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Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu)Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu)Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu)VEnglishInfectious Diseases;GastrointestinalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Stomach;Small Intestine;Large Intestine/ColonImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Abdominal pain;Diarrhea;Fever;Headache;Vomiting2019-03-12T04:00:00Z10.000000000000048.1000000000000861.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Viral gastroenteritis, often called "stomach flu," is an infection that causes inflammation of the stomach and intestines. Learn the symptoms and treatment of viral gastroenteritis.</p><h2>What is viral gastroenteritis?</h2><p>Gastroenteritis is the inflammation of the stomach and small and large intestines. Viral gastroenteritis means the inflammation is caused by infection from a virus. It often causes <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a> (throwing up), <a href="/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a> or both.</p><p>Viral gastroenteritis is often called "stomach flu," but it is not caused by the influenza virus. Viruses that cause viral gastroenteritis include rotaviruses, torovirus, adenoviruses, caliciviruses, astroviruses, and a group of Norwalk-like viruses.</p><h3>Viral gastroenteritis is NOT caused by any of the following, although the symptoms may be similar:</h3><ul><li>bacteria such as salmonella or E. coli </li><li>parasites such as Giardia </li><li>medications </li><li>other medical conditions </li></ul><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Viral gastroenteritis is an infection of the stomach and intestines, caused by a virus.</li><li>The main symptoms include diarrhea and vomiting.</li><li>Diarrhea and vomiting can cause a loss of fluids, also called dehydration.</li><li>If dehydration is severe, patients may have to be given fluid intravenously (IV) at the hospital.</li><li>Viral gastroenteritis can spread by sharing food, water and utensils. Frequent hand washing can help prevent the spread of infection to others.</li><li>Viral gastroenteritis is usually not a serious illness. However, people who have weak immune systems are at risk for more serious infection.</li></ul><h2>What are the symptoms of viral gastroenteritis?</h2><p>Diarrhea and vomiting are the main symptoms of viral gastroenteritis.</p><p>In addition to diarrhea and vomiting, a child with viral gastroenteritis may have the following symptoms. </p><ul><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">Fever</a></li><li>Stomach cramps or a sore stomach</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=29&language=English">Headache</a></li><li>Sore throat</li><li>Decreased activity level</li><li>Increased sleepiness</li><li>Decreased appetite </li></ul><p>In general, the symptoms begin one to two days after catching the virus. They can last for one to 10 days.</p><h2>Viral gastroenteritis can be spread</h2><h3>Viral gastroenteritis can spread through the following methods:</h3><ul><li>sharing food, water or eating utensils such as forks and knives with someone who has the virus</li><li>not washing hands after touching items that may have the virus on their surface</li><li>not washing hands after diaper changes or toileting</li></ul><p>It is important to clean and disinfect surfaces and items that your child touches, including toys, and wash laundry thoroughly to remove the virus from your home. </p><h2>Anyone can catch viral gastroenteritis</h2><p>People of all ages and backgrounds can get viral gastroenteritis. However, different groups often get different viruses:</p><ul><li>Babies and toddlers tend to get rotaviruses and torovirus more often. </li><li>Adenoviruses and astroviruses tend to cause diarrhea mostly in young children. </li><li>Norwalk-like viruses are more likely to cause diarrhea in older children and adults. </li></ul><h2>Treating viral gastroenteritis</h2><p>The best treatment for viral gastroenteritis in children and adults is to prevent <a href="/Article?contentid=776&language=English">dehydration</a>. Dehydration happens when more fluid leaves the body than enters it.</p><h3>Symptoms of dehydration include:</h3><ul><li>Dry, cracked lips and a dry or sticky mouth </li><li>Thirst </li><li>Low or no urine output; concentrated urine appears dark yellow </li><li>Not producing tears </li><li>Being fussy or cranky </li><li>Seeming bored or uninterested </li><li>Headache </li><li>Dizziness </li><li>Cramps </li><li>Chills </li><li>Fatigue </li></ul><h3>In severe cases, dehydration can cause:</h3><ul><li>Sunken eyes </li><li>Sunken fontanelle (soft spot) on the top of a baby's head </li><li>Nausea or vomiting </li><li>Irritability</li><li>Lethargy (little to no energy)</li></ul><p>If your child becomes severely dehydrated, they may need to be treated at the hospital. In the hospital, fluids can be replaced through an intravenous line (IV) if necessary. </p><h2>Viral gastroenteritis is rarely a serious illness</h2><p>For most people, viral gastroenteritis is not a serious illness. People who get viral gastroenteritis almost always recover completely without any long-term problems. How fast a child recovers from viral gastroenteritis partly depends on which virus is causing the illness.</p><p>Viral gastroenteritis can be a serious illness in people who are unable to drink enough fluids to replace what they lose through vomiting or diarrhea. Babies, young children, and people who are unable to care for themselves, such as the disabled or elderly, are at risk for dehydration from losing too much of the body's water.</p><p>People with immune system problems are at risk for dehydration because they may get more severe symptoms, including more vomiting and diarrhea. People with severe symptoms may need to stay in the hospital to treat or prevent dehydration.</p><h2>You can prevent viral gastroenteritis with good hand washing</h2> <h3>To avoid catching or spreading viral gastroenteritis, you should do the following things:</h3> <ul> <li>Wash hands well and often. This is especially important at hospitals and other medical facilities. </li> <li>Do not visit anyone in hospital when you are ill with symptoms of viral gastroenteritis. Ask other family members and friends to do the same. </li> </ul><h2>If your child is in hospital, help stop viral gastroenteritis from spreading</h2><ul><li>Your child may be placed in a single room and will not be able to visit the playroom until they are feeling better. </li><li>Wash your hands often before and after touching your child and before leaving your child's room. Expect hand washing by hospital staff as well. </li><li>If you or anyone else who has visited becomes ill with symptoms of viral gastroenteritis, let your child's doctor or nurse know.</li><li>If your child has symptoms of viral gastroenteritis and they are in the hospital, all staff caring for your child should wear gloves and a gown. </li></ul><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/viral_gastroenteritis_flu.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />stomachflustomachfluhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/viral_gastroenteritis_flu.jpg Stomach flu is an infection that causes inflammation of the stomach and intestines. Learn the symptoms and treatment of stomach flu.Main
FeverFeverFeverFEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Fever2019-02-13T05:00:00Z8.0000000000000062.90000000000002359.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>A fever can be a sign that the body is fighting an infection. Learn how to properly care for a baby, toddler or child with a fever.</p><p>A fever can be a sign that the body is fighting an infection. When the body's defense (immune) system is activated by a bacteria or a virus, many reactions occur in the body. Fever is one sign of these reactions. Fever is not a disease or illness itself but a signal that something is going on in the body. How your child looks and acts are more important than how high the fever is.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Fever is usually a sign that the body is fighting an infection.</li><li>A temperature of 38°C (100.4°F) or higher means a fever. </li><li>See your doctor if your child has a temperature that lasts for more than three days or if your child has a fever and is less than three months old.</li><li>Pay attention to how your child looks and acts. Keep a record of the number of days of fever.</li><li>To keep your child comfortable, dress your child lightly. Give your child lots of fluids to drink, and give acetaminophen or ibuprofen if it seems to make your child feel better.</li></ul><h2>What to expect when your child has a fever</h2> <p>Fevers can go up and down on their own without medication. Fevers can make children feel uncomfortable. </p> <ul> <li>When symptoms are mild, your child may be slightly cranky or have aches and pains. Some children are less active and sleepier. They may not be interested in eating or drinking.</li> <li>Some fevers may be associated with shaking (chills or rigors) as the body temperature is changing. This type of shaking is one way for the body to try to regulate the temperature. It is not a seizure or convulsion, and is not associated with changes in the child's level of consciousness.</li> <li>Approximately 5% of children between the ages of six months and six years may have <a href="/Article?contentid=1&language=English">febrile seizures</a>. They are episodes called a seizure or convulsion associated with a fever. Your child should see a doctor after a febrile seizure, but febrile seizures are generally not dangerous.</li> </ul> <p>The type of infection causing the fever usually determines how often the fever recurs and how long the fever lasts. Fevers due to viruses can last for as little as two to three days and sometime as long as two weeks. A fever caused by a bacterial infection may continue until the child is treated with an antibiotic.</p> <h2>What causes fever?</h2> <p>Many different infections can cause a fever. To find out what is causing your child's fever, the doctor will look at other signs or symptoms of the illness, not the fever itself. How high a fever is does not help the doctor to decide whether an infection is mild or severe, or whether an infection is from a bacteria or a virus.</p> <p>It is important to know how many days of fever your child has had. You should keep a record of your child's fevers so that you can accurately tell the doctor how long the fever has been present.</p> <h3>Fever may also be caused by other conditions</h3> <ul> <li>A mild increase in body temperature can occur with exercise or too much clothing, after a hot bath or shower, or in hot weather.</li> <li>Rarely, <a href="/Article?contentid=1915&language=English">heat stroke</a> or exposure to certain medications or drugs can cause a severe and possibly dangerous increase in body temperature.</li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=1986&language=English">Vaccinations</a> can cause fever. </li> <li>Some non-infectious illnesses and inflammatory conditions can cause recurrent or persistent fevers. </li> </ul> <h3>Teething does not cause fever</h3> <p>Many people believe that <a href="/Article?contentid=304&language=English">teething</a> causes fever. Research shows us that teething does not cause real fever. If your baby has a fever, do not assume it is due to teething.<br></p> <h2>Does my child have a fever?</h2><h3>A temperature of 38°C (100.4°F) or higher is a fever</h3><p>Children often feel warm to the touch when they have a fever. To confirm that your child has a fever, use a thermometer to measure your child's body temperature. A temperature of 38°C (100.4°F) or higher means that your child has a fever.</p><h3>Measuring your child’s temperature</h3><p>Do NOT use a glass thermom​eter which contains mercury.</p><p>The <a href="/Article?contentid=966&language=English">most accurate way to measure temperature</a> is with a thermometer:</p><ul class="akh-steps"><li> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">How to measure a rectal temperature</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_temperature_rectal_EN.jpg" alt="Baby lying on tummy across a lap with thermometer inserted in the baby's rectum" /></figure> <p>Inserted into the anus or rectum (rectal temperature) in babies and children under three years of age</p></li><li> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">How to measure an oral temperature</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_temperature_oral_EN.jpg" alt="Young girl lying under a blanket while her temperature is taken by mouth" /></figure> <p>Placed in the mouth (oral temperature) in older children able to hold the thermometer in their mouth long enough</p></li></ul><p>Other methods of measuring temperature may sometimes be useful but less accurate. These methods include: </p><ul class="akh-steps"><li> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">How to measure an armpit (axillary) temperature</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_temperature_armpit_EN.jpg" alt="Baby lying on their back with a thermometer held under the armpit" /></figure> <p>Using a thermometer in the armpit (axillary temperature)</p></li><li> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">How to measure an ear (tympanic) temperature</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_temperature_ear_EN.jpg" alt="Boy having his temperature taken by ear with one hand holding the ear up and the other holding the thermometer in the ear" /></figure> <p>Using an ear thermometer (tympanic temperature)</p></li></ul><p>You should avoid using a thermometer on the forehead or pacifier thermometer to check a temperature because they are inaccurate.</p><h3>Fever in babies younger than three months</h3><p>If your baby is less than three months old and has a fever, you need to see a doctor immediately.</p><p>For babies less than one month of age, fever may be a sign of a serious infection. If this happens on the weekend, do not wait to see your doctor; go to the nearest Emergency Department right away to have your baby assessed by a doctor. Do not give any fever medication to your baby unless a doctor says so.​<br></p><h2>Taking care of your child with a fever</h2> <h3>Clothing</h3> <p>Keep your child lightly dressed. Most body heat is lost through the skin, so overdressing or bundling your child may result in a higher fever and can make your child more uncomfortable. If your child is having chills or shivers, give them a light blanket. Keep the room temperature at a level that is comfortable for you, when lightly dressed.</p> <h3>Extra fluids</h3> <p>Fever will make your child's body lose some fluid (liquid), so encourage your child to drink extra fluids to avoid <a href="/Article?contentid=776&language=English">dehydration</a>. Whether you give your child cold or warm drinks does not matter. However, cool water or drinks may help your child feel more comfortable.</p> <h3>Sponging</h3> <p>Sponging is unnecessary to help lower body temperature and may make your child more uncomfortable. Sponging may just cool the outside of your child's body and cause them to shiver without really affecting the internal body temperature. Only use sponging in an emergency, such as heat stroke.</p> <h3>Medication</h3> <p>You should use medication to keep your child comfortable. You should not base your judgment on how high the fever but rather on how your child is feeling. Medication may only reduce the fever by 1°C to 2°C (2°F to 3°F) and may not bring the temperature down to normal.</p> <p>Fevers may also cycle up and down on their own, so it is difficult to tell whether a fever is reduced because of medication or because of the natural fever pattern. If your child is sleeping comfortably, it is not necessary to wake them up to give medications. </p> <h3>Two types of medication are usually recommended for managing fever</h3> <p>They are:</p> <ul> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=62&language=English">acetaminophen</a></li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=153&language=English">ibuprofen</a></li> </ul> <p>Both drugs are available in tablets, capsules and liquid formulations of various strengths. Acetaminophen is also available as a rectal suppository. Do not put a tablet intended for the mouth into a child's rectum.</p> <p>Your doctor or pharmacist can help you decide on the most appropriate formulation and dose for your child. The correct dose for a child is based on body weight. An estimated dose is usually provided on the medication package. Note that acetaminophen and ibuprofen have different doses and different lengths of time between doses. </p> <p>These drugs can make your child more comfortable, but they do not treat the underlying cause of the fever. Acetaminophen and ibuprofen do not interact with each other. They may be equally effective in lowering a temperature. Keep track of when you have given any medication. You should not routinely alternate between acetaminophen and ibuprofen.</p> <p>If your child has a pre-existing medical condition or is already taking other medicines, talk to your child's doctor to make sure that acetaminophen or ibuprofen is safe for your child. </p> <h3>Do not use ASA (Aspirin) to treat your child's fever </h3> <p>Although rare, <a href="/Article?contentid=77&language=English">ASA (acetylsalicylic acid or Aspirin)</a> has been linked to a severe condition called Reye's syndrome. Do not give ASA to a child to manage a fever unless your doctor has specifically told you to do so. You may need to check the label of other medication or ask your pharmacist to make sure that they do not contain ASA. </p><h2>When to see a doctor</h2><h3>See your child's regular doctor or go to the nearest Emergency Department right away if your child has a fever and: </h3><ul><li>Your child is less than three months old.</li><li>You have recently returned from travelling abroad. </li><li>Your child develops a rash that looks like small purple dots that do not go away when you apply pressure with your fingers (blanching). </li><li>Your child is not able to keep down any fluids, is not peeing and appears dehydrated. </li><li>Your child's skin looks very pale or grey, or is cool or mottled. </li><li>Your child is in constant pain. </li><li>Your child is lethargic (very weak) or difficult to wake up. </li><li>Your child has a stiff neck. </li><li>Your child has a seizure associated with fever for the first time or a long seizure associated with fever. </li><li>Your child is looking or acting very sick. </li><li>Your child seems confused or delirious.</li><li>Your child does not use their arm or leg normally or refuses to stand up. </li><li>Your child has problems breathing. </li><li>Your child cries constantly and cannot be settled. </li></ul><h3>See a doctor within one to two days if your child has a fever and: </h3><ul><li>Your child is between three and six months old.</li><li>Your child has specific pain, such as ear or throat pain that may require evaluation.</li><li>Your child has had a fever for more than three days. </li><li>The fever went away for over 24 hours and then came back. </li><li>Your child has a bacterial infection that is being treated with an antibiotic, but the fever is not going away after two to three days of starting the antibiotic. </li><li>Your child cries when going to the bathroom. </li><li>You have other concerns or questions. </li></ul><p>If you are unsure, call Telehealth Ontario at 1-866-797-0000 (toll-free number) if you live in Ontario.</p><h2>Myths about fever</h2><p>There are many myths about fever, and some of these myths may make you worry unnecessarily. If your child has a fever, the most important thing is how your child looks and acts. </p><h3>Myth: Fever needs to be treated with medication</h3><p>This is wrong! The fever itself is not dangerous and does not need to be treated. Medication should be used to make your child more comfortable when they have a fever. If your child is comfortable with a fever (either awake or sleeping) you do not need to give them fever medication. </p><h3>Myth: The exact number of the temperature is useful</h3><p>That is wrong! The most important part of assessing a child with fever is how the child looks and acts, especially after treating the fever with medication. For example a child who appears well but has a high temperature is less concerning than a child who only has a mild fever, but who appears quite unwell or unresponsive. Some minor viral illnesses may trigger high fevers; some serious bacterial infections may be associated with an abnormally low body temperature. In any case, you should measure your child’s temperature so you can keep a record of the number of days of fever.</p><h3>Myth: Fevers cause brain damage</h3><p>That is wrong! Most fevers associated with infections are less than 42°C (107.6°F). These fevers do not cause brain damage. Only a persistent body temperature greater than 44°C (111.2°F) can cause brain damage. These body temperatures are more likely to occur with heat stroke or after exposure to certain street drugs or medications, such as anaesthetic or some psychiatric medicines. They do not occur with the usual infections that children can have. </p><h3>Myth: Fevers are bad for children</h3><p>That is wrong! A fever is just a sign that the body's immune system has been activated. Fevers help to fight infections because many germs do not survive as well at slightly higher body temperatures. Thus most fevers have a beneficial effect despite your child’s discomfort. The main reason to use medication is to make the child feel better. </p><h3>Myth: Fevers should always respond to ibuprofen or acetaminophen</h3><p>That is wrong! These medications help make children feel more comfortable but may only reduce the fever by 1°C to 2°C (2°F to 3°F) and may not bring the temperature down to normal. Sometimes a fever continues even after giving ibuprofen or acetaminophen.</p><h3>Myth: Fevers should respond quickly to antibiotics </h3><p>That is wrong! Antibiotics are only useful in treating bacterial infections. The antibiotic will start working to fight the bacteria as soon as your child takes it, but it may take two to three days before the fever goes away. Antibiotics have no effect on viral infections. Since most infections in children are caused by viruses, an antibiotic will be of no use in these cases. </p><h3>Myth: Treating the fever will prevent febrile seizures </h3><p>This is wrong! Treating the fever will not prevent febrile seizures and you should not use medications for this purpose. Febrile seizures usually run in families and are more likely to happen at the beginning of your child’s infection.</p>​​ <h2>References</h2><p>Richardson M, Purssell E. (2015). Who's afraid of fever? <em>Arch Dis Child</em>. 100(9):818-20. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2015-309491. Retrieved on February 10th, 2016 <a href="https://adc.bmj.com/content/100/9/818">https://adc.bmj.com/content/100/9/818</a></p> <br> <p>Sullivan JE, Farrar HC. (2011). Fever and antipyretic use in children. <em>Pediatrics</em>. 127(3):580-7. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-3852. Retrieved February 10th, 2016. <a href="https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/127/3/580.full.pdf">https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/127/3/580.full.pdf</a> </p> <br> <p>Mistry N, Hudak A. (2014). Combined and alternating acetaminophen and ibuprofen therapy for febrile children. <em>Paediatrics & Child Health</em>. 19(10):531-2. Retrieved on February 10th, 2016 <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4276386/pdf/pch-19-531.pdf">https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4276386/pdf/pch-19-531.pdf​</a> and Corrigendum. (2015). <em>Paediatrics & Child Health</em>, 20(8), 466–467. Retrieved on February 10th, 2016 <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4699537/">https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4699537/</a> </p> <br> <p>National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (2013). <em>Feverish illness in children: assessment and initial management in children younger than 5 years</em> (2nd ed.). Sections 9.1 and 9.2. London, UK: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Retrieved February 10th, 2016 <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK327853/">https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK327853/</a><br></p> ​feverfever,fievrehttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/fever.jpgMain
Influenza (flu): An overviewInfluenza (flu): An overviewInfluenza (flu): An overviewIEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Cough;Fever;Headache;Sore throat2020-09-30T04:00:00Z7.1000000000000070.10000000000001335.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Although the flu is very common, it can be dangerous for some people including young children, the elderly, and those with compromised immune systems or other underlying diseases. Learn more about the flu and how to protect against it.</p><h2>What is influenza?</h2><p>Influenza (flu) is a lung infection caused by specific influenza viruses. People can get the flu at any time of year, but it is more common in the fall and winter. <br></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Influenza (flu) is not the same as the common cold. </li><li>Flu is caused by the influenza virus. </li><li>Most people who get the flu do not get seriously ill and will have symptoms for two to seven days. </li><li>You can reduce your risk of getting the flu by getting a flu shot each year and washing your hands frequently. </li><li>If your child has the flu they should stay home and rest. If they do not start to feel better after a few days or if symptoms get worse, call your child’s primary care provider. </li></ul><h2>Common symptoms of the flu</h2><p>People who get the flu usually have some or all of the following symptoms:</p><ul><li> <a href="/article?contentid=30&language=english">fever</a></li><li>muscle aches</li><li> <a href="/article?contentid=29&language=english">headache</a></li><li> <a href="/article?contentid=748&language=english">sore throat</a></li><li> <a href="/article?contentid=774&language=english">cough</a></li><li>fatigue and weakness</li></ul><p>Most of these symptoms usually last for two to seven days. Rare but serious complications of the flu include bacterial pneumonia and influenza infection of the brain. </p><h2>The flu can be serious for some people</h2><p>Most people who have the flu will not become seriously ill. But the flu can be more serious for some people. Typically, those most at risk are in one of the following groups:</p><ul><li>Children under two years of age</li><li>People 65 years of age or older</li><li>People living in long-term care facilities such as a nursing home, a home for the aged or a chronic care hospital </li><li>People with chronic heart, lung or kidney disease</li><li>People with diabetes, cancer, immune system problems or sickle cell anaemia</li><li>Children and teenagers aged six months to 18 years who have been treated with <a href="/article?contentid=77&language=english">acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)</a> for long periods </li><li>People who have trouble clearing mucus from their nose and throat because of weakness or underlying illness</li></ul><p>These groups, and anyone who lives or works with people from these groups, should generally be immunized each year with the flu vaccine (flu shot). That way, people from these high-risk groups are less likely to be infected with the flu. </p><h2>How the flu spreads</h2><p>The flu spreads very easily from an infected person to others through coughing and sneezing. It is also spread by touching objects after someone with the flu has touched them. </p><h2>Treating the flu</h2><p>If you or your child have the flu, stay home and rest. Usually, treatment is focused on the symptoms the person is feeling. For example, if your child has a fever, you can give them acetaminophen or ibuprofen to reduce fever. </p><p>Do not give <a href="/article?contentid=77&language=english">acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)</a> to a child under 16 years of age. Do not give cough medicines to children under six years of age. Always read the label before giving any medicine.</p><p>In addition to fluids and pain medicine, other ways to treat flu symptoms include:</p><ul><li>applying heat on painful areas for short periods of time using a hot water bottle or heating pad to reduce muscle pain</li><li>taking a warm bath</li><li>gargling with a glass of warm water</li><li>using saline drops or spray and suction to clear a stuffy nose</li><li>keeping your home smoke free</li></ul><p>Call your child’s primary care provider if the above measures do not relieve your child's flu symptoms and your child feels worse or if you are worried.</p><h2>If your child has the flu in the hospital </h2><p>Your child will be placed in a single room and will not be able to visit the playroom until they are feeling better. Ask the child life specialist to bring toys and supplies to your child’s room.</p><p>Hospital staff will be wearing a mask, eye protection, gloves and gowns when they visit.</p><p>Wash your hands often, either with alcohol-based hand rubs or soap and water, before and after touching your child and before leaving your child's room. Hospital staff should wash their hands as well.</p><p>If you or anyone else who has visited becomes ill with symptoms of the flu, let your child's doctor or nurse know. </p><h2>Preventing the flu</h2><p>To help prevent the flu, it is important that you and your child get a flu shot every year.</p><p>You should also <a href="/article?contentid=1981&language=english">wash your hands</a> well. This can help prevent you from catching or spreading the flu. This is very important in hospitals, but it is true in other places as well. </p><p>Clean surfaces in your house regularly, especially ones you touch often. These include doorknobs, fridge doors, light switches, phones and computers.</p><p>If you have the flu, you should do the following things to avoid spreading it.</p><ul><li>Always cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw away the tissue, then wash your hands. These steps will help prevent spreading the flu and other respiratory viruses. </li><li>Do not visit the hospital when you are sick with symptoms of the flu. No one who is sick should visit a patient in the hospital, even if they are a relative. </li></ul><h3>The flu shot </h3><p> <strong>Does the flu shot really work?</strong></p><div class="asset-video">https://www.youtube.com/embed/MOUbk315E40</div><p>For more videos from SickKids experts in collaboration with Youngster, visit <a href="https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCoKMd2cYwegtZX19uHdNLQA">Youngster on YouTube</a>.</p><p>The influenza vaccine (flu shot) is made from pieces of killed or live but weakened flu viruses. It contains three or four different types of flu viruses. A person who receives the flu shot develops immunity for the types of flu in the vaccine. Immunity means the body builds up protection against the virus. </p><p>The body needs about two weeks after the shot to build up protection against the virus. This protection lasts for about six months.</p><p>The flu shot will not protect against other viruses, such as viruses that cause the common cold. </p><p>For tips on how to make vaccinations as easy and pain-free as possible, please read the articles, <a href="/article?contentid=989&language=english">Needle pokes: Reducing pain in infants aged up to 18 months</a> and <a href="/article?contentid=990&language=english">Needle pokes: Reducing pain in children aged 18 months or over</a>.<br></p><h3>A flu shot every year </h3><p>People need a new flu shot every year. The flu virus changes each year, so a different vaccine has to be used each year too. Doctors and scientists find out the types of flu virus that are circulating around the world. The vaccine is then made to protect against the types that are most likely to occur each year.</p><h3>Most people can get a flu shot </h3><p>The flu shot is free to people living in Ontario. Anyone older than six months of age should have the flu shot unless there is a reason not to. The best time to get the flu shot is in the fall, before the flu becomes more common. Ask your child's primary care provider if your child can get the flu shot. </p><h3>The flu shot and COVID-19</h3><p>It is more important than ever to get a flu shot during <a href="/article?contentid=3872&language=english&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19</a>. Getting the flu shot can help to reduce unnecessary testing for COVID-19, since symptoms of both illnesses are similar. It is also important to reduce your and your child’s chances of getting the flu in order to avoid trips to the doctor’s office or hospital. This will help to make sure that doctor’s offices and hospitals are not overwhelmed with flu cases while also treating COVID-19 cases. </p><p>The flu shot will not protect against COVID-19, therefore it is still important to wear a mask, perform hand hygiene and maintain a physical distance of 2 metres from those who are not in your social circle.</p><h2>When to seek medical attention</h2><p>Go see a doctor or to hospital if your baby is less than three months old and:</p><ul><li>has a fever</li><li>has fast or difficult breathing</li><li>is vomiting or not feeding</li></ul><p>Go see a doctor if your child:</p><ul><li>is more sleepy than usual</li><li>is more fussy than usual</li><li>is not drinking enough fluids or has not peed at least every six hours when awake</li><li>is vomiting</li><li>is having chest or stomach pain</li><li>is not feeling better after five days or gets better but then suddenly gets worse</li></ul><p>Call 911 or go to the nearest emergency department immediately if your child:</p><ul><li>is breathing quickly, or seems to be working hard to breathe</li><li>is very weak, dizzy, hard to wake up or does not respond well</li><li>is very fussy or cannot be comforted</li><li>is limping or refusing to walk</li><li>has bluish or dark-coloured lips or skin</li><li>has a stiff neck, severe headache or a seizure</li><li>has a very fast heart rate, even when the fever is down</li></ul><p>If you have any concerns, call your doctor or your local public health agency. In Ontario, you can also call TeleHealth Ontario at 1-866-797-0000.</p><p>If you or your child is in a high-risk group, call your doctor right away when you get flu symptoms. There are specific anti-viral medicines available to help treat flu. These medicines must be started early in the illness to be effective. Contact your child's doctor for more information. </p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/influenza_overview.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />fluhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/influenza_overview.jpg This year, it is more important than ever to get a flu shot. Learn about the flu shot and COVID-19, symptoms of flu and flu prevention. Main
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)REnglishRespiratoryChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Trachea;LungsTrachea;LungsConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Cough;Fever;Runny nose2022-11-25T05:00:00Z7.3000000000000064.80000000000001123.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>RSV is a virus that infects the lungs and airways and causes respiratory illness, especially in children. Learn how you can help your child if they have RSV.</p><h2>What is respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)?</h2><p>Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects the lungs and airways and causes respiratory illness. It is a very common cause of cold in both children and adults. Most children will have an RSV infection by the age of two. Children are more likely to catch it during the RSV season, typically from November to April, when the virus is most active. Although most children will have a mild infection and not require any medical attention, RSV can also cause <a href="/article?contentid=765&language=english">bronchiolitis</a>, an inflammation of the lower airways, in young infants and toddlers. </p> <figure class="asset-c-80"><span class="asset-image-title">Respiratory system</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Respiratory_system_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Location of the lungs, trachea, bronchus, bronchioles and diaphragm in a boy, with close-up on bronchioles and alveoli" /> </figure><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a very common virus that causes cold symptoms in most infants and toddlers. However, it can sometimes cause serious breathing problems in some babies and infants, such as bronchiolitis.</li><li>RSV is spread when droplets from someone who is infected with the virus come into contact with the eyes, nose or mouth of someone nearby. It can also spread when droplets land on surfaces and someone touches that surface and then touches their eyes, nose or mouth.</li><li>You can help prevent spreading the virus by regularly washing your hands and keeping your child away from people who are unwell.</li></ul><h2>Signs and symptoms caused by respiratory syncytial virus</h2><p>A baby or child with this infection may:</p><ul><li><a href="/article?contentid=774&language=english">cough</a></li><li>have a runny nose</li><li>have a <a href="/article?contentid=30&language=english">fever</a></li><li>sometimes wheeze (breathe with a high-pitched whistling sound)</li></ul><p>Because these are common symptoms, it is easy to mistake RSV for other respiratory viruses. </p><p>In most cases, you can take care of your child with RSV or other respiratory viruses at home as long as they are breathing comfortably, and they are drinking and peeing as usual. The infection usually lasts a few days and resolves without the need for specific treatment.</p><p>In healthy adults, RSV is usually not serious. But adults can pass the virus to children, and older adults are at risk for more severe disease with RSV.</p><h2>Respiratory syncytial virus can be serious</h2><p>Some babies and children can develop a severe form of RSV. This may be in the form of <a href="/article?contentid=765&language=english">bronchiolitis</a> or <a href="/article?contentid=784&language=english">pneumonia</a> (lung infection) For more information about bronchiolitis, please see <a href="/article?contentid=765&language=english">www.aboutkidshealth.ca/bronchiolitis</a>. </p><h2>How does respiratory syncytial virus spread?</h2><p>RSV is spread through droplets from a person infected with the virus that are expelled when the person talks, coughs or sneezes. These droplets can make contact with the eyes, nose and mouth of people nearby or they may land on surfaces around the infected person. RSV can live on countertops and other hard objects for more than six hours. It can live on clothes and hands for up to one hour. Contact spread can then occur when someone touches a surface that is contaminated by droplets that contain germs and then touches their eyes, nose or mouth.</p><p>RSV can also be spread by touching:</p><ul><li>mucus from the nose or mouth of a person who has the virus</li><li>soiled tissues, surfaces, clothes and toys a person with the virus has touched</li><li>the unwashed hands of a person with the virus</li></ul><h2>Treatment of respiratory syncytial virus</h2><p>When a child is fighting RSV, treatment is mainly supportive to relieve the symptoms and maintain oxygen and hydration. </p><h3>Treatment for fever</h3><p>If your child has fever and is uncomfortable, you can give them <a href="/article?contentid=62&language=english">acetaminophen</a> or <a href="/article?contentid=153&language=english">ibuprofen</a>. DO NOT give your child <a href="/article?contentid=77&language=english">acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)</a>. For more information about how to care for a baby, toddler or child with a fever, visit <a href="/article?contentid=30&language=english">www.aboutkidshealth.ca/fever</a>. </p><h3>Treatment for cough</h3><p>For most children, the cough is just a symptom of the virus. The cough will get better as the virus runs its course. Over-the-counter and prescription cold medicines do not make the illness go away faster. Cough and cold medicines should not be given to children under six years of age. Most cold and flu medicines are safe for children six years of age or older but need to be given with caution as they can cause unwanted side effects, such as drowsiness, dizziness, trouble falling asleep or rapid heart rate.</p><p>Sometimes a severe cough can be a sign of a complication, such as a chest infection or asthma. A doctor can listen to your child's chest to assess if your child is having a complication and give treatment for these conditions, if needed.</p><h3>Antibiotics</h3><p>Antibiotics have no effect on viruses, such as RSV, and would not routinely be used as they will not help your child get better faster.</p><h2>Preventing respiratory syncytial virus</h2><p>You can help stop the spread of RSV by:</p><ul><li>washing your hands with soap and water or using alcohol-based hand sanitizer before and after touching your child. Ask others to do the same.</li><li>coughing or sneezing into your sleeve instead of your hands and putting used tissue into the garbage right away.</li><li>avoiding kissing or similar close contact with your child's face and hands when you are unwell.</li><li>wearing a mask in indoor public settings.</li><li>staying away from your hospitalized premature baby if you are sneezing, coughing or have a runny nose or a fever.</li><li>keeping your baby away from crowds and anyone with sneezing, coughing, a runny nose or a fever, especially during respiratory virus season. Infections spread more easily when there are more people around.</li><li>cleaning surfaces in your home that are touched often on a regular basis, more often during respiratory virus season.</li></ul><p>Do not expose your child to cigarette smoke. Smoking has been associated with increased infection rates.</p><p>No medicine can stop your baby from catching RSV, and getting RSV once does not prevent a future infection. The average person may have an RSV infection multiple times during their lifetime.</p><p>There is no vaccine available for RSV. In certain young children who are at very high risk of RSV, a medication to prevent acquiring RSV called <a href="/article?contentid=208&language=english">palivizumab</a> may be recommended by health-care providers. This medication may be given to babies born very prematurely, or who have a severe lung or heart condition. </p><p>Visit the <a href="https://www.health.gov.on.ca/en/pro/programs/drugs/funded_drug/fund_respiratory.aspx">Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care website</a> to find more information about RSV prophylaxis.</p><p>You should seek medical attention if your child has trouble taking in enough fluids to avoid dehydration. The first sign of this is reduced urine output (peeing less than usual; diapers are less wet). </p><p><strong>Go to the nearest Emergency Department or call 911 if:</strong></p><ul><li>your child is working very hard to breathe or stops breathing </li><li>your child becomes unresponsive </li><li>your child’s skin turns blue (in people with lighter skin), pale or grey (in people with darker skin)</li></ul><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/respiratory_syncytial_virus.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />rsvrsvhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/respiratory_syncytial_virus.jpgMain

 

 

COVID-19COVID-19COVID-19CEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NAImmune systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2020-03-26T04:00:00Z000Landing PageLearning Hub<p>Learn about COVID-19 and how to talk to and support your family. Also find resources such as videos and audio meditations to help you cope.</p><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4054&language=English&hub=COVID-19"><figure class="asset-small"><img alt="Read COVID-19 vaccine information for children under five years of age" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/COVID_Vaccine_info_under_five_thumbnail.jpg" /> </figure> </a> <p>This learning hub includes resources on COVID-19 and how to help you and your child cope. Find general information on COVID-19 and articles and resources about vaccines and testing. Read the article to find more information about COVID-19 vaccines for children under five years of age.<br></p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/videoseries?list=PLfAK35c0XomtY0ixQrG3EjdwiCw8vOCUw"></iframe> </div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">COVID-19 information</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find information about COVID-19 from AboutKidsHealth.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3872&language=English">Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) </a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3907&language=English">Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/diseases/coronavirus-disease-covid-19.html">Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) (Public Health Agency of Canada)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3863&language=English">COVID-19: Information for parents of immunocompromised children and children with chronic medical conditions</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3870&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19: Information for parents of children with congenital heart disease</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3875&language=English">COVID-19 and chronic pain in children and teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://covid19healthliteracyproject.com/#languages">COVID-19 fact sheets in 34 different languages (Harvard Health Publishing)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.publichealthontario.ca/en/diseases-and-conditions/infectious-diseases/respiratory-diseases/novel-coronavirus/public-resources">COVID-19 public resources (Public Health Ontario)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.pcmch.on.ca/covid-19-resources-for-children-youth-and-families/">COVID-19 resources for children, youth, and families (Provincial Council for Maternal and Child Health)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/the-2019-novel-coronavirus-covid-19">The 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) (Caring for Kids)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.ontario.ca/page/2019-novel-coronavirus">The 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) (Ontario Ministry of Health)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">COVID-19 vaccines</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find information about the COVID-19 vaccines that are available in Canada and about their safety and effectiveness.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3937&language=English">COVID-19 vaccines general information</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=4054&language=English">COVID-19 vaccination for ages under five</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=4001&language=English">COVID-19 vaccine information for children (ages five to 11)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=4000&language=English">COVID-19 vaccine information for youth (ages 12+)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://iphcc.ca/covid-19/">COVID-19 (Indigenous Primary Health Care Council)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PLfAK35c0XomtY0ixQrG3EjdwiCw8vOCUw">SickKids COVID-19 vaccine consult service: Commonly asked questions (video playlist)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VJ4tKxYISRk">Youth COVID-19 vaccination: What to expect (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/CARD_Vaccination_Handout.pdf">CARD handout: Coping with pain and fear around vaccination for teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/CARD_Vaccination_Poster.pdf">CARD poster: Coping with pain and fear around vaccination for teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/drugs-health-products/covid19-industry/drugs-vaccines-treatments/vaccines.html">Vaccines for COVID-19: Authorized vaccines</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://covid-19.ontario.ca/covid-19-vaccines-ontario">COVID-19 vaccines for Ontario</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">COVID-19 testing</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find information that will help you and your child prepare or either a saliva test or a nasopharyngeal swab.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://covid-19.ontario.ca/self-assessment/">Take this self-assessment if you were exposed to COVID-19 or have symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://covid-19.ontario.ca/covid-19-test-and-testing-location-information">Ontario COVID-19 test and testing location information</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/COVID-19%20Testing%20How%20to%20prepare%20and%20comfort%20your%20child.pdf">COVID-19 Testing: How to prepare and comfort your child</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/Ru-vFZdImes">Saliva testing (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/nO1L-oYo9TA">Nasopharyngeal (NP) swab (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3908&language=English">After your child’s COVID-19 test</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/8d9SPC7T6KM">After your child's COVID-19 test - Virtual discharge (video)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Talking to your child about COVID-19</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Helpful resources that provide information about how to explain and talk to your child about COVID-19. </p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3866&language=English">How to talk to your child about COVID-19</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="http://hollandbloorview.ca/services/family-workshops-resources/family-resource-centre/explaining-covid-19-kids">Explaining COVID-19 and Coronavirus to children (Holland Bloorview)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.cps.ca/en/blog-blogue/how-can-we-talk-to-kids-about-covid-19">How can we talk to kids about COVID-19? Be “realistically reassuring” (Canadian Pediatric Society)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.pbs.org/parents/thrive/how-to-talk-to-your-kids-about-coronavirus#.XmuZ3QV_gax.twitter">How to Talk to Your Kids About Coronavirus (PBS)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3869&language=English">Supporting your child with a neurodevelopmental disorder through the COVID-19 crisis</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://cmho.org/talking-to-your-anxious-child-about-covid-19/">Talking to your anxious child about COVID-19 (Children's Mental Health Ontario)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Coping</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Information on how to help your child cope with stress during the COVID-19 crisis and how to help them deal with separation from family and friend. </p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3868&language=English">Coping with separation from and socialization with family and friends during COVID-19</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3882&language=English">COVID-19: Frequently asked questions</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3883&language=English">COVID-19: Well-being and mental health resources</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3888&language=English">Stressed adults and anxious young children: Supporting infants, toddlers and preschoolers through COVID-19</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3867&language=English">Is my child or adolescent feeling stressed about COVID-19?</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20Individual%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020_v2.pdf">CARD: Coping with your own fears and anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20caregiver%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020.pdf">CARD: Helping your child cope with anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/disaster">Helping children and teens cope with stressful public events (Caring for Kids)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.cps.ca/en/blog-blogue/how-to-help-youth-tackle-the-blues-during-covid-19">How to help youth tackle the blues during COVID-19 and #physicaldistancing (Canadian Pediatric Society)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://afirm.fpg.unc.edu/supporting-individuals-autism-through-uncertain-times">Supporting individuals with autism through uncertain times (Autism Focused Intervention Resources & Modules)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Mental health</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Taking care of your mental health during difficult and stressful times is important. Learn more about anxiety and depression.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">Anxiety: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3810&language=English">Anxiety and anxiety disorders</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20Individual%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020_v2.pdf">CARD: Coping with your own fears and anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20caregiver%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020.pdf">CARD: Helping your child cope with anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">Depression: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.camh.ca/en/health-info/mental-health-and-covid-19">Mental health and the COVID-19 pandemic (CAMH)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Parenting</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find some helpful information on parenting during the COVID-19 crisis. </p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/jwwwF9KQ7CQ">Parenting during COVID-19 and beyond (podcast)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3935&language=English">Keeping your child active during the COVID-19 pandemic</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/health_information_on_the_internet">A parent’s guide to health information on the Internet (Caring for Kids)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.cps.ca/en/blog-blogue/covid-youth-and-substance-use-critical-messages-for-youth-and-families">COVID, youth, and substance use: Critical messages for youth and families (Canadian Pediatric Society)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.cps.ca/en/blog-blogue/parenting-during-covid-19-a-new-frontier">Parenting during COVID-19: A new frontier (Canadian Pediatric Society)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/news/archive/2021/updated-covid19-school-operation-guidance-document-released/">SickKids - Updated guidance for school operation during the pandemic</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://hollandbloorview.ca/sites/default/files/2020-07/HB-BackToSchool-Recommendations.pdf">Return to school recommendations for children with special needs (Holland Bloorview)</a></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Learning</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=651&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Reading milestones</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1903&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Reading: How to help early and struggling readers</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3871&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Writing milestones</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1881&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Visual-motor skills: How to foster in children</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=722&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Mathematics milestones</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=721&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Mathematics: How to help your pre-school and school-aged child</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=649&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Spatial reasoning skills: How to foster in children</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Well-being</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find out how physical activity, a healthy sleep routine, screen time limits and balanced nutrition can boost your child's mental health and support them to achieve better academic success and help them through difficult times. </p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Handwashing</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1981&language=English">Hand hygiene</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/handwashing">Handwashing for parents and children (Caring for Kids)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=9&v=7PKwE1jIuws&feature=emb_title">Protect don’t infect (CHEO)</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Sleep</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=645&language=English">Sleep: Benefits and recommended amounts</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3632&language=English">Sleep and your mental health: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3633&language=English">Sleep and mental health: Sorting out your sleep routine</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=646&language=English">How to help your child get a good night's sleep</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=647&language=English">How to help your teen get a good night's sleep</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Physical activity</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3783&language=English">Physical activity and mental health: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3784&language=English">Physical activity and mental health: Types of physical activity</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=641&language=English">Physical activity: Benefits of exercise for health and wellbeing</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=642&language=English">Physical activity: Guidelines for children and teens</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Nutrition</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3773&language=English">Nutrition and mental health: The basics of a healthy diet</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=639&language=English">How a balanced diet and healthy eating habits can help your child's mental health</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3774&language=English">Nutrition and mental health: Developing positive eating habits</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1464&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Meal ideas for school-aged children, tweens and teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=638&language=English">Healthy eating for teens</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Screen time and social media</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=643&language=English">Screen time: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3775&language=English">Screen time for teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=644&language=English">How to help your child set healthy screen time limits</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3776&language=English">Setting limits and staying safe with screen time</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3894&language=English">Supporting healthy and responsible screen use during COVID-19</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Stress and resilience</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3777&language=English">Stress and health</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3778&language=English">How to become more resilient</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Tools, videos and resources for you and your child</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find helpful resources including handouts, videos and other resources about COVID-19.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20Individual%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020_v2.pdf">CARD: Coping with your own fears and anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20caregiver%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020.pdf">CARD: Helping your child cope with anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fBkA2ZTUnyI&feature=youtu.be">Dr. Cheddar chats with Dr. Ronni from SickKids (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/nO1L-oYo9TA">Nasopharyngeal (NP) swab (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r51gYrDzpHQ">Physical distancing (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=9&v=7PKwE1jIuws&feature=emb_title">Protect don’t infect (CHEO)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.brainson.org/shows/2020/03/10/understanding-coronavirus-and-how-germs-spread-for-kids?fbclid=IwAR21Y_n6fsy33QD2s07In2Q892xQoI5OEFMMZ5vcMyVoLdkH8tv4yZjaZsc">Understanding coronavirus and how germs spread (Brains On!)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/get-info/were-here-for-you-during-covid-19-novel-coronavirus/">We’re here for you during COVID-19 (novel coronavirus) (Kids Help Phone)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sNinywG7BtY">What is personal protective equipment (PPE) (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/gqeyRuvF9WU">Your virtual video visit overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3889&language=English">Virtual care at SickKids</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3910&language=English">Virtual care: How to accurately measure your child’s height and weight at home</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Videos to support sleep and mindfulness</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find videos that will help you prepare for sleep and for when you need a moment of peace, to understand your situation more clearly and coping with stressful thoughts and experiences.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Sleep video</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/2fbaoqkY0Qk">Sleep: A bed time story</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Mindfulness videos</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/nQdM_Cku9pA">A moment of peace</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/cFCiUlFKuO4">Two wings to fly</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/jaNAwy3XsfI">Being with all of your experiences</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/0QXmmP4psbA">You are not your thoughts</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/Ty93GRPplJo">Dealing with difficult moments</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/QTsUEOUaWpY">Everyday mindfulness</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/GgBVIZAEQqU">STOP for mindfulness</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KYcLfBf-T9c">Stress and thinking: The mind/body connection</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/EWzDHN7Jdg8">Dealing with flares: Controlling the controllables</a></li></ol></li></ol></div> <br> <div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/videoseries?list=PLjJtOP3StIuUqAzahUMBvvRg2bbViWhH7"></iframe> </div><p>See "Tools, videos and resources for you and your child" in the menu above for more videos or visit the <a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/Aboutkidshealth">AboutKidHealth YouTube channel</a></p> <br>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-1157093074.jpgCOVID-19,COVID19COVID-19COVID-19 learning hub Learn about COVID-19 and how to talk to and support your family. Also find resources such as videos and audio meditations to help you cope.Main
Sleep tips: How to help your child get a good night's sleepSleep tips: How to help your child get a good night's sleepSleep tips: How to help your child get a good night's sleepSEnglishPreventionChild (0-12 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2020-04-13T04:00:00Z7.4000000000000069.90000000000001305.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>​Learn some tips to help your child get enough sleep.</p><p>Sleep brings your child a wide range of <a href="/Article?contentid=645&language=English">physical and mental benefits</a>. From birth onwards, your child’s wellbeing depends on their getting enough sleep for their age and activity levels. Following the tips below will help your child fall asleep and stay asleep through the night.<br></p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/videoseries?list=PLjJtOP3StIuUzDEHQ26azPp3X36nXGstg" frameborder="0"></iframe> <br> <p>For more videos from SickKids experts in collaboration with Youngster, visit <a href="https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCoKMd2cYwegtZX19uHdNLQA">Youngster on YouTube</a>.</p></div><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>​Help your child get enough sleep by following a regular schedule, encouraging your child to exercise and follow a balanced diet and limiting caffeine from the afternoon onwards.</li> <li>A relaxing routine and a comfortable sleep environment - free of electronics - can also help a child fall asleep more easily and sleep through the night.</li> <li>Make the morning routine easier by preparing breakfast and laying out clothes the night before.</li> <li>See a doctor if your child seems inattentive or sleepy during the day or experiences loud snoring or pauses in their breathing at night.</li> </ul><h2>Keep to a schedule</h2><p>Your child's body likes a regular schedule. Keep a regular sleep routine that allows your child to wake up and go to bed at about the same time every day. During times of stress or uncertainty, it is especially important to keep to a regular schedule of sleep and wake times. Older children may see the lack of formal school or routine as a reason to allow later bedtimes and as a result, later wake up times, but try to encourage them to keep to a regular sleep and wake schedule. </p><p>Try to make sure your child falls asleep and wakes up at the same time at least six days a week. Bedtimes and wake times should not vary by more than one hour from one day to the next, including on weekends.</p><p>Try to avoid letting your child sleep in late on weekends. Sleeping in can make it harder for your child to keep a regular schedule during the week. If your child is well rested, you can change the schedule once in a while for special events and they can recover from the occasional late night much faster.</p><h2>Help your child develop healthy habits</h2><p>Help your child develop and maintain good daily lifestyle habits. These will help make your child comfortable and ready for sleep.</p><ul><li>Encourage your child to get regular exercise.</li><li>Avoid or limit caffeine (from pop, energy drinks, coffee, tea or chocolate) from the afternoon onwards.</li><li>Offer regular, balanced meals based on the four food groups in <a href="/Article?contentid=1436&language=English">Canada's Food Guide</a>.</li></ul><h2>Avoid naps for children aged six and older</h2><p>A healthy child over six years of age should not need a nap during the day. Daytime naps for older children can affect the time the child will fall asleep at night. This results in a later bedtime and may lead to poorer quality nighttime sleep.</p><p>If your child is under six years of age, allow them to have a nap if they need one. If your child is six years old or older, try to limit daytime napping. Napping during the day, or early evening, will make it harder for your child to fall asleep at bedtime.</p><h2>Create a relaxing routine</h2><p>Create a relaxing bedtime routine that your child can follow each night. To start, be clear about when it is bedtime each night. For example, tell your child that 8:00pm is ‘pyjama time’ and 8:30pm is lights out, and stick with those times. If your child has difficulty falling asleep, you could allow extra time by starting their bedtime a little earlier.</p><p>Encourage your child to take a bath or shower before bed to help them feel sleepier and more relaxed. Going to bed with a calm state of mind can reduce the risk and frequency of common <a href="/Article?contentid=306&language=English">sleeping problems</a> such as nightmares, sleep walking and <a href="/Article?contentid=305&language=English">night terrors</a>.</p><p>Include 20 to 30 minutes of quiet time in your child’s bedtime routine. Good wind-down activities include reading, looking through a magazine, listening to music or writing in a journal. Dimming the lights half an hour before your child’s bedtime will help your child feel sleepy.</p><p>Avoid and discourage stimulating activities such as playing videogames, using the computer, using a cell phone. <a href="/Article?contentid=644&language=English">Turn off all electronics</a> at least one hour before bedtime.</p><h2>Create a comfortable sleep environment</h2><p>Make sure your child’s pyjamas are comfortable and appropriate for the season and that their bedroom is cool and quiet. It is also important for them to sleep on a mattress and pillow that offer good support to their spine.</p><p>Keep the bed for sleeping only. In other words, discourage your child from doing their homework or using a computer in bed. These activities can cause your child to link bedtime with stress or active thinking when they are trying to sleep.</p><p>Avoid having a television, computer, tablet or cell phone in the bedroom. Watching television or using a computer, tablet or a phone at night can stimulate the brain rather than relax it. In addition, your child may get into the habit of turning on the television or checking their phone if they cannot stay asleep during the night. If you are watching television after your child falls asleep, make sure the volume is low enough that they cannot hear it.</p><p>Put a glass of water by the bed so your child does not need to get out of bed if they are thirsty during the night. Make sure the water is in easy reach for your child.</p><p>Consider engaging your child’s different senses to help them fall asleep. For instance, children who have trouble falling asleep may enjoy the relaxing smell of lavender. You could use lavender scented laundry detergent or place a few drops of lavender oil on your child’s pillow.</p><h2>Tips for a happier morning</h2><p>Offer your child some options for breakfast and prepare it with your child the night before, if possible. For example, you could cut up fresh fruit and cook oatmeal the night before so you or your child can quickly combine them the next morning.</p><p>Help your child choose an outfit the night before. If your child is old enough to get dressed alone, place the outfit somewhere they can easily reach it in the morning.</p><p>If your child is in school, help them pack their backpack before bed. Making sure everything is packed and ready to go the night before makes for a much less stressful morning. At night, you have more time to look for something that may be missing or to sign an important school note.</p><p>Let your child know what time you will wake them up in the morning. Calmly wake your child in the morning by giving them a hug, gently rubbing their arm or quietly saying their name.</p><h2>When to see a doctor about your child’s sleep</h2><h3>Toddler/preschooler</h3><p>See your child’s doctor if your child:</p><ul><li>has persistent and loud snoring or pauses or <a href="/Article?contentid=1918&language=English">problems breathing</a> while sleeping</li><li>seems irritable, hyperactive, inattentive or sleepy during the day</li><li>has excessive <a href="/Article?contentid=271&language=English">anxiety</a> about being separated from you during the day and night</li><li>has just developed a problem with sleep</li><li>finds it hard to change from two naps to one nap a day</li><li>sleepwalks</li><li>has <a href="/Article?contentid=305&language=English">night terrors</a> or frequent nightmares.</li></ul><h3>School-aged child</h3><p>See your child’s doctor if:</p><ul><li>your child's teacher tells you they seem tired even though you think they get enough sleep</li><li>your child develops new night terrors or sleepwalking habits that they did not have before the age six or seven</li><li>your child needs regular naps</li><li>your child experiences loud snoring, pauses in their breathing or extreme restlessness at night.</li></ul><h2>Further information</h2><p>For more tips on maintaining your child's mental health, please see the following pages:</p><p><a href="https://meant2prevent.ca/">Meant2Prevent</a></p> <p> <a href="/Article?contentid=639&language=English">Nutrition: How a balanced diet and healthy eating habits can support your child's mental health</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=642&language=English">Physical activity: Guidelines for children and teens​</a><br></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=641&language=English">Physical activity: Benefits of exercise for health and wellbeing​</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=645&language=English">Sleep: Benefits and recommended amounts​</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=647&language=English">Sleep tips: How to help your teen get a good night's sleep</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=643&language=English">Screen time: Overview</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=644&language=English">Screen time: How to help your child set healthy limits</a></p><h2>Resources</h2><p>Canadian Paediatric Society (2012). <em> <a target="_blank" href="http://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/healthy_sleep_for_your_baby_and_child">Healthy sleep for your baby and child​</a></em>.​</p><p>National Sleep Foundation (2016). <em> <a target="_blank" href="https://sleepfoundation.org/sleep-topics/children-and-sleep">Children and sleep</a></em>.</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/sleep_benefits_recommended_amounts.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/sleep_benefits_recommended_amounts.jpgSleep tips for children Sleep brings your child a wide range of physical and mental benefits. Learn some tips to help your child get enough sleep. Main
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)GEnglishGastrointestinalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Esophagus;StomachEsophagus;StomachConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2021-01-19T05:00:00Z9.6000000000000053.4000000000000838.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>GERD causes the backwards movement of food and acid from the stomach into the esophagus. Learn how you can help your child manage GERD. </p><h2>What is gastroesophageal reflux? </h2> <p>"Reflux" means "backwards movement." The esophagus is the tube that leads from the mouth to the stomach. So, gastroesophageal reflux is the backwards movement of food and acid from the stomach into the esophagus.</p> <p>Burping and spitting up are common after a baby feeds. Most babies spit up to some degree without discomfort, and it usually fades by the first year. This is called gastroesophageal reflux (without "disease").</p> <p>In infants, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) occurs when there is poor weight gain or other bothersome symptoms, such as excessive crying, irritability or back arching.</p> <p>Older children and adolescents may also get GERD. Their symptoms are similar to those of adults and can include heartburn and regurgitation.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Most infants experience some regurgitation after feeding. </li> <li>Most infants outgrow symptoms of GERD by the time they can eat solid foods. </li> <li>Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) occurs when the irritable and painful symptoms are frequent and persistent or lead to poor weight gain.</li> <li>Complications can include bleeding in the esophagus or difficulty breathing.<br></li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of GERD</h2> <p>In a baby, symptoms of GERD may include:</p> <ul> <li>effortless spitting up of food or feedings with discomfort</li> <li>coughing, when regurgitated food gets into the trachea (breathing tube)</li> <li>irritability during feeding; the baby will arch their back, twist their neck or pull away from feeding</li> <li>crying before or during feeding</li> <li>poor weight gain<br></li> </ul> <p>In older children, signs and symptoms may include:</p> <ul> <li>dental cavities, caused by stomach acid </li> <li>heartburn</li> <li>a sour taste in the mouth</li> <li>stomach and chest discomfort<br></li> </ul><h2>Causes of GERD</h2> <p>GERD occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter, which sits at the connection between the esophagus and the stomach, fails to properly close or relaxes incorrectly. This faulty valve allows food to travel all the way up the esophagus, causing "spit-up." When the food only travels partly up the esophagus, it may cause a burning sensation.</p><h2>How a doctor can help your child</h2> <p>Since vomiting and regurgitation are very common in babies in the first years of feeding, the doctor will need to determine whether the condition is simply GER (without 'D') or severe enough to warrant a GERD diagnosis and the relevant treatment. GERD is typically a clinical diagnosis. Sometimes tests are done to rule out conditions other than GERD that may have similar symptoms or complications to GERD.<br></p> <h2>Complications</h2> <p>Repeated exposure to stomach acid can lead to complications in some infants and children with GERD. These complications can include: </p> <ul> <li>poor weight gain or weight loss</li> <li>feeding aversion or refusal<br></li> <li>difficulty breathing or swallowing</li> <li>irritation of the esophagus (esophagitis)</li> </ul><h2>What you can do to help your child with gastroesophageal reflux</h2><p>Most infants and children outgrow the symptoms of GERD, but some require treatment. There are few a steps you can take to help ease the symptoms at home.</p><h3>Adjust feeding volumes<br></h3><p>In infants, avoid overfeeding. The feed timing and volume can be adjusted (smaller feeds more often), but it is important that the total amount fed in a day stays the same.</p><h3>Raise head</h3><p>Hold your child in an upright position after feeding. Sitting slumped in a chair or swing can increase the pressure on the stomach and can cause more reflux. </p><p>It is uncertain if elevating an infant’s head during sleep improves the symptoms of GERD. Because of the importance of sleeping on the back on a flat surface, for prevention of <a href="/article?contentid=460&language=english">SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome)</a>, experts do not recommend using positional therapy (head elevation, or lying on the side or tummy) to treat symptoms of GERD in sleeping infants.</p><p>Elevating the head or lying on the left side can be considered in older children.</p><h3>Thicken food</h3><p>Speak to your child's doctor about thickening your baby's formula with infant cereal. This has been shown to reduce the severity of regurgitation.<br></p><h3>Avoid certain foods</h3><p>Some infants with GERD have a sensitivity to cow’s milk protein. The symptoms for GERD and an allergy to cow’s milk protein are very similar. For formula-fed infants, after trying other interventions, speak to your child’s doctor about a trial of a special formula.</p><p>Older children should avoid certain foods that are more likely to worsen reflux. These foods include soda and pop, coffee, tomato-based products, citrus fruits, mint and spicy foods. Antacids can also relieve the indigestion or heartburn in older children. </p><h2>When to seek medical assistance</h2><p>Make an appointment with your child's doctor if your child:</p><ul><li>is failing to gain weight</li><li>is starting to refuse to feed or only feeds when sleeping</li><li>is crying or extra irritable during feedings or while spitting up (effortless and painless spitting up is usually not a problem if gaining weight)<br></li><li>coughs during or after feeds</li></ul><h2>Source<br></h2><p>Rosen, R., Vandenplas, Y., Singendonk, M., Cabana, M., DiLorenzo, C., Gottrand, F., . . . Tabbers, M. (2018, March). Pediatric gastroesophageal reflux clinical practice guidelines ... <em>JPGN, 66</em>: 3. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.naspghan.org/files/Pediatric_Gastroesophageal_Reflux_Clinical.33.pdf">https://www.naspghan.org/files/Pediatric_Gastroesophageal_Reflux_Clinical.33.pdf</a></p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/gastroesophageal_reflux_disease.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/gastroesophageal_reflux_disease.jpgMain
PainPainPainPEnglishPain/AnaesthesiaChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANervous systemSymptoms;Conditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Pain2019-02-01T05:00:00ZLanding Page (Overview)Learning Hub<p>Find information on acute and chronic pain, from how it is assessed through to how you, your child and the healthcare team can treat and manage it.<br></p><p>This learning hub has information on acute and chronic pain, including signs and symptoms, methods of assessment and the 3P approach to pain management. The information has been developed in close collaboration with the Pain Centre at The Hospital for Sick Children and the OUCH (Opportunities to Understand Childhood Hurt) Lab at York University. <br></p><p>The acute and chronic pain sections are organized by age, which is an important factor in how a child's pain is assessed and treated. However, when reading this information, please remember that every child's situation is unique. If you have questions about your own child's care, please speak to your child's doctor.</p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Overview of pain<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Pain is a part of everyday life. Typically, pain results when we are exposed to situations that are likely to lead to injury or tissue damage. Find out how the body senses different types of pain.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2980&language=English">About pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2981&language=English">Types of pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2982&language=English">Acute pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2983&language=English">Chronic pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2984&language=English">Nerve injury pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2985&language=English">Other types of pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2986&language=English">Myths about pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2987&language=English">Consequences of pain</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Assessing and measuring pain</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Learn how you and your child's healthcare team can assess your child's pain from birth through to the teen years and the factors that affect pain assessment.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2988&language=English">Pain assessment: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2989&language=English">Assessing pain in babies (newborns to one year)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2990&language=English">Assessing pain in toddlers and pre-schoolers</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2991&language=English">Assessing pain in younger school-age children</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2992&language=English">Assessing pain in older school-age children</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2993&language=English">Assessing pain in teenagers</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2994&language=English">Tools for measuring pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2995&language=English">Factors affecting pain assessment</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Pain treatment</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Once a pain assessment is complete, your child's healthcare team will recommend a pain management plan. Depending on your child's pain, this plan may include the use of medicines (pharmacology), physical therapies and psychological strategies that can all help relieve pain in children.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2996&language=English">Pain treatment: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2997&language=English">Overview of pain medicines</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2998&language=English">Acetaminophen, aspirin and NSAIDs</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2999&language=English">Opioids for pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3000&language=English">Opioids: Safety and side effects</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3001&language=English">Local anaesthetics</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3002&language=English">Adjuvant medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3003&language=English">Physical therapies for pain: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3004&language=English">Using heat and cold to treat pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3005&language=English">Using exercise and physiotherapy to treat pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3006&language=English">Using massage and nerve stimulation to treat pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3007&language=English">Psychological strategies for pain: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3008&language=English">Using relaxation to treat pain </a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3009&language=English">Using behavioural strategies to treat pain</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Managing pain at home</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>All children have occasional bumps and bruises or experience pain from teething, colic or common conditions such as ear and throat infections. Some children may also have ongoing painful conditions that need care at home. Find out how you and your child can treat pain at home and deal with the impact of pain on your child's activities.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3010&language=English">Common types of pain problems</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3011&language=English">Pain management plan</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3012&language=English">Pain management for common childhood pain and injuries</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3013&language=English">Impact of chronic pain</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Looking ahead</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Adolescence can be challenging for any teenager. Chronic pain is an additional challenge, as it may interfere with school and time with friends. Learn how to help your teen manage their chronic pain and support them in moving to the adult healthcare system.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3014&language=English">Teenagers and chronic pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3015&language=English">Moving from paediatric to adult care</a></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/pain_learning_hub.jpgpainpain Learn about acute and chronic pain, including signs and symptoms, methods of assessment and the 3P approach to pain management. Main
Smoke and carbon monoxide detectorsSmoke and carbon monoxide detectorsSmoke and carbon monoxide detectorsSEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2021-09-08T04:00:00Z8.3000000000000060.2000000000000893.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find information about buying, installing and maintaining smoke and carbon monoxide detectors in your home to keep your family safe. </p><p>In many countries, including Canada, having smoke and carbon monoxide detectors in the house is the law. The reason is simple: these alarms save lives.</p><h3>Danger of smoke</h3><p>Many house fires occur at night. If there is no smoke detector, those sleeping in the house may not notice the fire and will be overwhelmed by smoke. A working smoke detector can wake the family before it is too late.</p><h3>Danger of carbon monoxide</h3><p>Carbon monoxide is a colourless and odorless gas. It is produced by burning fuels such as gas, wood, oil and coal. Most homes have an appliance that runs on one of these fuels. If the appliance is not vented properly or is not working properly, the house can fill with carbon monoxide.</p><p>At first, carbon monoxide poisoning gives symptoms similar to those of the <a href="/Article?contentid=763&language=English">flu</a>: fatigue, <a href="/Article?contentid=29&language=English">headaches</a>, dizziness, nausea or <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a> and shortness of breath. After a few minutes, carbon monoxide can cause you to black out, resulting in serious, permanent damage to the body. Eventually, carbon monoxide inhalation leads to death. A working carbon monoxide detector can alert you and your family to this danger.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Smoke and carbon monoxide detectors save lives.</li> <li>Install a working smoke and carbon monoxide detector outside each bedroom and sleeping area and on each level of your home.</li> <li>Test and clean your smoke detectors regularly and replace the batteries every six months.</li> </ul><h2>Choosing a detector</h2> <p>Before buying a smoke or carbon monoxide detector, make sure your country’s safety stamp of approval is on the box. In Canada, the box should read CSA, cUL, ULC or cETL. Smoke detectors and carbon monoxide detectors are usually sold separately, but detectors that serve both purposes are also available. </p> <p>Some alarms are hard wired, some are battery operated and some are plug in with a back-up battery.</p> <h3>Types of smoke detector</h3> <ul> <li>An ionization type smoke detector is better at detecting fast, flaming fires. These fires make up nearly three-quarters of home fires. </li> <li>A photoelectric type smoke detector is better at detecting slow-burning smouldering fires that produce lots of smoke but little flame.</li> </ul> <p>Some smoke alarms use both types of detection. </p> <h3>Types of carbon monoxide detector</h3> <p>Currently, there is only one general type of carbon monoxide detector. </p> <h2>Installing an alarm</h2> <p>Ideally, smoke alarms should be installed outside each bedroom and sleeping area, and on each level of your home, including the basement. They should be installed high on the wall and away from bathrooms, the kitchen, heating equipment and ceiling fans. Carbon monoxide alarms should be installed in hallways, outside of sleeping areas and near service rooms. Read and follow the manufacturer's directions when you install your smoke or carbon monoxide detectors. </p> <h2>Maintenance</h2> <p>Smoke and carbon monoxide detectors need some maintenance and will eventually need to be replaced. </p> <h3>Test your alarm</h3> <p>Smoke and carbon monoxide detectors have a test button. You should push it once a month. If the unit does not signal an alarm, you will need to replace the battery and test again. </p> <h3>Replace the battery</h3> <p>Replace the battery every six months. A good way to remember this is to put in a fresh battery when clocks are changed in March and October. If you hear a warning beep, change the battery right away. </p> <h3>Cleaning</h3> <p>Smoke and carbon monoxide detectors become less effective if they are clogged with dust. Follow the manufacturer's directions for cleaning your unit. </p> <h2>Replace the alarm</h2> <p>Smoke alarms will not last indefinitely. A general rule is that the unit will have to be replaced every 10 years. Write down the date you installed the alarm on the inside of the detector so you know when to replace it. If the alarm is no longer working, replace it right away.<br></p> <h2>Sources of danger around the house<br></h2> <p>It can be difficult to know if all your fossil fuel-burning appliances, such as the furnace, stove and water heater, are working properly. These appliances should be professionally inspected at least once a year. Chimneys and vent pipes should also be regularly inspected and cleaned out to prevent carbon monoxide build-up and reduce the risk of fires. </p> <h2> During emergencies</h2> <p>One of the most dangerous times for house fires and carbon monoxide poisoning is during power outages. When the heat and/or lights go out, people can sometimes use non-traditional methods to heat the house. They may burn things in a fireplace that has not been used or maintained in years. They may light camping stoves and lanterns or they may bring the barbeque inside to heat the house. Some may use a generator to provide power. These are all very dangerous things to do. Without proper ventilation, carbon monoxide can build up in the house. These items are also a major fire risk. </p> <h2>When the detector's alarm sounds</h2> <p>Your family should develop an escape plan in case of fire or carbon monoxide build-up. Practise following the plan and make sure the whole family, including children, understand what to do if the alarm sounds. The escape plan should include an arranged meeting point outside the home.</p> <h2>More information</h2> <p>For more information, please read our pages on <a href="/Article?contentid=1116&language=English">Burns: Household safety and prevention</a> and <a href="/Article?contentid=1939&language=English">Burns: Winter safety</a>.</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/smoke_carbon_monoxide_detectors.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/smoke_carbon_monoxide_detectors.jpgMain
What to know about cyberbullyingWhat to know about cyberbullyingWhat to know about cyberbullyingWEnglishAdolescent;DevelopmentalTeen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionTeen (13-18 years)NA2022-05-16T04:00:00ZFlat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Cyberbullying is a type of bullying that uses the internet, texting and social media. Learn about what cyberbullying looks like and what you can do about it.</p><h2>What is cyberbullying?</h2><p>Cyberbullying is the use of the internet, texting, and social media to intimidate, spread rumours, put down or make fun of someone. Cyberbullying can include:</p><ul><li>Sending someone threatening messages</li><li>Posting or sharing personal information without permission</li><li>Taking a photo of someone or sharing photos of a person without their permission</li><li>Posting gossip or mean messages on social media</li><li>Hacking into someone’s email or social media and sending messages as that person</li><li>Creating a website or social media account to make fun of someone</li><li>Creating a fake social media account pretending to be someone else and making fun of them</li><li>Leaving people out of instant messaging or email contact lists on purpose</li></ul><p>Cyberbullying doesn’t stop at school; it can reach you 24 hours a day, at home, on the weekends, and on vacation. </p><p>Because it’s easy to create anonymous or fake accounts online, you may not even know who’s cyberbullying you. Those who cyberbully also can’t immediately see your reaction, so they might not feel bad about cyberbullying and continue to become more aggressive.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Cyberbullying uses the internet, texting, and social media to bully others.</li><li>Cyberbullying can include sending threatening messages, sharing personal information or images without permission, and posting rumours or mean messages online.</li><li>Keep yourself safe online by not sharing passwords, don’t share your personal information or anyone else’s, and never send nude photos of yourself or anyone else.</li><li>Talk to an adult you trust and who can help you if you are being cyberbullied. If you have been threatened or a crime has been committed, call the police.</li></ul><h2>What can I do about cyberbullying?</h2><p>You may feel like you can’t do anything to stop cyberbullying if you or someone you know is being harassed, or if you know someone who is a cyberbully. But there are things you can do to keep yourself and others safe:</p><ul><li>Treat people online the way you would treat them in person. If you wouldn’t say something directly to someone’s face, don’t leave it as a comment on their social media or text it to them. Always think about whether the content is hurtful or damaging before sending an email, message or photo.</li><li>Don’t share passwords with anyone other than a trusted adult (e.g., your parents or a caregiver).</li><li>Don’t share your own personal information or anyone else’s online.</li><li>Never send nude photos of yourself or anyone else to anyone. If you or the person in the photos are under the age of 18, as you could be charged with distributing child pornography.</li><li>Talk to an adult you trust (parent, teacher, coach, guidance counsellor). They may be able to give you advice on how to deal with a cyberbully, or they may be able to step in to help protect you.</li><li>Stand up for yourself or someone else you see being cyberbullied without being aggressive and without cyberbullying back. Let the person know that what they’re doing is not OK and you won’t forward or respond to the messages.</li><li>If you or someone else is being cyberbullied, make a copy of the message before you delete it (e.g., take a screenshot). You can also report harassment or inappropriate messages on most social media sites and apps. Most social media sites, internet providers and cell phone service providers have policies against bullying and may be able to do something about it if you report the abuse.</li><li>Call the police if you have been threatened or if a crime has been committed. If someone has assaulted you or has threatened to hurt you, that’s a crime and you should call the police to intervene.</li></ul><p>Take care of your mental health. If you are experiencing stress, anxiety, depression or other mental health issues, talk to a trusted adult or health-care provider. You can also take a look at these mental health resources to find ways to help you cope: <a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/mentalhealth">www.teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/mentalhealth</a></p><h2>Resources</h2><p>For more information on cyberbullying, visit <a href="https://www.prevnet.ca/cyber-bullying/teens">www.prevnet.ca/cyber-bullying/teens</a>.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Cyberbullying_teen.jpg Cyberbullying is a type of bullying that uses the internet, texting and social media. Learn how teens can stay safe online. Teens

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