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Café-au-lait macules (CALMs)Café-au-lait macules (CALMs)Café-au-lait macules (CALMs)CEnglishDermatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)SkinSkinConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_CALM_light_brown_EN.jpg2015-05-06T04:00:00ZCarmen Liy Wong, MD;Irene Lara-Corrales, MSc, MD​8.0000000000000064.0000000000000518.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Café-au-lait macules are flat marks on the skin. Find out how CALMs are diagnosed, how they affect the body and how they are treated.<br></p><h2>What are café au lait macules?</h2> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_CALM_light_brown_EN.jpg" alt="" /> </figure> <p>Café-au-lait macules (CALMs), or café-au-lait spots, are flat, oval lesions (marks) on the skin. Café-au-lait means "coffee with milk" in French. The name refers to the colour of the spots, as they are at least a shade darker than your child’s skin tone.</p><p>Café-au-lait macules commonly appear at birth but may develop later, during the first year of life. Their colour varies from light brown to dark brown.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Café au lait macules are harmless light to dark brown, oval, well-defined spots.</li> <li>They are normally present from birth and can increase in number and size over time.</li> <li>Multiple café au lait macules are associated with different genetic disorders.</li> <li>See a doctor if your child has undefined hyperpigmented lesions, more than six CALMs or has CALMs with lumps and bumps on the skin.</li> </ul><h2>How do CALMs affect the body?</h2> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_CALM_dark_brown_EN.jpg" alt="" /> </figure> <p>CALMs are benign (harmless). They do not hurt or itch and never progress to anything serious such as skin cancer. The spots can become darker throughout childhood or with sun exposure, but this is not a cause for concern.</p><h2>How common are CALMs?</h2> <p>The size and number of café au lait macules vary from child to child. About one in five healthy children have one or two CALMs. Up to one in 100 children have three CALMs.</p><h2>How are CALMs diagnosed?</h2> <p>CALMs are easily diagnosed by a skin examination. "Typical" CALMs range from light to dark brown and are well defined, even coloured and often round or oval. They vary in size and can appear anywhere on the skin, although they rarely appear on the face.</p><h2>How are CALMs treated?</h2> <p>No therapy is needed for CALMs. If your child is concerned about how their CALMs look, you can consider covering the CALMs with camouflage make-up to make them less noticeable. Some people consider laser treatment to reduce the colour, but this is painful and expensive. It also carries side effects and may not be very effective in reducing the colour of the CALMs. </p><h2>Are CALMs ever a feature of another condition?</h2> <p>CALMs can sometimes indicate an underlying genetic disorder. See your child’s doctor if your child has:</p> <ul> <li>six or more CALMs measuring more than 5 mm before puberty</li> <li>six or more CALMs measuring more than 15 mm during puberty</li> </ul> <p>If a genetic disorder is present, tiny CALMs, which look like freckles, may be visible under the arms or around the groin.</p> <p>The most common genetic disorder linked with multiple CALMs is <a href="/Article?contentid=864&language=English">neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1)</a>. Other conditions with CALMs as a symptom include McCune-Albright syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, Noonan syndrome, Legious syndrome and Fanconi anaemia.</p><h2>When to see a doctor for CALMs</h2> <p>See your child’s doctor or dermatologist if your child has:</p> <ul> <li>an undiagnosed pigmented lesion</li> <li>more than six café au lait macules measuring more than 5mm before puberty or more than 15 mm after puberty</li> <li>freckling around the armpit or groin</li> <li>CALMs with lumps and bumps on the skin</li> <li>other family members with multiple CALMs or a diagnosis of NF-1</li> <li>many CALMs with any learning problems or speech, language or other developmental delays</li> </ul><h2>​Further information</h2> <p><a href="http://www.ctf.org/" target="_blank">Children's Tumor Foundation</a></p> <p><a href="http://dermnetnz.org/" target="_blank">Dermnet New Zealand Trust: Facts about the skin</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.nfon.ca/" target="_blank">Neurofibromatosis Society of Ontario</a></p>Café-au-lait macules (CALMs)
Keeping kids on the moveKeeping kids on the moveKeeping kids on the moveKEnglishPreventionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-07-16T04:00:00ZShaw​na Silver, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, PEng8.0000000000000061.00000000000001033.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out how active transportation and child-friendly communities can help children be more independent and physically active.</p><p>The growing popularity of cars in North America over the past 50 years has created suburbs and towns that require many people to drive every day. As a result, children are often travelling by car instead of walking, bicycling or using another form of transportation. This reliance on cars can have a major impact on children’s health and development and on the types of neighbourhoods in which they live.</p><h2>Key points<br></h2> <ul> <li>Heavy car use can make children less active, less connected from the environment and less independent.</li> <li>Active transportation involves travelling on foot or by bike for some journeys instead of relying on a car.</li> <li>Parents can encourage active transportation by taking part in car-free days, helping a child find the best walking and cycling routes nearby and getting involved in making a child’s school safer for those who walk or cycle there.</li> <li>Child-friendly communities can make active transportation more realistic because they are safe and accessible and integrate nature, local amenities and the needs of different age groups.<br></li> </ul><h2>How car use affects children</h2><p>Car use affects children's health, development and safety in a number of ways.</p><ul><li>Children who are less <a href="/Article?contentid=642&language=English">physically active</a> have an increased risk of health problems, including being <a href="/Article?contentid=640&language=English">overweight</a>.</li><li>Children who see life mainly “through the car windshield” are less connected with the environment around them.</li><li>Heavy traffic reduces children's ability to travel independently. <a href="/Article?contentid=1955&language=English">Safety</a> concerns may mean that they cannot walk or bicycle around their neighbourhood or go to nearby parks, schools and stores.</li><li>Traffic limits children's ability to play in the front yard or the street, which in turn limits how long they play and the richness of that play.</li></ul><p>Urban planners, local government, real estate developers and public transit authorities, among others, all influence how neighbourhoods develop and what type of transport is available. But despite the involvement of many groups in creating communities, there are still ways for parents to get children moving differently to and from school and make communities safer.</p><h2>How parents can create child-friendly journeys</h2><h3>Encourage active transportation</h3><ul><li>Active transportation means making a journey on foot or by bicycle instead of by car or bus. Next time you make a trip, consider if walking or bicycling could get you and your child to your destination instead.</li><li>Involve your child in decisions about how to get around. Given the choice, many children would prefer walking, bicycling or in-line skating to taking the car to get where they want to go.</li><li>Be a role model. Use active transportation for your own journeys whenever you can.</li><li>Walk and bicycle with your child. Help them find the best routes to where they want to go and teach them how to get around safely.</li><li>If your child must use public transit, start teaching them how to use it at a young age.</li><li>Take part in car-free days. Encourage your neighbours and co-workers to take part as well.</li><li>Start a "walking school bus" to get your child and your neighbours' children to school. A physically active school commute can be a fun social time for kids.</li><li>Get involved in making your child's school safer for children who walk there. Try to get the school to give priority to pedestrians instead of cars and reduce engine idling and traffic congestion at drop-off points.</li><li>Find out if your child's school has safe and secure storage for bicycles. If not, encourage the school to provide it.</li></ul><h3>Advocate for a "child-friendly community"</h3><p>Sometimes, certain conditions need to be in place for active transportation to be a realistic option. This is where the concept of a "child-friendly community" arises.</p><p>In his Bill of Rights for Kids, Colorado architect Harry Teague advocates for child-friendly communities that:</p><ul><li>are safe and accessible</li><li>are built to an appropriate scale</li><li>integrate nature, work and the needs of different ages and sexes into the surroundings</li><li>show elements of tradition</li></ul><p>The following sample questions can help you decide if your own neighbourhood is a healthy, friendly place for your family.</p><p> <em>Safety</em></p><ul><li>Is there a lot of traffic? What is the speed limit?</li><li>Are there sidewalks on at least one side of every street?</li><li>Are there bike paths or bike lanes?</li><li>Are there narrow streets to slow down drivers and help pedestrians and cyclists cross?</li><li>On busier streets, are there many crosswalks and traffic lights?</li><li>Are there "eyes on the street" - neighbours and workers who will keep an eye out for trouble and be able to give help if needed? Do homes have front porches and windows facing the street?</li><li>Is there enough street lighting?</li></ul><p> <em>Accessibility</em></p><ul><li>Is the neighbourhood close enough to where children need and want to go - schools, parks, playgrounds, recreational facilities, stores, libraries, friends and family - for them to walk or bicycle there?</li><li>Is it cut off by a major road or highway?</li><li>Is it near public transit that goes somewhere useful or will kids have to take a number of buses?</li><li>Are there places to park a bicycle when shopping or going to the library?</li><li>Do other people walk or bicycle?</li></ul><p> <em>Integration</em></p><ul><li>Do other kids live nearby?</li><li>How easy is it for kids in the neighbourhood to play together in a casual, unstructured way?</li><li>Can you and your family get to know neighbours and local shopkeepers?</li><li>Does the community have a mix of features such as schools, parks, recreational facilities, places of worship, stores, a library, doctor, dentist or opportunities for after-school or summer jobs?</li><li>Do people of different ages and backgrounds live in the area?</li><li>Have natural areas in the neighbourhood been preserved?</li><li>If your housing needs change, are different types of housing – large and small houses or apartments – available in the neighbourhood?</li></ul><p> <em>Tradition</em></p><ul><li>Are there monuments, landmarks or natural areas that can anchor kids to their community?</li><li>What are the plans to develop the area in the future?</li></ul><p>If your neighbourhood falls short in some areas, you might decide to share your findings with neighbours and bring your requests as a group to your local government representative.</p><h2>Why child-friendly communities matter</h2><p>A neighbourhood that is good for kids is good for the whole family and the whole community. Specifically, child-friendly communities give children the best opportunity to make active transportation a reality for their regular journeys.</p> <br>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/keeping_kids_on_the_move_the_role_of_active_transportation.jpgKeeping kids on the move
Back to schoolBack to schoolBack to schoolBEnglishNAPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2018-01-19T05:00:00Z000Landing PageLearning Hub<p>From homework tips to keeping kids active, our back to school tips will help you prepare for a fun and successful year ahead.</p><p>To most parents, September means one thing: time to send kids back to school. From homework tips, to dealing with bullying, to keeping kids active and healthy, our back to school tips will help you and your child prepare for a fun and successful year ahead.</p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Learning</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Academics are the main reason that kids go to school. Here, find helpful tips on everything from homework help to teaching your child math skills.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=651&language=English">Reading and writing milestones</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1903&language=English">Reading problems: How to help your child</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=722&language=English">Mathematics milestones</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1899&language=English">Mathematics: How to help your child</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=649&language=English">Spatial reasoning skills: How to foster in children</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Screen time</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>These days we all spend a lot of time in front of electronic devices. Find out about the impacts of too much “screen time” and how to set limits.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=643&language=English">Screen time: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=644&language=English">How to help your child set healthy screen time limits</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Relationships</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Learn how to help your kids navigate some of the more difficult aspects of relationships with their peers on and off of school grounds.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Bullying</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=303&language=English">Bullying</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=736&language=English">Cyberbullying part one</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=737&language=English">Cyberbullying part two</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=738&language=English">Cyberbullying: Talking to your children</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Sex</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=716&language=English">Sex education: What children should learn and when</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=718&language=English">Sex education for children: Why parents should talk to their kids about sex</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=717&language=English">Sex education for children: Eight tips for parents</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Mental health</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>While in school, kids may struggle with social and academic pressures that affect their mental health. Here are some tips to help them cope.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">Anxiety: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">Depression: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=289&language=English">Self-harm in children and teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=291&language=English">Suicide in children and teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=625&language=English">Promoting a positive body image</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=626&language=English">Resilience</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=630&language=English">Self-efficacy in children</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1964&language=English">Self-efficacy: How to foster in children</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Physical health</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Good physical health can help your child to feel great and achieve better academic success. From being active to eating right, we have you covered.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Sleep</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=645&language=English">Sleep: Benefits and recommended amounts</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=646&language=English">Sleep tips: How to help your child</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=647&language=English">Sleep tips: How to help your teen</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Physical activity</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=642&language=English">Physical activity: Guidelines for children and teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=641&language=English">Physical activity: Benefits of exercise for health and wellbeing</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1950&language=English">Enhancing movement skills in your child</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h3>Nutrition</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1436&language=English">Canada's Food Guide</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=639&language=English">How a balanced diet and healthy eating habits can help your child's mental health</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1464&language=English">School-aged child, tween and teen meal ideas</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=638&language=English">Healthy eating for teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1466&language=English">Healthy food and drink choices outside the home</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">After school</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Back to school also means a return to after school activities. Check out these articles on everything from sports to safely crossing the street.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1982&language=English">Helmets: How they prevent injury</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1983&language=English">Helmets: How to get your child to wear one</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1953&language=English">Organized sports: A winning formula for children</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1957&language=English">Playground safety</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1955&language=English">Pedestrian safety for children</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1968&language=English">Water safety and drowning prevention</a></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/back_to_school_learning_hub.jpgBackToSchoolbacktoschool,healthylivingBack to school
EaracheEaracheEaracheEEnglishOtolaryngologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)EarsNervous systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Decreased hearing;Earache;Fever;Painhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_otitis_media_EN.jpg2015-04-24T04:00:00ZElly Berger, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, MHPE8.0000000000000069.0000000000000616.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>An earache can develop because of an infection, impacted earwax or an injury. Learn how to treat an earache at home and when to see a doctor.<br></p><h2>What is earache?</h2> <p>Earache can be a sharp, dull or burning pain in one or both ears. This pain can last for a short or long time. Earache is common in children.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>An earache can be a sharp, dull or burning pain in one or both ears that can last for a short or long time.</li> <li>Earaches are often caused by ear and other upper respiratory infections. Other causes include impacted earwax or injury.</li> <li>You can help relieve a child's earache by encouraging them to swallow if the earache is due to changes in altitude. You can give over-the-counter pain medications if the earache is due to infection or injury.</li> <li>Get medical help right away if your child has severe pain and fever, if they have new or worsening symptoms or if they have fluid or blood oozing from the ear. </li> </ul><h2>Causes of earache</h2><p>The Eustachian tubes connect the ears to back of the mouth, near the throat. Short-term changes in pressure in one or both Eustachian tubes are one of the most common causes of earache. The changes in pressure occur when a child has an <a href="/article?contentid=12&language=English">upper respiratory infection</a>, such as the common cold or a throat, ear or sinus infection.</p><h3>Ear infections</h3><p>An <a href="/article?contentid=8&language=English">ear infection</a> occurs when there is swelling or build-up of fluids in the middle ear, most often from a viral or bacterial infection. It is also called otitis media. The middle ear is the space between the eardrum and inner ear.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Otitis media</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_otitis_media_EN.jpg" alt="" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">In otitis media, the Eustachian tube is blocked. Fluid and pressure then build up in the middle ear. This makes the eardrum bulge outward and causes pain.</figcaption> </figure> <p>A child with an ear infection displays some of the following common signs and symptoms:</p><ul><li>ear pain</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a></li><li>fussiness</li><li>irritability</li><li>pulling or rubbing the ear</li><li>increased <a href="/Article?contentid=448&language=English">crying</a></li><li>trouble sleeping</li><li>fluid draining from the ear</li><li>difficulty hearing.<br></li></ul><h3>Other possible causes of earache</h3><ul><li>Pressure changes in the ears (for example during take-off or landing in a plane or if there is a lot of mucus in the sinuses)</li><li>Injury to the ear</li><li>Irritation from a foreign object in the ear</li><li>Impacted (packed-in) ear wax in the ear canal, usually caused by using cotton swabs incorrectly</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=747&language=English">Swimmer's ear (otitis externa)</a></li></ul><h2>How to treat your child’s earache</h2> <p>If your child has an earache on an airplane, have them chew gum or swallow to help relieve the pressure in their ears. If your child is an infant, allowing them to suck on a bottle or breastfeed while the plane lands may ease their discomfort.</p> <p>If your child is diagnosed with an ear infection, and they are under six months of age, the doctor will prescribe antibiotics. If your child is older than six months and they have only mild discomfort and a low-grade fever, your doctor might decide to wait for two or three days to see if the ear infection gets better on its own. If your child is older than six months, but they are in a lot of pain or have a high fever, the doctor might decide to start the antibiotic treatment right away.</p> <p>You can give over-the-counter pain medications such as <a href="/Article?contentid=62&language=English">acetaminophen</a> or <a href="/article?contentid=153&language=English">ibuprofen</a> to reduce your child’s pain. Only give ibuprofen if your child is drinking reasonably well. Do not give ibuprofen to babies younger than 6 months without first talking to your doctor.</p><h2>When to call a doctor for earache</h2> <p>See a doctor if:</p> <ul> <li>your child has severe pain and fever</li> <li>your child's symptoms get worse over the next 24 to 48 hours</li> <li>your child has dizziness, severe headaches, stiff neck or swelling around or behind the ear</li> <li>your child has fluid or blood oozing from the ear.<br></li> </ul>Earache
Mental healthMental healthMental healthMEnglishPsychiatryChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANANACaregivers Adult (19+)NALanding PageLearning Hub<p>Learn how to support your child’s wellbeing with activity, sleep and nutrition and how to recognize and manage various mental health conditions.<br></p><p>This hub includes resources for parents on how to support your child's mental health and general wellbeing through physical activity, sleep and nutrition. It also provides information on the signs, symptoms and treatments of different mental health conditions, including anxiety, bipolar disorder, depression, behavioural disorders, anorexia nervosa and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.<br></p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Wellbeing<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>The everyday pressures of growing up can put a strain on any child's mental wellbeing. Find out how physical activity, a healthy sleep routine, screen time limits and balanced nutrition can boost your child's mental health and support them through difficult times.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Physical Activity</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=642&language=English">Physical activity: Guidelines for children and teens</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=641&language=English">Physical activity: Benefits of exercise for health and wellbeing</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Sleep</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=645&language=English">Sleep: Benefits and recommended amounts</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=646&language=English">How to help your child get a good night's sleep</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=647&language=English">How to help your teen get a good night's sleep</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Screen time</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=643&language=English">Screen time: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=644&language=English">How to help your child set healthy screen time limits</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Nutrition</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=639&language=English">Nutrition: How a balanced diet and healthy eating habits can help your child's mental health</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Anxiety disorders<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Every child feels anxiety at some point as a natural part of growing up. An anxiety disorder, however, is when anxious feelings interfere with a child's everyday routine. Learn more about the signs, symptoms and range of anxiety disorders and how they ​are treated.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">Anxiety: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=271&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=270&language=English">Types of anxiety disorders</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=701&language=English">Treatment with medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=702&language=English">Psychotherapy and lifestyle changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Obsessive compulsive disorder<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) occurs when a person suffers from troubling and intrusive thoughts and/or follows repetitive or strict routines to feel less worried. Learn about the causes, signs and impact of this disorder and how you can help your child.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=285&language=English">Obsessive compulsive disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=288&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=286&language=English">How OCD affects your child's life</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=709&language=English">Psychotherapy and medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=287&language=English">How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Depression<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Depression is an illness that causes someone to feel deep sadness or a lack of interest in activities that they once enjoyed. Discover how this condition affects a child's mood, sleep, concentration and energy levels, and how it can be treated.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">Depression: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=284&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=707&language=English">Treatment with medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=708&language=English">Psychotherapy and lifestyle changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Bipolar disorder</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>When a person has bipolar disorder, they alternate between low and elevated moods for days, weeks or months at a time. Learn about the bipolar disorder spectrum, the symptoms of manic and depressive episodes and how medications, therapy and lifestyle changes can help.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=279&language=English">Bipolar disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=280&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=704&language=English">Treatment with medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=705&language=English">Psychotherapy and lifestyle changes</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Suicide and self-harm</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>A child who experiences thoughts of suicide or self-harm is often suffering from overwhelming emotional pain. Find out how to help your child cope with difficult emotions, how to support and protect your child and where to find professional help.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=291&language=English">Suicide in children and teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=289&language=English">Self-harm in children and teens: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=290&language=English">Signs and symptoms of suicide risk</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=293&language=English">How to help your child with difficult emotions</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=292&language=English">How to protect your child from harm</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Eating disorders<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>An eating disorder not only risks your child's health but can also disrupt family life. Find out about the symptoms and treatment of anorexia, bulimia, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder and binge eating disorder and how you can help your child recover.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Anorexia nervosa</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=268&language=English">Anorexia nervosa: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=269&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=267&language=English">Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=700&language=English">Treatment options</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=266&language=English">How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Bulimia nervosa</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=282&language=English">Bulimia nervosa: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=283&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=281&language=English">Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=706&language=English">Treatment options</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=294&language=English">How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID)</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=274&language=English">Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=275&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=273&language=English">Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=703&language=English">Treatment options</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=272&language=English">How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li><li><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h3>Binge eating disorder (BED)</h3></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=277&language=English">Binge eating disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=278&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=640&language=English">Obesity: Medical complications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=276&language=English">How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) involves difficulties with controlling attention and regulating behaviour. Discover the main symptoms of ADHD in children and teens, how the disorder is diagnosed and how to help your child at home and at school.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1922&language=English">Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1923&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1997&language=English">How to help your child at home</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1999&language=English">Communicating with your child's school</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1998&language=English">Treatment with medications</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Behavioural disorders</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Behavioural disorders include oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Learn how these disorders differ from typical misbehaviour, how therapy and medications can help and how you can manage problematic behaviour at home.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1924&language=English">Behavioural disorders: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1925&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2000&language=English">Treatment with psychotherapy and medications</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2001&language=English">How to help your child at home</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is triggered by experiencing or witnessing a terrifying event. Learn about the main symptoms of PTSD, how the condition is diagnosed and how psychotherapy and medications can help your child.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1927&language=English">Post-traumatic stress disorder: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1928&language=English">Signs and symptoms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2005&language=English">Treatment with psychotherapy and medications</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">Brain disorders and mental health</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>A brain disorder includes a condition, illness or injury that affects the brain and how it develops before or after birth. Find out how a brain disorder can affect your child's learning, mood and social skills, how its impact on mental health is assessed and how to help your child cope.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1926&language=English">Brain disorders and mental health: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2002&language=English">Assessing your child for neuropsychological difficulties</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2003&language=English">How to help your child cope</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2004&language=English">Common treatments</a></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Mental_health_landing-page.jpgmentalhealthhealthyliving

 

 

First aid kitFirst aid kitFirst aid kitFEnglishPreventionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2013-04-23T04:00:00ZElizabeth Berger, BA, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, MHPE9.0000000000000053.0000000000000413.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find a list of supplies and medicines to include in a first aid kit. It is recommended that there be an equipped first aid kit in the house and in the car.</p><p>Like smoke detectors and fire extinguishers, a first aid kit is a necessity for every home, cottage, and workplace. Accidents and injuries can happen to anyone at any time so it is important to be prepared.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Keep your first aid kit in a central location so it is easily accessible.</li> <li>Try to keep the contents of the first aid kit at room temperature.</li> <li>If your first aid kit contains medications, remember to check expiration dates and replace when necessary. Remember to keep out of reach of small children.</li> <li>Consider keeping a basic first aid kit in your car.</li> </ul><p>After you purchase or assemble a first aid kit, store it in a central location so it is easily accessible. If your first aid kit contains medications, be sure to check expiration dates and replace as necessary. Also, consider keeping a second first aid kit in your car because emergencies can happen on the road, too.<br></p> <figure class="asset-c-100"> <span class="asset-image-title">Basic first aid kit  </span><span class="asset-image-title">contents</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/First_aid_kit_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Every home should have a first-aid kit and everybody in the home should know how to use it. Taking time now to prepare will ensure you are equipped for emergencies.</figcaption> </figure> <h2>A basic first aid kit should include:</h2><ul><li>alcohol pads or antiseptic pads</li><li>Band-Aids (all sizes)</li><li>cotton balls and Q-tips</li><li>elastic bandages</li><li>hot and cold packs<br></li><li>medical tape</li><li>small container of sterile water or saline spray</li><li>soap and hand sanitizer</li><li>sterile gloves (vinyl or plastic)<br></li><li>sterile gauze roll and pads</li><li>triangular bandages</li><li>CPR mask with one-way valve</li></ul><h3>Over-the-counter medications</h3><ul><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=62&language=English">acetaminophen</a></li><li>aloe</li><li>antibiotic ointment</li><li>calamine lotion</li><li>hydrocortisone cream (1%)</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=153&language=English">ibuprofen</a></li><li>sunscreen (SPF of 30 or higher)</li></ul><h3>Other supplies</h3><ul><li>emergency blanket (stored nearby)</li><li>flashlight and extra batteries</li><li>insect repellent (10% or less DEET)</li><li>matches and candles</li><li>paper and pencil</li><li>safety pins</li><li>sharp scissors</li><li>splinting material</li><li>thermometer</li><li>tweezers</li><li>bottle of drinking water</li><li>basic pocket guide or first aid manual</li><li>other items specific to the activity or destination</li></ul><h3>Additional information</h3><p>Extreme temperature differences may reduce the effectiveness of some medications. If possible, try to keep the contents of the first aid kit at room temperature.</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/first_aid_kit.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/first_aid_kit.jpgFirst aid kit
Skin biopsy: Caring for your child after the procedureSkin biopsy: Caring for your child after the procedureSkin biopsy: Caring for your child after the procedureSEnglishDermatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)SkinSkinTestsCaregivers Adult (19+)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_skin_biopsy_excision_EN.jpg2016-06-13T04:00:00ZAlicia Bahadur;Michelle Lee, BScN, RN;Jackie Su, RN, MN;Irene Lara-Corrales, MSc, MD;Elena Pope, MD6.0000000000000071.0000000000000451.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>A skin biopsy helps diagnose skin problems. Find out how to help your child's skin heal after a skin biopsy and how to manage any complications.<br></p><p>A <a href="/Article?contentid=2464&language=English">skin biopsy</a> involves taking a sample of your child’s skin and sending it for testing in a laboratory.<br></p><h2>Key points<br></h2> <ul> <li>Follow all instructions for caring for your child’s skin after a biopsy.</li> <li>Call your child's doctor or see a local healthcare professional if your child’s skin becomes redder or more painful or if there is pus.<br></li> </ul><h2>How do I care for my child’s skin if there are complications?</h2> <p>The risks of a skin biopsy include pain, bleeding, infections, scars and stitches popping open. </p> <table class="akh-table"> <thead> <tr><th>Risk</th><th>Treatment</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td>Pain</td> <td>If needed, give your child <a href="/Article?contentid=62&language=English">acetaminophen</a> every four to six hours once or twice after the local anaesthetic wears off. If your child cannot take acetaminophen, ask your doctor for suggestions.</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Bleeding</td> <td>Apply pressure for 15 minutes. Do not peek at the bleeding site while holding pressure.</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Infection (rare)</td> <td>If the area becomes redder or more painful or if there is pus, have it assessed by a local healthcare professional. Your child may need oral antibiotics.</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Scarring</td> <td>No treatment is needed. Scarring is normal when the skin heals from a cut.</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Stitches popping open</td> <td>This can happen if the biopsy is done where the skin is tight or if the skin around the biopsy is bumped or stretched. Remove the stitch and clean the skin as instructed.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table><h2>When will I find out about my child's biopsy results?</h2> <p>It takes a few weeks to get the results of a biopsy. Your child's health-care team will decide with you when to follow up in the clinic to review the results.</p><h2>How do I care for my child’s skin after their biopsy?</h2> <p>How you care for your child’s skin depends on whether your child needed stitches after their biopsy.</p> <table class="akh-table"> <thead> <tr><th>Biopsy with stitches</th><th>Biopsy with no stitches</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td><ol><li>For the first 24 hours, leave the bandage on and keep the area clean and dry.</li><li>After the first 24 hours, remove the bandage and rinse the site well. Pat it dry with a clean towel.</li><li>Apply petroleum jelly or the antibiotic ointment recommended by your doctor to the area every day.</li><li>If your child prefers, cover the area of the biopsy with a new bandage.</li><li>Arrange to have your family doctor or another healthcare professional remove your child’s stitches ___ days after their biopsy.</li></ol></td> <td><ol><li>For the first 24 hours, leave the bandage on and keep the area clean and dry.</li><li>After the first 24 hours, remove the bandage and rinse the site well. Pat it dry with a clean towel.</li><li>Your child’s skin will form a scab as it heals. Apply the recommended antibiotic ointment every day until the scab falls off.</li><li>If your child prefers, cover the area of the biopsy with a new bandage.</li></ol></td> </tr> </tbody> </table><figure> <a href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/INM_skin_biopsy_after_care_PDF_EN.pdf"> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/INM_skin_biopsy_after_care_download_PDF_EN.jpg" alt="" /> </a></figure> Skin biopsy: Care after the procedure
Peanut allergyPeanut allergyPeanut allergyPEnglishAllergyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-12-18T05:00:00ZVy Kim, MD, FRCPC;Anna Kasprzak, RN​9.0000000000000057.0000000000000865.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>A peanut allergy is a life-long reaction to the proteins in peanuts. Find out how to help your child manage it.<br></p><h2>What is a peanut allergy?</h2><p>A peanut allergy occurs when the body reacts to the proteins in peanuts. This allergy is treated separately from other <a href="/Article?contentid=812&language=English">nut allergies</a>. While other nuts grow on trees, peanuts (like beans, peas and lentils) belong to the legume family and grow underground.<br></p> ​ <h2>If my child has an allergy to peanuts, must they avoid all other nuts?</h2><p>People who are allergic to peanuts might not have an allergy to tree nuts. However, a person can be allergic to both.</p><h2>How serious is a peanut allergy?</h2><p>A peanut allergy carries the risk of <a href="/Article?contentid=781&language=English">anaphylaxis</a>, a severe and life threatening allergic reaction.</p><p>Some children are so sensitive to peanuts that inhaling a small amount of peanut protein (for example a tiny amount of shelled peanut in the air) can trigger a reaction. However, a person with a peanut allergy will not develop symptoms when exposed to the smell of peanuts, for example in peanut butter. The smell may trigger a response in a child with a peanut allergy because of their fear of peanuts, but this is not the same as physical allergic symptoms.</p><h2>Will my child always have a peanut allergy?</h2><p>Yes, a peanut allergy can be severe and life-long.</p><h2>Other names for peanuts</h2> <p>Peanuts can have different names in ingredient lists. Learning these names can help you catch any hidden sources of peanuts in food.</p> <p>When buying packaged foods, always check the list of ingredients in the store and again when you bring the product home. It is also a good idea to check the ingredients every time you buy the food in case the recipe has changed. You can also call the manufacturer to ask about any recipe changes.</p> <p>The following table lists some names for peanuts. Use it when you are grocery shopping or calling food manufacturers.</p> <table class="akh-table"> <tbody> <tr> <td>Arachis oil</td> <td>Beer nuts</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Cacahouette</td> <td>Goober nuts, goober peas (boiled peanuts)</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Ground nuts​</td> <td> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>A peanut allergy can be life long and carries the risk of anaphylaxis, a severe and sometimes life-threatening allergic reaction. </li> <li>Peanuts are treated as a separate allergen from tree nuts because they are part of the legume family.</li> <li>Many different products contain peanuts, including baked goods, curries, egg rolls, cereals, chocolate, sauces and hydrolyzed plant or vegetable protein.</li> <li>To prevent an allergic reaction, always read food product labels, avoid foods if you are not sure of the ingredients and avoid using utensils or containers that might have come in contact with peanuts.</li> <li>If your child's diet is limited because of a peanut, a registered dietitian can offer advice on getting a balanced diet.</li> </ul><h2>Possible sources of peanuts</h2> <p>Peanuts are used in a range of dishes, packaged food and snacks. Below is a list of some of the many food products that contain peanuts.</p> <table class="akh-table"> <tbody> <tr> <td>African, Chinese, Indonesian, Mexican, Thai and Vietnamese dishes, for example curries, chilis, egg rolls or satays</td> <td>Artificial nuts (peanuts that have been altered to look and taste like almonds, pecans and walnuts), such as mandelona or Nu-Nuts​</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Baked goods and baking mixes</td> <td>Cereals and muesli</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Chocolate and other snack foods</td> <td>Desserts</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Fried foods</td> <td>Hydrolyzed plant protein/vegetable protein (source may be peanut)</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Nut meats, nut butter</td> <td>Peanut oil</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Soup, sauces and gravy</td> <td> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table><h2>Reducing the risk of cross-contamination</h2> <p>Cross-contamination occurs when a harmless substance comes in contact with a harmful substance, for example a potential allergen or harmful bacteria. If the substances mix together, the harmful substance taints the other substance, making it unsafe to eat.</p> <p>Food allergens can contaminate other foods when, for example, the same containers, utensils or frying pans hold a range of foods.</p> <p>Bulk food containers pose a high risk of cross-contamination because they are often used for different products.</p> <p>Be sure to avoid using utensils or containers that may have come in contact with allergy-causing foods and ask about possible cross-contamination when eating out.</p> <h2>How can my child get the right mix of nutrients if they must avoid peanuts?</h2> <p>The main nutrients in peanuts include protein, omega-3 fats, fibre, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, folate and vitamin E. Your child can still get these nutrients even if they must avoid peanuts.</p> <h3>Nutrients in peanuts that are found in other foods</h3> <table class="akh-table"> <thead> <tr><th>Nut​rie​nt</th><th>Where to find it</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td>Protein</td> <td>Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, cheese, milk, beans, soy</td> </tr> <tr> <td>​Omega 3</td> <td>Salmon, tuna, mackerel, flaxseed oil, walnuts, edamame (soy beans), radish seeds, omega-3 eggs fortified with DHA</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Fibre</td> <td>Vegetables, fruit, whole grains</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Magnesium</td> <td>Wheat germ, peas, pumpkin, squash or sesame seeds</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Phosphorus​</td> <td>Wheat germ, rice bran, wheat bran, cheese, beans, sardines, tempeh</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Potassium​</td> <td>Bananas, papaya, sweet potato, leafy green vegetables, milk, yogurt, beans (navy, pinto, black), lentils, chickpeas, beef, pork, fish</td> </tr> <tr> <td>​Folate</td> <td>Leafy green vegetables, beans (navy, pinto, kidney, garbanzo), lentils</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Vitamin E​</td> <td>Spinach, red pepper, Swiss chard, wheat germ cereal, egg, sunflower seeds</td> </tr> </tbody> </table><h2>When to see a dietitian for a peanut allergy</h2> <p>If you have removed many foods from your child's diet because of a peanut or tree nut allergy, it may be a good idea to speak to a registered dietitian. The dietitian can review the foods your child still eats to decide if they are getting enough nutrients. If necessary, they can also recommend alternative foods that your child can eat safely.</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/peanut_allergy.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/peanut_allergy.jpgPeanut allergy
Strep throatStrep throatStrep throatSEnglishInfectious DiseasesPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years)Mouth;Trachea;EsophagusMouth;Esophagus;TracheaConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Fever;Sore throat2014-08-14T04:00:00ZShawna Silver, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, PEng7.0000000000000066.0000000000000892.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Strep throat is a throat infection caused by a type of bacteria called streptococci. Learn how you can take care of your child.</p><br><h2>What is strep throat?</h2><p>Strep throat is a throat infection caused by a type of bacteria called streptococcus. </p><p>Strep throat is more common in children four to eight years old and is rare in children younger than two years of age. </p><p>The most common cause of strep throat is Group A beta-haemolytic streptococcus (GABS). This bacteria can also cause complications in other parts of the body.​</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>The main symptoms of strep throat are fever and sore throat.</li> <li>If you suspect that your child might have strep throat, see a doctor for a throat swab.</li> <li>Make sure your child finishes any antibiotics they are prescribed to prevent relapse and complications.</li> <li>Use soft foods, cold drinks and pain medications, if needed, to reduce any pain.</li> <li>Make sure that any other family members or close contacts with similar symptoms see their healthcare provider.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of strep throat</h2> <p>The symptoms for strep throat are similar to symptoms for a sore throat caused by a virus or other illnesses. The most common symptoms are:</p> <ul> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English" style="line-height:18px;background-color:initial;">fever</a></li> <li><a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=748&language=English">sore throat</a></li> <li>loss of interest in eating or drinking because of pain</li> <li>difficulty swallowing</li> <li><a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=748&language=English">enlarged red tonsils</a>, sometimes covered with white-yellow coating.</li> </ul> <p>Some children may have other symptoms such as <a href="/Article?contentid=29&language=English">headache</a>, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and muscle pain.<br></p><h2>Reduce the spread of the infection</h2> <p>Strep throat can spread easily to family members and your child's classmates. Any child or adult who lives in your home and has the same symptoms in the five days after your child is diagnosed should have a throat swab.</p> <p>Your child's infection is no longer contagious after your child has been on antibiotics for 24 hours. This means that your child can return to school after one day if they are feeling better.</p> <h3>Other tips to prevent the spread of infection</h3> <ul> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=1981&language=English">Wash hands</a> with warm soapy water or alcohol-based hand rub often.</li> <li>Do not let your child share drinking glasses or eating utensils with friends or classmates.</li> <li>Be sure to wash your child's glasses and utensils in hot soapy water or a dishwasher.</li> <li>Have your child sneeze into their elbow or cover their mouth and nose when coughing.</li> <li>Avoid kissing and having close facial contact with your child until they are better.</li> </ul> <h2>How is strep throat diagnosed?</h2> <p>To find out the cause of your child's sore throat, the doctor will take a throat swab. This involves wiping a thin cotton bud along the side and back of your child's throat. The swab is then sent to a lab to be tested for GABS bacteria. Your doctor will normally receive the results within a day or two.</p> <p>Some clinics may use a rapid test (which gives results within minutes) to identify strep. Rapid tests are only useful if they show that your child has the streptococcus bacteria (known as a positive result). A negative rapid test result does not always mean that your child does not have strep throat. The result should always be checked by taking a throat swab.</p> <p>A throat swab is very important for diagnosis as strep throat looks similar to <a href="/Article?contentid=748&language=English">viral pharyngitis</a>, which cannot be treated with antibiotics.</p> <h2>How is strep throat treated?</h2> <p>If the throat swab is positive for GABS, the doctor will prescribe oral antibiotics (antibiotics to be taken by mouth) for your child. Strep throat can sometimes get better without medication, but a GABS infection can cause complications if it is not treated.</p> <h2>Complications of strep throat</h2> <h3>Throat abscess</h3> <p>A throat abscess (a collection of pus in the throat tissues) can develop from strep throat. The symptoms include high fever, muffled voice, difficulty opening the mouth, increased salivation and drooling and neck swelling. See a doctor if these symptoms occur.</p> <h3>Rheumatic fever</h3> <p>Although rare, rheumatic fever can also develop as a complication of strep throat. The condition can involve the skin, joints, heart and brain. Treating the strep throat with antibiotics almost always prevents rheumatic fever.</p> <h3>Other complications</h3> <p> These can include joint inflammation (arthritis) and kidney inflammation. GABS is also the bacteria responsible for <a href="/Article?contentid=751&language=English">scarlet fever</a>.</p> <h2>Taking care of your child at home</h2> <h3>Manage the fever and pain</h3> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=62&language=English">Acetaminophen</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=153&language=English">ibuprofen</a> can be used to treat fever or pain. <a href="/Article?contentid=77&language=English">ASA (acetylsalicylic acid)</a> should not be given to children.</p> <h3>Complete the antibiotics</h3> <p>The fever and the throat pain usually improve about three days after your child starts taking antibiotics. However, even if your child seems to be better, it is very important to complete the entire course of antibiotics. This will make sure the infection does not return and will also prevent complications and antibiotic resistance.</p> <h3>Offer your child soft foods and a liquid diet</h3> <p>Eating and drinking may be painful for a child with strep throat. Here are some tips to make it easier for them.</p> <ul> <li>If your child is having trouble swallowing, give soft foods that are easy to swallow, such as soups, ice cream, pudding or yogurt.</li> <li>Give plenty of liquids. Sipping with a straw or sippy cup may help.</li> <li>If your child is more than 12 months old, try giving one or two teaspoons (5 to 10 mL) of pasteurized honey to soothe the throat and ease the cough.</li> <li>Let an older child try gargling with warm salt water to soothe their throat.</li> </ul> <p>Ice cubes and lozenges may provide some relief for older children or teens. Do not give them to younger children, however, because they are a choking hazard.</p><h2>When to get medical attention</h2> <p>Call your child's regular doctor if:</p> <ul> <li>the fever does not go away within three days of starting antibiotics</li> <li>your child develops a fever, a rash, joint swelling, blood in the urine or shortness of breath.<br></li> </ul> <p>Go to the nearest Emergency Department or call 911 if your child:<br></p> <ul> <li>is unable to drink or eat and is becoming dehydrated</li> <li>has trouble breathing.<br></li> </ul> <img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/strep_throat.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />strepthroatstrepthroathttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/strep_throat.jpgStrep throat

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