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Insect bitesInsect bitesInsect bitesIEnglishDermatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)SkinSkinConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-05-30T04:00:00Z​Shawna Silver, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, PEng7.0000000000000062.0000000000000584.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Discover how to recognize, treat and prevent insect bites, tick bites and bee stings.</p> <p>Insect bites and stings occur when an insect feeds off a person's skin or tries to defend itself.</p><p>Different insects bite and sting in different ways. Common biting or stinging insects include mosquitoes, blackflies, bed bugs, fleas, ticks, fire ants, bees and wasps. Bees often leave stingers in the wound.</p><p>Insect bites usually cause mild swelling, redness and itchiness limited to the small area around the bite or sting. Some children, however, can experience potentially life-threatening reactions. This is called an anaphylactic reaction and requires immediate medical attention. In children who are at risk, <a href="/Article?contentid=781&language=English">anaphylaxis</a> is most commonly caused by bees, wasps and hornets. Other insects can transmit disease. For example, some mosquitoes can transmit malaria or West Nile virus and some ticks can transmit <a href="/Article?contentid=909&language=English">Lyme disease</a>.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Insect bites often cause swelling and redness. Some children experience severe and potentially life-threatening reactions.</li> <li>Common biting or stinging insects include mosquitoes, blackflies, bees and wasps.</li> <li>Some children respond well to antihistamine medication; others may just need some ice.</li> <li>Prevent insect bites and stings by covering the body with light-coloured clothing and applying insect repellent to exposed skin.</li> <li>DEET is a very effective insect repellent, but use it carefully according to your child's age. If using sunscreen and insect repellent, apply sunscreen first.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of an insect bite or sting</h2><p>Signs and symptoms of insect bites and stings vary according to the type of insect and your child's reaction.</p><p>Normally, an insect bite or sting causes:</p><ul><li>a small, red, raised bump, pimple or blisters</li><li>itchiness and irritation around the bump.</li></ul><p>The symptoms can last from a few hours up to two days.<br></p><p>Some children develop a big firm swollen area around the bite. This is not an allergic reaction. It is known as a large local reaction and rarely leads to a skin infection.</p><p>If your child has an anaphylactic reaction, they may develop <a href="/article?contentid=789&language=English">hives</a>, facial or mouth swelling, or breathing problems or they may collapse. Use an epinephrine auto-injector, if your child has one, and call for emergency assistance.</p><h2>How to treat insect bites and stings</h2> <ul> <li>Cold, damp compresses or ice can relieve some of the swelling.</li> <li>Over-the counter topical medications (medications you put on the skin) may also help to relieve the itch.</li> </ul> <p>Some children may respond well to antihistamine medication for itching, but this medication can cause drowsiness.</p><h2>Preventing insect bites and stings</h2> <p>Your child is more likely to be bitten or stung in warm and damp weather and in the evening and at night. Here are some ways you can reduce your child's exposure to insects.</p> <ul> <li>Apply insecticide or insect repellent to clothing and exposed skin.</li> <li>Wear long pants and socks.</li> <li>Wear light-coloured clothing.</li> <li>Avoid areas where insects breed and live.</li> <li>Stay inside when insects are most active.</li> <li>Use insecticide-impregnated mosquito nets, especially for infants aged less than six months.</li> <li>Take specific precautions, such as taking anti-malarial medications, as needed.</li> </ul> <h3>Be careful with DEET insect repellent</h3> <p>DEET is one of the most effective repellents for mosquitoes and biting flies, but it should be used with caution for children.</p> <ul> <li>Babies less than six months old: Do not use any insect repellents with DEET.</li> <li>Children aged six months to two years: Use a product with 10 per cent DEET or less and apply it once a day.</li> <li>Children aged two to 12 years: Use a product with 10 per cent DEET or less and apply it no more than three times a day.</li> <li>Children aged over 12: Use a product with up to 30 per cent DEET.</li> </ul> <p>The higher the amount of DEET, the longer the protection will last.</p> <h3>How to apply DEET to your child's skin</h3> <ul> <li>Apply it to exposed skin, following the manufacturer's instructions.</li> <li>Do not apply it to your child's face or hands or any areas where the skin is cut, grazed or irritated.</li> <li>Once the DEET is applied, wash hands and avoid touching the lips and eyes.</li> </ul> <h3>How to use insect repellent and sunscreen effectively</h3> <ul> <li>Apply <a href="/Article?contentid=308&language=English">sunscreen</a> about 30 minutes before you apply any insect repellent.</li> <li>Do not use a single product that combines insect repellent with sunscreen. The insect repellent can make the sunscreen less effective and the sunscreen can increase how much insect repellent is absorbed by the body. In addition, you will normally need to apply sunscreen every two to three hours; it is not safe to apply insect repellent as frequently.</li> </ul><h2>When to see a doctor after an insect bite or sting</h2> <p>If your child has been bitten or stung, see a doctor right away if:</p> <ul> <li>you are in an area where the insects are known to transmit diseases</li> <li>your child develops an unusual rash, a <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a> or other symptoms.</li> </ul>insectbitesinsectbiteshttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/insect_bites.jpg
Mental healthMental healthMental healthMEnglishPsychiatryChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANANACaregivers Adult (19+)NALanding PageLearning Hub<p>This hub offers resources on supporting your child's mental health through physical activity, sleep and nutrition. It also offers information on recognizing, treating and coping with a range of mental health conditions.<br></p><p>This hub includes resources for parents on how to support your child's mental health and general wellbeing through physical activity, sleep and nutrition. It also provides information on the signs, symptoms and treatments of different mental health conditions, including anxiety, bipolar disorder, depression, behavioural disorders, anorexia nervosa and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.<br></p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Wellbeing<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>The everyday pressures of growing up can put a strain on any child's mental wellbeing. Find out how physical activity, a healthy sleep routine, screen time limits and balanced nutrition can boost your child's mental health and support them through difficult times.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Physical Activity</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=642&language=English">Physical activity: Guidelines for children and teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=641&language=English">Physical activity: Benefits of exercise for health and wellbeing</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Sleep</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=645&language=English">Sleep: Benefits and recommended amounts</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=646&language=English">How to help your child get a good night's sleep</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=647&language=English">How to help your teen get a good night's sleep</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Screen time</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=643&language=English">Screen time: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=644&language=English">How to help your child set healthy screen time limits</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Nutrition</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=639&language=English">Nutrition: How a balanced diet and healthy eating habits can help your child's mental health</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Anxiety disorders<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Every child feels anxiety at some point as a natural part of growing up. An anxiety disorder, however, is when anxious feelings interfere with a child's everyday routine. Learn more about the signs, symptoms and range of anxiety disorders and how they ​are treated.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">Anxiety: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=271&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=270&language=English">Types of anxiety disorders</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=701&language=English">Treatment with medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=702&language=English">Psychotherapy and lifestyle changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Obsessive compulsive disorder<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) occurs when a person suffers from troubling and intrusive thoughts and/or follows repetitive or strict routines to feel less worried. Learn about the causes, signs and impact of this disorder and how you can help your child.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=285&language=English">Obsessive compulsive disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=288&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=286&language=English">How OCD affects your child's life</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=709&language=English">Psychotherapy and medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=287&language=English">How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Depression<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Depression is an illness that causes someone to feel deep sadness or a lack of interest in activities that they once enjoyed. Discover how this condition affects a child's mood, sleep, concentration and energy levels, and how it can be treated.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">Depression: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=284&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=707&language=English">Treatment with medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=708&language=English">Psychotherapy and lifestyle changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Bipolar disorder</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>When a person has bipolar disorder, they alternate between low and elevated moods for days, weeks or months at a time. Learn about the bipolar disorder spectrum, the symptoms of manic and depressive episodes and how medications, therapy and lifestyle changes can help.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=279&language=English">Bipolar disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=280&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=704&language=English">Treatment with medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=705&language=English">Psychotherapy and lifestyle changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Suicide and self-harm</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>A child who experiences thoughts of suicide or self-harm is often suffering from overwhelming emotional pain. Find out how to help your child cope with difficult emotions, how to support and protect your child and where to find professional help.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=291&language=English">Suicide in children and teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=289&language=English">Self-harm in children and teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=290&language=English">Signs and symptoms of suicide risk</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=293&language=English">How to help your child with difficult emotions</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=292&language=English">How to protect your child from harm</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Eating disorders<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>An eating disorder not only risks your child's health but can also disrupt family life. Find out about the symptoms and treatment of anorexia, bulimia, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder and binge eating disorder and how you can help your child recover.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Anorexia nervosa</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=268&language=English">Anorexia nervosa: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=269&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=267&language=English">Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=700&language=English">Treatment options</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=266&language=English">How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Bulimia nervosa</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=282&language=English">Bulimia nervosa: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=283&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=281&language=English">Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=706&language=English">Treatment options</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=294&language=English">How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID)</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=274&language=English">Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=275&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=273&language=English">Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=703&language=English">Treatment options</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=272&language=English">How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Binge eating disorder (BED)</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=277&language=English">Binge eating disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=278&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=640&language=English">Obesity: Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=276&language=English">How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) involves difficulties with controlling attention and regulating behaviour. Discover the main symptoms of ADHD in children and teens, how the disorder is diagnosed and how to help your child at home and at school.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1922&language=English">Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1923&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1997&language=English">How to help your child at home</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1999&language=English">Communicating with your child's school</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1998&language=English">Treatment with medications</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Behavioural disorders</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Behavioural disorders include oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Learn how these disorders differ from typical misbehaviour, how therapy and medications can help and how you can manage problematic behaviour at home.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1924&language=English">Behavioural disorders: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1925&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2000&language=English">Treatment with psychotherapy and medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2001&language=English">How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is triggered by experiencing or witnessing a terrifying event. Learn about the main symptoms of PTSD, how the condition is diagnosed and how psychotherapy and medications can help your child.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1927&language=English">Post-traumatic stress disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1928&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2005&language=English">Treatment with psychotherapy and medications</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Brain disorders and mental health</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>A brain disorder includes a condition, illness or injury that affects the brain and how it develops before or after birth. Find out how a brain disorder can affect your child's learning, mood and social skills, how its impact on mental health is assessed and how to help your child cope.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1926&language=English">Brain disorders and mental health: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2002&language=English">Assessing your child for neuropsychological difficulties</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2003&language=English">How to help your child cope</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2004&language=English">Common treatments</a></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Mental_health_landing-page.jpgmentalhealthhealthyliving
Keeping kids on the move: The role of active transportation and child-friendly communitiesKeeping kids on the move: The role of active transportation and child-friendly communitiesKeeping kids on the move: The role of active transportation and child-friendly communitiesKEnglishPreventionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-07-16T04:00:00ZShaw​na Silver, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, PEng8.0000000000000061.00000000000001033.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out how active transportation and child-friendly communities can help children be more physically active.<br></p><p>The growing popularity of cars in North America over the past 50 years has created suburbs and towns that require many people to drive every day. As a result, children are often travelling by car instead of walking, bicycling or using another form of transportation. This reliance on cars can have a major impact on children’s health and development and on the types of neighbourhoods in which they live.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Heavy car use can make children less active, less connected from the environment and less independent.</li> <li>Active transportation reduces reliance on cars by travelling on foot or by bike for some journeys instead.</li> <li>Parents can encourage active transportation by taking part in car-free days, helping a child find the best walking and cycling routes nearby and getting involved in making a child’s school safer for those who walk or cycle there.</li> <li>Child-friendly communities can make active transportation more realistic because they are safe and accessible and integrate nature, local amenities and the needs of different age groups.</li> </ul><h2>How car use affects children</h2><p>Car use affects children's health, development and safety in a number of ways.</p><ul><li>Children who are less <a href="/Article?contentid=642&language=English">physically active</a> have an increased risk of health problems, including being <a href="/Article?contentid=640&language=English">overweight</a>.</li><li>Children who see life mainly “through the car windshield” are less connected with the environment around them.</li><li>Heavy traffic reduces children's ability to travel independently. <a href="/Article?contentid=1955&language=English">Safety</a> concerns may mean that they cannot walk or bicycle around their neighbourhood or go to nearby parks, schools and stores.</li><li>Traffic limits children's ability to play in the front yard or the street, which in turn limits how long they play and the richness of that play.</li></ul><p>Urban planners, local government, real estate developers and public transit authorities, among others, all influence how neighbourhoods develop and what type of transport is available. But despite the involvement of many groups in creating communities, there are still ways for parents to get children moving differently to and from school and make communities safer.</p><h2>How parents can create child-friendly journeys</h2><h3>Encourage active transportation</h3><ul><li>Active transportation means making a journey on foot or by bicycle instead of by car or bus. Next time you make a trip, consider if walking or bicycling could get you and your child to your destination instead.</li><li>Involve your child in decisions about how to get around. Given the choice, many children would prefer walking, bicycling or in-line skating to taking the car to get where they want to go.</li><li>Be a role model. Use active transportation for your own journeys whenever you can.</li><li>Walk and bicycle with your child. Help them find the best routes to where they want to go and teach them how to get around safely.</li><li>If your child must use public transit, start teaching them how to use it at a young age.</li><li>Take part in car-free days. Encourage your neighbours and co-workers to take part as well.</li><li>Start a "walking school bus" to get your child and your neighbours' children to school. A physically active school commute can be a fun social time for kids.</li><li>Get involved in making your child's school safer for children who walk there. Try to get the school to give priority to pedestrians instead of cars and reduce engine idling and traffic congestion at drop-off points.</li><li>Find out if your child's school has safe and secure storage for bicycles. If not, encourage the school to provide it.</li></ul><h3>Advocate for a "child-friendly community"</h3><p>Sometimes, certain conditions need to be in place for active transportation to be a realistic option. This is where the concept of a "child-friendly community" arises.</p><p>In his Bill of Rights for Kids, Colorado architect Harry Teague advocates for child-friendly communities that:</p><ul><li>are safe and accessible</li><li>are built to an appropriate scale</li><li>integrate nature, work and the needs of different ages and sexes into the surroundings</li><li>show elements of tradition</li></ul><p>The following sample questions can help you decide if your own neighbourhood is a healthy, friendly place for your family.</p><p> <em>Safety</em></p><ul><li>Is there a lot of traffic? What is the speed limit?</li><li>Are there sidewalks on at least one side of every street?</li><li>Are there bike paths or bike lanes?</li><li>Are there narrow streets to slow down drivers and help pedestrians and cyclists cross?</li><li>On busier streets, are there many crosswalks and traffic lights?</li><li>Are there "eyes on the street" - neighbours and workers who will keep an eye out for trouble and be able to give help if needed? Do homes have front porches and windows facing the street?</li><li>Is there enough street lighting?</li></ul><p> <em>Accessibility</em></p><ul><li>Is the neighbourhood close enough to where children need and want to go - schools, parks, playgrounds, recreational facilities, stores, libraries, friends and family - for them to walk or bicycle there?</li><li>Is it cut off by a major road or highway?</li><li>Is it near public transit that goes somewhere useful or will kids have to take a number of buses?</li><li>Are there places to park a bicycle when shopping or going to the library?</li><li>Do other people walk or bicycle?</li></ul><p> <em>Integration</em></p><ul><li>Do other kids live nearby?</li><li>How easy is it for kids in the neighbourhood to play together in a casual, unstructured way?</li><li>Can you and your family get to know neighbours and local shopkeepers?</li><li>Does the community have a mix of features such as schools, parks, recreational facilities, places of worship, stores, a library, doctor, dentist or opportunities for after-school or summer jobs?</li><li>Do people of different ages and backgrounds live in the area?</li><li>Have natural areas in the neighbourhood been preserved?</li><li>If your housing needs change, are different types of housing – large and small houses or apartments – available in the neighbourhood?</li></ul><p> <em>Tradition</em></p><ul><li>Are there monuments, landmarks or natural areas that can anchor kids to their community?</li><li>What are the plans to develop the area in the future?</li></ul><p>If your neighbourhood falls short in some areas, you might decide to share your findings with neighbours and bring your requests as a group to your local government representative.</p><h2>Why child-friendly communities matter</h2><p>A neighbourhood that is good for kids is good for the whole family and the whole community. Specifically, child-friendly communities give children the best opportunity to make active transportation a reality for their regular journeys.</p> <br>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/keeping_kids_on_the_move_the_role_of_active_transportation.jpgKeeping kids on the move
Pregnancy nutrition: How to ease digestive discomfort through dietPregnancy nutrition: How to ease digestive discomfort through dietPregnancy nutrition: How to ease digestive discomfort through dietPEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)NANANon-drug treatmentAdult (19+)NA2016-12-22T05:00:00ZStacey Segal, BScA, MSc, RD;Daina Kalnins, MSc, RD​​​8.0000000000000057.0000000000000547.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn the common digestive complications of pregnancy and how you can ease symptoms through small changes in diet.</p><p>Pregnancy is often a time of anticipation and excitement, but it also brings <a href="/Article?contentid=317&language=English">physical and hormonal changes</a> that can cause varying levels of discomfort. Common pregnancy-related digestive upsets include nausea, vomiting, heartburn and constipation. In many cases, these discomforts can be eased through small changes in diet, daily routines and activity levels.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Common pregnancy-related symptoms include nausea, vomiting, heartburn and constipation.</li> <li>Symptoms often occur because of hormonal changes during pregnancy. Heartburn can also be caused by pressure from the growing uterus against the stomach.</li> <li>Small changes in diet and lifestyle can help ease symptoms.</li> <li>Always talk to your doctor or dietitian before starting a new treatment for pregnancy symptoms.</li> </ul><h2>How to ease digestive discomfort in pregnancy</h2> <h3>Nausea and vomiting</h3> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=347&language=English">Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy</a> are thought to be linked to changing hormone levels. They affect more than half of all pregnant women.</p> <p>If you have nausea or vomiting in pregnancy, try these tips to ease the symptoms.</p> <ul> <li>Eat small meals every two to three hours.</li> <li>Try eating a piece of bread or a cracker before getting up in the morning.</li> <li>Have a snack before bedtime or during the night.</li> <li>Try <a href="/Article?contentid=1443&language=English">carbohydrate-rich</a> foods such as fruit, diluted fruit juice, breads and cereals.</li> <li>Try adding ginger to your diet. Ask your doctor to recommend a supplement and the best way to take it (for example swallow capsule whole or break it and mix in liquid).</li> <li>Do not skip meals.</li> <li>Avoid high-fat and fried foods.</li> <li>Avoid strong food smells and cooking odours.</li> <li>Avoid highly seasoned foods.</li> </ul> <p>If you experience severe vomiting during pregnancy, called hyperemesis gravidarum, you are at risk for dehydration and weight loss. You may need to be treated with medication and receive fluids through an intravenous (IV) line.</p> <h3>Heartburn</h3> <p>Heartburn can occur when the enlarged uterus presses up against the stomach, forcing stomach contents up into the esophagus. It may also be caused by hormonal changes during pregnancy. While uncomfortable, heartburn only becomes a problem in pregnancy if it causes you to stop eating.</p> <p>To minimize heartburn, try these tips.</p> <ul> <li>Eat small amounts of lower-fat foods frequently.</li> <li>Eat slowly and chew food well.</li> <li>Avoid spicy foods that seem to make heartburn worse.</li> <li>Avoid lying down for one or two hours after eating.</li> <li>Avoid bending after eating.</li> </ul> <p>If you experience heartburn, do not take antacids unless directed by your doctor.</p> <h3>Constipation</h3> <p>Constipation is another concern during pregnancy, and it affects many women. Constipation is linked to changing hormone levels and pressure from the enlarged uterus on the colon. It also results from a diet low in fibre and fluids and from lack of physical activity.</p> <p>Try these tips to ease symptoms.</p> <ul> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=964&language=English">Increase fibre intake</a> by eating whole grain breads, beans and lentils, vegetables and fruits.</li> <li>Drink eight to 12 cups of fluid per day, including water, milk and diluted juice (in water or low-sodium carbonated water).</li> <li>Walk or swim regularly to stay active.</li> </ul> <p>If you experience constipation, avoid taking laxatives unless directed by your doctor.</p> <p>There are many things to consider to help ensure that you and your growing baby are healthy during your pregnancy. While it might seem overwhelming sometimes, it is important to enjoy this time if you can. Nourishing your unborn baby can be one of the most rewarding times in your life.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/pregnancy_nutrition_easing_digestive_discomfort.jpgPregnancy nutrition
Sun: Protecting your child's skinSun: Protecting your child's skinSun: Protecting your child's skinSEnglishDermatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)SkinDermatologic systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2013-09-19T04:00:00ZMiriam Weinstein, MD, FRCPC;Michelle Lee, RN;Jackie Su, RN;Elena Pope, MD, MSc, FRCPC;Charis Kelly, RN(EC), MN000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Too much sun exposure can damage your child's skin. Learn how choosing the correct sunscreen and wearing proper clothing can help to protect your child's skin.</p><p>​​Too much sun exposure can cause severe sunburns, including blisters, illness, shivering and <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a>. In the long term, too much sun exposure can also cause early aging of the skin and even skin cancer.</p><p>It is important to protect your child's skin from the sun. This can include applying sunscreens, wearing sun-protective clothing and avoiding the sun completely.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Too much sun exposure can cause sunburns and long-term skin damage, including early aging of the skin and cancer. </li> <li>It is important to protect your child's skin from the sun. This can include applying sunscreens, wearing sun-protective clothing and avoiding the sun completely. </li> <li>Your child or teenager should not use tanning beds.</li> </ul><h2>General tips to protect the skin</h2> <ul> <li>The sun's rays are at their strongest between 11am and 3pm.</li> <li>The sun's rays can still reach your child on cloudy days.</li> <li>The fairer your child's skin, the greater the chance that your child will get a sunburn.</li> <li>Babies under six months should stay in the shade at all times. Sunscreens are not recommended for this age group.</li> </ul> <h2>Sunscreens</h2> <p>Sunscreens that your child can use on the skin:</p> <ul> <li>protect against the sun's harmful rays (UV rays) </li> <li>protect against sunburn </li> <li>help prevent sun-related skin changes such as wrinkles, pigment (skin colour) changes and skin cancer.</li> </ul> <p>Choose a sunscreen that protects against both UVA and UVB. These are the damaging components of sunlight.</p> <p>Sun protection factor (SPF) refers to the degree of protection from UVB rays. It does not include protection against UVA rays.</p> <p>Chemicals that protect the skin against UVA include:</p> <ul> <li>oxybenzone </li> <li>avobenzone </li> <li>ecamsule </li> </ul> <p>Sunscreens that contain ingredients such as titanium dioxide and zinc dioxide protect against both UVA and UVB.</p> <h3>Choosing and using sunscreen</h3> <p>Follow these steps when choosing and using sunscreen:</p> <ul> <li>Choose a sunscreen that has an SPF of 30 or higher.</li> <li>Apply sunscreen liberally and often to all parts of the body that are exposed to the sun, especially the face and neck.</li> <li>Re-apply sunscreen every two to three hours, especially if your child has been perspiring from doing outdoor activities or their skin has become wet, for example from playing in water or swimming.</li> </ul> <h2>Other tips for reducing sun exposure</h2> <ul> <li>Avoid tanning beds. Studies have shown that using tanning beds increases your risk for skin damage and skin cancer significantly.</li> <li>Avoid going out in the sun between 11am and 3pm. This is when UV radiation is the strongest. Do outdoor activities earlier or later in the day.</li> <li>Avoid sunbathing. Look for areas that are shaded or covered instead of sitting in the direct sun.</li> <li>Wear loose, long-sleeved cotton tops and pants. These help keep your child covered and cool during the day. Cotton and linen are the best materials for staying cool. </li> <li>Wear a sunhat.</li> </ul> <h2>Medications and sun exposure</h2> <p>Certain medications may cause skin to become more sensitive to sunlight. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist for more information.</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Sun_protecting_your_childs_skin.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Sun_protecting_your_childs_skin.jpgSun safety
VitiligoVitiligoVitiligoVEnglishDermatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)SkinSkinConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_vitiligo_darker_skin_EN.jpg2016-06-24T04:00:00ZMichael Bishara, BSc, MD, FRCPC;Irene Lara-Corrales, MSc, MD9.0000000000000055.0000000000000826.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Vitiligo is a condition that causes skin and sometimes hair to turn white. Learn about its causes and how it is diagnosed and treated.</p><h2>What is vitiligo?</h2><p>Vitiligo is a condition that causes patches of skin, and sometimes hair, to turn white. This skin condition occurs in roughly one person in a hundred and affects girls and boys equally.</p> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_vitiligo_darker_skin_EN.jpg" alt="" /> </figure><figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_vitiligo_lighter_skin_EN.jpg" alt="" /> </figure> <br><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Vitiligo is a skin condition that makes parts of the skin or hair turn white. It is thought to be an autoimmune reaction but can also sometimes occur after a cut or other injury to the skin.</li><li>Treatments include creams and lotions, medications and light therapy. These may not always completely remove vitiligo and cannot prevent new patches from forming.</li><li>See a doctor if your child’s vitiligo does not improve or looks different than before or if you have concerns about changes in their health.</li></ul><h2>How does vitiligo affect the body?</h2> <p>Vitiligo is a condition that affects skin or hair colour only. It is usually more obvious in those with darker skin. It can occur anywhere on the body, causing skin colour differences of various shapes and sizes. However, some areas of the body are more commonly affected than others.</p> <p>In rare cases, patients with vitiligo may have other autoimmune diseases. For example, their immune system may also attack their thyroid gland. If your child is diagnosed with vitiligo, their doctor should order blood tests to check for any other autoimmune disease.</p><h2>What causes vitiligo?</h2> <p>The exact cause of vitiligo is not known, but it is thought to be an autoimmune reaction. This means that it occurs when the immune system attacks healthy cells in the body. In vitiligo, the cells that are attacked are called melanocytes. These are special cells that give skin and hair its pigment (colour).</p> <p>Vitiligo may affect more than one person in a family, suggesting that genetics may be a factor. Patients sometimes also notice that their vitiligo starts after a cut or other injury to their skin. You may hear your doctor call this a Koebner phenomenon.</p><h2>How is vitiligo diagnosed?</h2> <p>Your child’s doctor will often diagnose vitiligo simply by looking at your child’s skin. Because vitiligo is less obvious in paler skin, the doctor might sometimes use a special light called a Wood’s Lamp to help them detect changes more easily. If your child needs to be examined with the aid of a Wood’s Lamp, they may be asked to go into a dark room so that the light can be shone on their skin.</p><h2>How is vitiligo treated?</h2> <p>Different treatments are possible depending on how much vitiligo is present and where it appears on the body.</p> <h3>Topical treatments</h3> <p>Topical treatments are ointments, creams, gels or lotions that are applied directly to the skin. They include topical steroid medications.</p> <p>Calcineurin inhibitors are topical medications that help regulate the immune system in the skin. They are especially useful when applied to the face, skin folds and flexural areas such as inside the elbow or the back of the knee.</p> <p>Topical treatments are recommended for small areas of vitiligo, but they may be more challenging to use, and carry side effects, if vitiligo is more widespread. Depending on the part of their body that is affected, your child might receive different mixes and strengths of a topical steroid.</p> <h3>Light therapy</h3> <p>Light therapy involves focusing a special ultraviolet light on the affected areas of skin. The treatment usually requires several sessions and is reserved for patients with very widespread vitiligo, for whom applying a topical medication is challenging.</p> <p>This treatment requires a person to stand still in a small space with lamps around them, as they may be burned if they move. For this reason, light therapy may not be suitable for young children. Some concerns have also been raised about light therapy and the long-term increased risk for skin cancer, especially in those with paler skin.</p> <p>Other treatments such as laser therapy and skin grafting are also possible, but there is limited information about their use in children.</p> <h3>How effective are treatments for vitiligo?<br></h3> <p>Unfortunately vitiligo is a very unpredictable disease. Even with all the available treatments, some areas may not return to their usual colour. In addition, there is no way for doctors to prevent new areas of vitiligo from developing.<br></p> <p>Because treatment is not always successful, some patients may choose not to do anything or will instead use special make-up on the affected skin to make it blend in with the rest of the body.</p><h2>When to see a doctor for vitiligo</h2> <p>After initial diagnosis and treatment, see your child’s doctor if:</p> <ul> <li>your child’s vitiligo is getting larger, not improving or looks different than before</li> <li>you suspect your child has been experiencing symptoms such as gaining or losing weight easily or feeling tired easily. Their doctor can order blood tests to rule out related systemic conditions such as <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=841&language=English">anemia</a> or <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=2309&language=English">hypothyroidism</a>.<br></li> </ul><h2>Does my child’s vitiligo need any special long-term care?</h2> <p>Yes, the areas affected by vitiligo will need good <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=308&language=English">sun protection</a> to avoid <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=768&language=English">sunburn</a> and minimize the risks of skin cancer.</p>



Celiac disease: Tips to maintain the gluten-free dietCeliac disease: Tips to maintain the gluten-free dietCeliac disease: Tips to maintain the gluten-free dietCEnglishGastrointestinalBaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Small IntestineSmall intestineNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_celiac_disease_EN.jpg2017-02-06T05:00:00ZPeggy Marcon, MD, FRCPC;Inez Martincevic, MSc, RD;Catharine Walsh, MD, MEd, PhD, FAAP, FRCPC8.0000000000000060.00000000000001433.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Children with celiac disease must follow a strict gluten-free diet. This article contains tips to help your child maintain their special diet.</p><h2>What is celiac disease?</h2><p><a href="/Article?contentid=816&language=English">Celiac disease</a> is an autoimmune condition in which contact with gluten (a family of food proteins) triggers a reaction by the body’s defense (immune) system. The immune response to gluten—no matter where in the body the contact happened—damages the lining of the gut (small intestine) making it difficult to absorb nutrients.</p><p>Common symptoms of celiac disease include <a href="/article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a>, <a href="/article?contentid=6&language=English">constipation</a>, <a href="/article?contentid=29&language=English">headaches</a>, tiredness and <a href="/article?contentid=841&language=English">anemia</a>. Some people experience no symptoms at all.</p><p>Celiac disease is a life-long condition. There is no medication for celiac disease. The only treatment is a strict gluten-free diet for life. The gluten-free diet will help heal the gut, improve symptoms that may have been present, and keep your child healthy.<br></p><h2>What is the gluten-free diet?</h2><p>A strict <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=956&language=English">gluten-free diet</a> means no trace amounts of gluten. Gluten is naturally found in all forms of:</p><ul><li>wheat</li><li>rye</li><li>barley</li><li>triticale (rye and barley mix).</li></ul><p>Wheat-based products, such as breads, pasta and baked goods, are obvious sources of gluten. However, there are also many foods where gluten is hidden, such as soups, salad dressings and ice creams. </p><p>Always read the labels of all foods and non-food items (such as medications) to find out if they contain any sources of gluten.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition in which any contact with gluten (a family of food proteins) triggers a reaction from the body’s defense (immune) system.</li><li>Gluten is found in rye, barley, triticale and all forms of wheat.</li><li>The only treatment for celiac disease is a strict <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=956&language=English">gluten-free diet</a> for life. The gluten-free diet will help heal the gut, improve symptoms that may have been present, and keep your child healthy.</li><li>To maintain a strict gluten-free diet, you should avoid cross-contamination (gluten transferred from one food or object to a gluten-free food or object) at home and outside your home.</li><li>When eating out, make sure everyone understands that your child’s gluten-free diet is the only medical treatment for celiac disease.</li></ul><br><h2>Tax credit</h2> <p>The purchase of gluten-free products for a person with celiac disease is considered a medical expense and can be filed as such with your taxes with <a href="http://www.cra-arc.gc.ca/menu-eng.html">Canada Revenue Agency</a>. You will be required to have the following documentation:</p> <ul> <li>a letter from a health-care practitioner certifying that the person requires gluten-free products due to celiac disease</li> <li>a summary of each item purchased during the 12-month period for which the expenses are being claimed</li> <li>a receipt to support the cost of each gluten-free product claimed</li> </ul> <p>For more information, visit the <a href="http://www.cra-arc.gc.ca/menu-eng.html">Canada Revenue Agency</a> website. <br></p><h2>How to avoid cross-contamination</h2><p>Cross-contamination occurs when gluten is not intentionally (not on purpose) transferred from one food or object to another food or object. It is important to avoid all sources of cross-contamination.</p><h3>At home</h3><p>Washing:</p> <ul><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=1981&language=English">Wash hands</a> between handling gluten-containing and gluten-free foods.</li><li>Wash hands and toys that have been contaminated with gluten.</li><li>Wash the counters carefully before preparing a gluten-free meal.</li><li>Clean all pots, pans, utensils and counter tops with soap between uses.</li></ul><p>In the kitchen:</p><ul><li>Keep gluten-free foods separated from foods that contain gluten.</li><li>Use a separate toaster, grill, colander and cutting board for all gluten-free products. If you use your grill for foods that contain gluten, wrap the gluten-free item in foil before cooking.</li><li>Use plastic or metal baking utensils and cutting boards instead of wooden ones because gluten sticks to wood.</li><li>Use condiments from a squeeze bottle when available or have separate containers for those used with gluten-free products (for example, butter or margarine dish).</li></ul><p>Avoid foods potentially contaminated with gluten: </p><ul><li>Do not buy foods that have no nutrition or allergy information on the label.</li><li>Do not eat gluten-free foods that are on the same plate as gluten-containing food (for example trays with fruits, cheese and gluten-containing crackers).</li></ul><h3>Outside of the home</h3><p>You have no control over your environment when you and your family are outside your home. Keep in mind that:</p><ul><li>Toys and play surfaces at day cares, school or others’ homes may be contaminated with gluten. Avoid touching or placing your child’s food on these surfaces.</li><li>Do not buy foods from bulk bins. Products in bulk bins can become contaminated when scoops are used in more than one bin. There is no assurance that the other customers will be as cautious as you.</li><li>Do not buy foods from stores where no nutrition or allergy information are on the label. This may happen with foods imported from other countries.</li><li>Contact food companies when in doubt about processing and gluten contamination.</li><li>Choose packaged deli meats. At the deli counter gluten-free meats are cut using the same slicer without cleaning between uses, which is a source of contamination.</li><li>Avoid buffets as foods may become contaminated with gluten when customers use the same serving utensils between dishes.</li><li>Avoid french fries and other gluten-free foods if they have been cooked in oil which has been contaminated with gluten. This may be the case if battered foods or seasoned foods have been fried in the same fryer.</li><li>Meat can become contaminated if it is cooked on a grill which is also used to cook gluten-containing foods.</li></ul><p>At school</p><ul><li>Speak to your child’s school about the need for your child to be on a strict gluten-free diet.</li><li>Ask the school about gluten-free menu options. It is important to check directly with the food provider about potential sources of contamination.</li><li>Make sure your child understands why they should not trade food with other students.</li></ul><h3>Before going out to eat</h3><p>Call the restaurant beforehand. Tell them that your child’s gluten-free diet is medical treatment for celiac disease, and not an intolerance or sensitivity.</p><p>Visit the restaurant’s website to check its menu, list of ingredients and allergy warnings.</p><p>Select a restaurant where communication will be easy and where the specifics of the strict gluten-free diet will be understood. For example, you should make sure that language will not be a barrier to communication.</p><p>If you do not have time to call ahead, inform your server and the chef of the strict gluten-free diet when you arrive. Try to go to restaurants during hours when it is less busy. With more time, restaurant staff may have more resources to focus on the specifics of the strict gluten-free diet.</p><p>Bring gluten-free breads, crackers and favourite condiments—including salad dressing—to the restaurant.</p><h3>At the restaurant</h3><p>Remember to always ask about cross-contamination. You may want to explain what cross-contamination is. You can say, “Cross-contamination happens when gluten from one food or object comes in contact with another food or object.” Ask for food to be prepared on clean surfaces with clean utensils and gloves.</p><p>Avoid all seasonings, sauces (for instance soy sauce), croutons, soups and gravies. Be specific when ordering. You can say “I want no gravy on my plate.” </p><p>Ask what food is deep fried in the same oil or fryer. You can explain that french fries, tofu, nachos and wings cooked in the same oil as nuggets or onion rings (which are sources of gluten) will be cross-contaminated and are unsafe for your child.</p><p>Ask for allergy or nutrition information lists.</p><p>Avoid buffets.</p><h2>Tips for calling food companies</h2><h3>Finding contact information</h3><p>If you are not sure about a food product or an ingredient in a non-food product, call the company. Find and write down or take a picture of the contact information for the company from the package. In Canada, this is usually a 1-800 phone number.</p><p>If you cannot find a contact phone number, record the name of the company. You can look for the company’s name in the phonebook or search for the contact information on the Internet.</p><p>Record the name of the product and the UPC code number; this is the number at the bottom of the bar code.</p><h3>What to ask</h3><p>Call the company and ask to speak with customer service. Ask specific questions about the product, such as “Is this product gluten-free?” or “Does the product contain oats, barley, wheat, rye, triticale, or any components of these ingredients?”</p><p>If the company is unable to confirm that the product is gluten-free, then do not eat or use that product. Remember that ingredient lists change and you may need to update this information at a later date. </p><p>Some companies maintain a list of products that are considered “gluten-free”. The company can send you the list at your request. Some companies list gluten-free information on their website. Make sure that the information has been recently updated (within the last year). </p><h2>Resources</h2> <h3>Websites</h3> <p>The <a href="http://www.celiac.ca/">Canadian Celiac Association</a> and its local chapters offer many resources to help maintain a gluten-free diet and more.</p> <p>The <a href="http://www.glutenfreecert.com/about-us/gluten-free-certification-program/">Gluten-Free Certification Program</a> provides information about gluten-free products that are safe to eat for people with celiac disease.</p> <h3>Handbook</h3> <p><em>Acceptability of Foods and Food Ingredients for Gluten-free Diets</em> is a pocket dictionary published by the Canadian Celiac Association. It references food ingredients and additives under "allowed" or "not allowed" categories to guide people on gluten-free diets.</p> <h3>App</h3> <p><em>Acceptability of Foods and Food Ingredients for Gluten-free Diets</em> pocket dictionary is also available as an iTunes application. Search “<a href="http://www.glutenfree247.ca/">Gluten free 247</a>” for the version created by the Canadian Celiac Association.</p> <p>Other apps to help manage celiac disease are available. Check each app review and ask other families for their opinion to choose an app best suited for your needs.</p> <h3>Books</h3> <p><strong>Celiac disease</strong></p> <ul> <li><em>Managing Diabetes and Celiac Disease Together</em>, by the Canadian Celiac Association</li> <li><em>Gluten-Free Diet: A Comprehensive Resource Guide</em>, by Shelley Case</li> </ul> <p><strong>Children’s books</strong></p> <ul> <li><em>Growing up Celiac</em>, by the Canadian Celiac Association</li> <li><em>Eating Gluten-Free with Emily: A Story for Children with Celiac Disease</em>, by Bonnie J. Kruszka (5 year olds)</li> <li><em>No More Cupcakes and Tummy Aches: A Story for Parents and their Celiac Children to Share</em>, by Jax Peters Lowell (3-8 year olds)</li> <li><em>Kids with Celiac Disease: A Family Guide to Raising Happy, Healthy, Gluten-Free Children</em>, by Danna Korn</li> <li><em>The GF Kid: A Celiac Disease Survival Guide</em>, by Melissa London (8-12 year olds)</li> </ul> <p><strong>Cook books</strong></p> <ul> <li><em>Incredible Edible Gluten-Free Foods for Kids: 150 Family-tested recipes</em>, by Sheri L. Sanderson</li> <li><em>Great Food Gluten Free</em>, by Jeanette Mahoney</li> <li><em>Gluten Free on a Shoestring</em>, by Nicole Hunn</li> <li><em>The How Can It Be Gluten Free Cookbook</em>, by America’s Test Kitchen</li> </ul>Managing celiac disease
Spina bifidaSpina bifidaSpina bifidaSEnglishNeurologyNewborn (0-28 days)SpineSpinal CordConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/spina_bifida_V2_EN.jpg2017-11-07T05:00:00ZPatricia Rowe, RN(EC), MN, NP-Pediatrics;Sara Breitbart, RN(EC), MN, NP-Pediatrics;Peter Dirks, MD, PhD, FRCSC;James Drake, BSE, MB, BCh, MSc, FRCSC9.4000000000000056.70000000000002007.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Spina bifida occurs when a baby’s spine and spinal cord do not develop properly in the womb, leaving an opening in the spine. Learn about the four different types of spina bifida, their causes and how it is diagnosed.</p><h2>What is spina bifida?</h2><p>The spinal cord is a thick bundle of nerves that carries messages between the brain and the rest of the body. It floats in a liquid called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This liquid nourishes and protects the brain and spinal cord. The CSF is covered by a lining made of three thin layers called the meninges. This lining is normally protected by the bones of the back (the vertebrae).</p><p>In people with spina bifida, the bones that protect the spinal cord have not formed completely while the baby is developing in the mother’s womb. This leaves the lining, the CSF, and the spinal cord unprotected. This happens very early in pregnancy.</p><p>Spina bifida can happen anywhere along a baby’s back between the head and the hips. It happens most often in the lower back. This area is called the lumbar or lumbosacral spine.</p><p>Children with spina bifida may have health problems because of this condition. They may experience changes or loss of feeling in their legs, have decreased movement of their legs or not be able to move their legs at all. They may also have problems with their bladder and bowel function.</p><p>About 2.6 in every 10,000 babies are born with some form of spina bifida.</p><h2>The four main types of spina bifida</h2><p>There are four main types of spina bifida:</p><ul><li>spina bifida occulta</li><li>lipomyelomeningocele</li><li>meningocele</li><li>myelomeningocele</li></ul><p>“Meningo” refers to the lining of the vertebral canal. “Myelo” refers to the spinal cord itself. “Cele” means something bulging out.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Types of spina bifida</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/spina_bifida_V2_EN.jpg" alt="" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">There are four common types of spina bifida: spina bifida occulta, lipomyelomeningocele, meningocele and myelomeningocele. Spina bifida occurs when a baby’s spine and spinal cord do not develop properly in the womb, leaving an opening in the spine. When this happens the spinal fluid, the nerves and the lining of the spinal cord (meninges) can bulge out through this defect in the baby’s back.</figcaption> </figure> <h3>Spina bifida occulta</h3><p>Spina bifida occulta is the mildest form of spina bifida. It occurs when a small section of the outer part of the vertebrae (the bones of the spine) have not completely closed, leaving an opening. In this type of spina bifida, the spinal cord and its coverings (the meninges) are usually not damaged and they do not protrude or bulge through the opening. There may be a dimple, tuft of hair, birthmark or fatty bulge at the site of the defect. This type of spina bifida may not be detected before birth. Many people may have this type of spina bifida and not be aware of it.</p><h3>Lipomyelomeningocele</h3><p>A lipomyelomeningocele (ly-po-my-low-meh-nin-go-seal) is a form of spina bifida where the outer part of the vertebrae have not completely closed, leaving an opening. Some abnormal fatty tissue pushes through the opening and may cause compression of the nerves.</p><h3>Meningocele</h3><p>A meningocele (meh-nin-go-seal) is a more severe form of spina bifida. It occurs when the outer part of the vertebrae have not completely closed, leaving an opening. The spinal cord itself may not be affected, but its protective coverings (the meninges) may be damaged and pushed through the opening to form a sac containing CSF. This sac is often covered with skin.</p><p>With a meningocele, the spinal cord stays inside the back where it belongs. This means that children with a meningocele may have normal movement and normal feeling in their legs and feet.</p><h3>Myelomeningocele</h3><p>A myelomeningocele (my-low-meh-nin-go-cele) is the most severe form of spina bifida. It occurs when the outer part of the vertebrae have not completely closed, leaving an opening. With a myelomeningocele, both the covering of the spinal cord (the meninges) and the spinal cord itself are pushed out through the opening. Usually they protrude into a covered, fluid-filled sac that has a very thin membrane and can easily split, exposing its delicate contents.</p><p>Because part of the spinal cord bulges into the sac, the spinal cord fails to develop properly and nerves are damaged. Most children with a myelomeningocele will have some difficulty with movement and feeling in their legs and feet, and may be paralyzed.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Spina bifida means that the bones that protect the spinal cord have not formed completely.</li><li>In babies with spina bifida, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the nerves and the lining of the spinal cord can bulge out through a defect in the baby’s back.</li><li>There are four common types of spina bifida: Myelomeningocele, meningocele, lipomyelomeningocele and spina bifida occulta.</li><li>What causes spina bifida is unknown but spina bifida and other neural tube defects are less likely to occur when women get enough folic acid.</li></ul><h2>Causes of spina bifida</h2><p>All of the causes of spina bifida are not known but there are genetic, environmental and nutritional risks linked to spina bifida.</p><ul><li>Some spina bifida is found in families, meaning there may be a genetic link.</li><li>What you eat during pregnancy may have an impact on healthy growth of the spinal cord.</li><li>Some medications that interfere with the body’s ability to use folate and folic acid could increase risk.</li><li>Women with diabetes whose blood sugars are not well controlled have a higher risk.</li><li>Increased body temperature (for example from using a sauna or hot tub) in early weeks of pregnancy may increase risk.</li></ul><p>Spina bifida and other neural tube defects are less likely to occur when women get enough folic acid. These defects occur in early pregnancy, often before many women even know they are pregnant. If there is any possibility of becoming pregnant, it is important to have a well-balanced diet rich in folic acid. If you are planning to become pregnant, it is essential that you begin taking folic acid daily, at least three or four months before you start trying to conceive. Talk with your doctor about the right dosage for you. The usual recommended dose is 400 micrograms (mcg) of folic acid a day. Often this can be found in a prenatal vitamin. If you have had a pregnancy affected by spina bifida, or a family history of spina bifida or are taking certain medications, you may require a higher dose of folic acid.</p><h2>Diagnosis of spina bifida</h2><p>Spina bifida can be diagnosed during pregnancy or after the baby is born.</p><h3>During pregnancy</h3><p>There are tests that can be done during pregnancy that can indicate if the baby has a high chance of having spina bifida.</p><ul><li>Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) blood test – AFP is a protein made by unborn babies. AFP crosses from the baby through the placenta to the mother. A test is done that measures AFP levels in the mother's blood. If there are high levels of AFP in the mother's blood this might mean that the baby has spina bifida.</li><li>Ultrasound – this is a common test during pregnancy that allows health-care providers to see images of the unborn baby. In some cases an ultrasound can show if the baby has spina bifida.</li><li>Amniocentesis – this is a test that takes a small sample of amniotic fluid from the mother’s womb. If this fluid has a higher than average level of AFP then the baby might have spina bifida.</li><li>Fetal MRI – if initial tests suggest there is a high chance of spina bifida then a fetal MRI can be done. This is an MRI that is done on the pregnant mother to assess the unborn baby.</li></ul><p>Spina bifida occulta may not be diagnosed until late childhood, adulthood or may not be diagnosed at all.</p><h2>Treatment of spina bifida</h2><p>Meningocele where only the meninges are pushed through the opening and myelomeningocele where the meninges and spinal cord are pushed out through the opening are both treated with surgery. Older infants and young children with lipomyelomeningocele may require surgery if they develop symptoms. Spina bifida occulta does not usually require treatment.</p><p>To learn more about the treatment of spina bifida please read <a href="/Article?contentid=2532&language=English">Spina bifida: Treatment and caring for your child after surgical repair</a>.</p><h2>Health problems linked to or caused by spina bifida</h2><p>Every child with spina bifida is different with their own medical, mobility and learning challenges. Some children may only be mildly affected while others may have more severe disabilities. Being born with spina bifida brings life-long challenges. Your child’s health-care team will work together with you to help your child achieve their greatest potential.</p><p>The following health issues are common for children with spina bifida.</p><h3>Hydrocephalus</h3><p>About 80 percent of babies born with spina bifida, primarily those with myelomeningocele, will also have <a href="/Article?contentid=858&language=English">hydrocephalus</a>. Hydrocephalus is an abnormal build-up of CSF in the ventricles inside the brain.</p><h3>Chiari malformation</h3><p>Nearly all babies born with myelomeningocele have a <a href="/Article?contentid=853&language=English">Chiari malformation</a> type 2. This is when the lower part of the brain (the brainstem) sits too low in your child’s upper spine area. Some children with Chiari malformation type 2 may have feeding problems (for example, weak suck when feeding, gagging, choking, trouble swallowing), breathing trouble and some may have weakness of the arms. Surgery may be required to decrease the pressure on the lower part of the brain.</p><h3>Leg function (movement) and sensation (feeling)</h3><p>In children with spina bifida, the nerves in the spinal canal are often damaged or improperly formed, and therefore they may not able to control the muscles properly or sometimes feel properly. Some children may be paralyzed, not able to move their legs at all, while others can stand and walk to some extent.</p><h3>Muscles and bones</h3><p>Muscles and bones may also be affected by spina bifida. A baby with spina bifida may be born with <a href="/Article?contentid=1192&language=English">clubfoot</a>, this is when the baby's feet are turned in at the ankle.</p><p>The baby's hips may also be affected as different muscles may be stronger than others interfering with how the hips move and function. This can cause dislocation of the hip.</p><p>Muscles around the spine may also be affected. Any difference in muscle strength can affect the position of the spine and cause an abnormal curve.</p><p>If your child has clubfoot or any leg bone issues an orthopaedic surgeon will speak to you about options for correcting this in the future.</p><h3>Bladder problems</h3><p>With spina bifida, the nerves that tell the bladder to empty and release urine (pee) are often weak or not working. This means you may have to help your baby to pee and empty their bladder. When your baby is born, a tube or catheter will be put inside their bladder through the urethra every few hours to see if they can pee on their own and empty their bladder. The urethra is the tube inside the body that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. If your baby is unable to fully empty their bladder, they are at risk for an infection and possibly damage to their kidneys. You may need to learn how to empty your baby’s bladder using a catheter before you can take them home. Instructions for <a href="/Article?contentid=978&language=English">boys</a> and <a href="/Article?contentid=979&language=English">girls</a> are slightly different. A member of the urology team will talk to you about this.</p><h3>Bowel problems</h3><p>Sometimes the nerves that make the bowels move are weak or not working. The nurse will be assessing how well your baby’s bowels move. The nurse can teach you how to help your baby’s bowels move better and how to protect your baby’s skin around their anus.</p><h3>Latex allergies/sensitivity</h3><p>Babies with spina bifida have a high risk of developing a latex sensitivity or allergy. It is important to make sure that products such as gloves, catheters and soothers do not contain latex.</p><h3>Tethered cord</h3><p>In children with spina bifida, sometimes the spinal cord gets stuck at the site where the vertebrae have not closed completely. This is called a <a href="/Article?contentid=861&language=English">tethered cord</a>.</p><h2>Looking ahead</h2><p>Babies born with spina bifida require ongoing assessment as they grow and develop. They will be followed by a number of different medical teams. Some children may be in special spina bifida clinics.</p><h2>Resources</h2><p>There are many resources available to help you learn more about spina bifida.</p><p>Spina Bifida and Hydrocepahlus Association of Ontario<br> <a href="http://www.sbhao.on.ca/" target="_blank">http://www.sbhao.on.ca/</a></p><p>Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital<br> <a href="http://www.hollandbloorview.ca/" target="_blank">http://www.hollandbloorview.ca/</a></p><p>Public Health Agency of Canada. (2013). <em>Congenital Anomalies in Canada 2013: A Perinatal Health Surveillance Report</em>. Retrieved from http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2014/aspc-phac/HP35-40-2013-eng.pdf.</p>
Sport-related concussionSport-related concussionSport-related concussionSEnglishNeurologySchool age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeadBrainConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Headache;Nausea;Vomiting2017-06-14T04:00:00Z​Shawna Silver, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, PEng10.300000000000053.70000000000001056.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Find out how sport-related concussions can occur and how best to respond to them.</p>​<p> ​​<a href="/Article?contentid=766&language=English">Concussions</a> can occur in any sport or recreational activity. Sport-related concussions are the most common type of concussion among older children and teenagers.</p><p>It is important for coaches, families and athletes to recognize and properly respond to concussions when they first occur to help prevent further injury and long-term problems.</p><h2>How to recognize a possible sport-related concussion</h2><p>To help recognize a concussion, watch for a forceful blow to the head or body that results in rapid movement of the head and any change in the athlete’s behaviour, thinking or physical functioning.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A sports-related concussion is the most common type of concussion among older children and teenagers.</li><li>If a child is hit in the head during a sport, they should be tested for a concussion and allowed to sit out the rest of the game or practice session.</li><li>You can help prevent concussions, and repeat concussions, by having your child wear protective equipment, play smart and share any concussion symptoms openly.</li><li>If your child has had a concussion, they should only return to play when a health-care professional says they are ready. Returning too soon can slow their recovery.</li></ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of sport-related concussion</h2><p>The signs and symptoms of a sport-related concussion are similar to those from a regular concussion. However, a sport-related concussion often has more serious complications because athletes feel pressure to return to their sport before they are ready. This often puts athletes at a higher risk for multiple concussions.</p><h3>Signs of concussion observed by coaching staff and parents</h3><ul><li>Appearing dazed or stunned</li><li>Confusion about assignment of position</li><li>Forgetting plays</li><li>Being unsure of game, score or opponent</li><li>Moving clumsily</li><li>Answering questions slowly</li><li>Losing consciousness (even briefly)</li><li>Behaviour or personality changes</li><li>Inability to recall events before or after the hit or fall</li></ul><h3>Signs and symptoms of concussion reported by the athlete</h3><ul><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=29&language=English">Headache</a> or “pressure” in the head</li><li>Nausea or <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a></li><li>Balance problems or dizziness</li><li>Double or blurred vision</li><li>Sensitivity to light or noise</li><li>Sluggish hazy, foggy or groggy feelings</li><li>Concentration or memory problems</li><li>Confusion</li><li>Not feeling “right”</li></ul><p>The signs and symptoms of concussion can show up immediately. However, in some cases, signs and symptoms evolve over a number of minutes to hours. If your child reports any symptoms of concussion or if you notice the signs yourself, take them out of play and seek medical attention right away.</p><h2>Effects of multiple concussions</h2><p>Athletes with a history of concussion have increased risk of subsequent head injuries. Subsequent concussions are typically more severe, even when they occur with less force, and need a longer recovery time.</p><h2>How to respond to a suspected sport-related concussion</h2><p>There is a tendency in sport, especially in important games, for athletes to push through pain to demonstrate their toughness and their commitment to the team. However, playing through a concussion can be very dangerous for a child’s health. Never encourage this, whether you are a parent or a coach. </p><p>If your child has experienced a bump or blow to the head, even if it seems mild, look for signs and symptoms of concussion. Coaches and parents can use the <a href="http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/47/5/267.full.pdf" target="_blank">Pocket Concussion Tool</a> to do a basic concussion test at the scene of the injury. The <a href="http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/47/5/259.full.pdf" target="_blank">Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3rd Edition (SCAT3)</a> is a more detailed test of different aspects of brain function and should only be used by health-care professionals or by trainers and coaches who are trained in concussion testing.</p><p>The child should sit out the rest of the game or practice. They should not be left alone, as sometimes symptoms of concussion may only appear several hours after injury. Make sure that your child sees a doctor as soon as possible that day. Their symptoms should also be monitored closely over the next few days because symptoms may evolve over time. Your child should not return to play until a health-care professional says that it is okay. Your child may need a post-concussion management plan.</p><p>If your child is knocked out, call an ambulance right way. Do not move them or remove sport equipment in case their neck or spinal cord is injured.</p><h2>How to prevent and handle a sport-related concussion</h2><h3>Have your child wear the right protective equipment</h3><p>Make sure that your child wears the right protective equipment for their sport. Protective equipment should fit properly and be well maintained. Helmets are not designed to prevent concussion, but wearing one is essential to reduce the risk of serious brain injury or skull fracture.</p><h3>Encourage your child to play smart</h3><p>Even if your child plays by the rules, they may still get hit hard enough to sustain a concussion. However, teaching your child to play smart and avoid putting their body in a position of unnecessary harm will help them minimize the risk of serious injury while they play. Encourage your child to follow the rules of play and practice good sportsmanship at all times.</p><h3>Take a conservative return-to-play approach</h3><p>A repeat concussion, before the brain fully recovers from an earlier injury, can delay recovery or increase the chance of long-term problems. This is why it is important to <a href="/Article?contentid=963&language=English">take a conservative approach to your child's return to play</a>. </p><p>Athletes who return to play too soon, while the brain is still healing, have a greater risk of repeat concussions. If your child has experienced a concussion, do not let them return to play on the day of injury until a health-care professional confirms that they are ready.</p><h3>Encourage your child to be open about symptoms</h3><p>Athletes may not report their concussion symptoms for fear of losing playing time. Parents and coaches should create an open environment that supports reporting symptoms, proper evaluation and a conservative return-to-play approach. </p><p>Tell your child’s coach about any previous concussions. They may not know about a concussion your child received in another sport or activity.</p><h3>Consider neuro-cognitive testing</h3><p>For elite athletes in high-risk sports such as football and hockey, a health-care professional can perform baseline neuro-cognitive or neuropsychological testing before the start of the season. This type of testing measures an athlete’s balance and brain function, including learning and memory, concentration and problem solving, <em>before</em> they have any injury. If an athlete experiences a concussion during the season, the results of the baseline tests can help identify the effects of the injury and inform decisions about returning to school and play.</p><h2>Sources</h2> <p>Canadian Paediatric Society (2013). <a href="http://www.cps.ca/en/documents/position/paediatric-patient-with-acute-head-trauma" target="_blank"><em>Management of the paediatric patient with acute head trauma</em></a>.</p> <p>Ontario Neurotrauma Foundation (2014). <em><a href="http://onf.org/documents/guidelines-diagnosing-and-managing-pediatric-concussion" target="_blank">Guidelines: Diagnosing and Managing Pediatric Concussion</a></em>.</p> sportconcussionsportconcussionhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/sport-related_concussion.jpg
Thyroid disease and diabetesThyroid disease and diabetesThyroid disease and diabetesTEnglishEndocrinologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Pancreas;ThyroidEndocrine systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_thyroid_gland_EN.jpg2017-11-20T05:00:00ZCatherine Pastor, RN, MN, HonBScVanita Pais, RD, CDEAndrea Ens, MD, FRCPCJennifer Harrington, MBBS, PhD000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about thyroid disease and diabetes including the causes and signs and symptoms.</p><h2>​​What is the thyroid?</h2> <p>The thyroid is a gland located in the middle of the lower front of the neck. It produces hormones (called thyroid hormones) that are important for:</p> <ul><li>growth</li> <li>body temperature control</li> <li>digestion</li> <li>body weight</li> <li>mood.</li></ul><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Despite proper diabetes control, 20-25% of people with type 1 diabetes will develop thyroid problems.</li> <li>Thyroid problems include Hashimoto's thyroiditis (hypothyroidism) and Grave's disease (hyperthyroidism).</li></ul><figure><span class="asset-image-title">Thyroid gland</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_thyroid_gland_EN.jpg" alt="Thyroid gland located in the front of the throat shown with surrounding structures labelled" /></figure> <p>Like the <a>pancreas</a> in diabetes, the thyroid can be attacked by the immune system. The immune system makes proteins called antibodies that attack the thyroid. This attack can cause the thyroid to either slow down (<a href="/Article?contentid=2309&language=English">hypothyroidism</a>) or in rare cases, to become overactive (hyperthyroidism). About 20 to 25% of people with <a>type 1 diabetes</a> will develop thyroid problems, regardless of how well they control their diabetes or for how long they have had diabetes. </p><h2>Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (hypothyroidism)</h2><p>In Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, the immune system damages the thyroid gland, leading it to become underactive. Underactive thyroid is called hypothyroidism. Symptoms of hypothyroidism include:</p> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Thyroid </span> <span class="asset-image-title"></span> <span class="asset-image-title"></span> <span class="asset-image-title"></span><span class="asset-image-title">function</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Thyroid_function_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Location of the pituitary gland in the brain and the thyroid gland in the throat both labelled" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The</figcaption><figcaption class="asset-image-caption"></figcaption><figcaption class="asset-image-caption"></figcaption><figcaption class="asset-image-caption"></figcaption><figcaption class="asset-image-caption"> pituitary gland releases hormones, including thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), that control the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland releases hormones that control many body functions.</figcaption> </figure> <ul><li>slower growth</li><li>weight gain</li><li>tiredness or sluggishness</li><li>dry skin and hair</li><li>problems concentrating</li><li>constipation</li><li>irregular menstrual periods</li><li>weakness.</li></ul><p>Under activity of the thyroid is detected by regular checks of thyroid function. The check involves measuring levels of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and measuring antibodies against the thyroid. TSH is a hormone (chemical messenger) made by a gland in the brain called the <a>pituitary gland</a>. </p><h2>Grave’s disease (hyperthyroidism)</h2><p>Grave’s disease happens rarely in people with diabetes. It is an immune system disorder that makes the thyroid overactive, meaning the thyroid makes too much thyroid hormone. Overactive thyroid is called hyperthyroidism. Symptoms include:</p><ul><li>weight loss</li><li>increased appetite</li><li>mood swings</li><li>shakiness and sweating</li><li>diarrhea</li><li>bulging eyes.</li></ul><p>Over active thyroid is often treated with​ a medication called methimazole that decreases the thyroid hormone levels.</p> ​​

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