AboutKidsHealth is a health education website for children, youth and their caregivers.


 

 

COVID-19COVID-19COVID-19CEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NAImmune systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2020-03-26T04:00:00Z000Landing PageLearning Hub<p>Learn about COVID-19 and how to talk to and support your family. Also find resources such as videos and audio meditations to help you cope.</p><p>This hub includes resources on COVID-19 and how to help you cope. There are resources on how to support your child's mental health and general wellbeing through physical activity, sleep, nutrition and learning. Also included are videos and audio meditations to help you cope with stressful thoughts and experiences that occur throughout your day.<br></p> <br> <div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/fBkA2ZTUnyI"></iframe> <p>View Dr. Ronni's chat with Dr. Cheddar above.</p></div> <br> <div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">COVID-19 information</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find information about COVID-19 from AboutKidsHealth.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3872&language=English">Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) </a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/diseases/coronavirus-disease-covid-19.html">Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) (Public Health Agency of Canada)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3863&language=English">COVID-19: Information for parents of immunocompromised children and children with chronic medical conditions</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3870&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19: Information for parents of children with congenital heart disease</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://covid19healthliteracyproject.com/#languages">COVID-19 fact sheets in 34 different languages (Harvard Health Publishing)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.publichealthontario.ca/en/diseases-and-conditions/infectious-diseases/respiratory-diseases/novel-coronavirus/public-resources">COVID-19 public resources (Public Health Ontario)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.pcmch.on.ca/covid-19-resources-for-children-youth-and-families/">COVID-19 resources for children, youth, and families (Provincial Council for Maternal and Child Health)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/the-2019-novel-coronavirus-covid-19">The 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) (Caring for Kids)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.ontario.ca/page/2019-novel-coronavirus">The 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) (Ontario Ministry of Health)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/9Ay4u7OYOhA">6 steps to prevent COVID-19 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Talking to your child about COVID-19</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Helpful resources that provide information about how to explain and talk to your child about COVID-19. </p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3866&language=English">How to talk to your child about COVID-19</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="http://hollandbloorview.ca/services/family-workshops-resources/family-resource-centre/explaining-covid-19-kids">Explaining COVID-19 and Coronavirus to children (Holland Bloorview)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.cps.ca/en/blog-blogue/how-can-we-talk-to-kids-about-covid-19">How can we talk to kids about COVID-19? Be “realistically reassuring” (Canadian Pediatric Society)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.pbs.org/parents/thrive/how-to-talk-to-your-kids-about-coronavirus#.XmuZ3QV_gax.twitter">How to Talk to Your Kids About Coronavirus (PBS)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3869&language=English">Supporting your child with a neurodevelopmental disorder through the COVID-19 crisis</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.cmho.org/blog/blog-news/6519918-talking-to-your-anxious-child-about-covid-19">Talking to your anxious child about COVID-19 (Children's Mental Health Ontario)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Coping</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Information on how to help your child cope with stress during the COVID-19 crisis and how to help them deal with separation from family and friend. </p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3868&language=English">Coping with separation from family and friends during COVID-19</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3882&language=English">COVID-19: Frequently asked questions</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3883&language=English">COVID-19: Well-being and mental health resources</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3867&language=English">Is my child or adolescent feeling stressed about COVID-19?</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/disaster">Helping children and teens cope with stressful public events (Caring for Kids)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.cps.ca/en/blog-blogue/how-to-help-youth-tackle-the-blues-during-covid-19">How to help youth tackle the blues during COVID-19 and #physicaldistancing (Canadian Pediatric Society)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://afirm.fpg.unc.edu/supporting-individuals-autism-through-uncertain-times">Supporting individuals with autism through uncertain times (Autism Focused Intervention Resources & Modules)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Mental health</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Taking care of your mental health during difficult and stressful times is important. Learn more about anxiety and depression.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=18&language=English">Anxiety: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3810&language=English">Anxiety and anxiety disorders</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20Individual%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020_v2.pdf">CARD: Coping with your own fears and anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20caregiver%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020.pdf">CARD: Helping your child cope with anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=19&language=English">Depression: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.camh.ca/en/health-info/mental-health-and-covid-19">Mental health and the COVID-19 pandemic (CAMH)</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Parenting</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find some helpful information on parenting during the COVID-19 crisis. </p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/health_information_on_the_internet">A parent’s guide to health information on the Internet (Caring for Kids)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.cps.ca/en/blog-blogue/covid-youth-and-substance-use-critical-messages-for-youth-and-families">COVID, youth, and substance use: Critical messages for youth and families (Canadian Pediatric Society)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.cps.ca/en/blog-blogue/parenting-during-covid-19-a-new-frontier">Parenting during COVID-19: A new frontier (Canadian Pediatric Society)</a></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Learning</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=651&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Reading milestones</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1903&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Reading: How to help early and struggling readers</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3871&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Writing milestones</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1881&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Visual-motor skills: How to foster in children</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=722&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Mathematics milestones</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=721&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Mathematics: How to help your pre-school and school-aged child</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=649&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Spatial reasoning skills: How to foster in children</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Wellbeing</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find out how physical activity, a healthy sleep routine, screen time limits and balanced nutrition can boost your child's mental health and support them to achieve better academic success and help them through difficult times. </p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Handwashing</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1981&language=English">Hand hygiene</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/handwashing">Handwashing for parents and children (Caring for Kids)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=9&v=7PKwE1jIuws&feature=emb_title">Protect don’t infect (CHEO)</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Sleep</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=645&language=English">Sleep: Benefits and recommended amounts</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3632&language=English">Sleep and your mental health: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3633&language=English">Sleep and mental health: Sorting out your sleep routine</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=646&language=English">How to help your child get a good night's sleep</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=647&language=English">How to help your teen get a good night's sleep</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Physical activity</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3783&language=English">Physical activity and mental health: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3784&language=English">Physical activity and mental health: Types of physical activity</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=641&language=English">Physical activity: Benefits of exercise for health and wellbeing</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=642&language=English">Physical activity: Guidelines for children and teens</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Nutrition</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3773&language=English">Nutrition and mental health: The basics of a healthy diet</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=639&language=English">How a balanced diet and healthy eating habits can help your child's mental health</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3774&language=English">Nutrition and mental health: Developing positive eating habits</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1464&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Meal ideas for school-aged children, tweens and teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=638&language=English">Healthy eating for teens</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Screen time and social media</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=643&language=English">Screen time: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3775&language=English">Screen time for teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=644&language=English">How to help your child set healthy screen time limits</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3776&language=English">Setting limits and staying safe with screen time</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Stress and resilience</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3777&language=English">Stress and health</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3778&language=English">How to become more resilient</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Tools, videos and resources for you and your child</h2></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20Individual%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020_v2.pdf">CARD: Coping with your own fears and anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20caregiver%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020.pdf">CARD: Helping your child cope with anxiety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.brainson.org/shows/2020/03/10/understanding-coronavirus-and-how-germs-spread-for-kids?fbclid=IwAR21Y_n6fsy33QD2s07In2Q892xQoI5OEFMMZ5vcMyVoLdkH8tv4yZjaZsc">Understanding coronavirus and how germs spread (Brains On!)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/get-info/were-here-for-you-during-covid-19-novel-coronavirus/">We’re here for you during COVID-19 (novel coronavirus) (Kids Help Phone)</a></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Videos</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/nO1L-oYo9TA">Nasopharyngeal (NP) swab (video for children)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r51gYrDzpHQ">Physical distancing (video for children)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sNinywG7BtY">What is personal protective equipment (PPE) (video for children)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fBkA2ZTUnyI&feature=youtu.be">Dr. Cheddar chats with Dr. Ronni from SickKids (video for children)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=9&v=7PKwE1jIuws&feature=emb_title">Protect don’t infect (CHEO)</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Videos to support sleep and mindfulness</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find videos that will help you prepare for sleep and for when you need a moment of peace, to understand your situation more clearly and coping with stressful thoughts and experiences.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Sleep video</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/2fbaoqkY0Qk">Sleep: A bed time story</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Mindfulness videos</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/nQdM_Cku9pA">A moment of peace</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/cFCiUlFKuO4">Two wings to fly</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/jaNAwy3XsfI">Being with all of your experiences</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/0QXmmP4psbA">You are not your thoughts</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/Ty93GRPplJo">Dealing with difficult moments</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/QTsUEOUaWpY">Everyday mindfulness</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/GgBVIZAEQqU">STOP for mindfulness</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KYcLfBf-T9c">Stress and thinking: The mind/body connection</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/EWzDHN7Jdg8">Dealing with flares: Controlling the controllables</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Audio meditations for mindfulness and coping</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Listen to these meditations in a quiet, comfortable spot to practise mindfulness, learn about ways to cope with physical and emotional pain or discomfort and to help you with stress throughout your day.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Mindfulness</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/3cevA6EjCbE">5 senses</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/gqMu6kFfQcE">Dropping the anchor</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/O5F3-Xw2XPE">The mountain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/84Tr734KXO8">Dilute the yuck</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/YnL-hjXo4EQ">Self-compassion</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/fZdw6wm3A3E">Body scan</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/jc64ap852FU">Circle of gratitude</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/LMu-r-KZ_l8">Tree meditation</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/xcO8IIeV12M">Mindfulness of thought</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Coping with physical and emotional pain</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/84Tr734KXO8">Dilute the yuck</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/3IK7yWuEs3k">Visualize your pain</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/UbTyPgHf8z4">Soften, soothe, allow</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/NN7fz8lMTIM">Ice cube</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/e0JMtabUVvQ">Comfort your pain</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Finding calm/coping with stress</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/RQJNdVtHxlY">Time for rest</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/RpHvQkHYrZ0">Allowing rest</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/gqMu6kFfQcE">Dropping the anchor</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/EnrNtaMskik">Breathing meditation</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/CMcx9tJ70rA">Joy</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/EL_fvAepwv8">Equal breathing</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/QSf0JS0O16Q">Key word guided meditation</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/Tsi2np8xtVY">Bell meditation</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/263e093H5eM">Bell sounds</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/Jqu3SOEKtvE">Progressive muscle relaxation with tension</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://youtu.be/4ilNITE3-fE">Relaxation with imagery</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/videoseries?list=PLjJtOP3StIuU99GGMBBV2N_b2tsRwMx0m"></iframe><br> <p>Above is our COVID-focused playlist. See "Tools, videos and resources for you and your child" in the menu above for more videos or visit the <a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/Aboutkidshealth">AboutKidHealth YouTube channel</a>.</p></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-1157093074.jpgCOVID-19,COVID19COVID-19Main
COVID-19: Information for parents of immunocompromised children and children with chronic medical conditionsCOVID-19: Information for parents of immunocompromised children and children with chronic medical conditionsCOVID-19: Information for parents of immunocompromised children and children with chronic medical conditionsCEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NAImmune systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversFever;Cough;Runny nose2020-03-18T04:00:00Z10.000000000000051.1000000000000798.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Children who are immunocompromised and children with chronic medical conditions may be at higher risk of complications from the novel coronavirus COVID-19.</p><p>Children who are immunocompromised and children with chronic medical conditions may be at higher risk of complications from the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The following questions and answers may help you during this outbreak.</p> <h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>SickKids is safe for you and your child to come to for assessment as directed by your primary care team.</li><li>Children who are immunocompromised and children with chronic medical conditions may be at higher risk of developing complications if they do get COVID-19.</li><li>Washing your hands frequently using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer, or by using soap and water for 20 seconds will help to prevent you from getting COVID-19.</li><li>Your child should continue to take their regular medications as prescribed by their primary care team unless specifically instructed otherwise.</li></ul> <h2>What is novel coronavirus (COVID-19)?</h2><p>A new or novel strain of coronavirus was identified in late 2019, and has now spread across the globe. The World Health Organization has named this novel coronavirus COVID-19 and has declared the outbreak a pandemic.</p><h2>Is my child immunocompromised?</h2><p>Immunocompromised children have weak immune systems. A weak immune system could be caused by many different medical conditions or medications. Some examples include children who have:</p><ul><li>had a solid organ transplant (i.e. heart, kidney, lung, liver, intestinal)</li><li>had a bone marrow transplant</li><li>cancer</li><li>congenital or primary immunodeficiency</li><li>HIV/AIDS</li><li>rheumatological disease</li><li>gastrointestinal disease</li><li>severe burns</li></ul><p>And those who are:</p><ul><li>taking selective immunomodulators (i.e. anti-TNF agents, azathioprine, MMF and all immunosuppressive agents).</li><li>taking long-term steroid therapy</li><li>in a severely malnourished state</li></ul><p>If you are unsure if your child is immunocompromised, please check with your primary care team at the hospital.</p><h2>Is my child at higher risk of getting COVID-19?</h2><p>There is still a lot being learned about COVID-19. At this time, serious illness in children appears to be less common than it is in adults. It is not yet clear whether children with underlying or chronic medical conditions are at greater risk of being infected with COVID-19, or of serious illness if they get the infection. Based on what is known about the influenza virus, it would not be unexpected for immunocompromised children, or children with an underlying chronic medical condition (i.e. chronic lung disease) to be at increased risk of complications from a COVID-19 infection.</p><h2>How do I know if my child has COVID-19?</h2><p>Your child may have COVID-19 if they have some or all of the following symptoms:</p><ul><li> <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a></li><li> <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=774&language=English">cough</a> or sneezing</li><li> <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=748&language=English">sore throat</a></li><li>difficulty breathing or fast breathing</li><li>body aches</li><li> <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=29&language=English">headache</a></li><li>chills</li><li>fatigue</li><li> <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a> and <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a></li><li>runny or stuffy nose that progresses to one of the above symptoms</li></ul><p>While fever may be the main symptom in immunocompromised children, not all children with COVID-19 will have a fever. For children who have a runny or stuffy nose you should be most concerned about a possible COVID-19 infection if other symptoms develop. It is not yet known if immunocompromised children with a COVID-19 infection have different symptoms.</p><h2>Should I come to the hospital if I think my child has COVID-19?</h2><p>If your child has symptoms of COVID-19 contact your primary care team at the hospital before coming. They will help you determine if your child needs to be seen and where you should go.</p><p>You should come to the hospital right away if your child has the following symptoms:</p><ul><li>fast breathing or trouble breathing</li><li>bluish skin color</li><li>not drinking enough fluids</li><li>not waking up or not interacting</li><li>being so irritable that the child does not want to be held<br></li></ul><p>In an emergency please call an ambulance and tell the emergency services team that you are concerned your child may have a COVID-19 infection.</p><h2>Is testing for COVID-19 available at SickKids?</h2><p>Yes, testing is available at SickKids for children with weakened immune system that have concerning symptoms, such as fever and cough. Testing is usually done with a nose swab to try to identify various viruses. These swabs now test for COVID-19 as well.</p><h2>If my child is diagnosed with COVID-19, how long will they be sick?</h2><p>There is still a lot to be learned about COVID-19. Children with weakened immune systems may be sick for a longer period of time than other children. How long will vary from child to child.</p><h2>Should my child avoid public places such as shopping malls, public transit and playgrounds?</h2><p>At this time, it is recommended that social distancing including avoiding crowded environments is appropriate, in keeping with current public health recommendations. In crowded situations that cannot be avoided, extra precautions should be taken such as frequent handwashing. If you have alcohol-based hand sanitizer carry it with you to use when soap and water are not available. At this point, firm recommendations regarding summer camps cannot be made, however such camps will likely be cancelled if the outbreak continues unabated.</p><h2>What are effective measures to prevent COVID-19 spread?</h2><ul><li>Like other respiratory viruses, including influenza, it is recommended that you wash your hands frequently by using alcohol-based hand sanitizer, or by using soap and water for 20 seconds.</li><li>Limit touching your face, nose and eyes.<br></li><li>Avoid close contact with people who have a fever or cough.</li><li>Practice cough etiquette by keeping a distance from other people, coughing and sneezing into your sleeve or a tissue or a respiratory mask, and practicing frequent hand washing.</li></ul><h2>Are there any extra precautions that my child or I should be taking?</h2><p>Encourage your child to wash or sanitize their hands frequently. For example, if they are in school, you can provide older children with a bottle of alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Hand sanitizer can be dangerous if swallowed. Be careful to keep it away from young children. Avoid having your child be in close contact with anyone who has symptoms of COVID-19. Be vigilant for signs of infection in your child.</p><h2>Should my child wear a face mask when in public?</h2><ul><li>There is no current evidence that wearing a mask in public spaces will help your child to avoid infection from COVID-19. Other measures, such as careful hand washing and social distancing have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing transmission of the infection. However, you and your child may consider wearing a face covering (sucha as a cloth mask or bandana) in public spaces if physical distancing is not possible.</li><li>If your child has respiratory symptoms (i.e. fever, cough) and they are at the hospital for assessment, it is important that they wear a mask to avoid spreading infection to others. If you do not have a mask for this purpose you should ask for one when you arrive at the hospital.</li><li>Your primary care team may also advise your child to wear a mask for other reasons and you should follow this advice.</li></ul><h2>Should my child continue on their immunosuppressive medications?</h2><p>Your child should continue to take their regular medications as prescribed, unless directed differently by your primary care team at the hospital. Make sure you have enough medication and supplies on hand to last for 30 days, in case you need to stay home for a prolonged period of time.</p><h2>Should we cancel our upcoming trip or vacation?</h2><p>Yes. At this time, it is recommended that any upcoming trips or vacations be cancelled until further notice.</p><h2>Can my child go to school?</h2><p>Please follow the guidance from the Ontario Ministry of Education and your child’s local school regarding mandatory school closure. If your child has any signs or symptoms of COVID-19 do not send them to school even if their school remains open.</p><h2>What should I do if I am unwell myself, or my child’s sibling becomes unwell with symptoms of COVID-19 infection?</h2><p>Contact your family doctor or paediatrician as it is recommended that unwell siblings or parents of children who are immunocompromised be tested for COVID-19. It is also advised that you practice social distancing at home as much as possible. You can also refer to Ontario general guidelines of who should be tested for COVID-19 and ways of accessing testing at <a href="https://www.ontario.ca/page/2019-novel-coronavirus">https://www.ontario.ca/page/2019-novel-coronavirus</a>.</p><h2>What should I do if a member of my household has recently returned from travel outside of Canada?</h2><p>People returning from travel outside of Canada should self-isolate for 14 days, in keeping with current public health recommendations. During that time period your child should avoid close contact with this person as much as possible.</p><h2>Should I or my teen who is immunocompromised go to work?</h2><p>Follow public heath guidelines and practice social distancing when appropriate. This may include avoiding work environments that involve contact with large groups of people. It is recommended that you or your teen who is immunocompromised try to work from home as much as possible.</p><h2>If my child requires assessment for symptoms other than COVID-19 infection what should we do?</h2><p>Continue to follow the recommendations for getting your child assessed according to your primary care team’s instructions, as you would do normally. For example, if your child is on medication that causes them to have a low white blood cell count and they develop a fever, you should still go to the hospital for assessment and let the primary care team know about your child’s symptoms as per normal procedure.</p><h2>Should I reschedule my upcoming routine appointment?</h2><p>Clinic appointments are being reviewed and many upcoming visits may be rescheduled or moved to virtual care by video or telephone, if possible. Medically necessary appointments will continue. Please contact your primary care team at the hospital for questions regarding your upcoming appointments.</p><h2>What if the province orders a lockdown and mandates people staying in their homes? Will we be able to get to the hospital?</h2><p>Even in those countries that have ordered lockdowns, people have still been able to travel for medically necessary reasons.</p><h2>Is it safe for my child to come to SickKids during the current outbreak?</h2><p>Yes, the hospital is safe for you and your child to go to for assessment as directed by your primary care team. At all times SickKids has clear procedures in place for protecting your child from getting an infection when visiting the hospital. During this time additional measures to protect you and your child have been put in place. Please follow SickKids instruction regarding the number of visitors permitted to accompany your child. Please see <a href="https://www.sickkids.ca/coronavirus"> https://www.sickkids.ca/coronavirus</a> for further information.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/COVID-19--Information_for_parents.jpgCOVID-19: Information for parentsMain
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)CEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NAImmune systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversCough;Fever;Diarrhea;Headache;Runny nose;Nasal congestion;Sneezing;Vomiting;Fatigue2020-04-30T04:00:00Z10.400000000000051.60000000000001201.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Find information about coronaviruses and COVID-19. Learn about the signs and symptoms of the virus, who is at greatest risk, how it is spread, how it is diagnosed and how to prevent spread of the virus. Also find out what to do if you think your child may have COVID-19 and what to do if they have been diagnosed with the virus.</p><h2>What are coronaviruses and COVID-19?</h2><p>Coronaviruses (CoV) are a common and large family of viruses. Coronaviruses can cause a mild illness such as the common cold to a more severe illness such as pneumonia (infection of the lungs). Most people who become ill with a coronavirus will recover on their own with no specific antiviral treatment.</p><p>A new or novel strain of coronavirus was identified in late 2019 and has now spread across the globe. The World Health Organization (WHO) has named this novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and the disease that it causes is named COVID-19. Because there has been worldwide spread of COVID-19, the outbreak was declared a pandemic by the WHO on March 11, 2020. There is serious global concern about this disease because it is very infectious, and in adults it appears to cause more severe pneumonia than that of seasonal influenza. In children, COVID-19 generally causes a mild illness. There is the risk that children can spread the infection to others.</p> <h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Most people who become ill with COVID-19 will recover on their own.</li><li>COVID-19 is an infection caused by SARS-CoV-2, a respiratory virus which spreads mainly through close contact with an infected person.</li><li>There are things you can do to lower your risk of getting COVID-19, such as washing your hands frequently, not touching your face and avoiding crowded places.</li><li>Current public health guidelines on physical distancing recommend that you stay home as much as possible and if going out in public, to maintain a distance of at least 6 feet (2 metres) from others.</li></ul> <h2>What are COVID-19 signs and symptoms?</h2><p>Your child may have COVID-19 if they have some or all of the following symptoms:</p><ul><li><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a></li><li><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=774&language=English">cough</a> or sneezing</li><li><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=748&language=English">sore throat</a><br></li><li>difficulty breathing or fast breathing</li><li>body aches</li><li><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=29&language=English">headache</a><br></li><li>chills</li><li>fatigue</li><li><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a> and <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a><br></li><li>runny or stuffy nose that progresses to one of the above symptoms</li><li>loss of the sense of smell</li></ul><p>Symptoms can take up to 14 days to appear. Some people with COVID-19 have mild or no symptoms at all. In more severe cases people can have difficulty breathing and pneumonia in one or both lungs.</p> <h2>Who is at greatest risk of getting COVID-19?</h2><p>Risk factors for getting COVID-19 include close contact with someone who was infected. At this time, serious illness in children appears to be less common than in adults.</p><p>There is still a lot being learned about COVID-19. It is not yet clear whether children with underlying or chronic medical conditions are at greater risk of getting COVID-19, or of serious illness if they get the infection. Based on what is known about the influenza virus, it would not be unexpected for children with an underlying chronic medical condition (i.e. chronic lung disease or immune deficiency) to be at increased risk of complications from COVID-19.</p> <h2>How does COVID-19 spread?</h2><p>The virus that causes COVID-19 is a respiratory virus which spreads mainly through close contact with an infected person. The virus can be transmitted through small droplets projected from the nose or mouth of an infected person through coughing or exhaling which can then be breathed in by other people nearby. These droplets can also land on objects or surfaces and infect other people when they touch these objects or surfaces and then touch their face before washing their hands. Many people with COVID-19 experience only mild symptoms, especially during the early phase of the disease. You can get COVID-19 from someone who is only experiencing very mild symptoms.</p> <h2>How is COVID-19 diagnosed?</h2><p>A diagnosis of COVID-19 is usually suspected based on symptoms and can be confirmed by laboratory testing. Testing may be required depending on travel history, exposure history with someone who was diagnosed with COVID-19 or underlying medical conditions. Refer to the most updated <a href="https://www.ontario.ca/page/2019-novel-coronavirus">Ontario general guidelines</a> for information on who should be tested for COVID-19 and ways of accessing testing.</p> <h2>Is there any treatment available for COVID-19?</h2><p>There is no specific treatment recommended for COVID-19 at the moment and most people will recover on their own. Antibiotics are not recommended. Your health-care provider may recommend steps you can take to relieve symptoms.</p><h2>What should I do if my child has been diagnosed with COVID-19?</h2><p>If your child has been diagnosed with COVID-19 and remains well with mild symptoms, they may remain at home throughout their recovery. You will be contacted by public health who will advise you about isolation for your child and any other household members. If you have concerns about your child’s health or are unsure, you should contact your child’s primary health-care provider or Telehealth Ontario (1-866-797-0000). Bring your child to the emergency room and/or call an ambulance if your child develops more serious symptoms as described above.</p> <h2>What are effective measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19?</h2><ul><li>Like other respiratory viruses, including influenza, it is recommended that you wash your hands frequently by using soap and water for at least 20 seconds. If soap and water are not readily available, an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol can also be used.</li><li>Try not to touch your face, nose and eyes.</li><li>Avoid close contact with people who have a fever or cough as feasible.</li><li>Practice cough etiquette by keeping a distance from other people and coughing and sneezing into your flexed elbow or using a tissue to cover your mouth and nose. If you use a tissue, throw it away immediately and then wash your hands.</li><li>Clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces.</li><li>Practice physical distancing as per current public health guidelines. At present public health is recommending that you stay home as much as possible and if you go out in public then maintain a distance of at least 6 feet (2 metres) from others. Please refer to your local public health unit for further guidance on the recommended physical distancing measures in your area.</li><li>As per Canada's Emergency Order implemented on March 25th, any person entering Canada by air, sea or land are required to self-isolate for 14 days whether or not they have symptoms of COVID-19.</li></ul> <h2>Should I bring my child to the hospital if I suspect they have COVID-19?</h2><p>If your child has mild symptoms and remains well, it may not be necessary to seek medical attention. You can use the <a href="https://covid-19.ontario.ca/self-assessment/">Ontario COVID-19 self-assessment tool</a> for guidance. If you have other concerns or are unsure, you should contact your child’s primary health-care provider or Telehealth Ontario (1-866-797-0000).</p><p>You should come to the hospital right away if your child has the following symptoms:</p><ul><li>fast breathing or trouble breathing</li><li>bluish skin color</li><li>not drinking enough fluids</li><li>not waking up or not interacting</li><li>being so irritable that the child does not want to be held</li></ul><p>In case of an emergency, call an ambulance and tell the emergency services team you are concerned your child may have COVID-19. If your child has respiratory symptoms (i.e. fever and/or cough) and they are at the hospital for assessment, it is important they wear a mask to avoid spreading the infection to others. If you do not have a mask for this purpose you should ask for one when you arrive at the hospital.</p><h2>References</h2><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, March 28). Frequently Asked Questions and Answers. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/faq.html">https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/faq.html</a></p><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, March 4). How COVID-2019 Spreads. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/transmission.html">https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/transmission.html</a></p><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, March 18). Prevention & Treatment. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/prevention-treatment.html">https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/prevention-treatment.html</a></p><p>Government of Canada. (2020, March 31). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Frequently asked questions (FAQ). Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/diseases/2019-novel-coronavirus-infection/frequently-asked-questions.html">https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/diseases/2019-novel-coronavirus-infection/frequently-asked-questions.html</a></p><p>Government of Canada. (2020, March 31). Coronavirus infection: Symptoms and treatment. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/diseases/coronavirus.html">https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/diseases/coronavirus.html</a></p> <p>Government of Canada. (2020, March 25). New Order Makes Self-Isolation Mandatory for Individuals Entering Canada. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/news/2020/03/new-order-makes-self-isolation-mandatory-for-individuals-entering-canada.html">https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/news/2020/03/new-order-makes-self-isolation-mandatory-for-individuals-entering-canada.html</a></p><p>World Health Organization. (2020, March 18). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) advice for the public. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/advice-for-public">https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/advice-for-public</a></p><p>World Health Organization. (2020, March 9). Q&A on coronaviruses. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses">https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses</a></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Coronavirus_disease_2019--COVID-19.jpg Learn about the signs and symptoms of COVID-19, who is at greatest risk, how it is diagnosed and how to prevent spread of the virus.Main
How to talk to your child about COVID-19How to talk to your child about COVID-19How to talk to your child about COVID-19HEnglishPsychiatryChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2020-03-31T04:00:00Z9.1000000000000058.90000000000001632.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Parents and caregivers play an important role in making sure their children receive honest and accurate information during the COVID-19 pandemic.</p><h2>Introduction</h2><p>The COVID-19 pandemic is interrupting our daily lives and children are impacted by this. They are not in school and their daily routines have been disrupted. Many may hear or see things about the COVID-19 pandemic and be worried and have questions. Parents and caregivers have an important role to play in making sure their children receive honest and accurate information that is appropriate for their developmental level.</p> <h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Share ‘need to know’ information with your child, using age appropriate language.</li><li>Answer questions directly and honestly and do not make false promises.</li><li>It is okay if you do not know all the answers; focus on the short-term plan for the whole family.</li><li>If children are distressed, let them know that it is OK and understandable to have these feelings.</li><li>Model healthy coping skills and attend to your own physical and mental health.</li><li>Consider seeking out additional resources and supports for children with special needs or who are having trouble coping.</li> </ul><h2>How do I talk to my child about COVID-19?</h2><p>It is important for adults to provide accurate information that is appropriate to their child’s developmental level. For younger children, simple statements of facts are often enough. For example, you might say:</p><p> <em>“Lots of people have been getting sick with sore throats and coughs. We know that germs can cause this, so for now, places like schools, parks and stores are closed. This will help to stop the germs from spreading. We also need to wash our hands a lot, to keep ourselves and others healthy.”</em></p><p>Older children and teens may ask additional questions about where or how the pandemic began, what the leaders of our community and country are doing about it, how the pandemic affects them and how long the pandemic will last. Parents and caregivers should provide accurate, balanced and non-blaming or stigmatizing information to their children. For example, you might say:</p><p> <em>“The world is facing this challenge together and many people are working hard to come up with ways to help. As a matter of fact, the reason we are staying home is because scientists have learned this is the best way to reduce the impact of the virus. By staying home, you help to protect those that are more vulnerable such as the elderly and people with weaker immune systems.”</em></p><p>Or you could say:</p><p> <em>“This is not the first time the world has faced a challenge like this, and people become resourceful and start working together during such times to get things done. Researchers are sharing their findings to speed up progress to find treatments. Doctors and scientists across the world are talking to each other about what treatments may work and what treatments do not work. It is important you are aware not everything posted online is true. Many sites use clickbait to get you to look at information that is exaggerated, misleading or untrue.”</em></p><p>It is okay to say you do not know all the answer to your child’s questions, or that you are feeling worried as well. When talking to your child, try to present a hopeful positive outlook and tone. Be mindful of news, radio, or social media information your children are exposed to and minimize their exposure if not appropriate to their level of understanding.</p><p>Also, emphasize that your family is taking the right steps to stay safe going forward. Remember your child is not only learning from what you are explaining with words, but also, perhaps more so, from how you behave. If your actions show you are nervous and stressed, then your child will “learn” that the situation is stressful and being nervous and stressed is the best way to deal with it. In contrast, if you remain calm and composed about the situation, your child will feel safer and learn that staying calm is the best way to deal with it. Children pick up on and mirror your cues. Your children will also notice if you are ‘hiding’ things from them or having whispered conversations with other adults; this will add to a child’s stress. If you are having difficulty managing your own anxiety, ask for help from family, friends, and if needed, your health-care provider.</p><h2>How do I answer my child’s questions about COVID-19?</h2><p>When answering your child’s questions, try to find out what your child already knows. Provide accurate and honest information that is appropriate for their developmental level. Do not make false promises about how long the pandemic will last, as things are changing every day. The Centers for Disease Control has provided some <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/talking-with-children.html">child friendly answers to common health related questions about COVID-19</a>.</p><h2>Encourage children to help with planning and focus on the short-term</h2><p>Parents and caregivers can acknowledge the uncertainty regarding the coming weeks and months. They can encourage the whole family to be flexible with their plans and focus on the short-term. It can be helpful for everyone to focus on their community and their family and find safe ways to help others during the pandemic. Both children and adults feel better if they can do something. It is important to realize that even simple actions can be of great importance; for example, calling someone regularly who you know is alone or has difficulty coping with the situation. Where possible you can consider involving your child in these actions. Some examples include reaching out to relatives, friends and neighbors using methods such as social media, email, phone calls or video chat; writing letters or cards; or coming up with activities that can be shared remotely with other families. Reaching out to local online community and school groups may be another good place to start.</p><p>Work with your child to develop a daily schedule. This could include academic and learning activities, leisure and creative activities, and physical activities. It can be helpful to schedule or limit non-academic screen time from the beginning, to avoid overuse and a future need to cut back. Refer to the family schedule throughout the day. For some children an entire day can be overwhelming, so break the schedule down into shorter periods of time (for example, a morning schedule and an afternoon schedule). Try to stick to a consistent routine for waking up, meals and snacks, and bedtime. Routines offer security and predictability to children.</p><h2>If your child is upset, validate their feelings</h2><p>It is common for children (and adults) to feel scared, upset, anxious or distressed during stressful times. For some children, this may take the form of tantrums and difficult behaviours such as aggression. Other children may have more trouble getting to sleep. Some children might show regression, temporarily losing a previously acquired skill, as a symptom of anxiety. Examples include if your child starts wetting the bed or asking for more help with daily tasks such as getting dressed.</p><p>Parents and caregivers should validate their children’s feelings by saying for example: <em>“I can see you are really scared right now” or “You really miss your school and friends, it is hard to be home all day.”</em> Avoid providing false reassurance or trying to fix their distress. Offer concrete reassurance by saying for example: <em>“I am here for you when you are ready, or if you need me”</em> and <em>“We will get through this together.”</em> For younger children, distraction and redirection can also be helpful. For example, you can suggest reading a book together. Remember that children are adaptable and resilient by nature.</p><h2>Model healthy coping skills and attend to your own physical and mental health</h2><p>It is vital that parents and caregivers take care of their own physical health and stress level during the pandemic. Look after yourself because your children depend on you. This includes eating nutritious food, getting adequate sleep, taking care of your grooming, and trying to include exercise in your day. Find a few quiet moments each day and listen to music, meditate or pray, do yoga and connect with loved ones.</p><p>Children take their cues from parents and caregivers. If you as a parent or caregiver are anxious or panicked, then your child will pick up on this and likely feel the same way. Social isolation and high levels of stress can be overwhelming for everyone; it is okay for parents to step away, take breaks, and seek help when needed.</p><p>Parents and children should avoid listening to and looking at too much news and media content as this can cause and increase anxiety. You should pick a reliable news source and check in no more than once or twice each day. Reach out to your family physician or other supports if you are having trouble coping. See the <a href="https://www.camh.ca/en/health-info/mental-health-and-covid-19">Centre for Addition and Mental Health</a> website for recommendations and supports for adults.</p><h2>Consider seeking out additional resources for your child</h2><p>For children with unique communication needs or developmental disabilities, consider seeking out additional resources to explain what is happening. For example, visit Autism Speaks Canada for a <a href="https://www.autismspeaks.org/sites/default/files/flu_teaching_story_final%20%281%29.pdf">flu teaching story</a> to share with your child.</p><p>For children and youth who are experiencing ongoing increased distress or anxiety, consider reaching out to your regular health-care providers. Most providers should be able to offer virtual or phone check-ups. Some helpful online apps to help parents (and children) cope are listed below.</p><ul><li><a href="https://www.anxietycanada.com/">Anxiety Canada</a> website has helpful information and guides to develop an anxiety plan for people of all ages.</li><li>Mental health apps: <a href="https://www.anxietycanada.com/resources/mindshift-cbt/">MindShift</a>, <a href="https://www.calm.com/">Calm</a>, <a href="https://www.headspace.com/headspace-meditation-app">Headspace</a>, <a href="https://www.stopbreathethink.com/">Stop, breathe and think</a> and <a href="https://www.stopbreathethink.com/kids/">Stop, breathe and think kids</a>. These offer general coping strategies and introductions to cognitive behavioural therapy. All of them have some free content or trials.</li><li>Mindfulness and meditation: <a href="https://www.smilingmind.com.au/">Smiling mind</a> (meditation for all ages), and <a href="https://www.uclahealth.org/marc/ucla-mindful-app">UCLA Mindful</a>.</li><li><a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/mentalhealth?topic=guidedmeditations">Guided meditations</a> from AboutKidsHealth, a health education resource for children, youth and caregivers that is approved by health-care providers at The Hospital for Sick Children.</li></ul><h2>References</h2><p>Autism Speaks Canada. Visual Supports and Autism Spectrum Disorder tool kit. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.autismspeaks.ca/science-services-resources/resources/tool-kits/visual-supports-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-1/">https://www.autismspeaks.ca/science-services-resources/resources/tool-kits/visual-supports-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-1/</a></p><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, March 16). Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/handwashing/">https://www.cdc.gov/handwashing/</a></p><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, March 30). Talking with children about Coronavirus Disease 2019. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/talking-with-children.html">https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/talking-with-children.html</a></p><p>Centre for Addition and Mental Health. (2020). Mental Health and the COVID-19 Pandemic. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.camh.ca/en/health-info/mental-health-and-covid-19">https://www.camh.ca/en/health-info/mental-health-and-covid-19</a></p><p>National Association for School Psychologist. (2020, February 29). Talking to Children About COVID-19 (Coronavirus). Retrieved from <a href="https://www.camh.ca/en/health-info/mental-health-and-covid-19">https://higherlogicdownload.s3.amazonaws.com/NASN/3870c72d-fff9-4ed7-833f-215de278d256/UploadedImages/PDFs/02292020_NASP_NASN_COVID-19_parent_handout.pdf</a></p> https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/How_to_talk_to_your_child_about_COVID-19.jpgMain
Mental healthMental healthMental healthMEnglishPsychiatryChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANANACaregivers Adult (19+)NALanding PageLearning Hub<p>Learn how to support your child’s well-being with activity, sleep and nutrition; and how to recognize and manage various mental health conditions.</p><p>This hub includes resources for parents on how to support your child's mental health and general well-being through physical activity, sleep and nutrition. It also provides information on the signs, symptoms and treatments of different mental health conditions, including anxiety, bipolar disorder, depression, behavioural disorders, anorexia nervosa and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.<br></p><br> <div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/videoseries?list=PLjJtOP3StIuURSU5nmvDVZhSR8Ibr7NHK" frameborder="0"></iframe><br></div><p>Above is our mental health video playlist. To view other AboutKidsHealth videos, please visit the <a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/Aboutkidshealth">AboutKidsHealth YouTube channel</a>.</p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Well-being</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>The everyday pressures of growing up can put a strain on any child's mental well-being. Find out how physical activity, a healthy sleep routine, screen time limits and balanced nutrition can boost your child's mental health and support them through difficult times.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Physical activity</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=642&language=English">Physical activity: Guidelines for children and teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=641&language=English">Physical activity: Benefits of exercise for health and well-being</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Sleep</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=645&language=English">Sleep: Benefits and recommended amounts</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=646&language=English">How to help your child get a good night's sleep</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=647&language=English">How to help your teen get a good night's sleep</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Screen time</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=643&language=English">Screen time: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=644&language=English">How to help your child set healthy screen time limits</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Nutrition</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=639&language=English">Nutrition: How a balanced diet and healthy eating habits can help your child's mental health</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Anxiety disorders</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Every child feels anxiety at some point as a natural part of growing up. An anxiety disorder, however, is when anxious feelings interfere with a child's everyday routine. Learn more about the signs, symptoms and range of anxiety disorders and how they ​are treated.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">Anxiety: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=271&language=English">Anxiety: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=270&language=English">Types of anxiety disorders</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=701&language=English">Anxiety: Treatment with medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=702&language=English">Anxiety: Psychotherapy and lifestyle changes</a></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Resources for coping with anxiety</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Anxiety%20caregiver%20handout_Eng%2004_03_2020.pdf">The CARD System - Coping with your child's anxiety (for parents/caregivers)</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Obsessive compulsive disorder</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) occurs when a person suffers from troubling and intrusive thoughts and/or follows repetitive or strict routines to feel less worried. Learn about the causes, signs and impact of this disorder and how you can help your child.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=285&language=English">Obsessive compulsive disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=288&language=English">OCD: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=286&language=English">How OCD affects your child's life</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=709&language=English">OCD: Psychotherapy and medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=287&language=English">OCD: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Depression</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Depression is an illness that causes someone to feel deep sadness or a lack of interest in activities that they once enjoyed. Discover how this condition affects a child's mood, sleep, concentration and energy levels, and how it can be treated.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">Depression: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=284&language=English">Depression: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=707&language=English">Depression: Treatment with medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=708&language=English">Depression: Psychotherapy and lifestyle changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Bipolar disorder</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>When a person has bipolar disorder, they alternate between low and elevated moods for days, weeks or months at a time. Learn about the bipolar disorder spectrum, the symptoms of manic and depressive episodes and how medications, therapy and lifestyle changes can help.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=279&language=English">Bipolar disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=280&language=English">Bipolar disorder: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=704&language=English">Bipolar disorder: Treatment with medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=705&language=English">Bipolar disorder: Psychotherapy and lifestyle changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Suicide and self-harm</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>A child who experiences thoughts of suicide or self-harm is often suffering from overwhelming emotional pain. Find out how to help your child cope with difficult emotions, how to support and protect your child and where to find professional help.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=291&language=English">Suicide in children and teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=289&language=English">Self-harm in children and teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=290&language=English">Signs and symptoms of suicide risk</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=293&language=English">How to help your child with difficult emotions</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=292&language=English">How to protect your child from harm</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Eating disorders</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>An eating disorder not only risks your child's health but can also disrupt family life. Find out about the symptoms and treatment of anorexia, bulimia, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder and binge eating disorder and how you can help your child recover.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Anorexia nervosa</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=268&language=English">Anorexia nervosa: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=269&language=English">Anorexia: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=267&language=English">Anorexia: Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=700&language=English">Anorexia: Treatment options</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=266&language=English">Anorexia: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Bulimia nervosa</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=282&language=English">Bulimia nervosa: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=283&language=English">Bulimia: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=281&language=English">Bulimia: Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=706&language=English">Bulimia: Treatment options</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=294&language=English">Bulimia: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID)</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=274&language=English">Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=275&language=English">ARFID: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=273&language=English">ARFID: Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=703&language=English">ARFID: Treatment options</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=272&language=English">ARFID: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Binge eating disorder (BED)</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=277&language=English">Binge eating disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=278&language=English">BED: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=640&language=English">Obesity: Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=276&language=English">BED: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) involves difficulties with controlling attention and regulating behaviour. Discover the main symptoms of ADHD in children and teens, how the disorder is diagnosed and how to help your child at home and at school.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1922&language=English">Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1923&language=English">ADHD: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1997&language=English">ADHD: How to help your child at home</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1999&language=English">ADHD: Communicating with your child's school</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1998&language=English">ADHD: Treatment with medications</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Behavioural disorders</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Behavioural disorders include oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Learn how these disorders differ from typical misbehaviour, how therapy and medications can help and how you can manage problematic behaviour at home.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1924&language=English">Behavioural disorders: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1925&language=English">Behavioural disorders: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2000&language=English">Behavioural disorders: Treatment with psychotherapy and medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2001&language=English">Behavioural disorders: How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is triggered by experiencing or witnessing a terrifying event. Learn about the main symptoms of PTSD, how the condition is diagnosed and how psychotherapy and medications can help your child.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1927&language=English">Post-traumatic stress disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1928&language=English">PTSD: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2005&language=English">PTSD: Treatment with psychotherapy and medications</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Brain disorders and mental health</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>A brain disorder includes a condition, illness or injury that affects the brain and how it develops before or after birth. Find out how a brain disorder can affect your child's learning, mood and social skills, how its impact on mental health is assessed and how to help your child cope.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1926&language=English">Brain disorders and mental health: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2002&language=English">Brain disorders: Assessing your child for neuropsychological difficulties</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2003&language=English">Brain disorders: How to help your child cope</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2004&language=English">Brain disorders: Common treatments</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Parenting a child with a chronic condition</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>A chronic conditions can affect a child's mental health and everyday routines. Discover how parents and caregivers can help manage both their child's health care and routines, and support their own mental health.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3400&language=English">Living with a chronic condition: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3401&language=English">Living with a chronic condition: Helping your child manage their health</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3402&language=English">Living with a chronic condition: Maintaining your child's everyday routines</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3403&language=English">Living with a chronic condition: Supporting yourself as a caregiver</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Substance use disorder</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Substance use is the use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs for pleasure or enjoyment. Learn about the signs and symptoms of substance use and how you can help your teen if you suspect they have a substance use disorder.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3663&language=English">Substance use disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3664&language=English">Substance use disorder: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3665&language=English">Substance use disorder: How to help your teen at home</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Understanding functional symptoms and somatization</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Somatization involves expressing distress through physical symptoms. Find out about the mind-body connection, signs of somatization and the various ways to support your child or teen.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3666&language=English">Functional symptoms: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3667&language=English">Mind-body connection</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3668&language=English">Somatization: Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3669&language=English">Somatization: Common treatments</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3770&language=English">Somatization: How to help your child or teen cope</a></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Mental_health_landing-page.jpgmentalhealthhealthylivingMain
Supporting your child with a neurodevelopmental disorder through the COVID-19 crisisSupporting your child with a neurodevelopmental disorder through the COVID-19 crisisSupporting your child with a neurodevelopmental disorder through the COVID-19 crisisSEnglishPsychiatryChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2020-04-14T04:00:00Z9.8000000000000057.60000000000003300.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about strategies and ways to help your child with a neurodevelopmental disorder cope during the COVID-19 crisis.</p><h2>Introduction</h2><p>Children with neurodevelopmental disorders, such as intellectual disabilities and autism spectrum disorder, can be vulnerable to changes in routines. Unlike school holidays that are known about and can be planned for in advance, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in unexpected closures to schools, programs and services. The situation is changing rapidly, and extra planning and support may be needed to help your child to cope with these changes.</p> <h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Communicate at your child’s developmental level and use age-appropriate language.</li><li>Be a positive role model for your child and help them to cope and stay calm.</li><li>Set your child up for success by setting up a reward system, planning daily physical activity and promoting good sleep.</li><li>Watch for changes in your child’s behaviour. These could be signs that your child is becoming more stressed or anxious.</li><li>Use strategies to help manage challenging behaviours at home.</li><li>Know when to seek help if you need it. It is common and normal to feel anxious and stressed during times of crisis.</li></ul> <h2>Communicate at your child’s developmental level</h2><p>Use language that is appropriate for your child’s level of understanding to explain what is happening. Share concrete, visual information in the form of:</p><ul><li>Stories: This <a href="https://childdevcenter.org/news/social-stories-for-kids-about-covid-19/">website</a> has links to several social stories for children about COVID-19</li><li>Cartoons: This <a href="https://www.ppmd.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/The-Corona-Virus-Free-Printable-Updated-2-The-Autism-Educator-.pdf">cartoon</a> helps children understand about the virus and why their routines have changed</li> <li>Websites: Many websites have additional examples of <a href="https://www.kerrysplace.org/covid-19-resources/">communication resources</a></li></ul><p>For children who are non-vocal communicators (who cannot speak), make sure they have access to their communication system (such as pictures and visual boards, type-to-talk devices, tablet or smart phone AAC apps) to ask questions and express their feelings.</p><p>Answer your child’s questions simply and honestly, providing essential, ‘need to know’ information. Let them know you want to make sure everyone is safe and healthy. Try to focus on what will happen today and tomorrow, rather than talking about what will happen in the more distant future.</p><p>Acknowledge your child’s feelings, even if they do not express them out loud. Tell them you understand it must be very hard for them right now because they cannot see their friends and teachers, go to the places they like to visit or do many of the things they like to do. Let them know you are going to help them during this time and make positive statements such as “We will get through this together.” Some children may not want to talk about the current situation; they may express their feelings through play or art. Extra time for creative endeavours can help children process their feelings in their own way.</p><p>For tips on how to talk to your child about COVID-19, read this <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3866&language=English">article</a> or view this <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=25&v=WhVad8ToCiU&feature=emb_logo">short video</a>.</p><h2>Help your child to cope and stay calm</h2><p>Children take their cues from their parents and caregivers. If parents and caregivers are anxious or panicked, children will pick up on this and likely feel the same way. Try to be a positive role model for your child by remaining calm and optimistic without giving false hope and making promises you cannot keep. It is OK to tell children that this is hard for you too and that we all need extra help sometimes. If you are having trouble managing, ask for help from family, friends, and if needed, your health-care provider.</p><h3>Routine and predictability</h3><p>Routine and predictability are important for children with neurodevelopmental disorder to feel in control and to make sense of the world around them. Develop a schedule to follow (for links to examples, see the Resource section) and refer to it throughout the day. Some children may prefer you decide what activities are on the schedule. Other children may prefer to have a list of activities they can choose from (use photos of activities for children who don’t read). Some families find that pairing a list of acceptable and desired activities with specific rewards or tokens for completion can give children a sense of control and allow them buy-in while minimizing struggles with parent-enforced transitions. Finding an option that works best for you and your child is key.</p><h3>Identify calming activities</h3><p>Make a list of activities that are calming for your child, such as taking a bath or watching a favourite video, and add these to your schedule. For children with autism spectrum disorder, recognize that repetitive activities (e.g., lining up toys, repeating dialogue from a movie) and stereotypic motor movements (e.g., turning in circles) may help them calm down when they are upset. It may also be necessary to build more calming activities into your child’s schedule and give up some academic or other more challenging tasks.</p><h3>Reduce sensory input</h3><p>Many children with neurodevelopmental disorder experience sensory overload and can become overwhelmed when the environment is too noisy, too crowded, too bright or there are too many things to look at. If possible, it may be helpful to create a new calming spot for your child that is quieter, dimly lit and has fewer visual distractions (especially if they are now confined to a busy home). This calming spot could be in a room that is not used very often or is away from the noise and activity. If space is limited, try to section off part of a larger room to create a smaller space. For younger children, you can cover a table with a sheet to make a private sitting area or pull a couch away from the wall. Consider offering your child earphones, noise cancelling headphones or eye shades.</p><h2>Set your child (and your routines) up for success</h2><p>Identify the best times and most challenging times in the day for your child and plan activities and demands accordingly. If your child is usually better able to handle demands in the mornings, structure learning activities or less preferred tasks during those times. During times when they are feeling tired or bored, different sensory activities can be offered such as deep pressure squeezes, water play, rice bins and light-up toys. Finger painting on windows with children’s paint is also a good activity to try as it can be washed away easily and repeated. There are many suggestions for activities circulating <a href="https://busytoddler.com/">online</a>. If your child needs some time alone, it is a good idea to have a ‘sensory bin’ available for them with items like stress or Koosh balls, slinky toys, spin tops, playdough or modelling clay, and glow sticks.</p><h3>Set up a reward system for your child</h3><p>In addition to following a daily schedule, consider reinforcing (rewarding) your child for completing activities and behaving in appropriate ways with a token system. Tokens can be checkmarks, coins, buttons or other items. Once your child has earned all their tokens, they can exchange them for a preferred item such as a snack, toy or screen time. Let them know how much time they have for their preferred activity and then reset the token system. Choose the appropriate number of tokens based on your child’s abilities. Some children work for four or five tokens before getting their reward whereas others can wait longer and work for 10 or 20 tokens. Some children may not be able to grasp a token exchange system and will need an immediate reward to reinforce a desired behaviour. When a token is given, it should not be taken away regardless of what behaviour follows. Your child is earning tokens as a reward for good behaviour. If they engage in problematic behaviours at other times, do what you can to calm them down and then return to the daily schedule and you can give them a token at that point.</p><h3>Plan daily physical activity</h3><p>Some children need frequent movement breaks throughout the day. This can be challenging to do indoors, but there are some activities that can be done safely and use up some of that energy. Activities such as jumping jacks, bouncing on yoga balls or a mini trampoline, and even timed races from one side of a room to another are possible, and an adult should be present to supervise. You can move furniture to the centre of the room so that your child can run around it. You can play ‘the floor is lava’ throughout the home by putting down sheets of paper as the ‘rocks’ you are allowed to step on. There are also many children’s workout and yoga videos available online including some with popular characters. If you are not strictly isolating at home, then plan regular hikes or playing in a field or backyard. Avoid public play structures or parks as it may be hard for your child or youth to be told they cannot use the equipment.</p><h3>Promote good sleep</h3><p>It is important to promote good sleep during these stressful times. Disrupted sleep can be a sign that your child is having difficulty coping. It can also contribute to behaviour changes in your child.</p><p>Strategies to promote good sleep hygiene include:</p><ul><li>Maintaining a regular bedtime routine. Try to keep bedtime and wake up times consistent.</li><li>Creating an environment in your child’s bedroom that encourages sleep. A cooler temperature, dark or dim light, and quiet are ideal. Some children like white noise. If possible, avoid the use of screens (i.e., phone, computer, tablets) in the bedroom, and minimize access to stimulating and preferred toys in the bedroom at night.</li><li>Avoiding certain foods too close to bedtime as they can interfere with sleep. For example, eating large meals, sugar and chocolate too close to bedtime can keep children awake at night.<br></li><li>Limiting screen time if possible for about an hour before bedtime.</li><li>Encouraging relaxation before bed:</li><ul><li>Encourage quiet activities such as reading (together or independently) or listening to soothing music.</li><li>Practise relaxation techniques such as <a href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Stess%20Busters%20Deep%20Breathing%20Resource%20combined.pdf">deep breathing</a>, guided meditation or progressive muscle relaxation. Some children also enjoy receiving a massage.</li><li>Defer ‘worry time’ until the next day. If your child is anxious and asking a lot of questions, reassure them, and try to direct them to talk about it during a set time the next day, but not before bed.</li></ul></ul><h2>Watch for changes in your child’s behaviour</h2><p>Be on the lookout for signs your child is becoming more stressed or anxious. This may be new behaviour you have not seen before or existing behaviour that becomes more intense or lasts longer than usual. Examples of behaviours can include pacing, yelling, crying, hitting or throwing objects. Other children may appear more shut down or withdrawn. If possible, try to talk to your child about what may be upsetting them and identify what to do next. This could include providing validation and reassurance, offering to help them with a task they find frustrating, directing them to a quiet space to calm down, checking the schedule to see what is coming up next or offering different activities to choose from (this strategy is known as distraction and redirection). Children who are hungry, fatigued or feel unwell may also show changes in their behaviour, so it is important to identify and address possible sources of pain or discomfort. Be flexible with the daily schedule if it seems to be making behaviours worse.</p><h2>Use strategies to manage challenging behaviours at home</h2><h3>Ensure a safe environment</h3><p>Sometimes when children become very upset or distressed, they are unable to control their emotions, and this can result in tantrums or “meltdowns”. During a meltdown, a child may, for example, scream, use angry language, hit others or themselves and throw things around. First and foremost, parents and caregivers need to stay calm. If possible, direct your child to a safe space where the tantrum can run its course while keeping everyone (and the environment) safe. If this is not possible, then try to make the space around your child safe by removing furniture that can be toppled over or objects that could be damaged or thrown. You may need to put down cushions, mats or blankets to protect your child from injury due to falling to the floor. Stand close by to supervise but not so close that you may get hit and be aware of exits to ensure your child does not run away. It can be helpful to have a room (or part of a room) in the home where the environment has been made safe in advance; this could include removing breakable or very heavy objects, securing tall furniture and having available preferred and soothing objects.</p><h3>Let the meltdown run its course</h3><p>For many children, tantrum or meltdown behaviours are signs of over-arousal and loss of control. Efforts to negotiate, reason with, punish or “bribe” children during a meltdown often make things worse. Try not to reward tantrum behaviours such as by giving in to previous requests or defaulting to screen time, as it can make tantrums occur more often. Stand nearby quietly, or gently hold or hug your child if that is safer. Occasionally make gentle soothing statements, for example, “I’m here for you when you need me,” or offer a distraction or solution by saying for example, “When you are feeling ready, we can read a book or have a snack.” Avoid complex sentences or detailed explanations or instructions. Most children cannot think rationally during these times and will be unable to respond to even simple demands or suggestions.</p><h3>Identify common triggers and make a plan</h3><p>Certain times of the day, particular activities starting or ending, or specific stressors may regularly trigger challenging behaviours for your child. During a calm time, it can be helpful to develop a family strategy to address this (with or without your child’s involvement) in advance. Some children benefit from using behavioural strategies to reinforce desired behaviours (while often ignoring or redirecting undesired behaviours). Some children may need extra direct teaching and practice to learn self-regulation skills.</p><h2>A behavioural strategy is a plan to improve a specific behaviour that is challenging</h2><p> <strong>Step 1. Pick one behaviour.</strong> Select one specific target behaviour to start with (e.g., reduce meltdowns and aggression when the tablet is turned off). It may be tempting to address several behaviours, but it is key to start with one specific behaviour.</p><p> <strong>Step 2. Make your child part of the team.</strong> During a calm period, discuss with your child that you want to help them improve the specific behaviour that you identified in Step 1. For example, you could say “I notice when it is time to turn off your game, things get really difficult for everyone. We are going to try a new plan today when that happens.” As much as possible, try to see your child as a member of the same team; you are working together to improve the target behaviour. If the behaviour occurs in specific situations, do your best to ensure those trigger moments are predictable for your child. For this example, you could say, “From now on, all screens have to be turned off at 12:00 p.m. as everyone has to come for lunch.”</p><p> <strong>Step 3: Small steps.</strong> Break the desired outcome into small steps and start with a reasonable and attainable goal that your child sometimes meets already. For example, a first step could include having your child go to their room for a break for a few minutes to calm down before lunch, using a coping skill such as deep breaths or jumping jacks or keeping their hands gentle and arms down. Maybe your child can help decide what are reasonable steps towards the end goal. This way, they will feel part of the team.</p><p> <strong>Step 4: Good behaviour deserves a reward.</strong> This is a step where your child may be eager to help decide what are reasonable rewards that can be gained for each step. You can consider using a token system so that your child can earn and collect tokens that can later be exchanged for a reward.</p><p> <strong>Step 5. Give time for transitions.</strong> Help your child prepare by giving friendly warnings. For example, with the example above, you should provide a warning at 11:55 a.m., and remind your child once of the new plan.</p><p> <strong>Step 6. Execute your plan, together.</strong> When the plan is in action, wait for things to settle. With the example above, your child may became upset but is able to go to their room and calm down. Congratulate your child for having accomplished, or having attempted to accomplish, the first step towards better dealing with frustration and provide them with a token.</p><h3>A few ground rules</h3><p> <em>Do not take away tokens</em> or provide rewards for non-compliance. A good and honest attempt should be rewarded, even if the entire goal was not met.</p><p> <em>Be flexible</em>: If your child is not meeting the goal, make the first step smaller and more attainable.</p><p>It is best to reward active behaviours (e.g., keeping their hands gentle) as opposed to rewarding them for not doing something (e.g., not hitting).</p><p> <em>Follow through with consequences.</em> If some behaviours do merit a clear consequence, this should be separate from their rewards. Autism Speaks Canada has a <em> <a href="https://www.autismspeaks.ca/science-services-resources/resources/tool-kits/challenging-behaviors-tool-kit1/">Challenging Behaviour Toolkit</a></em> that can be requested.</p><h2>Know when to seek help</h2><p>These are especially challenging times, perhaps more so for parents of children with neurodevelopmental disorder. Some or all of the carefully organized supports and routines are discontinued due to the COVID-19 pandemic.</p><p>It is common and normal to feel anxious, afraid or irritable under these extreme circumstances. Most importantly, as parents and caregivers, we all need to do our best to be supportive, caring and loving to our children during times of stress.</p><p>Pay attention to your own mental health and seek <a href="https://www.camh.ca/en/health-info/mental-health-and-covid-19">help and care</a> if you need it. Social isolation and high levels of stress can be overwhelming for everyone. It is OK for parents to step away, take breaks and seek help when needed. It may also be helpful to monitor your own screen time and news consumption and try to limit this if you feel it increases your level of stress.<br></p><p>At present, the health-care system is under pressure due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Some of the regular services your child uses may be temporarily unavailable, and access to some crisis services may be restricted. At the same time, new services are being created to provide online support and advice. Service availability and accessibility may continue to change for as long as the pandemic is present. Therefore, it is advised that you reach out to your regular care team (therapist, pediatrician, family doctor, autism or developmental centre), explain the problem you are facing with your child and ask for support. Your regular health-care provider will have the latest information regarding services. Some children may require a new medication or a change in medication to help them get through this time safely at home.</p><h2>What do if there is a crisis</h2><ul><li>It can be helpful to have a ‘crisis plan’ prepared in advance. This can involve identifying coping strategies for parents and children, as well as identifying key supports and individuals, and how to contact them. Letting professional and family support people know in advance that you may be calling on them in a time of crisis can help everyone be prepared.</li><li>If the situation allows, call your regular care team (therapist, pediatrician, family doctor) as they should have the latest information regarding emergency mental health care services.</li><li>Call 911, highlight the mental health or behavioural concern and ask if a mobile crisis team is available to respond instead of the traditional approach. This will not always be possible.</li><li>If you feel that presentation to the emergency department is required, please call them first. Because of COVID-19, there may be restrictions or specific regulations in place that can help protect you and your child against possible contamination (or protect health-care workers and other patients).</li></ul><h2>Additional Resources</h2><p> <strong>Online toolkit for supporting individuals with ASD during the crisis</strong><br><a href="https://ed.unc.edu/2020/03/19/unc-team-creates-online-toolkit-for-those-supporting-individuals-with-autism-during-covid-19-epidemic/">https://ed.unc.edu/2020/03/19/unc-team-creates-online-toolkit-for-those-supporting-individuals-with-autism-during-covid-19-epidemic/</a></p><p> <strong>Tips for daily schedules in ADHD</strong><br><a href="https://www.additudemag.com/daily-schedule-coronavirus-home-school/">https://www.additudemag.com/daily-schedule-coronavirus-home-school/</a></p><p> <strong>Excellent videos and cartoons to help explain the situation to kids</strong><br><a href="https://mailchi.mp/779134e78b2d/covid-19-and-down-syndrome-updates?fbclid=IwAR1v1GF4SX_h54UAeYreS63c8XFP_2L9pulsjcMXkvrl3sdlz5DmobbTOhc">https://mailchi.mp/779134e78b2d/covid-19-and-down-syndrome-updates?fbclid=IwAR1v1GF4SX_h54UAeYreS63c8XFP_2L9pulsjcMXkvrl3sdlz5DmobbTOhc</a></p><p> <strong>E-Learning for Children with Down Syndrome (American resources)</strong><br><a href="https://mailchi.mp/e5af25bdf396/covid-19-and-down-syndrome-updates-1348871?fbclid=IwAR0IHLwpc01hSxtKxCNedyEP5pf8Yv1o5WpySTaNgRFuCsaYLHtW7Z2vU4g">https://mailchi.mp/e5af25bdf396/covid-19-and-down-syndrome-updates-1348871?fbclid=IwAR0IHLwpc01hSxtKxCNedyEP5pf8Yv1o5WpySTaNgRFuCsaYLHtW7Z2vU4g</a></p><p> <strong>How to talk to your kids about Coronavirus</strong><br><a href="https://www.pbs.org/parents/thrive/how-to-talk-to-your-kids-about-coronavirus">https://www.pbs.org/parents/thrive/how-to-talk-to-your-kids-about-coronavirus</a></p><p> <strong>Autism Speaks Canada has a challenging behavior toolkit</strong><br><a href="https://www.autismspeaks.ca/science-services-resources/resources/tool-kits/challenging-behaviors-tool-kit1/">https://www.autismspeaks.ca/science-services-resources/resources/tool-kits/challenging-behaviors-tool-kit1/</a></p><p> <strong>Visual schedules, reward systems and social stories</strong><br>Resources for special educators, therapists and families<br><a href="https://connectability.ca/2020/03/30/dealing-with-covid-19-resources-for-special-educators-therapists-families/">https://connectability.ca/2020/03/30/dealing-with-covid-19-resources-for-special-educators-therapists-families/</a></p><p>Visual support and schedules<br> <a href="https://www.kidsability.ca/uploads/Autism%20Services/AutismServices_VisualSupportsHandout.pdf">https://www.kidsability.ca/uploads/Autism%20Services/AutismServices_VisualSupportsHandout.pdf</a><br> <span><a href="https://www.naturalbeachliving.com/daily-visual-schedule/">https://www.naturalbeachliving.com/daily-visual-schedule/</a></span><br> <a href="https://adayinourshoes.com/free-printable-visual-schedules-for-home-and-daily-routines/">https://adayinourshoes.com/free-printable-visual-schedules-for-home-and-daily-routines/</a><br> <a href="https://www.sparklebox.co.uk/1801-1805/sb1801.html#.VQGfXI7F_1Z">https://www.sparklebox.co.uk/1801-1805/sb1801.html#.VQGfXI7F_1Z</a><br> <a href="https://do2learn.com/picturecards/VisualSchedules/index.htm">https://do2learn.com/picturecards/VisualSchedules/index.htm</a></p><p>Visual schedule maker<br><a href="https://connectability.ca/visuals-engine/">https://connectability.ca/visuals-engine/</a></p><p>Token Reward Systems<br><em>Explanation of a token system</em><br><a href="http://www.educateautism.com/token-economy.html">http://www.educateautism.com/token-economy.html</a><br><em>Examples of token systems</em><br><a href="https://www.earlywood.org/Page/558">https://www.earlywood.org/Page/558</a><br><a href="https://www.verywellfamily.com/create-a-token-economy-system-to-improve-child-behavior-1094888">https://www.verywellfamily.com/create-a-token-economy-system-to-improve-child-behavior-1094888</a></p><p>First/Then Boards – simple activity and reward system<br> <a href="https://www.erinoakkids.ca/ErinoakKids/files/f9/f9e82917-4dc7-40ca-901e-3a27591b2c0a.pdf">https://www.erinoakkids.ca/ErinoakKids/files/f9/f9e82917-4dc7-40ca-901e-3a27591b2c0a.pdf</a><br><a href="https://autismclassroomresources.com/visual-schedule-series-first-then/">https://autismclassroomresources.com/visual-schedule-series-first-then/</a><br><a href="https://www.tdsb.on.ca/Portals/0/Leadership/Ward12/AutismHandout_First-Then%20Strategy.pdf">https://www.tdsb.on.ca/Portals/0/Leadership/Ward12/AutismHandout_First-Then%20Strategy.pdf</a></p><p> <strong>Social Stories</strong><br> <em>Explanation of a social story</em><br> <a href="https://autismcanada.org/living-with-autism/treatments/non-medical/communication/social-stories/">https://autismcanada.org/living-with-autism/treatments/non-medical/communication/social-stories/</a><br> <em>COVID19 social stories</em><br> <a href="https://www.flipsnack.com/KeshetChicago/coronavirus-social-story/full-view.html">https://www.flipsnack.com/KeshetChicago/coronavirus-social-story/full-view.html</a><br> <a href="https://theautismeducator.ie/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/The-Corona-Virus-Free-Printable-Updated-2-The-Autism-Educator-.pdf">https://theautismeducator.ie/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/The-Corona-Virus-Free-Printable-Updated-2-The-Autism-Educator-.pdf</a></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Supporting_your_child_with_a_neurodevelopmental_disorder_through_the_COVID-19_crisis.jpgCOVID-19: Supporting your childMain

 

 

Back to schoolBack to schoolBack to schoolBEnglishNAPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2018-01-19T05:00:00Z000Landing PageLearning Hub<p>From homework tips to keeping kids active, our back to school tips will help you prepare for a fun and successful year ahead.</p><p>To most parents, September means one thing: time to send kids back to school. From homework tips, to dealing with bullying, to keeping kids active and healthy, our back to school tips will help you and your child prepare for a fun and successful year ahead.<br></p><br> <div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/videoseries?list=PLjJtOP3StIuVCTv-RpVyY6npRdMfPNg1_" frameborder="0"></iframe><br></div><p>Above is our mental health video playlist. To view other AboutKidsHealth videos, please visit the <a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/Aboutkidshealth">AboutKidsHealth YouTube channel</a>.</p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Learning</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Academics are the main reason that kids go to school. Here, find helpful tips on everything from homework help to teaching your child math skills.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=651&language=English">Reading and writing milestones</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3871&language=English">Writing milestones</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1903&language=English">Reading: How to help early and struggling readers</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=722&language=English">Mathematics milestones</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=721&language=English">Mathematics: How to help your pre-school and school-aged child</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=649&language=English">Spatial reasoning skills: How to foster in children</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1881&language=English">Visual-motor skills: How to foster in children</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Screen time</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>These days we all spend a lot of time in front of electronic devices. Find out about the impacts of too much “screen time” and how to set limits.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=643&language=English">Screen time: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=644&language=English">How to help your child set healthy screen time limits</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Relationships</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Learn how to help your kids navigate some of the more difficult aspects of relationships with their peers on and off of school grounds.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Bullying</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=303&language=English">Bullying</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=736&language=English">Cyberbullying part one</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=737&language=English">Cyberbullying part two</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=738&language=English">Cyberbullying: Talking to your children</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Sex</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=716&language=English">Sex education: What children should learn and when</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=718&language=English">Sex education for children: Why parents should talk to their kids about sex</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=717&language=English">Sex education for children: Eight tips for parents</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Mental health</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>While in school, kids may struggle with social and academic pressures that affect their mental health. Here are some tips to help them cope.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">Anxiety: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">Depression: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=289&language=English">Self-harm in children and teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=291&language=English">Suicide in children and teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=625&language=English">Promoting a positive body image</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=626&language=English">Resilience</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=630&language=English">Self-efficacy in children</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1964&language=English">Self-efficacy: How to foster in children</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Physical health</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Good physical health can help your child to feel great and achieve better academic success. From being active to eating right, we have you covered.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Sleep</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=645&language=English">Sleep: Benefits and recommended amounts</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=646&language=English">Sleep tips: How to help your child</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=647&language=English">Sleep tips: How to help your teen</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Physical activity</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=642&language=English">Physical activity: Guidelines for children and teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=641&language=English">Physical activity: Benefits of exercise for health and wellbeing</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1950&language=English">Enhancing movement skills in your child</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Nutrition</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1436&language=English">Canada's Food Guide</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=639&language=English">How a balanced diet and healthy eating habits can help your child's mental health</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1464&language=English">Meal ideas for school-aged children, tweens and teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=638&language=English">Healthy eating for teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1466&language=English">Healthy food and drink choices outside the home</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">After school</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Back to school also means a return to after school activities. Check out these articles on everything from sports to safely crossing the street.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1982&language=English">Helmets: How they prevent injury</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1983&language=English">Helmets: How to get your child to wear one</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1953&language=English">Organized sports: A winning formula for children</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1957&language=English">Playground safety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1955&language=English">Pedestrian safety for children</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1968&language=English">Water safety and drowning prevention</a></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/back_to_school_learning_hub.jpgbacktoschoolbacktoschool,healthyliving From homework tips to keeping kids active, our back to school tips will help you prepare for a fun and successful year ahead.Main
Breast changes and conditionsBreast changes and conditionsBreast changes and conditionsBEnglishNeonatologyNewborn (0-28 days)BodyNANAAdult (19+)NA2020-02-03T05:00:00Z10.600000000000054.40000000000001498.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about the changes that your breasts will go through after childbirth, and various breast complications that can interfere with breastfeeding your baby.</p><h2>Breast changes after childbirth</h2><p>Your breasts likely became tender and larger during pregnancy, as they prepared to make milk for your baby. Typically, within the first week after childbirth, you will feel further changes in your breasts as they start to produce more milk. These initial changes happen regardless of whether you are breastfeeding or not, due to hormonal changes that occur at delivery. After this stage, your breasts will continue to produce milk if you stimulate and empty the breasts on a regular basis. This demand and supply concept of breast milk production is maintained by breastfeeding your baby frequently. When your baby cannot breastfeed, you can maintain milk production by breast pumping. The following complications may occur while you are lactating, especially if your baby is not feeding effectively or you are not emptying your breasts often enough.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>The best way to prevent breast complications while lactating is to stimulate and empty the breasts on a regular basis, at least eight times in 24 hours.</li><li>Breast engorgement can be common a few days after birth.</li><li>Unresolved engorgement or a plugged milk duct can lead to an infection and/or a low milk supply, so it is important to treat these as soon as possible.</li><li>Pain, redness and flu-like symptoms usually indicate a breast infection (mastitis) that may need medical treatment.</li></ul><h2>Breast engorgement</h2><p>When your milk comes in between day three and five after birth, your breasts may become full, firm and uncomfortable. This is called breast engorgement. Engorgement is when there is swelling and increased pressure in the breasts due to an accumulation of breast milk and other fluid (interstitial fluid, lymph and blood).</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"><span class="asset-image-title">Breast engorgement</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/BreastAna_Engorgement_EN.jpg" alt="Comparison of a normal breast and an engorged breast" /></figure> <h3>Symptoms</h3><ul><li>The whole breast feels hard, heavy and tight</li><li>Breasts may have some redness and shine</li><li>Tenderness</li><li>Usually both breasts are affected</li></ul><h3>Causes</h3><ul><li>The breast is not emptied for a long period of time</li><li>The baby is not latching or drinking effectively</li><li>It is part of the natural process of milk production in the first three to five days after delivery</li></ul><h3>Treatment</h3><p>The most important strategy for relieving engorgement is frequent and effective milk removal from the breasts. You should breastfeed or breast pump at least eight times in 24 hours to help relieve engorgement and maintain your milk supply. Wear a well-fitted maternity bra for support.</p><p>Sometimes the swelling in the breast tissue during engorgement can be so severe that it stops the milk from flowing. It is important to treat this swelling as soon as it starts to occur:</p><div class="akh-series"><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Breastfeeding_ColdCompress.jpg" alt="Cold compress on the breast" /></figure> <ul><li>Apply a cold compress to your breasts for 20 minutes after or in between breastfeeds or pumping sessions to reduce swelling.</li></ul></div></div><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Breastfeeding_HotTowel.jpg" alt="Hot compress on the breast" /></figure> <ul><li>Only apply heat for a few minutes just before feeding or pumping if you are able to express some milk.</li></ul></div></div><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Breastfeeding_Engorgement_Massage.jpg" alt="Massaging of the breast, pushing towards the arm pit" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">As indicated by the blue arrow, push fluid from nipple to armpit.</figcaption> </figure> <ul><li>Lie down and massage your breasts, pushing towards the arm pits.</li><li>If needed, take an anti-inflammatory (such as ibuprofen) to control the pain and to reduce swelling.</li></ul></div></div></div><h3>Reverse pressure softening</h3> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Breastfeeding_ReversePressureSoftening.jpg" alt="Reverse pressure softening" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">As indicated by the blue arrow, press inward toward the chest wall, with fingertips touching the side of the nipple.</figcaption></figure> <p>If your areola (the dark area around your nipple) is swollen and this is interfering with milk flow and/or latching, you can do reverse pressure softening before feeding or pumping. You do this by placing the tips of your fingers on the areola and applying pressure for 60 seconds. This helps to soften the areola, which makes latching or pumping easier.</p><ul><li>It may be helpful to do this while lying down to help with fluid drainage.</li><li>You can also refer to the <a href="https://ibconline.ca/information-sheets/engorgement/">International Breastfeeding Centre</a> for more information on this technique.</li><li>A lactation consultant can help you if you require assistance.</li></ul><p>You may find hand expressing is also helpful to soften the areola enough for effective latching and pumping.</p><h2>Plugged milk ducts</h2><p>A plugged duct is an area in the breast that is not draining well, causing a blockage.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"><span class="asset-image-title">Plugged duct</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/BreastAna_PluggedDuct_EN.jpg" alt="Comparison of a normal breast and a breast with a plugged duct" /></figure> <h3>Symptoms</h3><ul><li>Tender lump, or lumpy area in the breast—this is different from engorgement, as there is hardness in just one area of the breast</li><li>Area may look red or feel warm</li><li>Decreased milk flow from affected breast</li><li>You otherwise feels well overall</li></ul><h3>Causes</h3><ul><li>The baby is not latching well</li><li>The baby is feeding less than usual due to illness</li><li>Feeds or breast pumping sessions have been missed or shortened</li><li>Tight restrictive clothing; wearing an underwire bra</li><li>Sleeping on your tummy or more on one side</li></ul><h3>Treatment</h3><p>The most important strategy for relieving a plugged duct is frequent and effective milk removal from the breasts. You should breastfeed or breast pump at least eight times in 24 hours.</p><p>A key element to treatment is removing the blockage to allow milk to flow. You can do this in the following ways:</p><div class="akh-series"><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Breastfeeding_HotTowel.jpg" alt="Hot compress on the breast" /></figure> <ul><li>Apply heat (moist heat tends to work best).</li></ul></div></div><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Breastfeeding_PluggedMastitis_Massage.jpg" alt="Massaging a breast with a plugged duct, from behind the lumpy area towards the nipple" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">As indicated by the blue arrow, push from behind blockage toward nipple.</figcaption></figure> <ul><li>Massage in a circular or downward motion from behind the lumpy area towards the nipple.</li><ul><li>If breastfeeding, massage during the feed. Try breastfeeding in positions where the baby’s chin or nose are pointing towards the affected area.</li><li>If pumping, massage during the pumping session.</li></ul></ul></div></div></div><ul><li>Try hand expressing after pumping to fully empty the breast.</li><li>If needed, take an anti-inflammatory (such as ibuprofen) to control the pain and to reduce swelling.</li><li>Wear the right sized bra (no underwire); loosen the bra to prevent compression of the milk ducts.</li><li>Take care of yourself—rest, eat, drink.</li></ul><p>An plugged duct can lead to mastitis. If symptoms do not resolve using the suggested treatments, seek medical attention.</p><h2>Mastitis</h2><p>Mastitis is inflammation of the breast tissue, sometimes occurring with an infection.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title"></span></figure><figure class="asset-c-80"><span class="asset-image-title">Mastitis</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/BreastAna_Mastitis_EN.jpg" alt="Comparison of a normal breast and a breast with mastitis" /></figure><figure><span class="asset-image-title">Mastitis</span></figure><figure><span class="asset-image-title">: Breast appearance</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Breastfeeding_Mastitis_Torso.jpg" alt="Mastitis appears as a red area on the breast" /></figure> <h3>Symptoms</h3><ul><li>A red area on the breast—there can be red streaks</li><li>Breast pain</li><li>Flu-like symptoms such as fever, chills, fatigue, general aches and pains</li><li>It usually affects only one breast</li><li>Decreased milk supply on the affected side</li></ul><h3>Causes</h3><ul><li>Inadequate emptying of the breast, caused by:</li><ul><li>Infrequent feeding or pumping</li><li>Persistent engorgement or a plugged duct</li><li>A poor latch</li><li>Restricting feeding times</li><li>An oversupply of milk</li><li>Rapid weaning</li></ul><li>Other causes or risk factors are:</li><ul><li>Bacteria, often entering through a crack on the nipple</li><li>Illness in the mother or infant</li></ul></ul><h3>Treatment</h3><p>The most important strategy for relieving mastitis is frequent and effective milk removal from the breasts. You should breastfeed or breast pump at least eight times in 24 hours.</p><p>Early mastitis with mild symptoms can be treated conservatively:</p><ul><li>Breastfeeding should be continued during this time. If your baby is not feeding at the breast, replace feeds with pumping until your baby returns to the breast.</li><ul><li>If breastfeeding, try different positions, including ones where the baby’s chin or nose are pointing towards the affected area.</li><li>Your milk supply may drop significantly on the affected side, even with frequent emptying—try not to worry. Keep emptying your breasts, and your milk supply will likely return to normal once the mastitis clears.</li></ul></ul><div class="akh-series"><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Breastfeeding_ColdCompress.jpg" alt="Cold compress on the breast" /></figure> <ul><li>Apply cold compresses for 20 minutes in between feeding or pumping to reduce pain and swelling.</li></ul></div></div><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Breastfeeding_HotTowel.jpg" alt="Hot compress on the breast" /></figure> <ul><li>Place warm compresses on the affected breast for a few minutes before feeding or pumping to promote milk flow.</li></ul></div></div><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Breastfeeding_PluggedMastitis_Massage.jpg" alt="Massaging a breast with a plugged duct, from behind the lumpy area towards the nipple" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">As indicated by the blue arrow, push from behind blockage toward nipple.</figcaption> </figure> <ul><li>Massage the blocked area in a circular or downward motion during pumping or feeding.</li></ul></div></div></div><ul><li>If needed, take an anti-inflammatory such as ibuprofen.</li><li>Take care of yourself—rest, eat, drink.</li><li>Reach out for support to decrease stress and fatigue.</li></ul><p>If you have a high fever, or if symptoms worsen or do not improve after 24 hours, seek medical attention immediately from your family doctor or closest emergency department: you may need antibiotics or further investigation of your symptoms.</p><p>Most antibiotics are safe with breastfeeding—discuss with your doctor, pharmacist, or call Telehealth Ontario’s 24/7 breastfeeding line.</p><h2>Prevention</h2><p>The best way to prevent breast complications while lactating is to empty the breasts frequently.</p><ul><li>If you are breastfeeding, feed on demand and ensure a good latch for effective milk removal.</li><li>If you are pumping, pump both of your breasts at least eight times in 24 hours, and ensure proper flange fit and settings.</li></ul><p>Hygiene:</p><ul><li>Wash hands frequently, especially if you have a crack or abrasion on your nipple or breast.</li><li>Clean and sterilize your pump kits according to manufacturer instructions.</li><li>Change breast pads frequently when wet, at least once a day.</li></ul><h2>Where to get help</h2><p>All of these breast complications are associated with ineffective milk removal from the breast. It is strongly recommended that you see a lactation consultant as soon as difficulties arise to ensure the baby is feeding effectively, or for a pumping assessment.</p><p>You can also seek help from these other health-care professionals and resources, especially if mastitis is suspected:</p><ul><li>A family doctor</li><li>An obstetrician or midwife</li><li>A walk-in clinic</li><li>Telehealth Ontario’s 24/7 breastfeeding line: 1-866-797-0000 | TTY : 1-866-797-0007</li><li>An emergency department (for mastitis not responding to conservative treatment)</li></ul><h2>Additional Resources</h2><p>To watch a video on common breast complications during lactation, please visit:<br> <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/breastfeeding-program/videos/index.html">http://www.sickkids.ca/breastfeeding-program/videos/index.html</a>.</p><p>For further resources on breastfeeding and lactation, please visit:<br> <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/breastfeeding-program/index.html">http://www.sickkids.ca/breastfeeding-program/index.html</a>.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/breast_changes_conditions.jpgBreast changes and conditions Read about changes your breasts will go through after childbirth, and various breast complications that can interfere with breastfeeding.Main
Burn prevention: Campfires and fireworksBurn prevention: Campfires and fireworksBurn prevention: Campfires and fireworksBEnglishPreventionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2013-09-19T04:00:00Z5.6000000000000074.4000000000000296.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>This page gives advice on how to prevent your child from getting a burn from campfires and fireworks.</p><p>Most burn injuries are preventable.</p><p>Campfires and fireworks are common activities during summer. They can be fun, but they can also be unsafe. Every year, campfires and fireworks cause very serious burns, including to children.</p><p>Here are tips on how to prevent burns when around campfires or fireworks.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Do not let your child come close to a campfire or fireworks.</li> <li>Do not let your child play with sparklers or light fireworks on fire.</li> </ul><h2>Campfires</h2> <p>Keep your child at a safe distance from campfires. Draw a "safety circle" around the fire that they must not cross. This circle should be at least 1.20 metres (about 4 feet) from the edge of the fire.</p> <p>Do not let your child play around the campfire. Most burns happen when children fall or walk into the campfire by accident.</p> <p>Put campfires out with water instead of sand. Covering a fire lets it retain its heat. Children can be burned from the hot ashes and coals of last night's fire. An adult should be able to put their hand directly over the ashes without feeling heat to know the fire is out.</p> <h2>Fireworks</h2> <p>Leave fireworks to the professionals. This is the safest way to enjoy fireworks and avoid burns. Sit back and watch instead.</p> <p>Children under five years old should not be allowed to use sparklers. Preschool-aged children do not have the coordination to handle fireworks safely. Do not leave your child alone with sparklers.</p> <p>Do not let your child set off fireworks. Only adults should light fireworks. Children and any other viewers should be at least 20 metres (about 50 feet) away when fireworks are lit.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/preventing_burns_from_campfires_and_fireworks.jpgBurn prevention: Campfires & fireworks Campfires and fireworks cause serious burns every year. Find advice on how to prevent your child from getting a burn.Main
How to set limits (children up to 5 years of age)How to set limits (children up to 5 years of age)How to set limits (children up to 5 years of age)HEnglishDevelopmentalBaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years)NANANAAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2020-06-19T04:00:00ZFlat ContentHealth A-Z<p>It is important to set limits with your child, starting at a young age. Learn about why children need limits, the challenges of limit setting and how to appropriately use consequences and time outs.</p><h2>Why do children need limits? </h2><p>Children need set limits for a number of reasons, including:</p><ul><li>To help make sure they are safe (e.g., don’t run into the road).</li><li>To help with certain activities (e.g., learning to socialize appropriately with others). </li><li>To optimize growth and development (e.g., sleeping through the night, eating nutritious meals). </li><li>To encourage self-regulation, which helps children calm themselves when they become frustrated or angry. Self-regulation helps with both little transitions (e.g., time for a nap) and big transitions (e.g., starting school).</li></ul><p>What you teach your child about limits will help them for the rest of their life. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Children need set limits for many reasons including to help make sure they are safe, to optimize growth and development and to encourage self-regulation.</li><li>The use of consequences helps teach children responsibility for their actions.</li><li>Time outs should only be used as a last resort; if a parent or caregivers uses time outs, they should use them in a consistent and structured way.</li></ul><h2>Challenges with limit setting </h2><p>Limit setting can be a challenge for all parents and may be especially difficult when a child has been hospitalized or has been unwell.</p><p>How children and parents react to limits will depend on: </p><ul><li>individual temperament</li><li>past relationships</li><li>the child’s experiences </li></ul><p>You can’t control how your child will react or feel about a situation, but you can help them learn how to express frustration and anger in a safe way.</p><p>Be comfortable setting limits with your child. You are keeping your child safe and helping to support their development. </p><p>Limit setting is most effective when used the same way between care providers (e.g., parents, daycare workers, grandparents). As much as possible, care providers should try to set limits consistently so the child knows what is expected of them. </p><h2>Using consequences </h2><p>Consequences help teach our children responsibility for what they do, allowing a method of controlled discipline. When using consequences with your child, consider the following:</p><ul><li>Give your child a choice to follow your instruction before giving them the consequence</li><li>Try to stay calm when giving the consequence.</li><li>Make sure you follow through with the consequence (e.g., taking away a favourite toy for a week is hard to enforce, but a few hours is more realistic).</li><li>Once the consequence is over, give your child a chance to do something helpful/positive, and praise them for it. </li><li>Show your child love and trust after a consequence. Remember, the correction is aimed at the behaviour, not the child. </li></ul><h2>Time-out tips </h2><p>Time outs should be used as a last resort. If you use time-outs as a consequence for you child, be consistent with how you use them and how the time out is structured. Here are other tips for conducting a time out:</p><ul><li>Time outs can start at approximately 2-3 years of age. </li><li>Time out should last approximately one minute per year of age, to a maximum of five minutes.</li><li>Pick an appropriate place for your child to be during their time out (e.g., not near a television or with their toys).</li><li>Give a brief explanation of what behaviour led to the time out.</li><li>Ignore the child during the time out. </li></ul><p>When time out is over, consider it a fresh start. Don’t talk about the unwanted behaviour again.</p><h2>References and additional information</h2><p> <a href="https://www.cps.ca/en/documents/position/positive-parenting" target="_blank">How clinicians can support positive parenting in the early years (2019)</a></p><p> <a href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/positive-discipline-for-young-children" target="_blank">Positive discipline for young children (2020) </a></p><p> <a href="/article?contentid=714&language=english">AboutKidsHealth: Disciplining your child </a></p><p> <a href="https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/advice-for-public/healthy-parenting" target="_blank">World Health Organization (2020) </a></p><p> <a href="https://www.imhpromotion.ca/">Infant Mental Health Promotion</a></p><p> <a href="http://www.impactparenting.com/storage/post-docs/PRIDE%20handout.pdf" target="_blank">Building Blocks of Behaviour</a></p><p> <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/parents/essentials/communication/specialplaytime.html" target="_blank">Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Special Play Time </a></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/How_to_set_limits_(in_children_up_to_5_years_of_age).jpgHow to set limits for children Learn about why children need limits, the challenges of limit setting and how to appropriately use consequences and time outs.Main
Psoriatic arthritisPsoriatic arthritisPsoriatic arthritisPEnglishRheumatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Body;SkinSkeletal systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)Joint or muscle pain;Painhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/arthritis_psoriatic_MED_ILL_EN.jpg2017-01-31T05:00:00Z8.8000000000000051.9000000000000295.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Psoriatic arthritis is one type of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Learn about the symptoms and possible complications of this condition.</p><p>Psoriasis is a skin disease. It is a scaly, red rash, usually on the scalp, behind the ears, on the eyelids, elbows, knees, or buttocks, or inside the belly button. Some people with psoriasis may also have pits or ridges in their fingernails. Children or teenagers with psoriasis may also have arthritis. This is called psoriatic arthritis. Sometimes the psoriasis starts before the arthritis, but sometimes the arthritis begins before the psoriasis. A family history of psoriasis is an important clue to the correct diagnosis.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Psoriasis is a scaly, red rash, usually on the scalp, behind the ears, on the eyelids, elbows, knees, buttocks, or inside the belly button.</li> <li>Psoriatic arthritis affects 3% to 10% of children with JIA.</li> <li>It can be mild or it can be severe and last into adulthood.</li></ul><figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Psoriatic arthritis</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/arthritis_psoriatic_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Identification of finger, hip and toe joints and illustrations of psoriatic rash, nail splitting and dactylitis" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Psoriatic arthritis affects both males and females equally. It is characterized by nail pitting, swollen fingers or toes, soreness in any joint, and red scaly rash.</figcaption> </figure> <h2>Quick facts about psoriatic JIA</h2><p>Here are a few more things you should know about psoriatic JIA:</p><ul><li>It occurs in 3% to 10% of young people who have JIA.</li><li>It can occur at any age.</li><li>It affects both boys and girls equally.</li><li>It can affect a few or many joints.</li><li>It may involve the hips or back, similar to enthesitis-related arthritis.<br></li><li>When the tendons of the fingers or toes become swollen or inflamed, they may look like sausages. This is called dactylitis.</li><li>There is a moderate risk of eye disease, called uveitis.</li></ul><p>Some children and teenagers have relatively mild psoriatic arthritis. Others have a more severe disease that can last into adulthood.</p>August is Psoriasis Awareness Month Learn about psoriatic arthritis, a type of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) that affects 3% to 10% of young people who have JIA.Main