlargement, along with mild tenderness, means the lymph nodes are reacting to the infection and working to control it.</p><h3>Infected lymph nodes</h3><p>If your child's lymph nodes are very tender and grow to more than four centimetres and the surrounding skin turns red, the lymph nodes may be becoming infected themselves. This condition is known as lymphadenitis.</p><p>Lymphadenitis is treated with antibiotics. Children who have lymphadenitis with a high fever, a lot of pain and difficulty drinking or swallowing may need to be admitted to hospital for IV antibiotics (antibiotics given through the vein).</p><h3>Other possible causes of swollen lymph nodes</h3><ul><li>Skin infections, rashes and <a href="/Article?contentid=800&language=English">insect bites</a> may cause lymph nodes to get larger.</li><li>Rarely, lymph nodes can be swollen because of some types of cancer, such as leukemia or lymphoma.<br></li></ul><h2>How to treat side effects of swollen lymph nodes</h2> <h3>Swelling</h3> <p>Swollen lymph nodes caused by a viral infection will shrink to normal size on their own in about two to four weeks. If your child has a bacterial infection, their doctor may prescribe antibiotics to treat the underlying cause of the swelling.</p> <p>In some cases, it can take up to one month or more for the swelling to disappear completely.</p> <h3>Pain or fever</h3> <p>For pain or fever, you can give your child <a href="/Article?contentid=62&language=English">acetaminophen</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=153&language=English">ibuprofen</a> as directed on the bottle or by your child's doctor.</p><h2>When to see a doctor for swollen lymph nodes</h2><p>Make an appointment with your child's doctor if:</p><ul><li>Your child has a <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a>.</li><li>Your child develops a sore throat.</li><li>The lymph nodes continue to grow or do not shrink to normal size over a few weeks.</li><li>Your child develops unusual bruising.</li><li>Your child is losing weight.</li></ul><p>Call 911 or go to the nearest emergency department if:</p><ul><li>The skin around the swollen node is red and painful.<br></li><li>The node grows to four or more centimetres across.<br></li><li>A node in the neck is very swollen and your child has difficulty breathing or moving their head.</li></ul><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/swollen_lymph_nodes.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/swollen_lymph_nodes.jpgMain