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COVID-19 vaccine information for children (ages five to 11)COVID-19 vaccine information for children (ages five to 11)COVID-19 vaccine information for children (ages five to 11)CEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years)NANADrug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-1278968456.jpg2022-01-19T05:00:00ZFlat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the status of the COVID-19 vaccine for children five to 11 years of age and the benefits of getting the vaccine for children.</p><h2>What is the status of COVID-19 vaccines for children in Canada?</h2><p>In November 2021, Health Canada approved the use of the Pfizer vaccine for children five to 11 years of age.</p><p>NOTE: For ages six months to four years, clinical trial results are expected in late winter 2022. The full results are expected to be submitted to Health Canada sometime in 2022, after which the full Health Canada review process will take place.</p><p>Looking for general information on COVID-19 vaccines. Visit the page on <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3937&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19 vaccines general information</a>.</p><p>Looking for information specific to youth age 12+? Visit the page on <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4000&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19 vaccine information for youth (ages 12+)</a>.</p><br> <h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Vaccines against COVID-19 have been shown to be safe and effective against the disease.</li><li>As of November 19, 2021, the Pfizer vaccine has been approved for use in children aged five to 11 years of age.</li><li>Children five to 11 years of age will get a smaller dose of the vaccine. They will still need to get two doses.</li><li>Side effects in children five to 11 years of age are similar to those seen in adults and older children.</li></ul><h2>What evidence is there that the vaccine is safe and effective for children?</h2><p>Over 3,000 children aged five to 11 received the vaccine through the clinical trial and no serious side effects have been detected in the ongoing study after more than three months of follow-up. The vaccine was shown to be 91 per cent effective against symptomatic COVID-19 with mild side effects like those seen in adults and older children. These side effects include arm tenderness, fatigue, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, chills and fever, which can also be seen with other vaccines recommended for children. Rare side-effects that have been seen in older teens and young adults are expected to be extremely rare in children. Read about the <a href="https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2116298">clinical trial results in the New England Journal of Medicine</a>.</p><h2>Why should children get vaccinated if they do not get sick from COVID-19?</h2><p>Although severe illness due to acute COVID-19 infection is less frequent in children compared to adults, children can still be hospitalized and even require admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) due to COVID-19. Some children can also develop other complications from COVID-19 beyond the infection itself, including a condition called multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). While highly treatable and rare, approximately one in three children hospitalized with MIS-C will require ICU care. Further studies will be needed to assess how well the vaccines protect against such complications from COVID-19.</p><h2>How can anyone be sure a vaccine developed so quickly is also safe?</h2><p>Work on coronavirus vaccines has been ongoing for more than 10 years, due in part to the SARS-CoV-1 outbreak in 2003. It was important to develop the COVID-19 vaccine quickly because of how many people were dying and getting sick, and because of the disruptions to everyday life as a result of the pandemic. Even though the vaccines were developed quickly, all the usual steps for the approval of vaccines occurred, including clinical trials with the appropriate number of participants. Because of the large amount of resources that were made available to develop a COVID-19 vaccine and the large number of COVID-19 cases the clinical trials were able to happen quickly. This made it easier to tell quickly whether or not the vaccines worked to prevent cases of COVID-19. The vaccine was rapidly shown to be effective in protecting against COVID-19.</p><h2>Do children under 12 need one vaccination or two? Is a different vaccine dose used in younger children?</h2><p>Children aged five to 11 receive a two-dose schedule of a smaller Pfizer vaccine dose than the one used in people 12 and older (10 µg instead of 30µg). The National Advisory Committee on Immunization recommends that the second dose should be given at least eight weeks after the first dose. Children who turn 12 before their second dose may receive an adult dose.</p><h2>My child is turning 12 years old in 2022. Now that a vaccine is approved for children under 12 years of age, should I wait to vaccinate my child when they are 12 years old and eligible for the adult dose?</h2><p>The first COVID-19 vaccine that is available for your child will be the best vaccine to get, as it will provide protection against COVID-19 to your child as soon as possible. Vaccine doses are based on age and the maturity of the immune system. The clinical trials showed the paediatric dose given to children aged five to 11 (a third of the dose given to people aged 12 and up), was effective and also resulted in fewer side-effects.</p><h2>If my child is turning five in 2022, do they have to wait until their birthday to get vaccinated?</h2><p>Yes. At this time, children must have turned five years of age to be eligible to receive the paediatric dose of the COVID-19 vaccine that is approved for children aged five to 11. Clinical trials for children under five are currently underway.</p><h2>What if my child’s weight is above average in their age group?</h2><p>Vaccine doses are based on age and the maturity of the immune system, not weight. The clinical trials showed the paediatric dose given to children aged five to 11 (a third of the dose given to people aged 12 and up), was effective and also resulted in fewer side-effects.</p><h2>Are COVID-19 cases among children on the rise?</h2><p>According to the Public Health Agency of Canada’s updated COVID-19 epidemiology and modelling, children under 12 are currently accounting for more cases of COVID-19 compared with their proportion of the Canadian population. In addition, COVID-19 outbreaks in schools and childcare settings predominantly involve children under 12 years of age.</p><h2>Can vaccination improve the physical and mental health of children?</h2><p> <a href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/news/archive/2021/research-covid-19-pandemic-impact-child-youth-mental-physical-health/">SickKids-led research</a> has shown a serious, sustained negative impact on the mental health of Ontario children, youth and their families due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Before the pandemic, a study showed that about 60 per cent of participants engaged in school sports and/or other extracurricular activities. During the pandemic, only 27 per cent participated in sports and 16 per cent in extracurriculars. These activities are known to boost physical and mental health. Vaccination will help return children to their regular activities and thus help improve the mental health and psychosocial well-being of children.</p><h2>My child is afraid of needles. What can I do to help?</h2><p>Some children have a very strong reaction to needles. If your child is worried about getting a needle, you can ask for special ways to support their vaccination, such as a longer appointment time or a private space for the injection. The CARD system (Comfort, Ask, Relax, Distract) may also help. It provides groups of strategies to reduce the pain, stress and worries associated with vaccinations to make the experience a more positive one. More information can be found at <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/card">AboutKidsHealth.ca/card</a>. For children worried about pain, there are numbing creams and patches available at many pharmacies to help minimize needle discomfort.</p><h2>What can I do for my child who is sensory-sensitive?</h2><p>Sensory-sensitive vaccination clinics use some of the CARD strategies listed above to offer a calmer environment for each child, giving them as much time as they need and their own room to get the vaccine. Some clinics also offer sensory-sensitive appointments, offering dimmed lights, less noise and a slower pace, as well as privacy.</p><h2>Can the COVID-19 vaccine affect puberty or fertility in children?</h2><p>There is no evidence and no scientific reason to believe that the COVID-19 vaccine can affect puberty and fertility in children. Clinical trials of those who have been vaccinated in the general population have shown that the vaccine is very safe.</p><h2>What are the vaccine’s side-effects in children under 12?</h2><p>Clinical trial data show that the Pfizer vaccine is well-tolerated in children aged five to 11 years old, with side-effects generally comparable to side-effects your child may have experienced after other childhood vaccinations. These may include feeling tired, chills, muscle aches and pains, and a sore or red arm. The majority of children had very mild side-effects or none at all. Typically these side-effects will go away after a few days and there are no long-term side-effects reported.</p><h2>What about reports of vaccine side-effects like myocarditis and pericarditis in younger people?</h2><p>Myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle) and pericarditis (inflammation of the heart’s outer lining) is overall rare and mostly seen in older adolescents and young adults. Both are extremely rare in relation to the COVID-19 vaccine. There were no reports of myocarditis or pericarditis in the Pfizer clinical trial for children five to 11 years old. More than 10 million children in Canada and the U.S. have received the vaccine with very few reports of these conditions, which are generally mild and benign. Myocarditis and pericarditis actually occur far more often after COVID-19 infection than after being vaccinated against COVID-19. Myocarditis and pericarditis occurring after COVID-19 vaccination is a generally mild and benign condition. There are multiple surveillance mechanisms in place in order to monitor any potential post-vaccination risk of these conditions over time.</p><p>Additional information about <a href="https://uwaterloo.ca/pharmacy/sites/ca.pharmacy/files/uploads/files/myocarditis_and_pericarditis_after_covid-19_vaccines.pdf">myocarditis and pericarditis after COVID-19 vaccination</a> is available in this article from the University of Waterloo.</p><h2>Is vaccination safe for children with food allergies?</h2><p>Yes. There is no reason a child with a food allergy of any kind should not be vaccinated. Children with a history of allergy to foods, oral drugs, insect venom or environmental allergies can receive COVID-19 vaccines without any special precautions. If you are concerned about the possibility of an allergic reaction to any of the <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/drugs-health-products/covid19-industry/drugs-vaccines-treatments/vaccines/pfizer-biontech.html#a4">vaccine ingredients</a>, please consult your child’s primary health-care provider.</p><h2>Does the vaccine work against the Omicron variant?</h2><p>The Omicron variant is known to be much more transmissible than previous strains of COVID-19. Early data out of South Africa and the United Kingdom suggests that vaccination still protects against serious illness due to Omicron. The more people who are vaccinated against COVID-19, the more we can protect ourselves and prevent new variants from emerging and spreading in the community.</p><h2>Is the Omicron variant of COVID-19 causing more severe illness than previous strains?</h2><p>Studies are ongoing with respect to the severity of COVID-19 in children and youth due to the Omicron variant. However, most children and youth who have COVID-19 experience mild illness and do not require hospitalization. Those who are hospitalized typically require support for fever, dehydration and breathing difficulties. The increase in hospitalizations of COVID-positive patients is likely the result of widespread community transmission of COVID-19 due to the Omicron variant. While rare, some children and youth can get seriously ill after contracting COVID-19 and this is something we are monitoring closely.</p><h2>How effective is one dose of the vaccine against COVID-19?</h2><p>The COVID-19 vaccine is currently a two-dose series for children aged five to 11. While one dose provides partial protection in young individuals, it takes both doses to be considered fully vaccinated and optimize the protection provided by vaccination.</p><h2>Does the rapid spread of the Omicron variant mean children should receive their two vaccine doses at an interval shorter than the eight weeks recommended when it was approved in Canada?</h2><p>The National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) currently recommends an eight-week interval, but parents may choose to vaccinate their children at a shorter interval (minimum three weeks) if they provide informed consent. If you are considering vaccinating your child at a shorter interval because of an underlying health condition or other reason, please discuss the matter with your child’s primary health-care provider.</p><h2>Is there advice you would give to families with children who are immunocompromised or have disabilities and medical complexity?</h2><p>Vaccination remains the best layer of protection against COVID-19 for everyone. It is important your child receives the vaccinations for which they are eligible. In Ontario, certain immunocompromised populations, including children aged five to 11, are eligible for third doses. Read more about <a href="https://www.health.gov.on.ca/en/pro/programs/publichealth/coronavirus/docs/vaccine/COVID-19_vaccine_third_dose_recommendations.pdf">Ontario’s third-dose recommendations</a>. You can also talk to your child’s doctor or book an appointment with the <a href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/care-services/support-services/covid-19-vaccine-consult/">SickKids COVID-19 Vaccine Consult Service</a>.</p><h2>What is the current evidence for vaccination for COVID-19 in children with disabilities and medical complexity?</h2><p>Current evidence suggests that children with disabilities and medical complexity may be at an increased risk for severe illness or complications from COVID-19 based on their underlying condition making vaccination and prevention of COVID-19 especially important. The Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine is safe and effective for children with a wide variety of different medical conditions and complexities. Unexpected or severe side-effects to the vaccine are very rare. If you have specific questions about your child’s medical condition and the COVID-19 vaccine, talk with your child’s doctor or book an appointment with the <a href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/care-services/support-services/covid-19-vaccine-consult/">SickKids COVID-19 Vaccine Consult Service</a>.</p><h2>What special considerations are there when vaccinating children with disabilities and medical complexity? Where can family caregivers find additional resources?</h2><p>Families should consider different strategies that have worked well with previous immunizations and create a plan to set their child up for success. Some questions to consider when scheduling your child’s vaccination appointment include:</p><ul><li>Does my child require a calmer environment? (i.e., privacy, quiet)</li><li>If applicable, is the vaccination clinic wheelchair accessible?</li><li>Which distraction techniques are typically most effective for my child (i.e., deep breathing, counting, watching a favourite video, stress balls)</li><li>What position will be most comfortable for my child during their vaccination (i.e., comfort holding, sitting with a caregiver, lying down)</li></ul><p>If family caregivers have questions related to vaccinating children with disabilities and medical complexity, you should first reach out to your child’s primary care physician. For additional questions after speaking with your child’s physician, you can book an appointment with the <a href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/care-services/support-services/covid-19-vaccine-consult/">SickKids COVID-19 Vaccine Consult Service</a>.</p><h2>When will children and youth who are not immunocompromised be eligible for a third (booster) dose of the vaccine?</h2><p>Third doses are currently being prioritized for people aged 18 and up as they were vaccinated earlier and are more at risk due to waning immunity. It is possible that children and youth will be eligible for a third dose in the future, but there are no current recommendations for this group.</p><h2>I cannot decide if vaccinating my child is the right thing to do. Who can I talk to?</h2><p>Contact your child’s primary care provider or the SickKids COVID-19 Vaccine Consult Service, a by-appointment phone service for Ontario residents that provides a safe, judgment-free space to have an open conversation about the COVID-19 vaccine with a paediatric registered nurse. Book an appointment online at <a href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/care-services/support-services/covid-19-vaccine-consult/">sickkids.ca/vaccineconsult</a> or by calling 1-888-304-6558.</p><p>For general information on COVID-19, please visit the <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/covid-19">COVID-19 learning hub</a>.</p><h2>Information on how to prepare and support your child with their COVID-19 vaccine</h2><p>CARD System Learning Hub<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/card">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/card</a></p><p>Needle pokes: Reducing pain in children aged 18 months or over<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=990&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=990&language=English</a></p><p>Needle pokes: Reducing pain with comfort positions and distraction<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3629&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3629&language=English</a></p><p>Needle pokes: Reducing pain with numbing cream<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3627&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3627&language=English</a></p><p>Pain relief: Comfort kit<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1258&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1258&language=English</a></p><h2>References</h2><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, February 26). COVID-19 Vaccination. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/index.html">https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/index.html</a></p><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, March 8). Science Brief: Background Rationale and Evidence for Public Health Recommendations for Fully Vaccinated People. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/more/fully-vaccinated-people.html">https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/more/fully-vaccinated-people.html</a></p><p>Government of Ontario – Ministry of Health. (2020, March 31). COVID-19 vaccines for Ontario. Retrieved from <a href="https://covid-19.ontario.ca/covid-19-vaccines-ontario">https://covid-19.ontario.ca/covid-19-vaccines-ontario</a></p><p>Health Canada. (2021, October 18). Health Canada receives submission from Pfizer-BioNTech to authorize the use of Comirnaty COVID-19 vaccine in children 5 to 11 years of age. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/news/2021/10/health-canada-receives-submission-from-pfizer-biontech-to-authorize-the-use-of-comirnaty-covid-19-vaccine-in-children-5-to-11-years-of-age.html">https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/news/2021/10/health-canada-receives-submission-from-pfizer-biontech-to-authorize-the-use-of-comirnaty-covid-19-vaccine-in-children-5-to-11-years-of-age.html</a></p><p>ImmunizeBC. (2021, March 12). COVID-19 Vaccine Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved from <a href="https://immunizebc.ca/covid-19-vaccine-frequently-asked-questions">https://immunizebc.ca/covid-19-vaccine-frequently-asked-questions</a></p><p>ImmunizeCanada. (2021, February 18). COVID-19 Info. Retrieved from <a href="https://immunize.ca/covid-19-info">https://immunize.ca/covid-19-info</a></p><p>National Advisory Committee on Immunization. (2021, May 5). Recommendations on the use of COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf">https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf</a></p><p>Pfizer. (2021, September 20). Pfizer and BioNTech Announce Positive Topline Results from Pivotal Trial of COVID-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to 11 Years. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-announce-positive-topline-results">https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-announce-positive-topline-results</a></p><p>Pfizer. (2021, September 28). Pfizer and BioNTech Submit Initial Data to U.S. FDA From Pivotal Trial of COVID-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to <12 Years of Age. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-submit-initial-data-us-fda-pivota">https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-submit-initial-data-us-fda-pivota</a>l</p><p>Public Health Agency of Canada. (2021, September 28). Advisory Committee Statement (ACS) National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI): Recommendations on the use of COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf">https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf</a></p><p>Walter, E.B., Talaat, K.R., Sabharwal, C., Gurtman, A., Lockhart, S., Paulsen, G.C.,…Gruber, W.C., for the C4591007 Clinical Trial Group. (2021). Evaluation of the BNT162b2 Covid-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to 11 Years of Age. <em>New England Journal of Medicine</em>. <a href="https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2116298">https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2116298</a></p><p>World Health Organization. (2021, February 19). COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/covid-19-vaccines">https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/covid-19-vaccines</a><br></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-1278968456.jpgCOVID-19 vaccine info for children (ages 5 to 11)Main
COVID-19 vaccine information for youth (ages 12+)COVID-19 vaccine information for youth (ages 12+)COVID-19 vaccine information for youth (ages 12+)CEnglishInfectious DiseasesTeen (13-18 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years)NANADrug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-1302135365.jpg2022-01-12T05:00:00ZFlat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the status of COVID-19 vaccines for youth 12 to 17 years of age and the benefits of getting the vaccine for youth.<br></p><h2>What is the status of COVID-19 vaccines for youth in Canada?</h2><p>In May 2021, Health Canada approved the use of the Pfizer vaccine for all individuals older than 12 years of age.</p><p>Here are a few helpful resources about COVID-19 vaccines and youth.</p><ul><li> <a href="https://kidshealthfirst.ca/">COVID-19 Vaccines for Ontario Youth</a></li><li> <a href="https://www.toronto.ca/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/97d6-COVID-19-Vaccine-Fact-Sheet-Youth.pdf">COVID-19 Vaccine Fact Sheet for Youth Age 12 to 17</a></li><li> <a href="https://www.toronto.ca/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/908c-CovidTeenVaxConsentInfographF.pdf">Does my 12+ Child Require Informed Consent to Receive Their Vaccine?</a></li></ul><p>Looking for general information on COVID-19 vaccines. Visit the page on <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3937&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19 vaccines general information</a>.</p><p>Looking for information specific to children aged five to 11? Visit the page on <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4001&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19 vaccine information for children (ages five to 11)</a>.</p><br> <h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Vaccines against COVID-19 have been shown to be safe and effective against the disease.</li><li>Two of the vaccines, Pfizer and Moderna, are approved for people 12 years of age and older.</li><li>The vaccine has been shown to prevent severe illness and hospitalization in youth aged 12 to 17.</li><li>Vaccinating youth aged 12 to 17 will help to prevent the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.</li></ul><h2>Do you recommend that youth get the vaccine against COVID-19?</h2><p>Although they are less at risk than older people, some youth may still develop severe COVID-19, or may require hospitalization because of COVID-19. The vaccine has been shown to prevent severe illness and hospitalization in youth. Moreover, vaccinating youth will become important to reduce the transmission of the virus since they represent a large proportion of the population.</p><h2>Why do youth need the COVID-19 vaccine since they don’t get that sick if they become infected?</h2><p>While adults are at higher risk of complications from COVID-19, youth can still get infected and develop severe complications. Vaccination against COVID-19 prevents youth from being infected and may also prevent them from developing severe and long-term complications. Vaccination can also prevent youth from transmitting SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.</p><h2>Can vaccination improve the physical and mental health of youth?</h2><p>Getting vaccinated can help keep youth safe and healthy, return to their pre-pandemic activities, as well as limit the spread of COVID-19 to others in the community.</p><p> <a href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/news/archive/2021/research-covid-19-pandemic-impact-child-youth-mental-physical-health/">SickKids-led research</a> has shown a serious, sustained negative impact on the mental health of Ontario children, youth and their families due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Before the pandemic, a study showed that 58 per cent of participants engaged in school sports and/or other extracurricular activities. During the pandemic, only 27 per cent participated in sports and 16 per cent in extracurriculars. These activities are known to boost physical and mental health. Vaccination will help return children to their regular activities and thus help improve the mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of children.</p><h2>Is the risk of myocarditis or pericarditis greater from the vaccine or from COVID-19 for youth?</h2><p>In Canada, the National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) recommends vaccination for youth and young adults who are eligible, as the benefits of vaccination to prevent COVID-19 and associated complications outweigh very rare cases of myocarditis/pericarditis following COVID-19 mRNA vaccination.</p><p>Additional information about <a href="https://uwaterloo.ca/pharmacy/sites/ca.pharmacy/files/uploads/files/myocarditis_and_pericarditis_after_covid-19_vaccines.pdf">myocarditis and pericarditis after COVID-19 vaccination</a> is available in this article from the University of Waterloo.</p><h2>Can the COVID-19 vaccine affect puberty and fertility in youth?</h2><p>No. There is no evidence that the COVID-19 vaccine can affect puberty and fertility in youth. Ongoing studies and surveillance of those who have been vaccinated in the general population have shown that the mRNA vaccines are very safe in youth aged 12 to 17.</p><p>For general information on COVID-19, please visit the <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/covid-19">COVID-19 learning hub</a>.</p><h2>Is vaccination safe for youth with food allergies?</h2><p>Yes. There is no reason a youth with a food allergy of any kind should not be vaccinated. Children with a history of allergy to foods, oral drugs, insect venom or environmental allergies can receive COVID-19 vaccines without any special precautions. If you are concerned about the possibility of an allergic reaction to any of the <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/drugs-health-products/covid19-industry/drugs-vaccines-treatments/vaccines/pfizer-biontech.html#a4">vaccine ingredients</a>, please consult your child’s primary health-care provider.</p><h2>Does the vaccine work against the Omicron variant?</h2><p>The Omicron variant is known to be much more transmissible than previous strains of COVID-19. Early data out of South Africa and the United Kingdom suggests that vaccination still protects against serious illness due to Omicron. The more people who are vaccinated against COVID-19, the more we can protect ourselves and prevent new variants from emerging and spreading in the community.</p><h2>Is the Omicron variant of COVID-19 causing more severe illness than previous strains?</h2><p>Studies are ongoing with respect to the severity of COVID-19 in children and youth due to the Omicron variant. However, most children and youth who have COVID-19 experience mild illness and do not require hospitalization. Those who are hospitalized typically require support for fever, dehydration and breathing difficulties. The increase in hospitalizations of COVID-positive patients is likely the result of widespread community transmission of COVID-19 due to the Omicron variant. While rare, some children and youth can get seriously ill after contracting COVID-19 and this is something we are monitoring closely.</p><h2>When will children and youth who are not immunocompromised be eligible for a third (booster) dose of the vaccine?</h2><p>Third doses are currently being prioritized for people aged 18 and up as they were vaccinated earlier and are more at risk due to waning immunity. It is possible that children and youth will be eligible for a third dose in the future, but there are no current recommendations for this group.</p> <h2>Information on how to prepare and support your child with their COVID-19 vaccine</h2><p>CARD System Learning Hub<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/card">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/card</a></p><p>Needle pokes: Reducing pain in children aged 18 months or over<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=990&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=990&language=English</a></p><p>Needle pokes: Reducing pain with comfort positions and distraction<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3629&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3629&language=English</a></p><p>Needle pokes: Reducing pain with numbing cream<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3627&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3627&language=English</a></p><p>Pain relief: Comfort kit<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1258&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1258&language=English</a></p><h2>References</h2><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, February 26). COVID-19 Vaccination. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/index.html">https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/index.html</a></p><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, March 8). Science Brief: Background Rationale and Evidence for Public Health Recommendations for Fully Vaccinated People. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/more/fully-vaccinated-people.html">https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/more/fully-vaccinated-people.html</a></p><p>Government of Ontario – Ministry of Health. (2020, March 31). COVID-19 vaccines for Ontario. Retrieved from <a href="https://covid-19.ontario.ca/covid-19-vaccines-ontario">https://covid-19.ontario.ca/covid-19-vaccines-ontario</a></p><p>Health Canada. (2021, October 18). Health Canada receives submission from Pfizer-BioNTech to authorize the use of Comirnaty COVID-19 vaccine in children 5 to 11 years of age. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/news/2021/10/health-canada-receives-submission-from-pfizer-biontech-to-authorize-the-use-of-comirnaty-covid-19-vaccine-in-children-5-to-11-years-of-age.html">https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/news/2021/10/health-canada-receives-submission-from-pfizer-biontech-to-authorize-the-use-of-comirnaty-covid-19-vaccine-in-children-5-to-11-years-of-age.html</a></p><p>ImmunizeBC. (2021, March 12). COVID-19 Vaccine Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved from <a href="https://immunizebc.ca/covid-19-vaccine-frequently-asked-questions">https://immunizebc.ca/covid-19-vaccine-frequently-asked-questions</a></p><p>ImmunizeCanada. (2021, February 18). COVID-19 Info. Retrieved from <a href="https://immunize.ca/covid-19-info">https://immunize.ca/covid-19-info</a></p><p>National Advisory Committee on Immunization. (2021, May 5). Recommendations on the use of COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf">https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf</a></p><p>Pfizer. (2021, September 20). Pfizer and BioNTech Announce Positive Topline Results from Pivotal Trial of COVID-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to 11 Years. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-announce-positive-topline-results">https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-announce-positive-topline-results</a></p><p>Pfizer. (2021, September 28). Pfizer and BioNTech Submit Initial Data to U.S. FDA From Pivotal Trial of COVID-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to <12 Years of Age. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-submit-initial-data-us-fda-pivota">https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-submit-initial-data-us-fda-pivota</a>l</p><p>Public Health Agency of Canada. (2021, September 28). Advisory Committee Statement (ACS) National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI): Recommendations on the use of COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf">https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf</a></p><p>Walter, E.B., Talaat, K.R., Sabharwal, C., Gurtman, A., Lockhart, S., Paulsen, G.C.,…Gruber, W.C., for the C4591007 Clinical Trial Group. (2021). Evaluation of the BNT162b2 Covid-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to 11 Years of Age. <em>New England Journal of Medicine</em>. <a href="https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2116298">https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2116298</a></p><p>World Health Organization. (2021, February 19). COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/covid-19-vaccines">https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/covid-19-vaccines</a></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-1302135365.jpgCOVID-19 vaccine information for youth (ages 12+)Main
COVID-19 vaccines general informationCOVID-19 vaccines general informationCOVID-19 vaccines general informationCEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANADrug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/COVID-19_Vaccine.jpg2022-01-19T05:00:00Z10.900000000000049.10000000000001996.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn which COVID-19 vaccines are available in Canada, and find information about vaccine development, and vaccine safety and effectiveness.</p><h2>COVID-19 vaccines approved for use in Canada</h2><p>As of November 2021, four vaccines against COVID-19 are approved for clinical use by Health Canada.</p><p>Two mRNA vaccines:</p><ul><li> <strong>Pfizer-BioNTech</strong> Comirnaty</li><li> <strong>Moderna</strong> Spikevax</li></ul><p>Two adenoviral vector vaccines:</p><ul><li> <strong>AstraZeneca</strong> Vaxzevria</li><li> <strong>Janssen</strong> (Johnson and Johnson)</li></ul> <p>Looking for information specific to children aged five to 11? Visit the page on <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4001&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19 vaccine information for children (ages five to 11)</a>.</p><p>Looking for information specific to youth age 12+? Visit the page on <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4000&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19 vaccine information for youth (ages 12+)</a>.</p><br> <h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Vaccines against COVID-19 have been shown to be safe and effective against the disease.</li><li>As of November 2021, four COVID-19 vaccines are approved for use by Health Canada.</li><li>Two of the vaccines, Pfizer and Moderna, are approved for people 12 years of age and older.</li><li>As of November 19, 2021, the Pfizer vaccine has been approved for use in children five to 11 years of age.</li><li>Currently studies are underway looking at the safety of the vaccines and how well they work in children under five years of age.</li><li>Parents who are vaccinated against COVID-19 may help protect their children and others against the disease.</li></ul><h2>How do mRNA vaccines work?</h2><p>The vaccines work by teaching your immune cells to recognize a small piece of the SARS-CoV-2 virus called a spike protein. The SARS-CoV-2 virus is the virus that causes COVID-19.</p><p>Pfizer uses messenger RNA (mRNA)in their vaccines. The mRNA is a small piece of genetic code from the SARS-CoV-2 virus that tells the body to make the spike protein of the coronavirus. The production of the spike protein is recognized by immunity helpers, which will assemble an army of B cells. The B cells produce the antibodies that create immunity against the virus. After the vaccine causes this immune response, the body rapidly gets rid of the spike protein and the mRNA, the antibodies and immune memory remain.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"><img alt="The mRNA vaccines contain a small piece of genetic code from the SARS-CoV-2 virus that will tell the body make the spike protein of the coronavirus. The production of the spike protein causes the immune system to produce antibodies that create immunity against the virus." src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Covid_vaccine_mRNA.jpg" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Vaccines teach your immune system to recognize the coronavirus by presenting the spike protein to immunity helpers. The mRNA vaccines contain a small piece of genetic code from the SARS-CoV-2 virus that will tell the body to make the spike protein of the coronavirus. The immunity helpers will then assemble an army of B cells, which will produce antibodies against this spike protein. B cells also remember how to create these antibodies and they will mature to become memory B cells. They are now prepared to repeat the immune response in the future.<br>After vaccination, if your body encounters the coronavirus, the memory B cells recognize the spike protein on the virus and they will increase the antibody production. The antibodies will bind to the spike protein on the virus, blocking the virus from spreading.</figcaption></figure> <h2>Are mRNA COVID-19 vaccines safe and are there any side effects?</h2><p>Two mRNA vaccines have been approved by Health Canada: The Pfizer vaccine and the Moderna vaccine. They have met the requirements for approval by Health Canada as they have been studied in clinical trials on a large number of people and were shown to be safe. In the studies, the number of people who got the vaccine and had unexpected severe side effects was similar to the number of people who received a placebo (substance or treatment that contains no active ingredients).</p><p>People who receive a COVID-19 vaccine may experience side effects, such as fatigue, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, chills and fever. These are side effects that are commonly seen after any vaccination. Allergic reactions have only rarely occurred after COVID-19 vaccination.</p><h2>What about the risk of myocarditis and pericarditis?</h2><p>A small number of cases of myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle) and/or pericarditis (inflammation of the sac that envelopes the heart) following immunization with COVID-19 vaccines have been reported in Canada and internationally. These cases are very rare and are most frequently reported after the second dose of an mRNA vaccine. Most cases were mild and resolved with symptomatic treatment within a few days. As part of safety surveillance systems, Public Health Ontario is closely monitoring cases of myocarditis/pericarditis following COVID-19 vaccination.</p><p>Additional information about <a href="https://uwaterloo.ca/pharmacy/sites/ca.pharmacy/files/uploads/files/myocarditis_and_pericarditis_after_covid-19_vaccines.pdf">myocarditis and pericarditis after COVID-19 vaccination</a> is available in this article from the University of Waterloo.</p><h2>Is there any chance that the COVID-19 vaccine can give me the virus?</h2><p>No. There is no way you can get COVID-19 from any of the vaccines. None of the vaccines contain the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19.</p><h2>After vaccination, how long does it take to be protected from COVID-19?</h2><p>After you get the vaccine, immunity usually starts to develop after 14 days. For vaccines that need two-doses, a maximum immune response occurs seven to 14 days after the second dose of the vaccine. Studies are still ongoing and data is being collected on how long the protection will last.</p><h2>How can anyone be sure a vaccine developed so quickly is also safe?</h2><p>Work on coronavirus vaccines has been ongoing for more than 10 years, due in part to the SARS-CoV-1 outbreak in 2003. It was important to develop the COVID-19 vaccine quickly because of how many people were dying and getting sick, and because of the disruptions to everyday life as a result of the pandemic. Even though the vaccines were developed quickly, all the usual steps for the approval of vaccines occurred, including clinical trials with the appropriate number of participants. Because of the significant amount of resources that were made available to develop a COVID-19 vaccine and the large number of COVID-19 cases the clinical trials were able to happen quickly. This made it easier to tell quickly whether or not the vaccines worked to prevent cases of COVID-19. The vaccine was rapidly shown to be effective in protecting against COVID-19.</p><h2>What is the difference between natural immunity and immunity from the COVID-19 vaccine?</h2><p>Natural immunity refers to the immune responses that are developed following exposure to an infection. When contracting an infection, most individuals will develop antibodies that are key to recognizing and fighting the same infection, if encountered again. Natural immunity can decrease with time, and the antibodies may not last in your immune system for a very long time. Developing natural immunity also implies that you need to contract the infection, meaning that you could experience very serious health complications as a result.</p><p>Immunity against COVID-19 can also be achieved by getting vaccinated. The difference, in this case, is that the vaccine instructs your immune system on how to develop the antibodies that protect against COVID-19 without having to contract the infection and get sick. Because additional vaccine doses are given to help build the immune responses, the antibodies continue to circulate in the body for a longer period than when contracting the infection a single time.</p><h2>Why should anyone get vaccinated if the Omicron variant is widespread and everyone will be infected with the virus eventually?</h2><p>Vaccination prevents severe disease and hospitalization due to COVID-19. Children and youth who previously had COVID-19 have some protection, but this protection will be much stronger if they're also vaccinated.</p><p>Another reason for vaccination combined with other public health measures is to get the virus under control. Omicron may be less severe, but its high transmissibility means many more people will be affected. This puts our health and our health-care system at risk. The more resources we have to direct toward caring for COVID-19 patients, the more challenging it is to provide life-changing surgeries and procedures for non-COVID-19 patients who are also in need of care.</p> <h2>Can I get other immunizations, such as the influenza (flu) vaccine, at the same time as the COVID-19 vaccine?</h2><p>According to the National Advisory Committee on Immunizations, in people aged 12 years old and older, COVID-19 vaccines may be given at the same time as, or anytime before or after, other vaccines, including the influenza (flu) vaccine. For children five to 11, the recommendation is to wait 14 days before receiving other vaccines, such as the flu vaccine. This is a precaution to monitor any side effects from the COVID-19 vaccine or another vaccine. If a vaccine is needed urgently, please follow the advice of your child’s health-care provider.</p><h2>If I am fully vaccinated against COVID-19, will this protect my child?</h2><p>There is more and more evidence that suggests fully vaccinated people are less likely to develop asymptomatic COVID-19 and potentially less likely to transmit the infection to others. This may be true for vaccinated parents and the risk of transmission to their child. However, more studies are needed to confirm this. Individual vaccination for everyone who is eligible offers the best possible protection against COVID-19 infection.</p><h2>If my child develops COVID-19 and I am fully vaccinated, will I have protection against the disease?</h2><p>It has been shown that people who are fully vaccinated are at lower risk of getting COVID-19 and are at lower risk of getting severe disease, including admission to the hospital and intensive care unit. If you are fully vaccinated and your child is later diagnosed with COVID-19, you are at a lower risk of developing the disease.</p><h2>How is the Omicron variant different from other strains we have seen before and how widespread is it?</h2><p>Omicron is a variant of COVID-19 that is much more transmissible than previous strains, which is causing the rapid rise in case numbers and a corresponding number of hospitalizations. In adults, there is evidence that vaccines remain effective at preventing hospitalization and severe disease from Omicron, especially in people who are fully vaccinated and have had a third dose. The Omicron strain, because of its high transmissibility, has become the dominant form of COVID-19 in Ontario and much of the world.</p><h2>If my child or I already had COVID-19, should we still get the vaccine?</h2><p>Yes. It is recommended that anyone who has had COVID-19 should still get the vaccine, but only after they have recovered from their illness and they have been cleared by their local public health unit. The clinical trials included people who previously had COVID-19, and the vaccine was found to be safe for them. Because it is not known how long antibodies against COVID-19 last after infection and it is possible to get the infection again (sometimes more severely), the vaccine is recommended as it can be helpful in boosting a person's existing immunity to COVID-19.</p><h2>How long should I wait after being infected with COVID-19 to get the vaccine?</h2><p>There is no specific amount of time required to wait between infection and vaccination. As long as you no longer have symptoms, completed the self-isolation period as per your local public health guidelines and are fully recovered from the virus, vaccination is recommended.</p><h2>Will getting the COVID-19 vaccine help my child go back to school and other regular activities?</h2><p>All children and youth benefit from routine educational, physical and other extracurricular activities. It is expected that when enough people are vaccinated against COVID-19, the risk of infection for your child, and the general population, will go down. Until the population is protected, it is important to continue to follow the advice of public health authorities to reduce the risk of getting and transmitting COVID-19.</p><h2>With the resurgence in COVID-19 cases and resulting restrictions, anxiety is mounting for my family. Where can I find mental health resources for caregivers and children?</h2><p>The COVID-19 pandemic and renewed restrictions are impacting the well-being of caregivers and their children. Please visit the <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3883&language=English">COVID-19: Well-being and mental health resources</a> page to help you and your family through these difficult times. You can also speak to your primary care provider about accessing mental health services in your community.</p><h2>Eligibility requirements</h2><p>To find information about current eligibility requirements for each province and territory, click on the links below.</p><p> <strong>Alberta</strong><br><a href="https://www.alberta.ca/covid19-vaccine.aspx">COVID-19 vaccine program</a></p><p> <strong>British Columbia</strong><br><a href="https://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/covid-19/vaccine/register">How to get vaccinated for COVID-19</a></p><p> <strong>Manitoba</strong><br><a href="https://www.gov.mb.ca/covid19/vaccine/young-people.html">COVID-19 Immunization for Young People</a></p><p> <strong>New Brunswick</strong><br><a href="https://www2.gnb.ca/content/gnb/en/corporate/promo/covid-19/nb-vaccine.html">COVID-19 vaccines</a></p><p> <strong>Newfoundland and Labrador</strong><br><a href="https://www.gov.nl.ca/covid-19/vaccine/gettheshot/">Get the Shot</a></p><p> <strong>Northwest Territories</strong><br><a href="https://www.nthssa.ca/en/services/coronavirus-disease-covid-19-updates/covid-vaccine">COVID Vaccine</a></p><p> <strong>Nova Scotia</strong><br><a href="https://novascotia.ca/coronavirus/vaccine/">Coronavirus (COVID-19): vaccine</a></p><p> <strong>Nunavut</strong><br><a href="https://www.gov.nu.ca/health/information/covid-19-vaccination">COVID-19 Vaccination</a></p><p> <strong>Ontario</strong><br><a href="https://covid-19.ontario.ca/ontarios-covid-19-vaccination-plan">Ontario’s COVID-19 vaccination plan</a></p><p> <strong>Prince Edward Island</strong><br><a href="https://www.princeedwardisland.ca/en/information/health-and-wellness/getting-the-covid-19-vaccine">Getting the COVID-19 Vaccine</a></p><p> <strong>Quebec</strong><br><a href="https://www.quebec.ca/en/health/health-issues/a-z/2019-coronavirus/progress-of-the-covid-19-vaccination/">COVID-19 vaccination campaign</a></p><p> <strong>Saskatchewan</strong><br><a href="https://www.saskatchewan.ca/government/health-care-administration-and-provider-resources/treatment-procedures-and-guidelines/emerging-public-health-issues/2019-novel-coronavirus/covid-19-vaccine/vaccine-booking">Appointments for COVID-19 Vaccine</a></p><p> <strong>Yukon</strong><br><a href="https://yukon.ca/en/vaccine-questions">Vaccine questions</a></p><p>For general information on COVID-19, please visit the <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/covid-19">COVID-19 learning hub</a>.</p><h2>Information on how to prepare and support your child with their COVID-19 vaccine</h2><p>CARD System Learning Hub<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/card">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/card</a></p><p>Needle pokes: Reducing pain in children aged 18 months or over<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=990&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=990&language=English</a></p><p>Needle pokes: Reducing pain with comfort positions and distraction<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3629&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3629&language=English</a></p><p>Needle pokes: Reducing pain with numbing cream<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3627&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3627&language=English</a></p><p>Pain relief: Comfort kit<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1258&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1258&language=English</a></p><h2>References</h2><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, February 26). COVID-19 Vaccination. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/index.html">https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/index.html</a></p><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, March 8). Science Brief: Background Rationale and Evidence for Public Health Recommendations for Fully Vaccinated People. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/more/fully-vaccinated-people.html">https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/more/fully-vaccinated-people.html</a></p><p>Government of Ontario – Ministry of Health. (2020, March 31). COVID-19 vaccines for Ontario. Retrieved from <a href="https://covid-19.ontario.ca/covid-19-vaccines-ontario">https://covid-19.ontario.ca/covid-19-vaccines-ontario</a></p><p>Health Canada. (2021, October 18). Health Canada receives submission from Pfizer-BioNTech to authorize the use of Comirnaty COVID-19 vaccine in children 5 to 11 years of age. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/news/2021/10/health-canada-receives-submission-from-pfizer-biontech-to-authorize-the-use-of-comirnaty-covid-19-vaccine-in-children-5-to-11-years-of-age.html">https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/news/2021/10/health-canada-receives-submission-from-pfizer-biontech-to-authorize-the-use-of-comirnaty-covid-19-vaccine-in-children-5-to-11-years-of-age.html</a></p><p>ImmunizeBC. (2021, March 12). COVID-19 Vaccine Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved from <a href="https://immunizebc.ca/covid-19-vaccine-frequently-asked-questions">https://immunizebc.ca/covid-19-vaccine-frequently-asked-questions</a></p><p>ImmunizeCanada. (2021, February 18). COVID-19 Info. Retrieved from <a href="https://immunize.ca/covid-19-info">https://immunize.ca/covid-19-info</a></p><p>National Advisory Committee on Immunization. (2021, May 5). Recommendations on the use of COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf">https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf</a></p><p>Pfizer. (2021, September 20). Pfizer and BioNTech Announce Positive Topline Results from Pivotal Trial of COVID-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to 11 Years. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-announce-positive-topline-results">https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-announce-positive-topline-results</a></p><p>Pfizer. (2021, September 28). Pfizer and BioNTech Submit Initial Data to U.S. FDA From Pivotal Trial of COVID-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to <12 Years of Age. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-submit-initial-data-us-fda-pivota">https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-submit-initial-data-us-fda-pivota</a>l</p><p>Public Health Agency of Canada. (2021, September 28). Advisory Committee Statement (ACS) National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI): Recommendations on the use of COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf">https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf</a></p><p>Walter, E.B., Talaat, K.R., Sabharwal, C., Gurtman, A., Lockhart, S., Paulsen, G.C.,…Gruber, W.C., for the C4591007 Clinical Trial Group. (2021). Evaluation of the BNT162b2 Covid-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to 11 Years of Age. <em>New England Journal of Medicine</em>. <a href="https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2116298">https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2116298</a></p><p>World Health Organization. (2021, February 19). COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/covid-19-vaccines">https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/covid-19-vaccines</a></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/COVID-19_Vaccine.jpgCOVID-19 vaccines general information Learn which COVID-19 vaccines are available in Canada, and find information on vaccine development, and safety and effectiveness in children.Main
COVID-19COVID-19COVID-19CEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NAImmune systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2020-03-26T04:00:00Z000Landing PageLearning Hub<p>Learn about COVID-19 and how to talk to and support your family. Also find resources such as videos and audio meditations to help you cope.</p><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4001&language=English&hub=COVID-19"><figure class="asset-small"><img alt="Read COVID-19 vaccine information for children ages five to 11" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/COVID_Vaccine_info_5_11_download%20thumbnail.jpg" /> </figure> </a> <p>This learning hub includes resources on COVID-19 and how to help you and your child cope. Find general information on COVID-19 and articles and resources about vaccines and testing. Read the article to find more information about COVID-19 vaccines for children (ages five to 11).<br></p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/videoseries?list=PLfAK35c0XomtY0ixQrG3EjdwiCw8vOCUw"></iframe> </div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">COVID-19 information</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find information about COVID-19 from AboutKidsHealth.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3872&language=English">Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) </a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3907&language=English">Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-external" href="https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/diseases/coronavirus-disease-covid-19.html">Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) (Public Health Agency of Canada)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3863&language=English">COVID-19: Information for parents of immunocompromised children and children with chronic medical conditions</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3870&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19: Information for parents of children with congenital heart disease</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3875&language=English">COVID-19 and chronic pain in children and teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-external" href="https://covid19healthliteracyproject.com/#languages">COVID-19 fact sheets in 34 different languages (Harvard Health Publishing)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-external" href="https://www.publichealthontario.ca/en/diseases-and-conditions/infectious-diseases/respiratory-diseases/novel-coronavirus/public-resources">COVID-19 public resources (Public Health Ontario)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-external" href="https://www.pcmch.on.ca/covid-19-resources-for-children-youth-and-families/">COVID-19 resources for children, youth, and families (Provincial Council for Maternal and Child Health)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-external" href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/the-2019-novel-coronavirus-covid-19">The 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) (Caring for Kids)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-external" href="https://www.ontario.ca/page/2019-novel-coronavirus">The 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) (Ontario Ministry of Health)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">COVID-19 vaccines</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find information about the COVID-19 vaccines that are available in Canada and about their safety and effectiveness.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3937&language=English">COVID-19 vaccines general information</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4001&language=English">COVID-19 vaccine information for children (ages five to 11)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4000&language=English">COVID-19 vaccine information for youth (ages 12+)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-video" href="https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PLfAK35c0XomtY0ixQrG3EjdwiCw8vOCUw">SickKids COVID-19 vaccine consult service: Commonly asked questions (video playlist)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-video" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VJ4tKxYISRk">Youth COVID-19 vaccination: What to expect (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-pdf" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/CARD_Vaccination_Handout.pdf">CARD handout: Coping with pain and fear around vaccination for teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-pdf" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/CARD_Vaccination_Poster.pdf">CARD poster: Coping with pain and fear around vaccination for teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-external" href="https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/drugs-health-products/covid19-industry/drugs-vaccines-treatments/vaccines.html">Vaccines for COVID-19: Authorized vaccines</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-external" href="https://covid-19.ontario.ca/covid-19-vaccines-ontario">COVID-19 vaccines for Ontario</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">COVID-19 testing</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find information that will help you and your child prepare or either a saliva test or a nasopharyngeal swab.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-external" href="https://covid-19.ontario.ca/self-assessment/">Take this self-assessment if you were exposed to COVID-19 or have symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-external" href="https://covid-19.ontario.ca/covid-19-test-and-testing-location-information">Ontario COVID-19 test and testing location information</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-pdf" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/COVID-19%20Testing%20How%20to%20prepare%20and%20comfort%20your%20child.pdf">COVID-19 Testing: How to prepare and comfort your child</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-video" href="https://youtu.be/Ru-vFZdImes">Saliva testing (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-video" href="https://youtu.be/nO1L-oYo9TA">Nasopharyngeal (NP) swab (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3908&language=English">After your child’s COVID-19 test</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-video" href="https://youtu.be/8d9SPC7T6KM">After your child's COVID-19 test - Virtual discharge (video)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Talking to your child about COVID-19</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Helpful resources that provide information about how to explain and talk to your child about COVID-19. </p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3866&language=English">How to talk to your child about COVID-19</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-external" href="http://hollandbloorview.ca/services/family-workshops-resources/family-resource-centre/explaining-covid-19-kids">Explaining COVID-19 and Coronavirus to children (Holland Bloorview)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-external" href="https://www.cps.ca/en/blog-blogue/how-can-we-talk-to-kids-about-covid-19">How can we talk to kids about COVID-19? Be “realistically reassuring” (Canadian Pediatric Society)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-external" href="https://www.pbs.org/parents/thrive/how-to-talk-to-your-kids-about-coronavirus#.XmuZ3QV_gax.twitter">How to Talk to Your Kids About Coronavirus (PBS)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-external" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3869&language=English">Supporting your child with a neurodevelopmental disorder through the COVID-19 crisis</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-external" href="https://cmho.org/talking-to-your-anxious-child-about-covid-19/">Talking to your anxious child about COVID-19 (Children's Mental Health Ontario)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Coping</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Information on how to help your child cope with stress during the COVID-19 crisis and how to help them deal with separation from family and friend. </p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3868&language=English">Coping with separation from and socialization with family and friends during COVID-19</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3882&language=English">COVID-19: Frequently asked questions</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3883&language=English">COVID-19: Well-being and mental health resources</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3888&language=English">Stressed adults and anxious young children: Supporting infants, toddlers and preschoolers through COVID-19</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3867&language=English">Is my child or adolescent feeling stressed about COVID-19?</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-pdf" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20Individual%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020_v2.pdf">CARD: Coping with your own fears and anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-pdf" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20caregiver%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020.pdf">CARD: Helping your child cope with anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-external" href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/disaster">Helping children and teens cope with stressful public events (Caring for Kids)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-external" href="https://www.cps.ca/en/blog-blogue/how-to-help-youth-tackle-the-blues-during-covid-19">How to help youth tackle the blues during COVID-19 and #physicaldistancing (Canadian Pediatric Society)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-external" href="https://afirm.fpg.unc.edu/supporting-individuals-autism-through-uncertain-times">Supporting individuals with autism through uncertain times (Autism Focused Intervention Resources & Modules)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Mental health</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Taking care of your mental health during difficult and stressful times is important. Learn more about anxiety and depression.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=18&language=English">Anxiety: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3810&language=English">Anxiety and anxiety disorders</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-pdf" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20Individual%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020_v2.pdf">CARD: Coping with your own fears and anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-pdf" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20caregiver%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020.pdf">CARD: Helping your child cope with anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=19&language=English">Depression: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-external" href="https://www.camh.ca/en/health-info/mental-health-and-covid-19">Mental health and the COVID-19 pandemic (CAMH)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Parenting<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find some helpful information on parenting during the COVID-19 crisis. </p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-video" href="https://youtu.be/jwwwF9KQ7CQ">Parenting during COVID-19 and beyond (podcast)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3935&language=English">Keeping your child active during the COVID-19 pandemic</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-external" href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/health_information_on_the_internet">A parent’s guide to health information on the Internet (Caring for Kids)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-external" href="https://www.cps.ca/en/blog-blogue/covid-youth-and-substance-use-critical-messages-for-youth-and-families">COVID, youth, and substance use: Critical messages for youth and families (Canadian Pediatric Society)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-external" href="https://www.cps.ca/en/blog-blogue/parenting-during-covid-19-a-new-frontier">Parenting during COVID-19: A new frontier (Canadian Pediatric Society)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-external" href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/news/archive/2021/updated-covid19-school-operation-guidance-document-released/">SickKids - Updated guidance for school operation during the pandemic</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-pdf" href="https://hollandbloorview.ca/sites/default/files/2020-07/HB-BackToSchool-Recommendations.pdf">Return to school recommendations for children with special needs (Holland Bloorview)</a></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Learning</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=651&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Reading milestones</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1903&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Reading: How to help early and struggling readers</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3871&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Writing milestones</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1881&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Visual-motor skills: How to foster in children</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=722&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Mathematics milestones</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=721&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Mathematics: How to help your pre-school and school-aged child</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=649&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Spatial reasoning skills: How to foster in children</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Well-being</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find out how physical activity, a healthy sleep routine, screen time limits and balanced nutrition can boost your child's mental health and support them to achieve better academic success and help them through difficult times. </p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Handwashing</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1981&language=English">Hand hygiene</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-external" href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/handwashing">Handwashing for parents and children (Caring for Kids)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-video" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=9&v=7PKwE1jIuws&feature=emb_title">Protect don’t infect (CHEO)</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Sleep</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=645&language=English">Sleep: Benefits and recommended amounts</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3632&language=English">Sleep and your mental health: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3633&language=English">Sleep and mental health: Sorting out your sleep routine</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=646&language=English">How to help your child get a good night's sleep</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=647&language=English">How to help your teen get a good night's sleep</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Physical activity</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3783&language=English">Physical activity and mental health: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3784&language=English">Physical activity and mental health: Types of physical activity</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=641&language=English">Physical activity: Benefits of exercise for health and wellbeing</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=642&language=English">Physical activity: Guidelines for children and teens</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Nutrition</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3773&language=English">Nutrition and mental health: The basics of a healthy diet</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=639&language=English">How a balanced diet and healthy eating habits can help your child's mental health</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3774&language=English">Nutrition and mental health: Developing positive eating habits</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1464&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Meal ideas for school-aged children, tweens and teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=638&language=English">Healthy eating for teens</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Screen time and social media</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=643&language=English">Screen time: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3775&language=English">Screen time for teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=644&language=English">How to help your child set healthy screen time limits</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3776&language=English">Setting limits and staying safe with screen time</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3894&language=English">Supporting healthy and responsible screen use during COVID-19</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Stress and resilience</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3777&language=English">Stress and health</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3778&language=English">How to become more resilient</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Tools, videos and resources for you and your child</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find helpful resources including handouts, videos and other resources about COVID-19.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-pdf" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20Individual%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020_v2.pdf">CARD: Coping with your own fears and anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-pdf" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20caregiver%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020.pdf">CARD: Helping your child cope with anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-video" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fBkA2ZTUnyI&feature=youtu.be">Dr. Cheddar chats with Dr. Ronni from SickKids (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-video" href="https://youtu.be/nO1L-oYo9TA">Nasopharyngeal (NP) swab (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-video" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r51gYrDzpHQ">Physical distancing (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-video" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=9&v=7PKwE1jIuws&feature=emb_title">Protect don’t infect (CHEO)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.brainson.org/shows/2020/03/10/understanding-coronavirus-and-how-germs-spread-for-kids?fbclid=IwAR21Y_n6fsy33QD2s07In2Q892xQoI5OEFMMZ5vcMyVoLdkH8tv4yZjaZsc">Understanding coronavirus and how germs spread (Brains On!)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/get-info/were-here-for-you-during-covid-19-novel-coronavirus/">We’re here for you during COVID-19 (novel coronavirus) (Kids Help Phone)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-video" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sNinywG7BtY">What is personal protective equipment (PPE) (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-video" href="https://youtu.be/gqeyRuvF9WU">Your virtual video visit overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3889&language=English">Virtual care at SickKids</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3910&language=English">Virtual care: How to accurately measure your child’s height and weight at home</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Videos to support sleep and mindfulness</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find videos that will help you prepare for sleep and for when you need a moment of peace, to understand your situation more clearly and coping with stressful thoughts and experiences.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Sleep video</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-video" href="https://youtu.be/2fbaoqkY0Qk">Sleep: A bed time story</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Mindfulness videos</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-video" href="https://youtu.be/nQdM_Cku9pA">A moment of peace</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-video" href="https://youtu.be/cFCiUlFKuO4">Two wings to fly</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-video" href="https://youtu.be/jaNAwy3XsfI">Being with all of your experiences</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-video" href="https://youtu.be/0QXmmP4psbA">You are not your thoughts</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-video" href="https://youtu.be/Ty93GRPplJo">Dealing with difficult moments</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-video" href="https://youtu.be/QTsUEOUaWpY">Everyday mindfulness</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-video" href="https://youtu.be/GgBVIZAEQqU">STOP for mindfulness</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-video" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KYcLfBf-T9c">Stress and thinking: The mind/body connection</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links overview-video" href="https://youtu.be/EWzDHN7Jdg8">Dealing with flares: Controlling the controllables</a></li></ol></li></ol></div> <br> <div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/videoseries?list=PLjJtOP3StIuUqAzahUMBvvRg2bbViWhH7"></iframe> </div><p>See "Tools, videos and resources for you and your child" in the menu above for more videos or visit the <a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/Aboutkidshealth">AboutKidHealth YouTube channel</a>.</p><br>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-1157093074.jpgCOVID-19,COVID19COVID-19COVID-19 learning hub Learn about COVID-19 and how to talk to and support your family. Also find resources such as videos and audio meditations to help you cope.Main
Temperature takingTemperature takingTemperature takingTEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANANon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)Feverhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_temperature_oral_EN.jpg2016-04-27T04:00:00Z6.2000000000000069.10000000000001488.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to correctly take your child's temperature when they have a fever.</p><p>Children often feel warm to the touch when they have a <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a>, but putting your hand to your child's forehead is not enough to find out if your child has a fever. To confirm that your child has a fever, use a thermometer to measure your child's body temperature.</p><p> <strong>A temperature of 38°C (100.4°F) or higher is a fever</strong></p><h2>Converting Fahrenheit (°F) and Celsius (°C)</h2> <p>Temperatures are measured in degrees Celsius (°C) or degrees Fahrenheit (°F). The table below shows equivalent Celsius and Fahrenheit temperatures.</p> <table class="akh-table"> <thead> <tr><th>°C</th><th>°F</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td>37°C</td> <td>98.6°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>37.2°C </td> <td>99°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>37.5°C </td> <td>99.5°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>37.8°C </td> <td>100°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>38°C </td> <td>100.4°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>38.3°C </td> <td>101°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>38.9°C </td> <td>102°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>39.5°C </td> <td>103°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>40°C </td> <td>104°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>40.6°C </td> <td>105°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>41.1°C </td> <td>106°F</td> </tr> <tr> <td>41.7°C </td> <td>107°F</td> </tr> </tbody> </table><br><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Use a thermometer to find out if a child has a temperature.</li> <li>The best way to take a temperature depends on a child’s age.</li> <li>Always wash thermometers before and after taking a temperature.</li> <li>See your doctor right away if your child has a temperature that last three days or if your child has a temperature and is less than three months old.</li> </ul><h2>When to see a doctor</h2> <h3>See your child's regular doctor or go to the nearest Emergency Department right away if your child has a fever and:</h3> <ul> <li>Your child is less than three months old.</li> <li>You have recently returned from travelling abroad.</li> <li>Your child develops a rash that looks like small purple dots that do not go away when you apply pressure with your fingers (blanching).</li> <li>Your child is not able to keep down any fluids, is not peeing and appears dehydrated.</li> <li>Your child's skin looks very pale or grey, or is cool or mottled.</li> <li>Your child is in constant pain.</li> <li>Your child is lethargic (very weak) or difficult to wake up.</li> <li>Your child has a stiff neck.</li> <li>Your child has a seizure associated with fever for the first time or a long seizure associated with fever.</li> <li>Your child is looking or acting very sick.</li> <li>Your child seems confused or delirious.</li> <li>Your child does not use their arm or leg normally or refuses to stand up.</li> <li>Your child has problems breathing.</li> <li>Your child cries constantly and cannot be settled.</li> </ul> <h3>See a doctor within 24 hours if your child has a fever and:</h3> <ul> <li>Your child is between three and six months old.</li> <li>Your child has specific pain, such as ear or throat pain that may require evaluation.</li> <li>Your child has had a fever for more than three days.</li> <li>The fever went away for over 24 hours and then came back.</li> <li>Your child has a bacterial infection that is being treated with an antibiotic, but the fever is not going away after two to three days of starting the antibiotic.</li> <li>Your child cries when going to the bathroom.</li> <li>You have other concerns or questions.</li> </ul> <p>If you are unsure, call Telehealth Ontario at 1-866-797-0000 (toll-free number) if you live in Ontario.</p><h2>Use a thermometer to measure a temperature</h2> <p>The easiest way to measure your child’s temperature is with a digital thermometer. These are available at most drug stores. </p> <p>You can also use a glass thermometer. Never use glass thermometers that contain mercury because mercury is toxic. If you only have access to a glass thermometer, take very special care. If the thermometer is cracked or damaged in any way, do not use it. Even an undamaged glass thermometer can be a risk for your child. If you believe your child may bite down on the thermometer, do not use it to take a temperature in the mouth.</p> <h3>Four places to take a child’s temperature</h3> <ul> <li>in the mouth</li> <li>in the anus (or rectum)</li> <li>under the armpit</li> <li>in the ear</li> </ul> <p>Do not use a rectal thermometer in the mouth or an oral thermometer in the rectum. Always wash any thermometer with soap and warm water before and after use.</p> <h3>The best way to take a temperature depends on your child’s age</h3> <table class="akh-table"> <thead> <tr><th rowspan="2" colspan="1">Age</th><th rowspan="1" colspan="2">Where to take the temperature</th></tr> <tr><th><em>Most accurate</em></th><th><em>Alternative method</em></th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td>Newborns to 3 years</td> <td>Rectal temperature (anus)</td> <td>Axial temperature (armpit)</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Children over 3 years</td> <td>Oral temperature (mouth)</td> <td>Ear or axial temperature</td> </tr> </tbody> </table><h2>How to take an oral (in the mouth) temperature</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">How to measure an oral temperature</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_temperature_oral_EN.jpg" alt="Girl lying under a blanket while her temperature is taken by mouth" /> </figure> <p>Taking a temperature in the mouth works with children who are old enough to hold the thermometer under their tongue and who will not bite the thermometer. A mouth thermometer is the most accurate way of measuring the temperature of an older child. Make sure your child has not had cold or hot drinks in the 30 minutes before taking their temperature.</p><ul><li>To get an accurate reading, carefully place the tip of the thermometer under your child’s tongue.</li><li>Ask your child to keep the thermometer in place by forming a seal with their lips. Make sure they do not bite down on the thermometer. If they cannot breathe through their nose, use one of the other methods to measure their temperature.</li><li>If you are using a digital thermometer, leave it in the mouth until you hear it beep.</li><li>Carefully read the temperature on the thermometer.</li><li>Turn off the digital thermometer, wash the tip with soap and warm (not hot) water, and wipe it off with alcohol. Dry well.</li></ul><h2>How to take a rectal (in the anus) temperature</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">How to measure a rectal temperature</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_temperature_rectal_EN.jpg" alt="Baby lying on tummy across a lap with thermometer inserted in the baby’s rectum" /> </figure> <p>Using the rectal method works best on babies and young children. Older children may resist having something put in their bum.</p><ul><li>Before taking your child’s temperature, make sure they are relaxed. Place your child on their stomach on a comfortable surface if they can hold their head and do <a href="/Article?contentid=296&language=English">tummy time</a>. Place your child on their back if they are still unable to safely lie on their stomach.</li><li>Before inserting the thermometer, make sure it is clean. Coat the end of it with petroleum jelly (Vaseline). This will make the insertion easier.</li><li>Insert the thermometer gently into your child’s rectum about 2 cm (1 inch). If there is any resistance, pull the thermometer back a little. Never try to force the thermometer past any resistance. You could injure your child by damaging the wall of the bowel.</li><li>Hold your child still while the thermometer is in.</li><li>If you are using a digital thermometer, take it out when you hear the signal (usually a beep or a series of beeps).</li><li>Read the temperature.</li><li>Turn off the digital thermometer, wash the tip with soap and warm (not hot) water. Dry well.</li></ul><h2>How to take an armpit (axillary) temperature</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">How to measure an armpit (axillary) temperature</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_temperature_armpit_EN.jpg" alt="Baby lying on their back with a thermometer held under the armpit" /> </figure> <p>Taking the temperature under the armpit may be less accurate than in the rectum or the mouth but easier in some babies or children. To take a temperature in the armpit, your child must be able to hold their arm to the body and not move it for up to two minutes.</p><ul><li>If you are using a digital thermometer, turn it on.</li><li>Put thermometer under your child’s dry armpit. The silver tip must touch the skin.</li><li>Hold the top of thermometer with one hand and hold down your child’s arm with the other hand.</li><li>If using a digital thermometer, wait until you hear the signal (usually a beep or a series of beeps).</li><li>Turn off the thermometer, wash the tip with soap and warm (not hot) water. Dry well.</li></ul><h2>How to take an ear (tympanic) temperature</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">How to measure an ear (tympanic) temperature</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/IMD_temperature_ear_EN.jpg" alt="Child having temperature taken by ear with one hand pulling the ear up and the other holding the thermometer in the ear" /> </figure> <p>Tympanic thermometers may be less accurate than oral or rectal thermometers. Tympanic thermometers are unsuitable for children under two years of age because their ear canal may be too small to allow for a temperature reading. Always clean the thermometer tip before use and follow the manufacturer’s instructions carefully.</p><ul><li>Gently tug on the ear, pulling it up and back. This will help straighten the ear canal and make a clear path inside the ear to the eardrum.</li><li>Gently insert the thermometer until the ear canal is fully sealed off.</li><li>Squeeze and hold down the button for one second.</li><li>Remove the thermometer and read the temperature.</li></ul><h2>Temperature checking methods to avoid</h2> <p>Digital electronic pacifier thermometers and temperature strips (which measure temperature on the forehead) are inaccurate and unreliable. Do not use these methods to take your child's temperature. </p> <p>Touching your child's forehead or neck may give you a hint that your child has a fever, but this is not a reliable way to check for fever. Confirm your suspicion of a fever by taking a true measurement using the methods explained above.</p><h2>References:</h2><p>Richardson M, Purssell E. (2015). Who's afraid of fever? <em>Arch Dis Child</em>. 100(9):818-20. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2015-309491. Retrieved on February 10th, 2016 <a href="https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/127/3/580.full.pdf">https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/127/3/580.full.pdf</a></p><p>Sullivan JE, Farrar HC. (2011). Fever and antipyretic use in children. <em>Pediatrics</em>. 127(3):580-7. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-3852. Retrieved February 10th, 2016. <a href="https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/127/3/580.full.pdf">https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/127/3/580.full.pdf</a><br></p><p>Mistry N, Hudak A. (2014). Combined and alternating acetaminophen and ibuprofen therapy for febrile children. <em>Paediatrics & child health</em>. 19(10):531-2. Retrieved on February 10th, 2016 <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4276386/pdf/pch-19-531.pdf">https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4276386/pdf/pch-19-531.pdf</a> and Corrigendum. (2015). <em>Paediatrics & Child Health</em>, 20(8), 466–467. Retrieved on February 10th, 2016 <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4699537/">https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4699537/</a> </p> Learn how to correctly take your child's temperature when they have a fever, depending on their age, and which methods to avoid.Main

 

 

Nutrition and mental health: The basics of a healthy dietNutrition and mental health: The basics of a healthy dietNutrition and mental health: The basics of a healthy dietNEnglishNutrition;Psychiatry;AdolescentTeen (13-18 years)BodyNAHealthy living and preventionTeen (13-18 years)NA2019-03-22T04:00:00Z9.2000000000000060.5000000000000555.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>For your mood and general wellbeing, eat a balance of macronutrients (complex carbohydrates, protein and healthy fats) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals).</p><h2>Carbohydrates</h2><p>Carbohydrates are your body’s main source of energy and your brain’s only source of energy. This energy keeps you thinking clearly and ready to take on your daily routine.</p><p>To keep your mood and energy levels stable, try to choose complex carbohydrates such as vegetables, legumes (such as chickpeas or lentils), whole grain products, and some fruits, with their skins on if possible. These foods are also an important source of fibre, which helps you feel full for longer and helps food move through your digestive system regularly. </p><p>Candy, juices and other sugary food and drinks are all forms of simple carbohydrates. You can eat them occasionally, but don’t rely on them to give you energy. They can cause your blood sugar to “spike” and then suddenly drop off, leading to energy slumps during the day. </p><h2>Protein</h2><p>As a building block for your body, protein helps to build and repair your muscles, organs and bones and helps to maintain a healthy immune system to keep you feeling well. Protein is made up of amino acids that your body needs to function as well as possible. Overall, protein also helps you feel full for longer, which in turn helps you function better. </p><p>You can get protein from chicken, beef, fish and other meats as well as from eggs, milk, cheese and yogurt. Plant-based sources of protein include beans, lentils, nuts, seeds, tofu and tempeh. </p><h2>Fats</h2><p>Fats play a key role in body and brain development. They also help your body absorb essential micronutrients such as vitamins A, D, E and K.</p><p>You might have heard or read that all fat is bad, but there are healthier and less healthy fats. Oily fish, nuts, seeds, avocados and vegetable oils contain unsaturated fats. When eaten in moderation, these fats help prevent many chronic (long-term) conditions such as high cholesterol, heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Less healthy fats, also known as saturated and trans fats, are found in animal products such as high-fat meats and dairy products, including butter. You can still include these foods a balanced diet, but choose leaner options when you can.</p><h2>Vitamins and minerals</h2><p>It is important to get a range of vitamins and minerals every day for your general health.</p><p>Your brain and mental wellbeing benefit from eating regularly throughout the day, roughly every three hours. Rather than zone in on any trendy ‘super foods’ or supplements, simply try to eat a colourful mix of vegetables and fruits daily. These foods contain lots of vitamins and minerals (also known as micronutrients) and phytochemicals, which may play an important role in brain health.</p><p>Iron plays a key role in regulating fatigue. Every day, aim to eat foods rich in iron, such as dark leafy greens, beans, nuts, legumes (such as chickpeas or lentils) and lean meats. Whole grains, low-fat dairy, eggs, nuts, lean meats and legumes are rich in B vitamins. These help your brain and body transform food into energy.</p><p>Remember that different foods provide different micronutrients. “Eating the rainbow” (foods of different colours) makes sure you are consuming all the vitamins and minerals your body needs.<br></p><h2>We want to hear from you!</h2><p>AboutKidsHealth is trying to improve the information and education we provide young people (aged 12-18) and families through our website. Please take 5 minutes to complete our <a class="redcap-survey" href="https://surveys.sickkids.ca/surveys/?s=XHD3EK3XD4">Adolsecent Health Learning Hub survey</a>.</p><br><h2>Resources</h2><p> <a href="https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/listing_of_vitamins">Harvard Health Publishing - Listing of vitamins</a></p><p> <a href="https://www.mind.org.uk/information-support/tips-for-everyday-living/food-and-mood/#.XJU1eBNKiWZ">Mind (UK) - Food and mood</a></p><p> <a href="https://meant2preventkitchen.ca/">Meant2Prevent: Kitchen</a></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/basics_of_health_diet.jpgNutrition and mental health This resource for teens teaches the basics of a healthy diet and how a balanced diet can support their mood and general wellbeing. Teens
Sleep tips: How to help your child get a good night's sleepSleep tips: How to help your child get a good night's sleepSleep tips: How to help your child get a good night's sleepSEnglishPreventionChild (0-12 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2020-04-13T04:00:00Z7.4000000000000069.90000000000001305.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>​Learn some tips to help your child get enough sleep.</p><p>Sleep brings your child a wide range of <a href="/Article?contentid=645&language=English">physical and mental benefits</a>. From birth onwards, your child’s wellbeing depends on their getting enough sleep for their age and activity levels. Following the tips below will help your child fall asleep and stay asleep through the night.<br></p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/videoseries?list=PLjJtOP3StIuUzDEHQ26azPp3X36nXGstg" frameborder="0"></iframe> <br> <p>For more videos from SickKids experts in collaboration with Youngster, visit <a href="https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCoKMd2cYwegtZX19uHdNLQA">Youngster on YouTube</a>.</p></div><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>​Help your child get enough sleep by following a regular schedule, encouraging your child to exercise and follow a balanced diet and limiting caffeine from the afternoon onwards.</li> <li>A relaxing routine and a comfortable sleep environment - free of electronics - can also help a child fall asleep more easily and sleep through the night.</li> <li>Make the morning routine easier by preparing breakfast and laying out clothes the night before.</li> <li>See a doctor if your child seems inattentive or sleepy during the day or experiences loud snoring or pauses in their breathing at night.</li> </ul><h2>Keep to a schedule</h2><p>Your child's body likes a regular schedule. Keep a regular sleep routine that allows your child to wake up and go to bed at about the same time every day. During times of stress or uncertainty, it is especially important to keep to a regular schedule of sleep and wake times. Older children may see the lack of formal school or routine as a reason to allow later bedtimes and as a result, later wake up times, but try to encourage them to keep to a regular sleep and wake schedule. </p><p>Try to make sure your child falls asleep and wakes up at the same time at least six days a week. Bedtimes and wake times should not vary by more than one hour from one day to the next, including on weekends.</p><p>Try to avoid letting your child sleep in late on weekends. Sleeping in can make it harder for your child to keep a regular schedule during the week. If your child is well rested, you can change the schedule once in a while for special events and they can recover from the occasional late night much faster.</p><h2>Help your child develop healthy habits</h2><p>Help your child develop and maintain good daily lifestyle habits. These will help make your child comfortable and ready for sleep.</p><ul><li>Encourage your child to get regular exercise.</li><li>Avoid or limit caffeine (from pop, energy drinks, coffee, tea or chocolate) from the afternoon onwards.</li><li>Offer regular, balanced meals based on the four food groups in <a href="/Article?contentid=1436&language=English">Canada's Food Guide</a>.</li></ul><h2>Avoid naps for children aged six and older</h2><p>A healthy child over six years of age should not need a nap during the day. Daytime naps for older children can affect the time the child will fall asleep at night. This results in a later bedtime and may lead to poorer quality nighttime sleep.</p><p>If your child is under six years of age, allow them to have a nap if they need one. If your child is six years old or older, try to limit daytime napping. Napping during the day, or early evening, will make it harder for your child to fall asleep at bedtime.</p><h2>Create a relaxing routine</h2><p>Create a relaxing bedtime routine that your child can follow each night. To start, be clear about when it is bedtime each night. For example, tell your child that 8:00pm is ‘pyjama time’ and 8:30pm is lights out, and stick with those times. If your child has difficulty falling asleep, you could allow extra time by starting their bedtime a little earlier.</p><p>Encourage your child to take a bath or shower before bed to help them feel sleepier and more relaxed. Going to bed with a calm state of mind can reduce the risk and frequency of common <a href="/Article?contentid=306&language=English">sleeping problems</a> such as nightmares, sleep walking and <a href="/Article?contentid=305&language=English">night terrors</a>.</p><p>Include 20 to 30 minutes of quiet time in your child’s bedtime routine. Good wind-down activities include reading, looking through a magazine, listening to music or writing in a journal. Dimming the lights half an hour before your child’s bedtime will help your child feel sleepy.</p><p>Avoid and discourage stimulating activities such as playing videogames, using the computer, using a cell phone. <a href="/Article?contentid=644&language=English">Turn off all electronics</a> at least one hour before bedtime.</p><h2>Create a comfortable sleep environment</h2><p>Make sure your child’s pyjamas are comfortable and appropriate for the season and that their bedroom is cool and quiet. It is also important for them to sleep on a mattress and pillow that offer good support to their spine.</p><p>Keep the bed for sleeping only. In other words, discourage your child from doing their homework or using a computer in bed. These activities can cause your child to link bedtime with stress or active thinking when they are trying to sleep.</p><p>Avoid having a television, computer, tablet or cell phone in the bedroom. Watching television or using a computer, tablet or a phone at night can stimulate the brain rather than relax it. In addition, your child may get into the habit of turning on the television or checking their phone if they cannot stay asleep during the night. If you are watching television after your child falls asleep, make sure the volume is low enough that they cannot hear it.</p><p>Put a glass of water by the bed so your child does not need to get out of bed if they are thirsty during the night. Make sure the water is in easy reach for your child.</p><p>Consider engaging your child’s different senses to help them fall asleep. For instance, children who have trouble falling asleep may enjoy the relaxing smell of lavender. You could use lavender scented laundry detergent or place a few drops of lavender oil on your child’s pillow.</p><h2>Tips for a happier morning</h2><p>Offer your child some options for breakfast and prepare it with your child the night before, if possible. For example, you could cut up fresh fruit and cook oatmeal the night before so you or your child can quickly combine them the next morning.</p><p>Help your child choose an outfit the night before. If your child is old enough to get dressed alone, place the outfit somewhere they can easily reach it in the morning.</p><p>If your child is in school, help them pack their backpack before bed. Making sure everything is packed and ready to go the night before makes for a much less stressful morning. At night, you have more time to look for something that may be missing or to sign an important school note.</p><p>Let your child know what time you will wake them up in the morning. Calmly wake your child in the morning by giving them a hug, gently rubbing their arm or quietly saying their name.</p><h2>When to see a doctor about your child’s sleep</h2><h3>Toddler/preschooler</h3><p>See your child’s doctor if your child:</p><ul><li>has persistent and loud snoring or pauses or <a href="/Article?contentid=1918&language=English">problems breathing</a> while sleeping</li><li>seems irritable, hyperactive, inattentive or sleepy during the day</li><li>has excessive <a href="/Article?contentid=271&language=English">anxiety</a> about being separated from you during the day and night</li><li>has just developed a problem with sleep</li><li>finds it hard to change from two naps to one nap a day</li><li>sleepwalks</li><li>has <a href="/Article?contentid=305&language=English">night terrors</a> or frequent nightmares.</li></ul><h3>School-aged child</h3><p>See your child’s doctor if:</p><ul><li>your child's teacher tells you they seem tired even though you think they get enough sleep</li><li>your child develops new night terrors or sleepwalking habits that they did not have before the age six or seven</li><li>your child needs regular naps</li><li>your child experiences loud snoring, pauses in their breathing or extreme restlessness at night.</li></ul><h2>Further information</h2><p>For more tips on maintaining your child's mental health, please see the following pages:</p><p><a href="https://meant2prevent.ca/">Meant2Prevent</a></p> <p> <a href="/Article?contentid=639&language=English">Nutrition: How a balanced diet and healthy eating habits can support your child's mental health</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=642&language=English">Physical activity: Guidelines for children and teens​</a><br></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=641&language=English">Physical activity: Benefits of exercise for health and wellbeing​</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=645&language=English">Sleep: Benefits and recommended amounts​</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=647&language=English">Sleep tips: How to help your teen get a good night's sleep</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=643&language=English">Screen time: Overview</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=644&language=English">Screen time: How to help your child set healthy limits</a></p><h2>Resources</h2><p>Canadian Paediatric Society (2012). <em> <a target="_blank" href="http://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/healthy_sleep_for_your_baby_and_child">Healthy sleep for your baby and child​</a></em>.​</p><p>National Sleep Foundation (2016). <em> <a target="_blank" href="https://sleepfoundation.org/sleep-topics/children-and-sleep">Children and sleep</a></em>.</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/sleep_benefits_recommended_amounts.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/sleep_benefits_recommended_amounts.jpgTips for a good night's sleep Your child's wellbeing depends on their getting enough sleep for their age and activity levels. Learn some tips to help them get enough sleep.Main
Substance use and substance use disorderSubstance use and substance use disorderSubstance use and substance use disorderSEnglishAdolescent;PsychiatryTeen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Substance_use_disorder-How_to_help_your_teen_at_home.jpg2019-11-04T05:00:00Z53.300000000000011.20000000000001150.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<h2>What is substance use?</h2><p>Substance use is the use of alcohol, tobacco and drugs (including prescription and over-the-counter medications) for pleasure or enjoyment. You and other teens you know may choose, or may have already chosen, to experiment with or try some kind of substance. Some teens may be using substances often, while other teens make a choice not to use any substances, or may try something and then decide that they do not want to use it again.</p><p>A smaller number of teens experience problems as a result of their substance use. It’s important to know about the risk factors that increase the risk of developing a problem with drugs or alcohol. </p><h2>What does it mean to have a substance use disorder?</h2><p>A substance use disorder is the term used when someone is: </p><ul><li>using substances (including alcohol) in ways that are dangerous to themselves or others</li><li>experiencing relationship problems with family, friends or romantic partners as a result of their substance use</li><li>having difficulty at school or work as a result of their substance use</li><li>showing signs of physical dependence on the substance </li></ul><p>A person with a substance use disorder may have tried to stop using a substance but can’t. They may spend a lot of their time using or trying to get a substance, and have stopped many of the other activities they might have done before they started to use.</p><h2>Factors that may increase your risk of developing a substance use disorder</h2><p>A substance use disorder is more likely to develop if a person:</p><ul><li>has depression, <a href="/Article?contentid=3810&language=English&hub=mentalhealthAZ#mentalhealth">anxiety</a> or another mental health condition such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)</li><li>has a family history of substance use problems (addictions)</li><li>has experienced abuse or <a href="/Article?contentid=3781&language=English&hub=mentalhealthAZ#mentalhealth">trauma</a> </li><li>identifies as LGBTQ2+</li><li>is street-involved or experiences insecure housing</li><li>has a <a href="/Article?contentid=3780&language=English&hub=mentalhealthAZ#mentalhealth">chronic health condition</a></li><li>has friends who use alcohol or other drugs </li></ul><p>Even without having any of these risk factors, regular use of alcohol or other drugs can cause your brain and body to become dependent on these substances. Dependence (sometimes also referred to as "addiction") can negatively affect your health and wellbeing.</p><h2>When is substance use something that I should worry about?</h2><p>The more regularly you use a substance, the more likely you are to experience problematic signs and symptoms because of this use. </p><p>Regular substance use can be associated with a range of health problems (both physical and mental), difficulties at school and at home, and trouble with the law. The health risks of substance use increase when a person uses more than one substance at the same time, in particular, combining one or more substances with alcohol.</p><p>Substance use can lead to dependence. The level of dependence varies with the substance, the amount you use and how frequently you use it. If you are physically dependent on a substance, you build up a tolerance to it, which means that over time, you must use more of the substance to get the same effect.</p><p>When you stop using or try to use less of the substance, you may experience physical symptoms (also known as withdrawal symptoms). Depending on what the substance or drug is, these symptoms might include: </p><ul><li>trouble sleeping</li><li>agitation</li><li>tremors/shakiness</li><li>seizures (only in some cases)</li></ul><h2>Do issues with substance use occur with other mental health conditions?</h2><p>Someone who has a mental health condition is at a higher risk for developing a substance use disorder, just like someone with a substance use disorder is at a higher risk for developing a mental health condition. </p><p>About one-third to half of young people with a mental health condition such as depression, anxiety or ADHD will also develop a substance use disorder. This is called a concurrent disorder. Of teens with a substance use disorder, one third to half will develop a concurrent mental health condition. </p><p>Other things to think about if you have mental health or physical health conditions and are using or thinking about using alcohol or other substances:</p><p>If you are taking prescribed or over-the-counter medication(s) for a mental or physical health condition, there can be interactions between the medication, and alcohol or other substances. Depending on the medication, this interaction could result in lower or higher amounts of the medication in your system; this can have a negative impact on your health. </p><p>Alcohol and other drugs affect different organs and systems in your body, including your brain, heart, lungs, liver, intestines, kidneys, muscles and nerves. This can sometimes make the symptoms of your condition worse, or make it difficult for your health-care team to know if the treatments they are prescribing are helping or not. </p><p>To learn more about how alcohol and drug use can interact with your prescriptions, you can ask the pharmacist questions when you pick up your prescriptions. You can also check out a website called <a href="http://www.drugcocktails.ca/">drugcocktails.ca</a>. Developed by health-care experts from across Canada, the website provides information about the combination of prescription and over-the-counter medications, and alcohol, cannabis and other drugs. </p><h2>When to see a doctor or health-care professional for specific help</h2><p>If you have any questions or concerns about your substance use (or someone else’s), arranging an appointment with a health-care professional or another helping professional, such as a guidance counselor, is a good first step.</p><p>If you have a family doctor or paediatrician you see for regular check-ups or when you are sick, you can use these visits as a time to ask questions and get information about the substances you are using and any mental or physical health issues you might be experiencing. </p><div class="callout2"><p>As with any health care visit, the health-care professional will keep your information private and will not share it with anyone else without your permission (unless you share that someone is harming you and you are under 16 years of age, or you share that you are planning to harm yourself or someone else).</p></div> What if my doctor thinks I might have a substance use disorder? <p>Depending on their assessment, a health-care professional will make some suggestions to you about what might be helpful. </p><p>Some options include seeing a counsellor who can help you look at areas where you might want to make some changes. </p><p>Other types of treatment include: </p><ul><li>Day treatment, where you attend a group based program Monday to Friday to get treatment and obtain school credits.</li><li>Hospital based treatment, which may be helpful if you need to withdraw or "detox" in a safe way, or would benefit from further assessment over a few days or weeks.</li><li>Residential treatment, where you stay at a treatment centre and receive support and schooling every day. </li></ul><p>These different treatments usually include some kind of family and/or parent treatment and support. In most provinces, these treatment programs require a teen to agree to take part. Some provinces have laws that allow parents to make this decision instead if the teen is younger than 16 years of age.</p><h2>We want to hear from you!</h2><p>AboutKidsHealth is trying to improve the information and education we provide young people (aged 12-18) and families through our website. Please take 5 minutes to complete our <a class="redcap-survey" href="https://surveys.sickkids.ca/surveys/?s=XHD3EK3XD4">Adolsecent Health Learning Hub survey</a>.</p>Substance use & substance use disorder Share this resource with your teen to help them learn about the risks of substance use and what it means to have a substance use disorder. Teens
Winter tipsWinter tipsWinter tipsWEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2018-01-19T05:00:00Z000Landing PageLearning Hub<p>Winter is a time of year when we participate in outdoor activities and then gather around a fire. Unfortunately, we may also experience seasonal illnesses. Keep the family healthy during the cold weather with our winter tips.</p><p>Winter is a time when we experience cold weather, snow and ice. It is a time of year when we look forward to participating in outdoor activities and then gathering around a warm fire. Unfortunately, we may also experience those annoying seasonal illnesses. Keep the whole family safe, healthy and happy during the cold weather season with our winter tips.</p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Outdoor activity safety</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Playing outside can be fun for your child during the winter. Make sure your child is dressed properly for the cold weather and follow these handy safety tips.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1954&language=English">Outdoor winter safety: Staying safe during winter activities</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1940&language=English">Dressing for the cold</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1912&language=English">Cold weather injuries</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Stay healthy<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>The whole family made it through the summer and fall healthy and safe. Here is some advice on how to keep everyone healthy throughout winter.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1939&language=English">Preventing burns: Winter safety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=778&language=English">Nasal congestion: How to clear your baby's dry, stuffy nose</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=773&language=English">Eczema (atopic dermatitis)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1114&language=English">Eczema: Seasonal changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Winter bugs</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Winter brings everyone indoors and closer together, where we share warmth... and germs. Learn more about colds, the flu and other winter-associated illnesses. Also learn how to avoid them and how to treat them.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">Fever​</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=12&language=English">Colds (viral upper respiratory infections)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=765&language=English">Bronchiolitis​</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=764&language=English">Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=17&language=English">Croup</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=763&language=English">Influenza (flu): An overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=784&language=English">Pneumonia</a></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/winter_safety_landing_page.jpgwintersafetywintersafetyhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/winter_safety_landing_page.jpgWinter safety tips Visit the Winter Safety Learning Hub to learn how to stay healthy and enjoy outdoor activities safely this winter. Main

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