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COVID-19 vaccine information for children (ages five to 11)COVID-19 vaccine information for children (ages five to 11)COVID-19 vaccine information for children (ages five to 11)CEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years)NANADrug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-1278968456.jpg2021-11-19T05:00:00ZFlat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the status of the COVID-19 vaccine for children five to 11 years of age and the benefits of getting the vaccine for children.</p><h2>What is the status of COVID-19 vaccines for children in Canada?</h2><p>In November 2021, Health Canada approved the use of the Pfizer vaccine for children five to 11 years of age.</p><p>NOTE: For ages six months to four years, preliminary clinical trial results are expected around December 2021. The full results are expected to be submitted to Health Canada sometime in 2022, after which the full Health Canada review process will take place.</p> <p>Looking for general information on COVID-19 vaccines. Visit the page on <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3937&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19 vaccines general information</a>.</p><p>Looking for information specific to youth age 12+? Visit the page on <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4000&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19 vaccine information for youth (ages 12+)</a>.</p><br> <h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Vaccines against COVID-19 have been shown to be safe and effective against the disease.</li><li>As of November 19, 2021, the Pfizer vaccine has been approved for use in children aged five to 11 years of age.</li><li>Children five to 11 years of age will get a smaller dose of the vaccine. They will still need to get two doses.</li><li>Side effects in children five to 11 years of age are similar to those seen in adults and older children.</li></ul><h2>What evidence is there that the vaccine is safe and effective for children?</h2><p>Over 3,000 children aged five to 11 received the vaccine through the clinical trial and no serious side effects have been detected in the ongoing study after more than three months of follow-up. The vaccine was shown to be 91 per cent effective against symptomatic COVID-19 with mild side effects like those seen in adults and older children. These side effects include arm tenderness, fatigue, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, chills and fever, which can also be seen with other vaccines recommended for children. Rare side-effects that have been seen in older teens and young adults are expected to be extremely rare in children. Read about the <a href="https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2116298">clinical trial results in the New England Journal of Medicine</a>.</p><h2>Why should children get vaccinated if they do not get sick from COVID-19?</h2><p>Although severe illness due to acute COVID-19 infection is less frequent in children compared to adults, children can still be hospitalized and even require admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) due to COVID-19. Some children can also develop other complications from COVID-19 beyond the infection itself, including a condition called multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). While highly treatable and rare, approximately one in three children hospitalized with MIS-C will require ICU care. Further studies will be needed to assess how well the vaccines protect against such complications from COVID-19.</p><h2>Should I be concerned about how quickly these vaccines were approved?</h2><p>Work on coronavirus vaccines has been ongoing for more than 10 years, due in part to the SARS-CoV-1 outbreak in 2003. It was important to develop the COVID-19 vaccine quickly because of how many people were dying and getting sick, and because of the disruptions to everyday life as a result of the pandemic. Even though the vaccines were developed quickly, all the usual steps for the approval of vaccines occurred, including clinical trials with the appropriate number of participants. Because of the large amount of resources that were made available to develop a COVID-19 vaccine and the large number of COVID-19 cases the clinical trials were able to happen quickly. This made it easier to tell quickly whether or not the vaccines worked to prevent cases of COVID-19. The vaccine was rapidly shown to be effective in protecting against COVID-19.</p><h2>Do children under 12 need one vaccination or two? Is a different vaccine dose used in younger children?</h2><p>Children aged five to 11 receive a two-dose schedule of a smaller Pfizer vaccine dose than the one used in people 12 and older (10 µg instead of 30µg). The National Advisory Committee on Immunization recommends that the second dose should be given at least eight weeks after the first dose. Children who turn 12 before their second dose may receive an adult dose.</p><h2>My child is turning 12 years old in 2022. Now that a vaccine is approved for children under 12 years of age, should I wait to vaccinate my child when they are 12 years old and eligible for the adult dose?</h2><p>The first COVID-19 vaccine that is available for your child will be the best vaccine to get, as it will provide protection against COVID-19 to your child as soon as possible. Before Health Canada approves any vaccine, they review the evidence and scientific data. To be approved the evidence must show that the vaccine:</p><ul><li>is safe, effective and of good quality</li><li>demonstrates that the benefits outweigh the risks</li></ul><p>This process applied to the paediatric dose (10µg) of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for children aged five to 11 years old inclusively.</p><h2>What if my child’s weight is above average in their age group?</h2><p>Vaccine doses are based on age and the maturity of the immune system, not weight. The clinical trials showed the pediatric dose given to children aged five to 11 (a third of the dose given to people aged 12 and up), was effective and also resulted in fewer side effects. Therefore, children who are almost 12 or weigh more than average would not benefit from receiving the adult dose.</p><h2>Are COVID-19 cases among children on the rise?</h2><p>According to the Public Health Agency of Canada’s updated COVID-19 epidemiology and modelling, children under 12 are currently accounting for more cases of COVID-19 compared with their proportion of the Canadian population. In addition, COVID-19 outbreaks in schools and childcare settings are currently uncommon, but predominantly involve children under 12 years of age.</p><h2>Can vaccination improve the physical and mental health of children?</h2><p> <a href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/news/archive/2021/research-covid-19-pandemic-impact-child-youth-mental-physical-health/">SickKids-led research</a> has shown a serious, sustained negative impact on the mental health of Ontario children, youth and their families due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Before the pandemic, a study showed that about 60 per cent of participants engaged in school sports and/or other extracurricular activities. During the pandemic, only 27 per cent participated in sports and 16 per cent in extracurriculars. These activities are known to boost physical and mental health. Vaccination will help return children to their regular activities and thus help improve the mental health and psychosocial well-being of children.</p><h2>Should I be concerned about how the vaccine could affect puberty and fertility for children in the future?</h2><p>There is no evidence and no scientific reason to believe that the COVID-19 vaccine can affect puberty and fertility in children. Clinical trials of those who have been vaccinated in the general population have shown that the vaccine is very safe.</p><h2>What are the vaccine’s side-effects in children under 12?</h2><p>Clinical trial data show that the Pfizer vaccine is well tolerated in children aged 5 to 11 years old, with side-effects generally comparable to those observed in age groups 12 and above. The most common side-effect was a sore arm. The benefits of the COVID-19 vaccine for eligible children far outweigh any risks, which are rare and for the most part treatable.</p><h2>What about reports of vaccine side-effects like myocarditis and pericarditis in younger people?</h2><p>Myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle) or pericarditis (inflammation of heart’s outer lining) is overall rare and most commonly experienced by older adolescents and young adults. There were no reports of myocarditis or pericarditis in the clinical trial for children five to 11 years old to date. Once children aged five to 11 years start receiving the COVID-19 vaccine, there will be multiple surveillance mechanisms in place to ensure that they are not at increased risk of myocarditis and pericarditis, as well as other potential very rare side effects.</p><p>Additional information about <a href="https://uwaterloo.ca/pharmacy/sites/ca.pharmacy/files/uploads/files/myocarditis_and_pericarditis_after_covid-19_vaccines.pdf">myocarditis and pericarditis after COVID-19 vaccination</a> is available in this article from the University of Waterloo.</p> <h2>I cannot decide if vaccinating my child is the right thing to do. Who can I talk to?</h2><p>Contact the SickKids COVID-19 Vaccine Consult Service, a by-appointment phone service for Ontario residents that provides a safe, judgment-free space to have an open conversation about the COVID-19 vaccine with a paediatric registered nurse. Book an appointment online at <a href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/care-services/support-services/covid-19-vaccine-consult/">sickkids.ca/vaccineconsult</a> or by calling 1-888-304-6558.</p><p>For general information on COVID-19, please visit the <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/covid-19">COVID-19 learning hub</a>.</p><h2>Information on how to prepare and support your child with their COVID-19 vaccine</h2><p>CARD System Learning Hub<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/card">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/card</a></p><p>Needle pokes: Reducing pain in children aged 18 months or over<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=990&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=990&language=English</a></p><p>Needle pokes: Reducing pain with comfort positions and distraction<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3629&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3629&language=English</a></p><p>Needle pokes: Reducing pain with numbing cream<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3627&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3627&language=English</a></p><p>Pain relief: Comfort kit<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1258&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1258&language=English</a></p><h2>References</h2><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, February 26). COVID-19 Vaccination. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/index.html">https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/index.html</a></p><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, March 8). Science Brief: Background Rationale and Evidence for Public Health Recommendations for Fully Vaccinated People. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/more/fully-vaccinated-people.html">https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/more/fully-vaccinated-people.html</a></p><p>Government of Ontario – Ministry of Health. (2020, March 31). COVID-19 vaccines for Ontario. Retrieved from <a href="https://covid-19.ontario.ca/covid-19-vaccines-ontario">https://covid-19.ontario.ca/covid-19-vaccines-ontario</a></p><p>Health Canada. (2021, October 18). Health Canada receives submission from Pfizer-BioNTech to authorize the use of Comirnaty COVID-19 vaccine in children 5 to 11 years of age. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/news/2021/10/health-canada-receives-submission-from-pfizer-biontech-to-authorize-the-use-of-comirnaty-covid-19-vaccine-in-children-5-to-11-years-of-age.html">https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/news/2021/10/health-canada-receives-submission-from-pfizer-biontech-to-authorize-the-use-of-comirnaty-covid-19-vaccine-in-children-5-to-11-years-of-age.html</a></p><p>ImmunizeBC. (2021, March 12). COVID-19 Vaccine Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved from <a href="https://immunizebc.ca/covid-19-vaccine-frequently-asked-questions">https://immunizebc.ca/covid-19-vaccine-frequently-asked-questions</a></p><p>ImmunizeCanada. (2021, February 18). COVID-19 Info. Retrieved from <a href="https://immunize.ca/covid-19-info">https://immunize.ca/covid-19-info</a></p><p>National Advisory Committee on Immunization. (2021, May 5). Recommendations on the use of COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf">https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf</a></p><p>Pfizer. (2021, September 20). Pfizer and BioNTech Announce Positive Topline Results from Pivotal Trial of COVID-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to 11 Years. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-announce-positive-topline-results">https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-announce-positive-topline-results</a></p><p>Pfizer. (2021, September 28). Pfizer and BioNTech Submit Initial Data to U.S. FDA From Pivotal Trial of COVID-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to <12 Years of Age. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-submit-initial-data-us-fda-pivota">https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-submit-initial-data-us-fda-pivota</a>l</p><p>Public Health Agency of Canada. (2021, September 28). Advisory Committee Statement (ACS) National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI): Recommendations on the use of COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf">https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf</a></p><p>Walter, E.B., Talaat, K.R., Sabharwal, C., Gurtman, A., Lockhart, S., Paulsen, G.C.,…Gruber, W.C., for the C4591007 Clinical Trial Group. (2021). Evaluation of the BNT162b2 Covid-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to 11 Years of Age. <em>New England Journal of Medicine</em>. <a href="https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2116298">https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2116298</a></p><p>World Health Organization. (2021, February 19). COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/covid-19-vaccines">https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/covid-19-vaccines</a><br></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-1278968456.jpgCOVID-19 vaccine info for children (ages 5 to 11) Learn about the benefits of getting the vaccine for children. Also, find a discussion about the concerns and possible side effects of the vaccine for this age group.Main
COVID-19 vaccine information for youth (ages 12+)COVID-19 vaccine information for youth (ages 12+)COVID-19 vaccine information for youth (ages 12+)CEnglishInfectious DiseasesTeen (13-18 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years)NANADrug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-1302135365.jpg2021-11-19T05:00:00ZFlat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the status of COVID-19 vaccines for youth 12 to 17 years of age. Learn about the benefits of getting the vaccine for youth. Also, find a discussion about the concerns and the possible side effects of the vaccine for this age group.</p><h2>What is the status of COVID-19 vaccines for youth in Canada?</h2><p>In May 2021, Health Canada approved the use of the Pfizer vaccine for all individuals older than 12 years of age.</p><p>Here are a few helpful resources about COVID-19 vaccines and youth.</p><ul><li> <a href="https://kidshealthfirst.ca/">COVID-19 Vaccines for Ontario Youth</a></li><li> <a href="https://www.toronto.ca/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/97d6-COVID-19-Vaccine-Fact-Sheet-Youth.pdf">COVID-19 Vaccine Fact Sheet for Youth Age 12 to 17</a></li><li> <a href="https://www.toronto.ca/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/908c-CovidTeenVaxConsentInfographF.pdf">Does my 12+ Child Require Informed Consent to Receive Their Vaccine?</a></li></ul><p>Looking for general information on COVID-19 vaccines. Visit the page on <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3937&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19 vaccines general information</a>.</p><p>Looking for information specific to children aged five to 11? Visit the page on <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4001&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19 vaccine information for children (ages five to 11)</a>.</p><br> <h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Vaccines against COVID-19 have been shown to be safe and effective against the disease.</li><li>Two of the vaccines, Pfizer and Moderna, are approved for people 12 years of age and older.</li><li>The vaccine has been shown to prevent severe illness and hospitalization in youth aged 12 to 17.</li><li>Vaccinating youth aged 12 to 17 will help to prevent the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.</li></ul><h2>Do you recommend that youth get the vaccine against COVID-19?</h2><p>Although they are less at risk than older people, some youth may still develop severe COVID-19, or may require hospitalization because of COVID-19. The vaccine has been shown to prevent severe illness and hospitalization in youth. Moreover, vaccinating youth will become important to reduce the transmission of the virus since they represent a large proportion of the population.</p><h2>Why do youth need the COVID-19 vaccine since they don’t get that sick if they become infected?</h2><p>While adults are at higher risk of complications from COVID-19, youth can still get infected and develop severe complications. Vaccination against COVID-19 prevents youth from being infected and may also prevent them from developing severe and long-term complications. Vaccination can also prevent youth from transmitting SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.</p><h2>Can vaccination improve the physical and mental health of youth?</h2><p>Getting vaccinated can help keep youth safe and healthy, return to their pre-pandemic activities, as well as limit the spread of COVID-19 to others in the community.</p><p> <a href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/news/archive/2021/research-covid-19-pandemic-impact-child-youth-mental-physical-health/">SickKids-led research</a> has shown a serious, sustained negative impact on the mental health of Ontario children, youth and their families due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Before the pandemic, a study showed that 58 per cent of participants engaged in school sports and/or other extracurricular activities. During the pandemic, only 27 per cent participated in sports and 16 per cent in extracurriculars. These activities are known to boost physical and mental health. Vaccination will help return children to their regular activities and thus help improve the mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of children.</p><h2>Is the risk of myocarditis or pericarditis greater from the vaccine or from COVID-19 for youth?</h2><p>In Canada, the National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) recommends vaccination for youth and young adults who are eligible, as the benefits of vaccination to prevent COVID-19 and associated complications outweigh very rare cases of myocarditis/pericarditis following COVID-19 mRNA vaccination.</p><p>Additional information about <a href="https://uwaterloo.ca/pharmacy/sites/ca.pharmacy/files/uploads/files/myocarditis_and_pericarditis_after_covid-19_vaccines.pdf">myocarditis and pericarditis after COVID-19 vaccination</a> is available in this article from the University of Waterloo.</p> <h2>Can the COVID-19 vaccine affect puberty and fertility in youth?</h2><p>No. There is no evidence that the COVID-19 vaccine can affect puberty and fertility in youth. Ongoing studies and surveillance of those who have been vaccinated in the general population have shown that the mRNA vaccines are very safe in youth aged 12 to 17.</p><p>For general information on COVID-19, please visit the <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/covid-19">COVID-19 learning hub</a>.</p><h2>Information on how to prepare and support your child with their COVID-19 vaccine</h2><p>CARD System Learning Hub<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/card">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/card</a></p><p>Needle pokes: Reducing pain in children aged 18 months or over<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=990&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=990&language=English</a></p><p>Needle pokes: Reducing pain with comfort positions and distraction<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3629&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3629&language=English</a></p><p>Needle pokes: Reducing pain with numbing cream<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3627&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3627&language=English</a></p><p>Pain relief: Comfort kit<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1258&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1258&language=English</a></p><h2>References</h2><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, February 26). COVID-19 Vaccination. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/index.html">https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/index.html</a></p><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, March 8). Science Brief: Background Rationale and Evidence for Public Health Recommendations for Fully Vaccinated People. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/more/fully-vaccinated-people.html">https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/more/fully-vaccinated-people.html</a></p><p>Government of Ontario – Ministry of Health. (2020, March 31). COVID-19 vaccines for Ontario. Retrieved from <a href="https://covid-19.ontario.ca/covid-19-vaccines-ontario">https://covid-19.ontario.ca/covid-19-vaccines-ontario</a></p><p>Health Canada. (2021, October 18). Health Canada receives submission from Pfizer-BioNTech to authorize the use of Comirnaty COVID-19 vaccine in children 5 to 11 years of age. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/news/2021/10/health-canada-receives-submission-from-pfizer-biontech-to-authorize-the-use-of-comirnaty-covid-19-vaccine-in-children-5-to-11-years-of-age.html">https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/news/2021/10/health-canada-receives-submission-from-pfizer-biontech-to-authorize-the-use-of-comirnaty-covid-19-vaccine-in-children-5-to-11-years-of-age.html</a></p><p>ImmunizeBC. (2021, March 12). COVID-19 Vaccine Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved from <a href="https://immunizebc.ca/covid-19-vaccine-frequently-asked-questions">https://immunizebc.ca/covid-19-vaccine-frequently-asked-questions</a></p><p>ImmunizeCanada. (2021, February 18). COVID-19 Info. Retrieved from <a href="https://immunize.ca/covid-19-info">https://immunize.ca/covid-19-info</a></p><p>National Advisory Committee on Immunization. (2021, May 5). Recommendations on the use of COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf">https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf</a></p><p>Pfizer. (2021, September 20). Pfizer and BioNTech Announce Positive Topline Results from Pivotal Trial of COVID-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to 11 Years. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-announce-positive-topline-results">https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-announce-positive-topline-results</a></p><p>Pfizer. (2021, September 28). Pfizer and BioNTech Submit Initial Data to U.S. FDA From Pivotal Trial of COVID-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to <12 Years of Age. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-submit-initial-data-us-fda-pivota">https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-submit-initial-data-us-fda-pivota</a>l</p><p>Public Health Agency of Canada. (2021, September 28). Advisory Committee Statement (ACS) National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI): Recommendations on the use of COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf">https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf</a></p><p>Walter, E.B., Talaat, K.R., Sabharwal, C., Gurtman, A., Lockhart, S., Paulsen, G.C.,…Gruber, W.C., for the C4591007 Clinical Trial Group. (2021). Evaluation of the BNT162b2 Covid-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to 11 Years of Age. <em>New England Journal of Medicine</em>. <a href="https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2116298">https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2116298</a></p><p>World Health Organization. (2021, February 19). COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/covid-19-vaccines">https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/covid-19-vaccines</a></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-1302135365.jpgCOVID-19 vaccine information for youth (ages 12+) Learn about the benefits of getting the vaccine for youth. Also, find a discussion about the concerns and possible side effects of the vaccine for this age group.Main
COVID-19 vaccines general informationCOVID-19 vaccines general informationCOVID-19 vaccines general informationCEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANADrug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/COVID-19_Vaccine.jpg2021-11-19T05:00:00Z10.900000000000049.10000000000001996.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn which COVID-19 vaccines are available in Canada, and find information about vaccine development, and vaccine safety and effectiveness.</p><h2>COVID-19 vaccines approved for use in Canada</h2><p>As of November 2021, four vaccines against COVID-19 are approved for clinical use by Health Canada.</p><p>Two mRNA vaccines:</p><ul><li> <strong>Pfizer-BioNTech</strong> Comirnaty</li><li> <strong>Moderna</strong> Spikevax</li></ul><p>Two adenoviral vector vaccines:</p><ul><li> <strong>AstraZeneca</strong> Vaxzevria</li><li> <strong>Janssen</strong> (Johnson and Johnson)</li></ul> <p>Looking for information specific to children aged five to 11? Visit the page on <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4001&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19 vaccine information for children (ages five to 11)</a>.</p><p>Looking for information specific to youth age 12+? Visit the page on <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4000&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19 vaccine information for youth (ages 12+)</a>.</p><br> <h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Vaccines against COVID-19 have been shown to be safe and effective against the disease.</li><li>As of November 2021, four COVID-19 vaccines are approved for use by Health Canada.</li><li>Two of the vaccines, Pfizer and Moderna, are approved for people 12 years of age and older.</li><li>As of November 19, 2021, the Pfizer vaccine has been approved for use in children five to 11 years of age.</li><li>Currently studies are underway looking at the safety of the vaccines and how well they work in children under five years of age.</li><li>Parents who are vaccinated against COVID-19 may help protect their children and others against the disease.</li></ul><h2>How do mRNA vaccines work?</h2><p>The vaccines work by teaching your immune cells to recognize a small piece of the SARS-CoV-2 virus called a spike protein. The SARS-CoV-2 virus is the virus that causes COVID-19.</p><p>Pfizer uses messenger RNA (mRNA)in their vaccines. The mRNA is a small piece of genetic code from the SARS-CoV-2 virus that tells the body to make the spike protein of the coronavirus. The production of the spike protein is recognized by immunity helpers, which will assemble an army of B cells. The B cells produce the antibodies that create immunity against the virus. After the vaccine causes this immune response, the body rapidly gets rid of the spike protein and the mRNA, the antibodies and immune memory remain.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"><img alt="The mRNA vaccines contain a small piece of genetic code from the SARS-CoV-2 virus that will tell the body make the spike protein of the coronavirus. The production of the spike protein causes the immune system to produce antibodies that create immunity against the virus." src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Covid_vaccine_mRNA.jpg" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Vaccines teach your immune system to recognize the coronavirus by presenting the spike protein to immunity helpers. The mRNA vaccines contain a small piece of genetic code from the SARS-CoV-2 virus that will tell the body to make the spike protein of the coronavirus. The immunity helpers will then assemble an army of B cells, which will produce antibodies against this spike protein. B cells also remember how to create these antibodies and they will mature to become memory B cells. They are now prepared to repeat the immune response in the future.<br>After vaccination, if your body encounters the coronavirus, the memory B cells recognize the spike protein on the virus and they will increase the antibody production. The antibodies will bind to the spike protein on the virus, blocking the virus from spreading.</figcaption></figure> <h2>Are mRNA COVID-19 vaccines safe and are there any side effects?</h2><p>Two mRNA vaccines have been approved by Health Canada: The Pfizer vaccine and the Moderna vaccine. They have met the requirements for approval by Health Canada as they have been studied in clinical trials on a large number of people and were shown to be safe. In the studies, the number of people who got the vaccine and had unexpected severe side effects was similar to the number of people who received a placebo (substance or treatment that contains no active ingredients).</p><p>People who receive a COVID-19 vaccine may experience side effects, such as fatigue, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, chills and fever. These are side effects that are commonly seen after any vaccination. Allergic reactions have only rarely occurred after COVID-19 vaccination.</p><h2>What about the risk of myocarditis and pericarditis?</h2><p>A small number of cases of myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle) and/or pericarditis (inflammation of the sac that envelopes the heart) following immunization with COVID-19 vaccines have been reported in Canada and internationally. These cases are very rare and are most frequently reported after the second dose of an mRNA vaccine. Most cases were mild and resolved with symptomatic treatment within a few days. As part of safety surveillance systems, Public Health Ontario is closely monitoring cases of myocarditis/pericarditis following COVID-19 vaccination.</p><p>Additional information about <a href="https://uwaterloo.ca/pharmacy/sites/ca.pharmacy/files/uploads/files/myocarditis_and_pericarditis_after_covid-19_vaccines.pdf">myocarditis and pericarditis after COVID-19 vaccination</a> is available in this article from the University of Waterloo.</p> <h2>Is there any chance that the COVID-19 vaccine can give me the virus?</h2><p>No. There is no way you can get COVID-19 from any of the vaccines. None of the vaccines contain the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19.</p><h2>After vaccination, how long does it take to be protected from COVID-19?</h2><p>After you get the vaccine, immunity usually starts to develop after 14 days. For vaccines that need two-doses, a maximum immune response occurs seven to 14 days after the second dose of the vaccine. Studies are still ongoing and data is being collected on how long the protection will last.</p><h2>Should I be concerned about how quickly these vaccines were approved?</h2><p>Work on coronavirus vaccines has been ongoing for more than 10 years, due in part to the SARS-CoV-1 outbreak in 2003. It was important to develop the COVID-19 vaccine quickly because of how many people were dying and getting sick, and because of the disruptions to everyday life as a result of the pandemic. Even though the vaccines were developed quickly, all the usual steps for the approval of vaccines occurred, including clinical trials with the appropriate number of participants. Because of the significant amount of resources that were made available to develop a COVID-19 vaccine and the large number of COVID-19 cases the clinical trials were able to happen quickly. This made it easier to tell quickly whether or not the vaccines worked to prevent cases of COVID-19. The vaccine was rapidly shown to be effective in protecting against COVID-19.</p><h2>What is the difference between natural immunity and immunity from the COVID-19 vaccine?</h2><p>Natural immunity refers to the immune responses that are developed following exposure to an infection. When contracting an infection, most individuals will develop antibodies that are key to recognizing and fighting the same infection, if encountered again. Natural immunity can decrease with time, and the antibodies may not last in your immune system for a very long time. Developing natural immunity also implies that you need to contract the infection, meaning that you could experience very serious health complications as a result.</p><p>Immunity against COVID-19 can also be achieved by getting vaccinated. The difference, in this case, is that the vaccine instructs your immune system on how to develop the antibodies that protect against COVID-19 without having to contract the infection and get sick. Because additional vaccine doses are given to help build the immune responses, the antibodies continue to circulate in the body for a longer period than when contracting the infection a single time.</p><h2>Can I get other immunizations, such as the influenza (flu) vaccine, at the same time as the COVID-19 vaccine?</h2><p>According to the National Advisory Committee on Immunizations, in people aged 12 years old and older, COVID-19 vaccines may be given at the same time as, or anytime before or after, other vaccines, including the influenza (flu) vaccine. For children five to 11, the recommendation is to wait 14 days before receiving other vaccines, such as the flu vaccine. This is a precaution to monitor any side effects from the COVID-19 vaccine or another vaccine. If a vaccine is needed urgently, please follow the advice of your child’s health-care provider.</p><h2>If I am fully vaccinated against COVID-19, will this protect my child?</h2><p>There is more and more evidence that suggests fully vaccinated people are less likely to develop asymptomatic COVID-19 and potentially less likely to transmit the infection to others. This may be true for vaccinated parents and the risk of transmission to their child. However, more studies are needed to confirm this. Individual vaccination for everyone who is eligible offers the best possible protection against COVID-19 infection.</p><h2>If my child develops COVID-19 and I am fully vaccinated, will I have protection against the disease?</h2><p>It has been shown that people who are fully vaccinated are at lower risk of getting COVID-19 and are at lower risk of getting severe disease, including admission to the hospital and intensive care unit. If you are fully vaccinated and your child is later diagnosed with COVID-19, you are at a lower risk of developing the disease.</p><h2>If myself or my child already had COVID-19, should we still get the vaccine?</h2><p>Yes. It is recommended that anyone who has had COVID-19 should still get the vaccine, but only after they have recovered from their illness and they have been cleared by their local public health unit. The clinical trials included people who previously had COVID-19, and the vaccine was found to be safe for them. Because it is not known how long antibodies against COVID-19 last after infection and it is possible to get the infection again (sometimes more severely), the vaccine is recommended as it can be helpful in boosting a person's existing immunity to COVID-19.</p><h2>Will getting the COVID-19 vaccine help my child go back to school and other regular activities?</h2><p>All children and youth benefit from routine educational, physical and other extracurricular activities. It is expected that when enough people are vaccinated against COVID-19, the risk of infection for your child, and the general population, will go down. Until the population is protected, it is important to continue to follow the advice of public health authorities to reduce the risk of getting and transmitting COVID-19.</p><h2>Eligibility requirements</h2><p>To find information about current eligibility requirements for each province and territory, click on the links below.</p><p> <strong>Alberta</strong><br><a href="https://www.alberta.ca/covid19-vaccine.aspx">COVID-19 vaccine program</a></p><p> <strong>British Columbia</strong><br><a href="https://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/covid-19/vaccine/register">How to get vaccinated for COVID-19</a></p><p> <strong>Manitoba</strong><br><a href="https://www.gov.mb.ca/covid19/vaccine/young-people.html">COVID-19 Immunization for Young People</a></p><p> <strong>New Brunswick</strong><br><a href="https://www2.gnb.ca/content/gnb/en/corporate/promo/covid-19/nb-vaccine.html">COVID-19 vaccines</a></p><p> <strong>Newfoundland and Labrador</strong><br><a href="https://www.gov.nl.ca/covid-19/vaccine/gettheshot/">Get the Shot</a></p><p> <strong>Northwest Territories</strong><br><a href="https://www.nthssa.ca/en/services/coronavirus-disease-covid-19-updates/covid-vaccine">COVID Vaccine</a></p><p> <strong>Nova Scotia</strong><br><a href="https://novascotia.ca/coronavirus/vaccine/">Coronavirus (COVID-19): vaccine</a></p><p> <strong>Nunavut</strong><br><a href="https://www.gov.nu.ca/health/information/covid-19-vaccination">COVID-19 Vaccination</a></p><p> <strong>Ontario</strong><br><a href="https://covid-19.ontario.ca/ontarios-covid-19-vaccination-plan">Ontario’s COVID-19 vaccination plan</a></p><p> <strong>Prince Edward Island</strong><br><a href="https://www.princeedwardisland.ca/en/information/health-and-wellness/getting-the-covid-19-vaccine">Getting the COVID-19 Vaccine</a></p><p> <strong>Quebec</strong><br><a href="https://www.quebec.ca/en/health/health-issues/a-z/2019-coronavirus/progress-of-the-covid-19-vaccination/">COVID-19 vaccination campaign</a></p><p> <strong>Saskatchewan</strong><br><a href="https://www.saskatchewan.ca/government/health-care-administration-and-provider-resources/treatment-procedures-and-guidelines/emerging-public-health-issues/2019-novel-coronavirus/covid-19-vaccine/vaccine-booking">Appointments for COVID-19 Vaccine</a></p><p> <strong>Yukon</strong><br><a href="https://yukon.ca/en/vaccine-questions">Vaccine questions</a></p><p>For general information on COVID-19, please visit the <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/covid-19">COVID-19 learning hub</a>.</p><h2>Information on how to prepare and support your child with their COVID-19 vaccine</h2><p>CARD System Learning Hub<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/card">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/card</a></p><p>Needle pokes: Reducing pain in children aged 18 months or over<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=990&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=990&language=English</a></p><p>Needle pokes: Reducing pain with comfort positions and distraction<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3629&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3629&language=English</a></p><p>Needle pokes: Reducing pain with numbing cream<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3627&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3627&language=English</a></p><p>Pain relief: Comfort kit<br><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1258&language=English">https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1258&language=English</a></p><h2>References</h2><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, February 26). COVID-19 Vaccination. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/index.html">https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/index.html</a></p><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, March 8). Science Brief: Background Rationale and Evidence for Public Health Recommendations for Fully Vaccinated People. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/more/fully-vaccinated-people.html">https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/more/fully-vaccinated-people.html</a></p><p>Government of Ontario – Ministry of Health. (2020, March 31). COVID-19 vaccines for Ontario. Retrieved from <a href="https://covid-19.ontario.ca/covid-19-vaccines-ontario">https://covid-19.ontario.ca/covid-19-vaccines-ontario</a></p><p>Health Canada. (2021, October 18). Health Canada receives submission from Pfizer-BioNTech to authorize the use of Comirnaty COVID-19 vaccine in children 5 to 11 years of age. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/news/2021/10/health-canada-receives-submission-from-pfizer-biontech-to-authorize-the-use-of-comirnaty-covid-19-vaccine-in-children-5-to-11-years-of-age.html">https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/news/2021/10/health-canada-receives-submission-from-pfizer-biontech-to-authorize-the-use-of-comirnaty-covid-19-vaccine-in-children-5-to-11-years-of-age.html</a></p><p>ImmunizeBC. (2021, March 12). COVID-19 Vaccine Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved from <a href="https://immunizebc.ca/covid-19-vaccine-frequently-asked-questions">https://immunizebc.ca/covid-19-vaccine-frequently-asked-questions</a></p><p>ImmunizeCanada. (2021, February 18). COVID-19 Info. Retrieved from <a href="https://immunize.ca/covid-19-info">https://immunize.ca/covid-19-info</a></p><p>National Advisory Committee on Immunization. (2021, May 5). Recommendations on the use of COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf">https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf</a></p><p>Pfizer. (2021, September 20). Pfizer and BioNTech Announce Positive Topline Results from Pivotal Trial of COVID-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to 11 Years. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-announce-positive-topline-results">https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-announce-positive-topline-results</a></p><p>Pfizer. (2021, September 28). Pfizer and BioNTech Submit Initial Data to U.S. FDA From Pivotal Trial of COVID-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to <12 Years of Age. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-submit-initial-data-us-fda-pivota">https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-submit-initial-data-us-fda-pivota</a>l</p><p>Public Health Agency of Canada. (2021, September 28). Advisory Committee Statement (ACS) National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI): Recommendations on the use of COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf">https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf</a></p><p>Walter, E.B., Talaat, K.R., Sabharwal, C., Gurtman, A., Lockhart, S., Paulsen, G.C.,…Gruber, W.C., for the C4591007 Clinical Trial Group. (2021). Evaluation of the BNT162b2 Covid-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to 11 Years of Age. <em>New England Journal of Medicine</em>. <a href="https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2116298">https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2116298</a></p><p>World Health Organization. (2021, February 19). COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/covid-19-vaccines">https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/covid-19-vaccines</a></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/COVID-19_Vaccine.jpgCOVID-19 vaccines general information Learn which COVID-19 vaccines are available in Canada, and find information on vaccine development, and safety and effectiveness in children.Main
COVID-19COVID-19COVID-19CEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NAImmune systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2020-03-26T04:00:00Z000Landing PageLearning Hub<p>Learn about COVID-19 and how to talk to and support your family. Also find resources such as videos and audio meditations to help you cope.</p><a href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/COVID-19%20vaccine%20information%20for%20children%20%28ages%20five%20to%2011%29.pdf"><figure class="asset-small"><img alt="Download COVID-19 vaccine information for children (ages five to 11)" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/COVID_Vaccine_info_5_11_download%20thumbnail.jpg" /> </figure> </a> <p>This learning hub includes resources on COVID-19 and how to help you and your child cope. Find general information on COVID-19 and articles and resources about vaccines and testing. Download the article to find more information about COVID-19 vaccines for children (ages five to 11).<br></p> <div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/VJ4tKxYISRk"></iframe>  </div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">COVID-19 information</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find information about COVID-19 from AboutKidsHealth.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3872&language=English">Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) </a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3907&language=English">Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/diseases/coronavirus-disease-covid-19.html">Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) (Public Health Agency of Canada)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3863&language=English">COVID-19: Information for parents of immunocompromised children and children with chronic medical conditions</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3870&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19: Information for parents of children with congenital heart disease</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3875&language=English">COVID-19 and chronic pain in children and teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://covid19healthliteracyproject.com/#languages">COVID-19 fact sheets in 34 different languages (Harvard Health Publishing)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.publichealthontario.ca/en/diseases-and-conditions/infectious-diseases/respiratory-diseases/novel-coronavirus/public-resources">COVID-19 public resources (Public Health Ontario)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.pcmch.on.ca/covid-19-resources-for-children-youth-and-families/">COVID-19 resources for children, youth, and families (Provincial Council for Maternal and Child Health)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/the-2019-novel-coronavirus-covid-19">The 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) (Caring for Kids)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.ontario.ca/page/2019-novel-coronavirus">The 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) (Ontario Ministry of Health)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary" id="vaccines"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">COVID-19 vaccines</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find information about the COVID-19 vaccines that are available in Canada and about their safety and effectiveness.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3937&language=English">COVID-19 vaccines general information</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4001&language=English">COVID-19 vaccine information for children (ages five to 11)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4000&language=English">COVID-19 vaccine information for youth (ages 12+)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VJ4tKxYISRk">Youth COVID-19 vaccination: What to expect (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/CARD_Vaccination_Handout.pdf">CARD handout: Coping with pain and fear around vaccination for teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/CARD_Vaccination_Poster.pdf">CARD poster: Coping with pain and fear around vaccination for teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/drugs-health-products/covid19-industry/drugs-vaccines-treatments/vaccines.html">Vaccines for COVID-19: Authorized vaccines</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://covid-19.ontario.ca/covid-19-vaccines-ontario">COVID-19 vaccines for Ontario</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">COVID-19 testing</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find information that will help you and your child prepare or either a saliva test or a nasopharyngeal swab.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/COVID-19%20Testing%20How%20to%20prepare%20and%20comfort%20your%20child.pdf">COVID-19 Testing: How to prepare and comfort your child</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/Ru-vFZdImes">Saliva testing (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/nO1L-oYo9TA">Nasopharyngeal (NP) swab (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3908&language=English">After your child’s COVID-19 test</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/8d9SPC7T6KM">After your child's COVID-19 test - Virtual discharge (video)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Talking to your child about COVID-19<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Helpful resources that provide information about how to explain and talk to your child about COVID-19. </p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3866&language=English">How to talk to your child about COVID-19</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="http://hollandbloorview.ca/services/family-workshops-resources/family-resource-centre/explaining-covid-19-kids">Explaining COVID-19 and Coronavirus to children (Holland Bloorview)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.cps.ca/en/blog-blogue/how-can-we-talk-to-kids-about-covid-19">How can we talk to kids about COVID-19? Be “realistically reassuring” (Canadian Pediatric Society)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.pbs.org/parents/thrive/how-to-talk-to-your-kids-about-coronavirus#.XmuZ3QV_gax.twitter">How to Talk to Your Kids About Coronavirus (PBS)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3869&language=English">Supporting your child with a neurodevelopmental disorder through the COVID-19 crisis</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://cmho.org/talking-to-your-anxious-child-about-covid-19/">Talking to your anxious child about COVID-19 (Children's Mental Health Ontario)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Coping</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Information on how to help your child cope with stress during the COVID-19 crisis and how to help them deal with separation from family and friend. </p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3868&language=English">Coping with separation from and socialization with family and friends during COVID-19</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3882&language=English">COVID-19: Frequently asked questions</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3883&language=English">COVID-19: Well-being and mental health resources</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3888&language=English">Stressed adults and anxious young children: Supporting infants, toddlers and preschoolers through COVID-19</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3867&language=English">Is my child or adolescent feeling stressed about COVID-19?</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20Individual%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020_v2.pdf">CARD: Coping with your own fears and anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20caregiver%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020.pdf">CARD: Helping your child cope with anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/disaster">Helping children and teens cope with stressful public events (Caring for Kids)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.cps.ca/en/blog-blogue/how-to-help-youth-tackle-the-blues-during-covid-19">How to help youth tackle the blues during COVID-19 and #physicaldistancing (Canadian Pediatric Society)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://afirm.fpg.unc.edu/supporting-individuals-autism-through-uncertain-times">Supporting individuals with autism through uncertain times (Autism Focused Intervention Resources & Modules)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Mental health</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Taking care of your mental health during difficult and stressful times is important. Learn more about anxiety and depression.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=18&language=English">Anxiety: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3810&language=English">Anxiety and anxiety disorders</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20Individual%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020_v2.pdf">CARD: Coping with your own fears and anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20caregiver%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020.pdf">CARD: Helping your child cope with anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=19&language=English">Depression: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.camh.ca/en/health-info/mental-health-and-covid-19">Mental health and the COVID-19 pandemic (CAMH)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Parenting</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find some helpful information on parenting during the COVID-19 crisis. </p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/jwwwF9KQ7CQ">Parenting during COVID-19 and beyond (podcast)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3935&language=English">Keeping your child active during the COVID-19 pandemic</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/health_information_on_the_internet">A parent’s guide to health information on the Internet (Caring for Kids)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.cps.ca/en/blog-blogue/covid-youth-and-substance-use-critical-messages-for-youth-and-families">COVID, youth, and substance use: Critical messages for youth and families (Canadian Pediatric Society)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.cps.ca/en/blog-blogue/parenting-during-covid-19-a-new-frontier">Parenting during COVID-19: A new frontier (Canadian Pediatric Society)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/news/archive/2021/updated-covid19-school-operation-guidance-document-released/">SickKids - Updated guidance for school operation during the pandemic</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://hollandbloorview.ca/sites/default/files/2020-07/HB-BackToSchool-Recommendations.pdf">Return to school recommendations for children with special needs (Holland Bloorview)</a></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Learning</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=651&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Reading milestones</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1903&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Reading: How to help early and struggling readers</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3871&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Writing milestones</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1881&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Visual-motor skills: How to foster in children</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=722&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Mathematics milestones</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=721&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Mathematics: How to help your pre-school and school-aged child</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=649&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Spatial reasoning skills: How to foster in children</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Well-being</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find out how physical activity, a healthy sleep routine, screen time limits and balanced nutrition can boost your child's mental health and support them to achieve better academic success and help them through difficult times. </p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Handwashing</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1981&language=English">Hand hygiene</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/handwashing">Handwashing for parents and children (Caring for Kids)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=9&v=7PKwE1jIuws&feature=emb_title">Protect don’t infect (CHEO)</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Sleep</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=645&language=English">Sleep: Benefits and recommended amounts</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3632&language=English">Sleep and your mental health: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3633&language=English">Sleep and mental health: Sorting out your sleep routine</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=646&language=English">How to help your child get a good night's sleep</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=647&language=English">How to help your teen get a good night's sleep</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Physical activity</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3783&language=English">Physical activity and mental health: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3784&language=English">Physical activity and mental health: Types of physical activity</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=641&language=English">Physical activity: Benefits of exercise for health and wellbeing</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=642&language=English">Physical activity: Guidelines for children and teens</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Nutrition</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3773&language=English">Nutrition and mental health: The basics of a healthy diet</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=639&language=English">How a balanced diet and healthy eating habits can help your child's mental health</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3774&language=English">Nutrition and mental health: Developing positive eating habits</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1464&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Meal ideas for school-aged children, tweens and teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=638&language=English">Healthy eating for teens</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Screen time and social media</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=643&language=English">Screen time: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3775&language=English">Screen time for teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=644&language=English">How to help your child set healthy screen time limits</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3776&language=English">Setting limits and staying safe with screen time</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3894&language=English">Supporting healthy and responsible screen use during COVID-19</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Stress and resilience</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3777&language=English">Stress and health</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3778&language=English">How to become more resilient</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Tools, videos and resources for you and your child</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find helpful resources including handouts, videos and other resources about COVID-19.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20Individual%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020_v2.pdf">CARD: Coping with your own fears and anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20caregiver%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020.pdf">CARD: Helping your child cope with anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fBkA2ZTUnyI&feature=youtu.be">Dr. Cheddar chats with Dr. Ronni from SickKids (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/nO1L-oYo9TA">Nasopharyngeal (NP) swab (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r51gYrDzpHQ">Physical distancing (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=9&v=7PKwE1jIuws&feature=emb_title">Protect don’t infect (CHEO)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.brainson.org/shows/2020/03/10/understanding-coronavirus-and-how-germs-spread-for-kids?fbclid=IwAR21Y_n6fsy33QD2s07In2Q892xQoI5OEFMMZ5vcMyVoLdkH8tv4yZjaZsc">Understanding coronavirus and how germs spread (Brains On!)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/get-info/were-here-for-you-during-covid-19-novel-coronavirus/">We’re here for you during COVID-19 (novel coronavirus) (Kids Help Phone)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sNinywG7BtY">What is personal protective equipment (PPE) (video)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/gqeyRuvF9WU">Your virtual video visit overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3889&language=English">Virtual care at SickKids</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3910&language=English">Virtual care: How to accurately measure your child’s height and weight at home</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Videos to support sleep and mindfulness</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find videos that will help you prepare for sleep and for when you need a moment of peace, to understand your situation more clearly and coping with stressful thoughts and experiences.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Sleep video</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/2fbaoqkY0Qk">Sleep: A bed time story</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Mindfulness videos</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/nQdM_Cku9pA">A moment of peace</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/cFCiUlFKuO4">Two wings to fly</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/jaNAwy3XsfI">Being with all of your experiences</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/0QXmmP4psbA">You are not your thoughts</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/Ty93GRPplJo">Dealing with difficult moments</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/QTsUEOUaWpY">Everyday mindfulness</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/GgBVIZAEQqU">STOP for mindfulness</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KYcLfBf-T9c">Stress and thinking: The mind/body connection</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/EWzDHN7Jdg8">Dealing with flares: Controlling the controllables</a></li></ol></li></ol></div> <br> <div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/videoseries?list=PLjJtOP3StIuUqAzahUMBvvRg2bbViWhH7"></iframe> </div><p>See "Tools, videos and resources for you and your child" in the menu above for more videos or visit the <a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/Aboutkidshealth">AboutKidHealth YouTube channel</a>.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-1157093074.jpgCOVID-19,COVID19COVID-19COVID-19 learning hub Learn about COVID-19 and how to talk to and support your family. Also find resources such as videos and audio meditations to help you cope.Main
DiabetesDiabetesDiabetesDEnglishEndocrinologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)PancreasPancreasConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2018-01-19T05:00:00Z000Landing PageLearning Hub<p>This resource contains information, illustrations and animations to help you understand diabetes, from symptom recognition, to diagnosis, treatment and long-term outcomes. Learn about managing and living with diabetes on a daily basis.</p><p>This resource contains information about diabetes, from symptom recognition, to diagnosis, treatment and long-term outcomes. Learn about managing and living with diabetes on a daily basis. Throughout the resource you will find many illustrations and animations to help you understand the condition, its management and long-term consequences.</p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">What is diabetes?</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Diabetes is a chronic condition that occurs when the body is not able to use sugar as energy. Find out more about the different types of diabetes and their causes such as genetic factors, environmental events, diseases or medications.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1717&language=English">What is diabetes?</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1718&language=English">Types of diabetes</a></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Type 1 diabetes</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1719&language=English">Type 1 diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1720&language=English">Management of type 1 diabetes</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Type 2 diabetes</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1721&language=English">Type 2 diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1722&language=English">Management of type 2 diabetes</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Balancing blood sugar levels</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Diabetes management requires balancing the amount of sugar that enters the body through food with physical activity and potential diabetes medication. Learn about monitoring and controlling of blood sugar levels in this section.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1723&language=English">Balancing blood sugar levels</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1724&language=English">Measuring blood sugar levels</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1725&language=English">Monitoring blood sugar levels</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1726&language=English">Handling high and low blood sugar levels</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1727&language=English">Diabetic ketoacidosis</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Insulin in diabetes management</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Some children with diabetes need insulin to help manage their condition. Insulin is a chemical messenger (hormone) that helps the body use sugar as energy. Learn more about the different types of insulins and injection devices to deliver it.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Overview</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1728&language=English">Insulin in diabetes management</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Understanding insulin</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1729&language=English">Understanding insulin</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1730&language=English">Buying and storing insulin</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Insulin injections</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1731&language=English">Insulin injections</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1732&language=English">Pens and cartridges</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1733&language=English">Insulin pumps</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1734&language=English">Other devices for insulin injections</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1735&language=English">Selecting the injection site</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Insulin regimen</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1736&language=English">The insulin regimen</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1737&language=English">Changing insulin requirements</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1738&language=English">Insulin dose adjustment on a multiple daily routine</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3021&language=English">Insulin dose adjustment on a TID or BID insulin routine</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3022&language=English">Insulin dose adjustment when using an insulin pump</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Questions</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1739&language=English">Tips and questions about insulin</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Maintaining a healthy diet</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Keeping a healthy diet benefits everyone, not only children with diabetes. This section will help you understand what foods hide sugar, plan meals and snacks, and integrate this new diet in your family’s daily life.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Overview</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1740&language=English">Maintaining a healthy diet</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1741&language=English">Meal planning for children with diabetes</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>The meal plan</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1742&language=English">Setting up the meal plan</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1743&language=English">Meal planning with consistent carbohydrate intakes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1744&language=English">Meal planning with changing carbohydrate intakes</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Management</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1745&language=English">Avoiding high and low blood sugar episodes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1746&language=English">The glycemic index</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1747&language=English">Eating out and special occasions</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1748&language=English">Food issues at different ages</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Adjusting to illness and activity</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Changes in your child’s routine can disturb their blood sugar levels and contribute to health issues. Illness, which increases stress, and exercise, which speeds up insulin activity, can contribute to rocketing or dropping blood sugar levels.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Overview</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1749&language=English">Adjusting to illness and activity</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Sick day</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1750&language=English">Diabetes and sick day management</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1751&language=English">Insulin injection management during illness</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1752&language=English">Sick days and insulin pumps</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Exercise</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1753&language=English">Diabetes and exercise</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Hemoglobin A1c</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>The hemoglobin A1c test (also called A1c test) measures the average blood sugar level over a three-month period. It can tell you how well your child’s blood sugar levels are overall controlled.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Overview</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1754&language=English">Hemoglobin A1c</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1755&language=English">What is a good A1c reading?</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Living with diabetes</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Diabetes can affect your child's life at home, at school and on vacation. With effective management and support your child should be able to participate in many of the same activities as other children or teenagers their age.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Overview</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2509&language=English">Living with diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2510&language=English">Effective management of diabetes care at home</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2511&language=English">The diabetes team</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Growth and development</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2512&language=English">Growth and development</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2513&language=English">Infants, toddlers and preschoolers with diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2514&language=English">School-aged children with diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2515&language=English">Teenagers with diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2516&language=English">Thrill-seeking and risky behaviour in teenagers</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Management</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2517&language=English">Diabetes in the classroom</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2518&language=English">Diabetes and vacations</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Looking ahead</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2519&language=English">Transitioning to adult health care</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Complications of diabetes</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Diabetes can lead to health complications such as eye disease, kidney problems or thyroid problems. Controlling blood sugar levels and eating well can help prevent complications.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Overview</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2520&language=English">Complications of diabetes</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Complications</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2521&language=English">Screening for complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2522&language=English">Eye damage and diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2523&language=English">Kidney disease and diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2524&language=English">Other late effects of diabetes</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Related conditions</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2525&language=English">Screening for related conditions to diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2526&language=English">Thyroid diseases and diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2527&language=English">Celiac disease and diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2528&language=English">Addison's disease and diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2529&language=English">Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diabetes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2530&language=English">Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and diabetes</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Looking ahead</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2531&language=English">Setting the stage for a healthy future</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Resources</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find some additional resources to help you manage your child’s diabetes. Find additional information about the importance of nutrition, physical activity, mental health, sleep and more.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://meant2prevent.ca/">Meant2Prevent</a></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/diabetes_learning_hub.jpgdiabetesdiabetesDiabetes Awareness Month November is Diabetes Awareness Month. Learn about how to help your child manage and live with diabetes day-to-day.Main
The right to safe spacesThe right to safe spacesThe right to safe spacesTEnglishAdolescentTeen (13-18 years)NANASupport, services and resourcesAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2021-08-16T04:00:00Z11.200000000000048.30000000000001328.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Everyone has the right to receive care and services in a safe and welcoming environment. Learn more about your child’s rights to safe spaces at school, work and in health-care environments.</p><p>Everyone has the right to certain levels of respect, service and care in the community, whether they are a student, an employee, a patient, or a client of any other institution or business. Here is information about what you and your child should expect of school, work and health-care environments if those institutions are fostering safe spaces.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A safe space is a place or environment where anyone can express themselves and feel confident that they will not be exposed to discrimination.</li><li>An institution should never share a person’s personal information with others without their consent.</li><li>If your child has legally changed their name and/or gender, their official records at an institution should reflect those changes.</li><li>Everyone has the right to be addressed by a name that feels comfortable to them and a pronoun that corresponds with their gender identity.</li><li>An institution that fosters a safe space will have staff that are trained to recognize and take disciplinary action against people who discriminate, harass or bully others.</li><li>Everyone has a right to safe restroom facilities and to use a washroom that best corresponds to their gender identity.</li><li>If your child attends school and/or works for an employer that enforces a dress code, the dress code should be flexible and gender neutral.</li><li>If the school your child attends offers gender-segregated activities like physical education classes or sports programs, they have the right to participate in the activities that correspond with their gender identity.</li><li>A safe place will ensure that it is promoting a welcoming and comforting environment.</li></ul><h2>What is a safe space?</h2><p>A safe space is a place or environment where anyone can express themselves and feel confident that they will not be exposed to discrimination, harassment, or any other emotional or physical harm based on their biological sex, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, cultural background, age, or physical or mental ability. A safe space can be a dedicated physical space, or it can be the overarching principals that guide an organization. </p><h2>How should your child expect to be treated in a safe space?</h2><p>Many institutions and businesses work hard to create inclusive safe spaces for their students, employees, patients and clients. It may seem like common sense to treat people kindly and with respect, but it can be helpful to have those acts of respect and dignity put into written policies.</p><p>Your child will know that they are in a safe space if they are provided the following:</p><h3>Privacy</h3><p>Your child and your family have a right to privacy when it comes to <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3979&language=English">personal information</a>. Your child may want to share certain personal information with their school, employer or health-care provider so that they may better serve their needs, but your child is not required to tell them everything. This means that your child can keep things like their medical history, sexual orientation and gender status private unless there is a specific “need to know” reason to disclose them (e.g., to fulfill a specific accommodation request, to provide appropriate medical care). An institution should never share this information with others without your child’s consent. In some cases, sharing certain information (e.g., medical information) is illegal without your or your child’s consent.</p><h3>Up-to-date record keeping</h3><p>If your child has legally changed their name and/or gender, their official records at an institution should reflect those changes. You or they may need to provide official documentation to their school, place of work and/or health-care provider so that the appropriate changes may be made in their files. This will help to prevent any mistakes in your child’s care, how your child is served and how they are addressed.</p><h3>Use of preferred name and pronouns</h3><p>No matter how your child identifies, it is important that the words they use to describe themself are respected. How your child is addressed can make a big difference in making your child feel welcome. Your child has the right to be addressed by a name that feels comfortable to them and a pronoun that corresponds with their gender identity. An organization that uses <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3968&language=English">gender-inclusive language</a> in general also makes everyone feel heard and avoids mistakes made when making assumptions.</p><h3>Protection from harassment and discrimination</h3><p>You or your child may be worried about telling your child’s teachers, employer or health-care provider about your child’s sexual orientation, gender or medical history. You may worry that your child will face discrimination, which means experiencing unjust or unfair treatment based on their personal characteristics. Discrimination violates your child’s rights as a person and is illegal.</p><p>An institution that fosters a safe space will have staff that are trained to recognize and take disciplinary action against people who discriminate, harass or bully others.</p><p>If you feel your child is facing discrimination, harassment or bullying, consider the following:</p><ul><li>Write down what happened, when and where it happened, and who was involved.</li><li>Talk to a friend or family member so that people who support you are aware of the situation.</li><li>Talk about the situation with someone in a position of authority like a teacher, principal, employer, doctor, or a human resources department (if there is one) and ask about accommodations.</li><li>Ask a legal expert to see whether the law would consider your child’s experience to be discrimination. If it is, you can explore the possibility of taking legal action.</li><li>Look for support from a community support group. You may be able to learn from the experience of others in a similar situation.</li></ul><h3>Washroom access</h3><p>Your child has a right to safe restroom facilities and to use a washroom that best corresponds to their gender identity. Many institutions provide accessible all-gender single-stall washrooms for anyone who requires increased privacy, regardless of the reason. Your child may use one of these facilities if they are not comfortable choosing between gendered washroom facilities.</p><h3>Flexible dress codes</h3><p>Many schools and workplaces have a dress code. If your child attends school and/or works for an employer that enforces a dress code, the dress code should be flexible and gender neutral. Your child should not have to choose between ‘male’ or ‘female’ clothing. A good dress code policy will apply to all clothing for all bodies.</p><h3>Access to gender-segregated activities</h3><p>If the school your child attends offers gender-segregated activities like physical education classes or sports programs, your child has the right to participate in the activities that correspond with their gender identity.</p><h3>Inclusive messaging</h3><p>A safe space will ensure that it is promoting a welcoming and comforting environment.</p><ul><li>At school this might include teaching inclusivity and diversity through the school curriculum, encouraging the start of clubs for LGBTQ2S+ students and providing a dedicated physical safe space on campus for these groups to meet.</li><li>At work this might include diversity trainings, being transparent about salaries at all levels of the organization, and taking effective steps to address and rectify incidents of harassment.</li><li>In a health-care setting this might include ensuring that the physical office space carries signs and pamphlets that are welcoming to all people (e.g., gender-neutral washroom signs), offering an interpreter to patients whose first language is not English, and providing forms that include more than two genders.</li></ul><h2>AboutKidsHealth Teens</h2><p><strong><a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/adolescenthealth">Adolescent Health Learning Hub</a></strong> - <a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3977&language=English">The right to safe spaces</a><br> Share this article with your child so they can learn more about their rights to safe spaces at school, work and in health-care environments.</p><h2>References</h2><p>TDSB Guidelines for the Accommodation of Transgender and Gender Non-Conforming Students and Staff. <em>Toronto District School Board</em>. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.tdsb.on.ca/Portals/0/docs/tdsb%20transgender%20accommodation%20FINAL_1_.pdf">https://www.tdsb.on.ca/Portals/0/docs/tdsb%20transgender%20accommodation%20FINAL_1_.pdf</a>.</p><p>Trans Youth at School: Y-GAP Community Bulletin. <em>Central Toronto Youth Services</em>. Retrieved from <a href="https://ctys.org/wp-content/uploads/YGAP_Health.pdf">https://ctys.org/wp-content/uploads/YGAP_Health.pdf</a>.</p><p>Trans Youth at Work: Y-GAP Community Bulletin. <em>Central Toronto Youth Services</em>. Retrieved from <a href="https://ctys.org/wp-content/uploads/YGAP_Work.pdf">https://ctys.org/wp-content/uploads/YGAP_Work.pdf</a>.</p><p>Trans Youth Accessing Health and Social Services: Y-GAP Community Bulletin. <em>Central Toronto Youth Services</em>. Retrieved from <a href="https://ctys.org/wp-content/uploads/YGAP_Health.pdf">https://ctys.org/wp-content/uploads/YGAP_Health.pdf</a>.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/The_right_to_safe_spaces.jpg Everyone has the right to receive care and services in a safe, welcoming environment. Learn more about your child’s rights to safe spaces. Main
Nasal congestion: How to clear your baby's dry, stuffy noseNasal congestion: How to clear your baby's dry, stuffy noseNasal congestion: How to clear your baby's dry, stuffy noseNEnglishNANewborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)NoseNoseConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Nasal congestion2019-02-04T05:00:00Z6.3000000000000074.70000000000001005.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Some newborns are born with a stuffy nose. Learn why and check out some simple tips for parents on how to clear your baby's stuffy nose.</p><p>In the first few days of life, a newborn may sound like they have a stuffy nose because in the womb they were surrounded by fluid. Sometimes they sneeze for the first couple of days as they try to get rid of this leftover fluid in their nasal passages. A newborn with a stuffy nose may snort when breathing and sound "snuffly."</p><p>Stuffy nose or nasal congestion in babies happens when the tissues inside the nose swell or produce mucus. If your baby has a stuffy nose they may breathe through their mouth, which can make it harder for them to feed. In rare cases, a stuffy nose can cause breathing problems. Usually, nasal congestion goes away on its own within a week.</p><p>Extremely dry air can cause the sensitive lining of a baby's nose to dry up. The blood vessels inside a dry nose may break and bleed. If your baby's nose has not been injured but it bleeds, it may be because of a dry nose. This dryness may also make it easier for a baby to get a cold.</p><p>Nasal dryness often worsens during cold winter months, when heating makes the air inside the home dry.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Newborns may sound like they have a stuffy nose because of leftover fluid in their nose from the womb.</li><li>Usually, newborn stuffy nose goes away on its own within a few days.</li><li>In babies, nasal congestion or stuffy nose happens when the tissues inside the nose swell.</li><li>Use salt water nasal drops or an infant nasal aspirator or suction bulb to help clear mucus from your baby's nose.</li><li>If your baby has trouble breathing, see your doctor right away. </li></ul><h2>What causes stuffy nose in babies?</h2><ul><li>dry air</li><li>irritants such as dust, cigarette smoke, or perfumes</li><li>viral illnesses (such as a cold)</li></ul> <p>Try the measures below to help your baby's dry or stuffy nose. If your baby keeps having difficulty breathing or feeding, check with your baby's doctor to rule out any infection or condition that may be causing the stuffy nose.</p><h2>How to soothe your baby's dry nose</h2><p>If a dry or irritated nose seems to be bothering your baby, try these tips:</p><h3>Moisten your baby's nose</h3><p>You can buy salt water (saline) drops at the drug store.</p><ol><li>Lay your child on their back. Place a rolled towel or a small blanket beneath their shoulders or gently press on the tip of the nose to make it easier for the drops to go in.</li><li>Put two or three saline drops into each nostril. Wait 30 to 60 seconds before draining your baby's nose.</li></ol><h3>Run a humidifier or cool-mist vaporizer near your baby's crib</h3><p>If your baby has a dry nose they may also have a stuffy nose. Water vapor can help moisten and loosen the mucus inside your baby's nose. Clean out and re-fill the vaporizer every day.</p><h2>How to clear your baby's stuffy nose</h2><p>In addition to running a humidifier or vaporizer near your baby's crib, you can also clear the mucus using saline nose drops.</p><h3>Clearing mucus using saline nose drops</h3><ol><li>Lay your child on their back. Place a rolled towel or a small blanket beneath their shoulders or gently press on the tip of the nose to make it easier for the drops to go in.</li><li>Put two or three saline nose drops into each nostril. Wait 30 to 60 seconds.</li><li>Turn your child onto their stomach to help their nose drain. Catch the mucus outside the nostril with a tissue or swab. Your baby might cough or sneeze the mucus and saline out.</li><li>Roll the swab or tissue around the outside of the nostril to draw the fluid out of the nose. Do not insert a cotton swab into your child's nostrils.</li></ol><h3>Clearing mucus using an infant nasal aspirator or nasal suction bulb</h3><p>If you have trouble removing the mucus, try using an infant nasal aspirator or nasal suction bulb. A nasal aspirator is a tube that is placed in your baby’s nostril, while you inhale through the mouthpiece of the tube to draw out any mucus. The mucus is then caught in a filter. A suction bulb is inserted into your baby’s nostril and acts as a vacuum to remove mucus. Suction bulbs are generally less effective in clearing mucous and secretions.</p><p>How to use a nasal aspirator:</p><ol><li>Before the first use, rinse the aspirator with hot water and dry thoroughly.</li><li>Place a clean filter in the filter chamber and reconnect the aspirator.</li><li>Lay the child on their back with their head tilted to the right. Carefully place one to two saline drops into the nostril. Follow the same procedure in the opposite nostril after turning the child’s head to the left.</li><li>Place the nasal aspirator soft tip at the entrance of the baby’s nostril. Inhale through the mouthpiece to gently draw out the mucus. Mucus will be collected in the hygienic filter and cannot pass through the inhalation tube. Repeat in the other nostril. Gently lift the baby to allow any remaining mucus to drain out or their nose.</li><li>Soak a tissue or cotton ball in saline solution and use it to gently wipe the child’s nostrils.</li><li>After each use, unclip the aspirator at its base, remove and discard the used filter, rinse the nasal aspirator with hot water and dry. Do not sterilize or boil the nasal aspirator. </li></ol><p>How to use a nasal suction bulb: </p><ol><li>Pinch the air out of the bulb.</li><li>Gently place the tip into the nostril, just inside the opening. Do not go too deep or you can cause damage to the inner part of the nose. Let the air come back into the bulb, pulling the mucus out of the nose with it.</li><li>Release the mucus onto a tissue.</li><li>Rinse the bulb well with fresh water before and after each use.</li></ol><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/0gQqI2gz0Z4?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> </div><h2>When to see a doctor</h2><p>Call your doctor if your child develops any of the following symptoms.</p><ul><li><a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">Fever</a></li><li>Rash</li><li>A stuffy nose together with swelling of the forehead, eyes, side of the nose or cheek</li><li>A stuffy nose that lasts longer than two weeks</li><li>Difficulty breathing or breathing quickly</li><li>Significant trouble feeding or not interested in feeding</li><li>Your baby is extremely fussy or seems to be in pain</li></ul><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/nasal_congestion.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />congestedbabycongestedbabyhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/nasal_congestion.jpgNasal congestion in babiesMain
PainPainPainPEnglishPain/AnaesthesiaChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANervous systemSymptoms;Conditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Pain2019-02-01T05:00:00ZLanding Page (Overview)Learning Hub<p>Find information on acute and chronic pain, from how it is assessed through to how you, your child and the healthcare team can treat and manage it.<br></p><p>This learning hub has information on acute and chronic pain, including signs and symptoms, methods of assessment and the 3P approach to pain management. The information has been developed in close collaboration with the Pain Centre at The Hospital for Sick Children and the OUCH (Opportunities to Understand Childhood Hurt) Lab at York University. <br></p><p>The acute and chronic pain sections are organized by age, which is an important factor in how a child's pain is assessed and treated. However, when reading this information, please remember that every child's situation is unique. If you have questions about your own child's care, please speak to your child's doctor.</p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Overview of pain<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Pain is a part of everyday life. Typically, pain results when we are exposed to situations that are likely to lead to injury or tissue damage. Find out how the body senses different types of pain.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2980&language=English">About pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2981&language=English">Types of pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2982&language=English">Acute pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2983&language=English">Chronic pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2984&language=English">Nerve injury pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2985&language=English">Other types of pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2986&language=English">Myths about pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2987&language=English">Consequences of pain</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Assessing and measuring pain</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Learn how you and your child's healthcare team can assess your child's pain from birth through to the teen years and the factors that affect pain assessment.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2988&language=English">Pain assessment: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2989&language=English">Assessing pain in babies (newborns to one year)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2990&language=English">Assessing pain in toddlers and pre-schoolers</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2991&language=English">Assessing pain in younger school-age children</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2992&language=English">Assessing pain in older school-age children</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2993&language=English">Assessing pain in teenagers</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2994&language=English">Tools for measuring pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2995&language=English">Factors affecting pain assessment</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Pain treatment</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Once a pain assessment is complete, your child's healthcare team will recommend a pain management plan. Depending on your child's pain, this plan may include the use of medicines (pharmacology), physical therapies and psychological strategies that can all help relieve pain in children.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2996&language=English">Pain treatment: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2997&language=English">Overview of pain medicines</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2998&language=English">Acetaminophen, aspirin and NSAIDs</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2999&language=English">Opioids for pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3000&language=English">Opioids: Safety and side effects</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3001&language=English">Local anaesthetics</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3002&language=English">Adjuvant medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3003&language=English">Physical therapies for pain: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3004&language=English">Using heat and cold to treat pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3005&language=English">Using exercise and physiotherapy to treat pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3006&language=English">Using massage and nerve stimulation to treat pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3007&language=English">Psychological strategies for pain: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3008&language=English">Using relaxation to treat pain </a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3009&language=English">Using behavioural strategies to treat pain</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Managing pain at home</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>All children have occasional bumps and bruises or experience pain from teething, colic or common conditions such as ear and throat infections. Some children may also have ongoing painful conditions that need care at home. Find out how you and your child can treat pain at home and deal with the impact of pain on your child's activities.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3010&language=English">Common types of pain problems</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3011&language=English">Pain management plan</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3012&language=English">Pain management for common childhood pain and injuries</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3013&language=English">Impact of chronic pain</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Looking ahead</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Adolescence can be challenging for any teenager. Chronic pain is an additional challenge, as it may interfere with school and time with friends. Learn how to help your teen manage their chronic pain and support them in moving to the adult healthcare system.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3014&language=English">Teenagers and chronic pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3015&language=English">Moving from paediatric to adult care</a></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/pain_learning_hub.jpgpainpain Learn about acute and chronic pain, including signs and symptoms, methods of assessment and the 3P approach to pain management. Main
Reading disabilities: OverviewReading disabilities: OverviewReading disabilities: OverviewREnglishDevelopmentalPreschooler (2-4 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);School age child (5-8 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2020-03-03T05:00:00Z11.600000000000039.80000000000001396.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>A reading disability is when a child with age-appropriate intellectual abilities has significant challenges with reading. Learn about reading disabilities, their symptoms, and how they are diagnosed and treated.</p><h2>What is a reading disability?</h2><p>A reading disability is a specific type of <a href="/Article?contentid=653&language=English">learning disability</a>. Children with reading disabilities have average to above average intellectual abilities but experience a lot of trouble with reading. These difficulties affect how they perform in school, and their achievements fall well below what is expected for children of their age, grade, and intellectual ability.</p><p>Reading disabilities may include problems with:</p><ul><li>Phonological processing—the ability to break up words into sounds</li><li>Reading fluency or speed</li><li>Reading comprehension</li></ul><p>A child with a reading disability has a problem with reading words accurately and/or quickly, or with understanding what they are reading.</p><p>Another general term for reading disabilities is <a href="/Article?contentid=307&language=English">dyslexia</a>. Children with dyslexia may have difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition, as well as poor decoding and spelling abilities.</p><h2>Types of reading disabilities</h2><p>In general, there are three types of reading disabilities. A person may experience one, two or all three:</p><ul><li>Problems with phonological processing</li><li>Problems with reading fluency</li><li>Problems with reading comprehension</li></ul><h3>Problems with phonological processing</h3><p>Children with problems in phonological processing have difficulty processing the sounds of language. Phonological processing difficulties include problems with <a href="/Article?contentid=1896&language=English">phonological awareness</a> (rhyming, deleting sounds, blending sounds), phonological memory (remembering sounds in words), and rapid word retrieval (coming up with words or naming objects and symbols quickly). Problems with phonological processing can lead to problems with spelling and to a limited vocabulary, which can also affect a child’s reading comprehension.</p><h3>Problems with reading fluency</h3><p>Reading fluency happens when a reader can recognize many words by sight, and quickly decode unfamiliar words. Reading fluency is important because it gives the reader more time to think about the meaning of a passage or story. Some children can decode and recognize words accurately, but have problems with orthographic processing (remembering the rules of letter order and combinations). These children have difficulty recognizing words they already know and rely heavily on sounding out common words. As a result, it takes a longer time for them to read passages or stories, and they tend to read in a choppy and forced way. Because so much effort is put into reading the words, they also struggle with reading comprehension (the overall meaning of what they are reading).</p><h3>Problems with reading comprehension</h3><p>When a child has difficulty understanding what words mean after reading them, it is called a disability in reading comprehension.</p><p>Children who can read fluently but who still have problems with comprehension often have trouble with:</p><ul><li>Grasping the overall meaning of what they are reading</li><li>Monitoring their understanding</li></ul><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Reading disabilities are learning disabilities that can include problems with phonological processing, reading fluency or speed, and reading comprehension.</li><li>Children who are diagnosed with a reading disability often show early signs of speech and language difficulties.</li><li>Reading disabilities are often diagnosed with a psychoeducational assessment.</li><li>Reading disabilities can lead to problems with spelling and limit a child’s vocabulary.</li></ul><h2>Early signs of reading problems</h2><p>Children who are diagnosed with a reading disability often show early signs, such as:</p><ul><li>Indistinct, garbled speech after three years of age</li><li>Speaking in phrases or sentences later than normal</li><li>Difficulty learning words to songs or nursery rhymes in preschool</li><li>Difficulty learning the alphabet and the sounds of the letters</li></ul><p>However, not all children with these signs develop a reading disability.</p><h2>Signs of a reading disability</h2><p>Once your child reaches school age, signs that they might have a reading disability include:</p><ul><li>Trouble learning colour names</li><li>Trouble learning letter names</li><li>Trouble rhyming or isolating sounds in words</li><li>Trouble blending sounds together</li><li>Difficulty recognizing a word after having seen it many times in many different contexts</li><li>Frequent letter or number reversals by the end of Grade Two</li><li>Consistent omission or reversal of letters in words; for example, "gril" instead of "girl"</li><li>Choppy, slow reading</li><li>A limited sight word vocabulary</li></ul><p>For a list of typical reading milestones achieved by children at different grade levels, see <a href="/Article?contentid=651&language=English">Reading and writing milestones</a>.</p><h2>Diagnosis of a reading disability</h2><p>If your child’s reading abilities are substantially below the expected level for their age, intellectual abilities and education, they may have a reading disability.</p><p>If you suspect your child might have a reading disability, it is important to share your concerns with your child’s teachers. They will be able to observe your child’s learning, and identify available resources and strategies to help improve your child’s reading skills. If the resources and strategies provided by the school do not help improve your child’s learning, your child might benefit from a formal psychoeducational assessment.</p><p>A psychoeducational assessment can identify your child’s strengths and learning challenges, and diagnose learning, developmental or attention-related disorders, as well as giftedness. The assessment will get to the root cause of your child’s academic issues, and identify a plan for solving them.</p><h2>Treatment</h2><p>Reading disabilities can be treated with two main approaches—accommodations and interventions.</p><p>The earlier a child with a reading disability receives an evidence-based reading intervention over a reasonable period of time, the more likely they are to catch up with their peers.</p><h3>Accommodations</h3><p>Accommodations are changes made in the classroom to help students work around their weaknesses. Accommodations can help some children succeed without direct intervention. Accommodations for a reading disability might include:</p><ul><li>Providing lessons and presentations on audio recordings</li><li>Providing a designated reader</li><li>Allowing answers and assignments to be given verbally or dictated to a scribe</li><li>Allowing frequent breaks or more time for tests</li><li>Providing a space with minimal distractions</li></ul><h3>Interventions</h3><p>Interventions help students address their areas of need so that they can overcome them. Interventions teach children <strong>how</strong> to learn, and allows them to succeed as independent learners. Interventions for a reading disability typically include addressing the core learning difficulties (speech, language, phonological deficits) through direct instruction. Direct instruction teaches skills in a targeted, well-organized way. Through drills and repetition, it provides children with opportunities for guided practise and cumulative learning.</p><h2>Association with spelling and vocabulary</h2><h3>Spelling problems</h3><p>Spelling is often challenging for children who have a reading disability. Spelling and reading rely on the same underlying knowledge: phonological processing and visual memory. Since many children with reading disabilities struggle with phonological processing, they will also have difficulty breaking down words in order to spell them correctly.</p><h3>Vocabulary problems</h3><p>Vocabulary is important in both learning to read and in reading comprehension. Children develop their reading vocabularies faster when they are reading words more advanced than the words they say when talking. Young children who read well are quickly exposed to all sorts of words that they would not hear when talking to an adult or on television. This exposure helps a child’s reading vocabulary to grow, and it makes it easier for the child to read advanced material.</p><p>Children who struggle with reading lag in vocabulary development because they read less. The feedback between reading vocabulary and comprehension helps to explain why poor readers fall behind in vocabulary and general knowledge. It is important to intervene early, before this performance gap widens.</p><h2>How to help your child with a reading disability</h2><p>Below are some suggestions for how to work with your child at home if they have a reading disability:</p><ul><li>Read to your child above their own reading level, ensuring that their vocabulary and knowledge about the world grows.</li><li>Watch documentaries on TV and discuss them with your child.</li><li>Listen to audio books with your child. You can do this in the car too.</li><li>Read and say rhymes and rhythms aloud with your child.</li><li>Read graphic novels or joke books with your child. These are fun and engaging media that include bite-sized segments of text, which are easier for your child to follow.</li><li>Have conversations with your child about things you have recently read, watched on the news, or discussed with others.</li><li>Have you child read media in the world around them, like signs, labels and recipes.</li><li>Foster curiosity. Wondering about the world helps keep a child’s love of learning from being worn down by frustration.</li><li>Help with your child’s schoolwork plan, agenda and online scheduling platform (e.g., Google Classroom). When are projects due? When do they have a test? What evenings will they study?</li><li>Help your child build non-academic skills, such as athletics, hobbies, music, or group activities.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Reading_disabilities-Overview.jpg A reading disability is a specific type of learning disability. Learn about the symptoms of a reading disability, diagnosis and treatment. Main
GI tractGI tractGI tractGEnglishNutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)AbdomenDigestive systemHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+) Educators Hospital healthcare providers Community healthcare providers Remote populations First nationsNAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/J4K_belly_Bonanza_promo.png2013-09-27T04:00:00Z7.3000000000000066.0000000000000813.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn how the different parts of the GI tract work together to digest food.</p><figure><span class="asset-image-title">GI tract</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_digestive_system_V3_EN.jpg" alt="Salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small and large intestines, and anus" /> </figure> <p>When you eat, your body turns the food into energy and extracts vitamins, minerals and other nutrients to help it work properly. This process is called digestion. The parts of the body that are involved in digestion are called the digestive system.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>The digestive system includes the GI tract and the accessory organs of the liver, gall bladder and pancreas.</li> <li>The GI tract is divided into the upper GI tract, which runs from the mouth to the stomach, and the lower GI tract, which includes the small and large intestines.</li> <li>Together, the GI tract and accessory organs use mechanical digestion and chemical digestion to break down food.</li></ul><p>The central part of the digestive system is a winding muscular tube called the GI (gastrointestinal) tract. </p><p>Other parts of the digestive system, called <a href="/Article?contentid=1468&language=English">accessory organs</a>, help the GI tract to digest food. They include the:</p><ul><li>liver</li><li>gall bladder</li><li>pancreas.</li></ul><p>The GI tract, or digestive tract, has two main parts:</p><ul><li> the upper digestive tract</li><li> the intestines.</li></ul><h2>Upper digestive tract</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Upper digestive tract</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_digestive_system_upper_EN.jpg" alt="Identification of the salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus and stomach in the upper digestive tract" /> </figure> <p>The upper digestive tract includes the mouth, the esophagus and the stomach.<br></p><h3>Mouth</h3><p>The mouth is where digestion begins. Even before we eat, the sights and smells of food trigger salivary glands in our cheeks and jaw to release saliva.</p><p>Saliva has two roles when we eat.</p><ul><li>It contains digestive juices called enzymes to break down the starch in food.</li><li>It helps to form the food into a compact "glob" called a bolus in our mouth. This makes the food easier to swallow.</li></ul><h3>Esophagus</h3><p>When food leaves the mouth, it passes through the pharynx into the esophagus. The esophagus is the muscular tube that gradually pushes food down to the stomach. It does this through waves of contractions known as peristalsis.</p><p>The wall of the esophagus releases a thick, sticky liquid called mucus. This mucus helps the body absorb the food you eat. It also lubricates the esophagus so food moves easily to the stomach.</p><h3>Stomach</h3><p>The stomach is a bean-shaped, hollow muscular organ that contains digestive acids. These acids help to break down food some more and turn it into liquid. The walls of the stomach are thick and elastic.</p><p>The size of the stomach depends on a person's size and body type and how much and how recently they have eaten.</p><p>The upper part of the stomach mainly stores food and relaxes to allow food to enter from the esophagus. In the lower part of the stomach, food is broken down through mechanical and chemical digestion.</p><ul><li>Mechanical digestion means that the stomach mixes, churns and pummels food using its muscles. This turns the food into a thick liquid paste called chyme.</li><li>Chemical digestion uses gastric juice to break down the protein in food. This gastric juice is a mix of chemicals and water and is very acidic.</li></ul><p>These processes account for part of digestion. The rest of digestion happens in the intestines.</p><h2>Intestines</h2><h3>Small intestine</h3><p>Food first passes into the small intestine. This long, hollow tube breaks down food through mechanical and chemical digestion and allows the food to pass into your blood.</p><p>The small intestine gets its name only because it is narrow. In fact, in an average adult, it measures about 22 feet (seven metres)!</p><p>The small intestine has three parts.</p><ul><li>The duodenum is where most of the remaining chemical digestion takes place. Chemicals and digestive juices from the <a href="/Article?contentid=1468&language=English">liver, gall bladder and pancreas</a> help in this process.</li><li>The jejunum is where <a href="/Article?contentid=1443&language=English">carbohydrates</a> and <a href="/Article?contentid=1439&language=English">proteins</a> pass into the blood.</li><li>The ileum is where <a href="/Article?contentid=1446&language=English">vitamin B12</a> and bile salts pass into the blood.</li></ul> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Parts of the small intestine</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_intestine_small_parts_EN.jpg" alt="Identification of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum in the small intestine" /> </figure> <p>By this time, food has been broken down into its smallest, most basic units and is ready to be absorbed. The small intestine has a large surface area for this function due to its special folds and tiny, finger-like projections, called villi.</p><p>Once food passes through the walls of the small intestine, it separates. Carbohydrates, proteins and some fats go to the liver to be processed. The remaining fats go into the blood.</p><h3>Large intestine</h3><p>The large intestine is sometimes called the colon. In adults, it is about five feet (1.5 metres) long.</p><p>Its role in digestion is to absorb the water from any leftover undigested food. It is also home to <a href="/Article?contentid=1469&language=English">gut flora</a>, which help us digest food and protect us from infections.</p><p>Three bands of muscle on the surface of the large intestine move waste products along by waves of contractions called mass movements. When there is enough waste material in the colon, further contractions push the feces (poo) into the rectum before it is released through the anus.</p><h2>Just for Kids</h2><p>Your child can learn about digestion by checking out the <a href="https://kids.aboutkidshealth.ca/player?title=belly-bonanza">Belly Bonanza</a> cartoon in our Just for Kids section.<br></p> <a class="sponsor-img-link" href="https://kids.aboutkidshealth.ca/player?title=belly-bonanza"> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/INM_NRC_track6-2_J4K_bellyBonanza.png" alt="Belly Bonanza cartoon" /></a>Belly bonanza ​Follow the adventures of Blueberry and Green Pea to help your child learn how food travels through their digestive system. Mainhttps://kids.aboutkidshealth.ca/player?title=belly-bonanza

 

 

Antibiotic-associated diarrheaAntibiotic-associated diarrheaAntibiotic-associated diarrheaAEnglishGastrointestinalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Stomach;Small Intestine;Large Intestine/Colon;RectumStomach;Small intestine;Large intestine;Rectum;AnusConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2015-01-14T05:00:00Z9.5000000000000047.3000000000000577.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Many antibiotics cause diarrhea. Learn about antibiotic-associated diarrhea, including causes and treatment options. </p><h2>What is antibiotic-associated diarrhea?</h2> <p>One in five children who take antibiotics will develop <a href="/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a>. It is more common in children aged under two years and can occur with any type of antibiotic.</p> <p>For most children, antibiotic-associated diarrhea is mild.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Diarrhea is common in children taking antibiotics. In most cases, it is mild.</li> <li>Children with mild diarrhea should finish their antibiotics.</li> <li>Make sure your child is drinking enough fluids to stay hydrated.</li> <li>Do not give your child any probiotics or medicines unless your doctor recommends them.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of antibiotic-associated diarrhea</h2> <p>If a child has antibiotic-associated diarrhea, they will have loose or watery stools while taking antibiotics. Most times, the diarrhea lasts between one and seven days.</p> <p>Diarrhea usually begins between the second and eighth day of taking an antibiotic. Sometimes, however, it can last from the first day of antibiotics until a few weeks after your child finishes them.</p><h2>Causes of antibiotic-associated diarrhea</h2> <p>Inside the intestines are millions of <a href="/Article?contentid=1469&language=English">tiny bacteria </a>that help digest food. When antibiotics kill harmful bacteria that cause infection, they also kill these “good” bacteria. These bacteria cause diarrhea when they die and start growing again in the intestines.</p><h2>Give probiotics or medicines only if your doctor recommends them</h2> <h3>Probiotics</h3> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=1990&language=English">Probiotics</a> are supplements with “healthy” bacteria. Studies are looking into whether probiotics can prevent or treat antibiotic-associated diarrhea. So far, this research has not shown any benefit in using them.</p> <p>You may give your child foods that contain probiotics, such as yogurt, but ask your doctor before giving any probiotic supplements.</p> <h3>Medicines</h3> <p>Do not give your child anti-diarrheal medicines such as loperamide unless your doctor tells you to. These medicines can make intestinal inflammation worse.</p><h2>Complications of antibiotic-associated diarrhea</h2> <p>One of the main complications of antibiotic-associated diarrhea is <a href="/Article?contentid=776&language=English">dehydration</a>. This is more likely to occur in babies less than 12 months old. If your child loses a lot of fluids, make sure they drink enough to replace them.</p> <p>Although rare, another complication of antibiotic use is inflammation (pain or swelling) of the large intestine. Signs of inflammation include:</p> <ul> <li>severe diarrhea that may contain blood or mucus</li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a></li> <li>stomach pain</li> <li>extreme weakness.</li> </ul><h2>How to care for a child with antibiotic-associated diarrhea</h2> <h3>Continue the antibiotics</h3> <p>If your child’s diarrhea is mild and your child is otherwise well, continue the antibiotics and care for your child at home.</p> <h3>Keep your child hydrated</h3> <p>Offer your child water often. Do not give fruit juice or soft drinks, as they can make diarrhea worse.</p> <h3>Avoid serving certain foods</h3> <p>Keep giving your child what they normally eat, but do not feed them beans or spicy foods.</p> <h3>Treat diaper rash</h3> <p>If diarrhea causes a <a href="/Article?contentid=26&language=English">rash</a> around your child’s anus or diaper area:</p> <ul> <li>wash the area gently with water</li> <li>pat it dry</li> <li>cover the area with a layer of petroleum jelly, zinc-based cream or other diaper rash cream.</li> </ul><h2>When to see a doctor for antibiotic-associated diarrhea</h2> <p>Call your child’s regular doctor right away if your child:</p> <ul> <li>has severe diarrhea</li> <li>has a new fever</li> <li>has blood in the stool</li> <li>is very tired and not drinking</li> <li>is showing signs of dehydration, such as less urine, crankiness, fatigue and dry mouth</li> </ul> <p>If the diarrhea is severe, your child may need to change antibiotic.</p> <p>Take your child to the nearest Emergency Department or call 911 if they:</p> <ul> <li>have severe pain</li> <li>have a lot of blood in the stool.</li> </ul><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/antibiotic-associated_diarrhea.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/antibiotic-associated_diarrhea.jpgMain
CPR in a child (from age 1 to puberty)CPR in a child (from age 1 to puberty)CPR in a child (from age 1 to puberty): First aidCEnglishNAToddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years)Heart;LungsHeartNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_CPR_child_chest_compressions_EN.jpg2016-10-17T04:00:00Z7.6000000000000065.8000000000000770.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>CPR is a life-saving technique that combines chest compressions and rescue breaths (mouth-to-mouth resuscitation).<br></p><h2>What is CPR?</h2> <p>CPR stands for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. CPR is an emergency procedure that involves chest compressions (pushing hard down on the chest) and rescue breaths (mouth-to-mouth resuscitation). When given properly, CPR can help deliver oxygen to the brain and other organs until help arrives or until your child recovers.</p> <p>The method described on this page applies to children between one year of age and puberty. Once puberty has begun, children should receive CPR as adults.</p><p>Causes of cardiac arrest in children and teens are usually a result of a major injury or illness and rarely from underlying heart disease.</p> <h3>Other causes may include: </h3> <ul><li><a href="/Article?contentid=1968&language=English">drowning</a></li> <li>suffocation</li> <li>electrocution</li> <li>poisoning or intoxication</li> <li>life-threatening (<a href="/Article?contentid=781&language=English">anaphylactic</a>) allergic reactions</li> </ul> <p>This information can refresh your memory if you have already undergone a CPR course. It does not replace real, hands-on CPR training. CPR courses are often available through local recreation programs, advanced swim programs and first aid programs. In Canada, such programs are offered by the <a href="http://www.redcross.ca/training-and-certification" target="_blank">Canadian Red Cross</a>, <a href="https://resuscitation.heartandstroke.ca/courses/firstaid/sfa?_ga=1.85792092.479256543.1450713783" target="_blank">Heart and Stroke Foundation</a> and <a href="https://www.sja.ca/English/Courses-and-Training/Pages/Course%20Descriptions/CPR-AED-Courses.aspx">St. John Ambulance</a> for example. The basic skills are simple and usually only take a few hours to learn.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Take an official course to learn real, hands-on CPR. </li> <li>CPR involves both chest compressions and rescue breathing (mouth-to-mouth resuscitation). Give 30 compressions and two rescue breaths; repeat this cycle until help arrives or your child recovers.</li> <li>If your child is unresponsive and not breathing or only gasping despite stimulation, start CPR right away and have someone else call 911.</li> <li>Once your child starts breathing, put them in the recovery position. This will keep their airway open.</li> </ul><h2>Giving CPR to your child</h2><p>Check to see if your child is responsive by tapping them on the shoulder and asking loudly, “Are you OK?”. If your child does not answer, follow these instructions depending on your situation:<br></p><ul><li>If you are not alone, have someone else call 911 and get an AED (automated external defibrillator) right away, if available, while you are doing CPR. </li><li>If you are alone and have a cell phone, start CPR while calling 911 from your cell phone on speaker. After two minutes of CPR (five cycles), go get an AED if available.</li><li>If you are alone and have no cell phone, start CPR for two minutes (five cycles) and then call 911 from a landline and get an AED if available.</li></ul><ol class="akh-steps"><li> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_CPR_child_chest_compressions_EN.jpg" alt="Positioning child for CPR chest compressions" /> </figure> <h2>Chest compressions: Push hard, push fast</h2><p>Begin CPR by laying your child down on a firm, flat surface. Do not spend time trying to find a pulse. Place the heel of one or two hands over the lower third of your child's breastbone and give them 30 quick chest compressions (push fast). Be sure to push hard enough so their chest moves approximately 5 cm (2 inches) down (push hard). </p><p>Count out loud. You should deliver about 100-120 compressions a minute. Wait for the chest to come all the way back to its initial position between compressions. This will get the blood flowing to your child's brain and other vital organs.</p></li><li> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_CPR_child_open_airway_EN.jpg" alt="Opening child's airway for rescue breaths" /> </figure> <h2>Rescue breaths: Open the airway</h2><p>After the first 30 chest compressions, place the palm of your hand on your child’s forehead. Place two fingers on the hard, bony tip of their chin and gently tilt their neck back. This will open your child's airway. </p></li><li> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_CPR_child_breathe_airway_EN.jpg" alt="Giving child CPR rescue breaths" /> </figure> <h2>Two rescue breaths </h2><p>Pinch your child's nose and place your mouth over their mouth and give two breaths. Each breath should be just enough to make your child’s chest rise and should be no more than one second in length. Make sure you see your child's chest rise with each breath. </p></li><li> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_CPR_child_chest_compressions_EN.jpg" alt="Repeating CPR chest compressions" /> </figure> <h2>Repeat </h2><p>Give cycles of 30 chest compressions and two breaths during two minutes and repeat until the ambulance arrives or your child starts breathing again. Two minutes usually allow for five cycles of 30 chest compressions and two breaths.</p><p>A two-minute CPR cycle is usually tiring. If you are not alone, switch who is giving CPR every two minutes.</p></li><li> <figure class="”asset-c-100”"> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_CPR_child_recovery_position_EN.jpg" alt="Putting child in recovery position" /> </figure> <h2>Recovery position</h2><p>Once your child has recovered and started breathing again on their own, put them in the <a href="/Article?contentid=1037&language=English">recovery position</a> until help arrives. The recovery position will help keep your child’s airway open and prevent them from choking on their own vomit. If your child vomits, wipe it away. Make sure nothing is blocking or covering their mouth and nose. </p></li></ol><br>​​​​<p>The <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/" target="_blank">Hospital for Sick Children​</a> offers the Heart and Stroke Foundation’s <a href="http://www.cvent.com/events/hospital-for-sick-children-standard-first-aid-heart-stroke-foundation-/event-summary-d989cebc9ab14e1281c6db68ab161d7c.aspx" target="_blank">First Aid program​</a>. It provides CPR and resuscitation training for patients, families and the general public.​</p>Main
PneumoniaPneumoniaPneumoniaPEnglishRespiratoryChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)LungsLungsConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Abdominal pain;Cough;Fever;Vomiting2013-11-28T05:00:00Z7.0000000000000065.9000000000000624.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs and lower respiratory tract. Learn about the signs and symptoms and how to take care of your child. </p><h2>What is pneumonia?</h2><p>Pneumonia is an infection in the lungs. It may also be called a lower respiratory tract infection. Most cases of pneumonia are caused by viruses in children age three and younger. In older children and teenagers, most cases of pneumonia are caused by bacterial infections. A child could start out by having a viral pneumonia which then becomes complicated by a bacterial pneumonia.</p> <figure class="asset-c-100"><span class="asset-image-title">Pneumonia</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Pneumonia_XRAY_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.png" alt="An x-ray of normal left and right lungs and an x-ray of lungs with pneumonia in the right side" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">In the lung with pneumonia, the affected part of the lung will appear white in a chest X-ray. The white shadow is caused by fluid in the lung's air sacs.</figcaption> </figure> <h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Pneumonia is an infection deep in the lungs. It can be caused by viruses or bacteria.</li> <li>If your child is given antibiotics, be sure to finish all of them, even if your child is feeling better.</li> <li>Keep your child comfortable and give them lots of fluids.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of pneumonia</h2><p>Pneumonia symptoms can vary greatly in children. Common signs and symptoms of pneumonia include:</p><ul><li>high and/or persistent <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=774&language=English">cough</a></li><li>fast breathing</li><li>trouble breathing</li><li>crackly noises in the lung</li><li>loss of appetite</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a> due to the cough or from swallowing mucus</li><li>feeling unwell</li><li>abdominal (belly) pain or chest pain</li></ul> ​<h2>What your doctor can do for pneumonia</h2> <p>Your doctor will listen to your child's lungs with the stethoscope and observe your child's breathing. If your doctor suspects pneumonia, your child may have a <a href="/article?contentid=1647&language=English">chest X-ray</a> to see what your child's lungs look like. Viral pneumonia does not need antibiotic treatment. If your doctor suspects a bacterial infection as a cause of the pneumonia, then your doctor will prescribe antibiotics. Your child's doctor will look at many factors before deciding the best treatment.</p><h2>Taking care of your child at home</h2> <h3>Finish all antibiotics</h3> <p>If your child was given antibiotics, they must finish all the pills or liquid, even if they are feeling better. This is important to prevent the infection from coming back and to decrease the chance of antibiotic resistance.</p> <h3>Monitor and treat the fever</h3> <p>To treat the fever or achy muscles, use <a href="/Article?contentid=62&language=English">acetaminophen</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=153&language=English">ibuprofen</a>. You can give these medicines even if you child is also on antibiotics. They do not interact. DO NOT give your child <a href="/Article?contentid=77&language=English">acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)</a>.</p> <h3>Keep your child fed and hydrated.</h3> <p>Make sure your child drinks plenty of fluids to stay <a href="/Article?contentid=776&language=English">hydrated</a>. Your child may not want to eat much at first. Once the infection begins to clear and your child starts to feel better, they will want to eat more.</p> <h3>Avoid smoky places</h3> <p>Keep your child away from smoke and other lung irritants.</p> <h3>Cough symptoms</h3> <p>Your child's cough may get worse before it gets better. As the pneumonia goes away, your child will cough to get rid of the mucus. The cough may continue for two to three weeks.</p><h2>When to see a doctor</h2><h3>See your child's regular doctor if:</h3><ul><li>Your child's cough lasts for more than three to four days and is not improving</li><li>Your child has a fever for more than two to three days</li><li>Your child's fever lasts more than three days after starting antibiotics<br></li></ul><h3>Take your child to the nearest Emergency Department, or call 911 if your child:</h3><ul><li>has difficulty breathing</li><li>becomes very pale or blue in the lips</li><li>vomits antibiotic doses or will not take fluid</li><li>appears more sick<br></li></ul><h2>Hospital admission if needed</h2><p>Most children can be cared for at home. Very sick children may need to go to the hospital. They may need oxygen and other medicines. They may need antibiotics given intravenously (into a vein) at first, and then by mouth as they get better.</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/pneumonia.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />pneumoniapneumoniahttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/pneumonia.jpgMain
Smoke and carbon monoxide detectorsSmoke and carbon monoxide detectorsSmoke and carbon monoxide detectorsSEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2021-09-08T04:00:00Z8.3000000000000060.2000000000000893.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find information about buying, installing and maintaining smoke and carbon monoxide detectors in your home to keep your family safe. </p><p>In many countries, including Canada, having smoke and carbon monoxide detectors in the house is the law. The reason is simple: these alarms save lives.</p><h3>Danger of smoke</h3><p>Many house fires occur at night. If there is no smoke detector, those sleeping in the house may not notice the fire and will be overwhelmed by smoke. A working smoke detector can wake the family before it is too late.</p><h3>Danger of carbon monoxide</h3><p>Carbon monoxide is a colourless and odorless gas. It is produced by burning fuels such as gas, wood, oil and coal. Most homes have an appliance that runs on one of these fuels. If the appliance is not vented properly or is not working properly, the house can fill with carbon monoxide.</p><p>At first, carbon monoxide poisoning gives symptoms similar to those of the <a href="/Article?contentid=763&language=English">flu</a>: fatigue, <a href="/Article?contentid=29&language=English">headaches</a>, dizziness, nausea or <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a> and shortness of breath. After a few minutes, carbon monoxide can cause you to black out, resulting in serious, permanent damage to the body. Eventually, carbon monoxide inhalation leads to death. A working carbon monoxide detector can alert you and your family to this danger.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Smoke and carbon monoxide detectors save lives.</li> <li>Install a working smoke and carbon monoxide detector outside each bedroom and sleeping area and on each level of your home.</li> <li>Test and clean your smoke detectors regularly and replace the batteries every six months.</li> </ul><h2>Choosing a detector</h2> <p>Before buying a smoke or carbon monoxide detector, make sure your country’s safety stamp of approval is on the box. In Canada, the box should read CSA, cUL, ULC or cETL. Smoke detectors and carbon monoxide detectors are usually sold separately, but detectors that serve both purposes are also available. </p> <p>Some alarms are hard wired, some are battery operated and some are plug in with a back-up battery.</p> <h3>Types of smoke detector</h3> <ul> <li>An ionization type smoke detector is better at detecting fast, flaming fires. These fires make up nearly three-quarters of home fires. </li> <li>A photoelectric type smoke detector is better at detecting slow-burning smouldering fires that produce lots of smoke but little flame.</li> </ul> <p>Some smoke alarms use both types of detection. </p> <h3>Types of carbon monoxide detector</h3> <p>Currently, there is only one general type of carbon monoxide detector. </p> <h2>Installing an alarm</h2> <p>Ideally, smoke alarms should be installed outside each bedroom and sleeping area, and on each level of your home, including the basement. They should be installed high on the wall and away from bathrooms, the kitchen, heating equipment and ceiling fans. Carbon monoxide alarms should be installed in hallways, outside of sleeping areas and near service rooms. Read and follow the manufacturer's directions when you install your smoke or carbon monoxide detectors. </p> <h2>Maintenance</h2> <p>Smoke and carbon monoxide detectors need some maintenance and will eventually need to be replaced. </p> <h3>Test your alarm</h3> <p>Smoke and carbon monoxide detectors have a test button. You should push it once a month. If the unit does not signal an alarm, you will need to replace the battery and test again. </p> <h3>Replace the battery</h3> <p>Replace the battery every six months. A good way to remember this is to put in a fresh battery when clocks are changed in March and October. If you hear a warning beep, change the battery right away. </p> <h3>Cleaning</h3> <p>Smoke and carbon monoxide detectors become less effective if they are clogged with dust. Follow the manufacturer's directions for cleaning your unit. </p> <h2>Replace the alarm</h2> <p>Smoke alarms will not last indefinitely. A general rule is that the unit will have to be replaced every 10 years. Write down the date you installed the alarm on the inside of the detector so you know when to replace it. If the alarm is no longer working, replace it right away.<br></p> <h2>Sources of danger around the house<br></h2> <p>It can be difficult to know if all your fossil fuel-burning appliances, such as the furnace, stove and water heater, are working properly. These appliances should be professionally inspected at least once a year. Chimneys and vent pipes should also be regularly inspected and cleaned out to prevent carbon monoxide build-up and reduce the risk of fires. </p> <h2> During emergencies</h2> <p>One of the most dangerous times for house fires and carbon monoxide poisoning is during power outages. When the heat and/or lights go out, people can sometimes use non-traditional methods to heat the house. They may burn things in a fireplace that has not been used or maintained in years. They may light camping stoves and lanterns or they may bring the barbeque inside to heat the house. Some may use a generator to provide power. These are all very dangerous things to do. Without proper ventilation, carbon monoxide can build up in the house. These items are also a major fire risk. </p> <h2>When the detector's alarm sounds</h2> <p>Your family should develop an escape plan in case of fire or carbon monoxide build-up. Practise following the plan and make sure the whole family, including children, understand what to do if the alarm sounds. The escape plan should include an arranged meeting point outside the home.</p> <h2>More information</h2> <p>For more information, please read our pages on <a href="/Article?contentid=1116&language=English">Burns: Household safety and prevention</a> and <a href="/Article?contentid=1939&language=English">Burns: Winter safety</a>.</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/smoke_carbon_monoxide_detectors.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/smoke_carbon_monoxide_detectors.jpgMain

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