AboutKidsHealth is a health education website for children, youth and their caregivers.



Yoga poses for tension reliefYoga poses for tension reliefYoga poses for tension relief-CANYEnglishRheumatology;AdolescentPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)BodySkeletal systemNon-drug treatmentPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/JIA_Yoga8a_SeatedTwist_EN.jpg2017-01-31T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>These yoga poses help to relieve tension. You can do them when you wake up to relieve morning stiffness, or throughout the day to relieve tension.</p><h2>​Cat – Cow </h2><div class="akh-series"><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/JIA_Yoga3a_Cat_EN.jpg" alt="" /> </figure> <p>Position yourself on your hands and knees. Place your hands just in front of your shoulders and shoulder width apart. Place your knees under your hips and rest the tops of your feet on the floor. Use as much padding under your knees as you need. Spread your fingers. Bring your shoulders down from your ears and gently draw your shoulder blades towards each other. Start from a position in which your spine is neutral – like you are standing. </p><p>Breathe in. Then as you exhale, do these three things together: bring your chin to your chest, tuck your tailbone under, and round your lower and mid-back up to the sky. Then breathe in while you lift your head up, lift your tailbone up, and let your belly and chest come down towards the floor. Exhale, move the opposite way. Inhale, move the opposite way. Make your movement and your breath slow, even, and steady. Move as long as you breathe, and breathe as long as you move. Don’t push through pain or into a place where you cannot breathe smoothly. This is a really good exercise for lower back pain and stiffness. But if you feel it is too much try it doing the sitting modification, see below, with pelvic tilts. </p><p>We usually advise 10-30 repetitions.</p></div></div><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/JIA_Yoga3b_Cat_EN.jpg?RenditionID=10" alt="" /> </figure> <p> <em>Benefits</em> – improves spine flexibility and coordinates breath with movement. Strengthens postural muscles and shoulder stabilizers. Decreases rounding of upper back and shoulders. Calms unsettled mind.</p><p> <em>Modifications</em> – In sitting, hold your hands together with arms extended in front of your body. Do the same spine movements and breathing as above. As you inhale, let your hands come to your lap. As you exhale, bring your hands to shoulder level.</p></div></div></div><h2>Standing side bend and twist (Star)</h2><div class="akh-series"><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/JIA_Yoga5a_StandSideBend_EN.jpg?RenditionID=10" alt="" /> </figure> <p>Stand in mountain pose. Keep everything the same except bring your feet as wide as your yoga mat and reach your arms out from your shoulders. Inhale and feel your spine and legs and arms lengthen away from your belly. Exhale, keep the length and at the same time gently pull your shoulder blades towards your lower ribs, your belly towards your spine, and your thighs towards your pelvis. Try to gradually build up to be able to stay in the forward bend for up to nine breaths. </p><p> <strong>Side bend</strong> – inhale and lengthen. Exhale and bend your spine towards the right. Inhale and come back to centre. Exhale and do a side bend to the left. Start with three breaths on each side, slowly increasing up to nine times each side. </p><p> <strong>Twist</strong> – inhale and lengthen. Exhale and twist to the right from your belly, bringing your ribs and shoulders to the right. Keep your arms in line with each other and your neck in a neutral relaxed position. Start with three breaths on each side and increase up to nine times each side.</p></div></div><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/JIA_Yoga5b_StandSideBend_EN.jpg?RenditionID=10" alt="" /> </figure> <p> <em>Benefits</em> – Improved flexibility of the ribs and increased ease of breathing, bending, and twisting. Improved balance. Increased shoulder strength.</p><p> <em>Modifications</em> – You can do this while sitting in a chair. You can also do this with your arms at your sides.</p></div></div></div><h2>Standing forward bend (Uttanasana)</h2><div class="akh-series"><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/JIA_Yoga6a_StandForwBend_EN.jpg?RenditionID=10" alt="" /> </figure> <p>Stand in mountain pose. Then as you exhale, slide your hands down your legs, keeping your legs long. Let the muscles of your neck, upper back, lower back, and hips relax. Inhale and feel length in your legs and spine. Exhale and surrender into the stretch. Stay for up to nine breaths.</p></div></div><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/JIA_Yoga6b_StandForwBend_EN.jpg?RenditionID=10" alt="" /> </figure> <p> <em>Benefits</em> – Improved spinal flexibility. Letting go of tension that you don't need.</p><p> <em>Modifications</em> – Place your hands on your legs to support all or part of the weight. You can also sit on the edge of a chair and reach towards your feet or under the chair.</p></div></div></div><h2>Supported cross-legged sitting (Tailor’s pose)</h2><div class="akh-series"><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/JIA_Yoga7a_SuppSitTailor_EN.jpg?RenditionID=10" alt="" /> </figure> <p>Sit on a folded blanket, or meditation cushion, high enough that your knees are slightly lower than your hips. You are sitting high enough when you can feel your spine is straight and tall and when you feel the muscles on the front of your hips relax. Inhale, feeling your spine gently reaching up. Exhale, staying tall and letting go of the muscles you don’t need in this position – like your shoulder and neck muscles. Stay here for as long as you feel comfortable, eventually you may be happy to hold this position for five minutes.</p></div></div><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/JIA_Yoga7b_SuppSitTailor_EN.jpg?RenditionID=10" alt="" /> </figure> <p> <em>Benefits</em> – calms and settles the mind and your breath. Relaxes and opens the hips. Strengthens the postural muscles along your spine.</p><p> <em>Modifications</em> – Sit with your back against a wall or sit in a chair with feet on floor and ankles crossed.</p></div></div></div><h2>Seated twist</h2><div class="akh-series"><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/JIA_Yoga8a_SeatedTwist_EN.jpg?RenditionID=10" alt="" /> </figure> <p>Sit in Tailor’s pose, with your pelvis elevated on a cushion or blanket. Turn to the right. Bring your left hand to your right knee and your right hand behind your body to the floor or cushion. Lead the movement from your belly. As you inhale, lengthen your spine. As you exhale, turn your belly and chest to the right. Your shoulders and neck should turn naturally as your belly and chest do; don’t twist your neck around really hard. Hold for up to nine long easy breaths, then slowly come out of the pose. Repeat on the other side, changing the cross of your legs.</p></div></div><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/JIA_Yoga8b_SeatedTwist_EN.jpg?RenditionID=10" alt="" /> </figure> <p> <em>Benefits</em> – releases tension around your spine and increases flexibility of your rib cage. Supports good spinal posture and teaches how to use your breath to ‘let go’ of tension and find more movement by surrendering rather than forcing.</p></div></div><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/JIA_Yoga8c_SeatedTwist_EN.jpg?RenditionID=10" alt="" /> </figure> <p> <em>Modifications</em> – Sit in a chair with your feet on the ground. Place your hands on the arms and back of the chair.</p></div></div></div><h2>Reclined twist</h2><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/jvnikjyww8I?rel=0" width="560" height="315" frameborder="0"></iframe> <br></div><p>Begin in corpse pose. Bend your knees, with the soles of your feet flat on the floor. Draw your knees into your chest, lifting your feet off the floor. Extend both arms straight out on either side of you. Inhale, and as you exhale drop both of your knees to the right side of your body. Use your right arm to support the top knee. Stay here for five breaths. Repeat on the left side.</p><p> <em>Benefits</em> – Releases tension in the low and mid back. Lengthens the side body.</p><p> <em>Modifications</em>—Place a pillow between your knees.<br></p> <br> Try these yoga poses when you wake up to relieve morning stiffness, or throughout the day to relieve tension. Teens
Abnormal-looking stool (poop)Abnormal-looking stool (poop)Abnormal-looking stool (poop)AEnglishGastrointestinalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Large Intestine/ColonLarge intestine;RectumConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2023-07-21T04:00:00Z7.5000000000000064.1000000000000715.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>An easy-to-understand overview of the signs, symptoms and medical options for children with unusual stool (poop).</p><h2>What causes changes in the appearance of stool?</h2><p>Breastfed babies usually produce a seedy mustard-yellow coloured stool. They may also produce green, runny stool. This is normal. It should not be a concern.</p><p>Most changes in a child's stool (poop) are due to a change in diet. Changes in diet may cause changes in:</p><ul><li>colour</li><li>smell</li><li>consistency</li><li>amount of stool</li></ul><p>Many medicines can affect what stool looks like. If your baby or child is taking medication, ask your pharmacist if you should expect a change in stool. Some changes that last more than a few days may require medical attention.</p><h2>Types of abnormal-looking stool</h2><h3>Brightly coloured stool</h3><p>In older babies and children, green, runny stool can be a sign of <a href="/article?contentid=907&language=english">gastroenteritis</a>. This is also called "stomach flu". Your child may need to see a doctor.</p><h3>Pale stool</h3><p>Whitish, clay or light-coloured stool may be a sign of a bile duct blockage in the liver.</p><p>If your child has pale stool with yellowish skin and eyes, or dark urine, they may have liver disease, such as gallstones or <a href="/article?contentid=819&language=english">a liver infection (viral hepatitis)</a>. Babies with pale stool may have a blockage in the liver called <a href="/article?contentid=4149&language=english">biliary atresia</a>. Contact <a href="https://www.newbornscreening.on.ca/en/biliary-atresia-screening/contact-form">Newborn Screening Ontario</a> (or your primary care provider if you are not in Ontario) if your baby has pale-coloured stools for advice on next steps to investigate this.</p><h3>Fatty stools</h3><p>Floating and foul-smelling stools can be a sign of malabsorption. Malabsorption is when the digestive system does not absorb nutrients adequately. It may occur if your child has intolerance to, a digestive problem with or an allergy to a certain food.</p><h3>Bloody stool</h3><p>Small amounts of fresh blood are common in children who are constipated and straining when passing stool.</p><p>Bloody or slimy stool may be a sign of infection. It may also mean inflammation of the large intestine or rectum. Children with bloody stool may have an <a href="/article?contentid=/article?contentid=7&language=english">infection</a> or <a href="/article?contentid=821&language=english">inflammatory bowel disease</a>. </p><p>If your baby or child's stool has a red, jelly-like appearance, see a doctor right away. Make sure to tell your doctor if your child also has severe stomach pain and a pale complexion. This type of stool may be caused by intestinal obstruction.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Most changes in stool are due to a change in diet.</li><li>Runny green or seedy mustard-coloured stool is common in breastfed babies.</li><li>Pale stool accompanied by yellowish skin and eyes or dark urine may indicate a liver problem. Ontario has a new provincial screening program for a liver problem called biliary atresia. If you have concerns your newborn infant has pale-coloured stool, you can now contact <a href="https://www.newbornscreening.on.ca/en/biliary-atresia-screening/contact-form">Newborn Screening Ontario</a> directly.</li><li>Red and jelly-like stool is an emergency. Call 911 or go to the nearest Emergency Department. Do not give your child anything to eat or drink until they are seen by a doctor.</li><li>Small amounts of blood lining the stool are common in children who are constipated. This is not an emergency.</li></ul><h2>When to see a doctor</h2><p> <strong>Make an appointment with your child's doctor if:</strong></p><ul><li>your child seems sick and the stool does not return to its normal colour in a few days</li><li>your child has blood in the stool and constipation is not the reason</li><li>your infant (older than 3 months) or child continues to have pale stool<br></li><li>your baby has green, runny stool and seems sick with other symptoms</li><li>your child's stool is an abnormal colour after taking medication</li></ul><p> <strong>See a doctor right away, or go to the nearest Emergency Department, if:</strong></p><ul><li>your baby or child has red and jelly-like stool. Do not give your child anything to eat or drink until they are seen by a doctor</li><li>your infant (older than 3 months) or child has pale stool and yellowish skin or yellowish whites of the eyes<br></li><li>your child has dark urine (brown or black in colour)</li></ul><p> <strong>Contact <a href="https://www.newbornscreening.on.ca/en/biliary-atresia-screening/contact-form">Newborn Screening Ontario</a> (or your primary care provider if you are not in Ontario) if your newborn baby (less than 3 months old) has pale stool with/without yellowish skin or yellowish whites of the eyes.</strong></p><p>Babies older than 3 months and children with pale stool with/without yellowish skin or whites of the eyes should be seen by their doctor.</p><p>Your child may show physical changes when their condition is serious or when their condition gets worse. Parents and caregivers can learn how to <a href="https://www.healthcareexcellence.ca/media/s3bbk5nv/20221216_signsmaterialsqr_en.pdf">spot these signs</a> in order to seek help from a health-care provider.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/abnormal_looking_stool.jpgAbnormal stool (poop) Most changes in stool are from a diet change, but some may need medical attention. Learn the signs, symptoms and treatments for unusual stool.Main
Common vaccine side effectsCommon vaccine side effectsCommon vaccine side effectsCEnglishPreventionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyNAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2023-06-22T04:00:00Z8.2000000000000061.6000000000000449.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn about common vaccine side effects and how to treat them.</p><p>Vaccines, like any medicine, can have side effects. For most vaccines, serious side effects are extremely rare. The risks of vaccines are much lower than the risks of the diseases they prevent.<br></p><p>Different vaccines have different side effects, most of which are mild. They include:</p><ul><li>temporary pain</li><li>redness, swelling or soreness where the shot was given</li><li>short-lived fever, muscle aches or fatigue</li></ul><p>These side effects happen in one out of four children who receive vaccinations. They appear shortly after the shot is given and should go away after one or two days. If these symptoms persist, talk to your child's doctor.</p><h2>Temporary pain, causing a fear of vaccines </h2><p>Fear or 'needle phobia' is a common side effect of vaccines. About one in 10 people avoid immunization and other needle procedures because they experienced pain from a previous shot. If your child is feeling anxious, stay calm, distract and comfort them. Visit our <a href="/Article?contentid=990&language=English">pain-free injections</a> page to learn how you can make vaccinations as easy and pain-free as possible.</p><h2>Redness, swelling or soreness where the shot was given </h2><p>Your child may have a reaction shortly after receiving the vaccine. This may include redness, swelling, soreness or bruising in the area where the shot was given. A cool, wet cloth can be used to ease your child's discomfort. </p><h2>Other symptoms </h2><p>After getting the vaccine, your child may develop symptoms such as:</p><ul><li>mild <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a> </li><li>upset stomach </li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a> </li><li>loss of appetite </li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=29&language=English">headache</a> </li><li>fatigue </li></ul><p>Vaccines work by imitating the infection, sometimes causing these mild symptoms. By imitating the infection this allows your body to be prepared the next time it is exposed. The vaccine trains the immune system to recognize and effectively fight off future infections.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>The risks of vaccines are much lower than the risks of the diseases that they prevent. </li><li>The most common vaccine side effects are mild and may include temporary pain, redness or swelling in the area where the shot was given, muscle aches, fatigue and fever.</li><li>Serious side effects, such as allergic reactions, are very rare. If your child is showing serious side effects, or if you are worried, contact your child's doctor or go to the nearest Emergency Department.</li></ul><h2>When to see a doctor for vaccine side effects </h2><p>Serious side effects from immunization are very rare, but they can happen. They may include:</p><ul><li>serious allergic reaction or anaphylaxis, including itching, rash, swelling around the mouth and face, trouble breathing and low blood pressure</li><li>seizures<br></li><li>high fever</li><li>joint pain or stiffness</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=784&language=English">pneumonia</a> </li></ul><p>If your child is showing any of these serious side effects, or if you are worried, contact your child's doctor or go to the nearest Emergency Department.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/common_vaccine_side_effects.jpg Vaccines, like any medicine, can have side effects. Learn about common vaccine side effects and how to treat them.Main
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)FEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyNAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2023-07-04T04:00:00Z10.000000000000048.30000000000001359.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) describes the effects that result from prenatal alcohol exposure.</p><h2>What is fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)?</h2> <p>Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a general or "umbrella" term used to describe disabilities caused when a person drinks alcohol while they are pregnant. FASD includes any of the following diagnoses: </p> <ul> <li>fetal alcohol syndrome with sentinel features<br></li> <li>fetal alcohol syndrome without sentinel features<br></li> </ul><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can cause many different problems for the baby that could lead to physical problems and problems with learning, attention, memory and behaviour. </li> <li>Problems caused by drinking during pregnancy are called fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). </li> <li>There is no cure for FASD, but it may be possible to get help for specific problems. It is important to diagnose FASD early. </li> <li>If you are pregnant, do not drink alcohol. </li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of FASD</h2><p>The effects of FASD are not always obvious at birth. Often, behavioural and learning problems are not noticed until the child is old enough to go to school.<br></p><p>Some people with FASD have a mixture of specific facial features and developmental problems. Many children with FASD do not have specific facial features.</p><h3>Problems with development and learning</h3><p>Children with FASD may have one or more of the following problems:<br></p><ul><li>uneven cognitive profile (they have strengths in some areas but significant weakness in others); cognitive skills include attention, memory and problem solving</li><li>slow learning, short attention span, hyperactivity, impulsivity or memory problems </li><li><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/learningdisabilities">learning disabilities</a>, especially with reading, comprehension and abstract math </li><li>delays in speech and language, for example, receptive language disorder, and social difficulties with language, such as interrupting, talking out of context or chatting with no content </li><li>weak executive function skills, including difficulties with organization, planning and reasoning </li><li>inability to manage money, for example by saving and budgeting </li><li>inability to understand cause and effect </li><li>difficulties with emotional regulation</li></ul><h3>Sensory integration problems</h3><p>Children with FASD may have problems with sensory integration. These problems may involve one or more senses, such as: </p><ul><li>sensitivity to touch; the child may not be able to tolerate tags in shirts or seams in clothing </li><li>seeming to need more touch than other children; for example, the child may need tight hugs</li><li>seeming to not feel or communicate pain</li><li>getting upset with bright lights or noise </li><li>noticing smells more than others </li><li>being bothered by "every little thing" </li></ul><p>These problems may occur in combination. A child with FASD could be hypersensitive to bright lights but crave deep pressure or touch. </p><h3>Behaviour and mood problems</h3><p>Babies with FASD may:</p><ul><li>be irritable, nervous or sensitive to sound and light </li><li>cry often </li><li>be very quiet and not very responsive </li><li>have difficulties with sleep</li></ul><p>Children and teens with FASD may have one or more of the following problems:</p><ul><li>behavioural problems, such as aggressive or defiant behaviours</li><li>mental illness, such as <a href="/article?contentid=18&language=english">anxiety</a>, <a href="/article?contentid=19&language=english">depression</a> or psychosis </li><li>drug and alcohol problems </li><li>anger control problems or violence </li><li>impulse control problems such as stealing or confabulating (misremembering or producing false memories) or lying frequently</li></ul><p>Poor judgment, impulsivity and the inability to connect an action with its consequences are the hallmarks of FASD. As a result, people with FASD are at high risk for getting in trouble with the law. </p><h3>Physical problems</h3><p>At birth, babies may have one or more of the following:</p><ul><li>low birth weight (less than 2.5 kg or 5 lb 8 oz) </li><li>small head size </li><li>specific facial features may include thin upper lip, flatness under the nose and smaller eyes</li></ul><p>Other physical problems may include:</p><ul><li>small height and/or weight </li><li>bone, joint or muscle problems </li><li>hearing problems </li><li>repeated ear infections </li><li>visual and eye problems </li><li>genital defects </li><li>heart defects </li><li>kidney problems </li></ul><h2>FASD is caused by drinking alcohol during pregnancy</h2> <p>FASD can happen when a pregnant person drinks any type of alcohol, including beer, wine, hard liquor or coolers. Alcohol crosses the placenta from parent to baby. Any amount of alcohol during pregnancy can cause FASD. </p> <ul> <li>Pregnancies are at higher risk of FASD when a pregnant person has one or more drinks per day, or seven or more drinks on average per week, or four or more drinks on any one occasion. </li> <li>Recent evidence suggests that even one drink per day may cause behavioural problems. </li> </ul> <p>The kinds of problems the baby may have depends on when the parent drinks during the pregnancy:</p> <ul> <li>Since the brain is developing during the entire pregnancy, the brain is always being affected if the mother drinks alcohol regularly. </li> <li>Drinking alcohol during the first trimester increases the chance that the baby will have a small brain, physical problems and/or severe intellectual disability. </li> <li>Drinking alcohol during the second trimester increases the chances of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage). </li> <li>Drinking during the third trimester, and during nursing, can affect intelligence. </li> </ul> <p>Not all babies who are exposed to alcohol during pregnancy will have FASD. We do not yet understand why some babies are affected and others are not.<br></p> <h2>FASD is common</h2> <p>FASD affects at least 4% of people living in Canada. This means that there are over 1.5 million people with FASD living in Canada today. </p><h2>How FASD is diagnosed</h2> <p>There is no specific blood test that diagnoses children with FASD. Making a diagnosis of FASD requires involvement of a multi-disciplinary team. The assessment may include: </p> <ul> <li>asking about the pregnancy and the child's birth </li> <li>doing a physical exam including assessing facial features<br></li> <li>a developmental/cognitive assessment: testing the child's cognition, academic skills, memory, motor functioning, speech and language, attention, executive functioning, adaptive skills and mental health<br></li> </ul><h2>There is no cure for FASD</h2> <p>There is not a specific treatment for FASD. However, it is important to diagnose FASD early to improve outcomes.</p> <ul> <li>Physical and occupational therapy can often help. </li> <li>A child with FASD should have psycho-educational testing to find specific strengths and difficulties. This will help the child get services in school. </li> <li>Social workers can help the family connect to appropriate community resources and deal with challenging family issues. </li> </ul><h2>How to help your child with FASD</h2><p>The help your child needs depends on which areas of the brain are affected by the prenatal alcohol exposure and the way those brain injuries are expressed in your child's behaviours. No two children with FASD would have the same problems and need the same type and degree of support. It is important that your child has a comprehensive developmental/cognitive assessment to inform their specific support needs.</p><h2>Preventing FASD</h2><p>The only way to prevent FASD is by not drinking alcohol when pregnant.</p><p>For more information, please see the <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/pregnancybabies">AboutKidsHealth Pregnancy resource centre</a>. </p><p>If you are pregnant or think you might be pregnant, do not drink alcohol. If you have a problem with drinking, talk to your doctor or another health professional. They may be able to help you stop drinking or to cut back on your drinking as much as possible. </p><h2>FASD lasts throughout a child's life</h2><p>The effects of FASD are lifelong. The problems change as the child grows up. Behaviour and mood problems such as alcohol and drug abuse, depression, psychosis and aggressive behaviour may develop in the teenage years. </p><p>Some individuals with FASD have difficulties learning from consequences and, if lacking supports, may develop problems with the criminal justice system.</p><p>People with FASD may have difficulty managing their own lives or being totally independent as adults. They may need some kind of support their whole lives to be successful. </p><h2>Resources</h2><p>Canada FASD Research Network: <a href="https://canfasd.ca/">canfasd.ca</a></p><h2>References</h2><p>Cook, J.L., Green, C.R., Lilley, C.M., Anderson, S.M., Baldwin, M.E., Chudley, A.E., . . . Rosales, T. (2016). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: A guideline for diagnosis across the lifespan. <em>Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ), 188</em>(3) 191–197. doi: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.141593">10.1503/cmaj.141593</a></p><p>Popova, S., Lange, S., Chudley, A.E., Reynolds, J.N., Rehm, J., May, P.A., & Riley, E.P. (2018). World health organization international study on the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD): Canadian component. <em>CAMH Publications</em>. The Institute for Mental Health Policy Research & Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. Retrieved from: <a href="https://canfasd.ca/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/2018-Popova-WHO-FASD-Prevalance-Report.pdf">https://canfasd.ca/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/2018-Popova-WHO-FASD-Prevalance-Report.pdf</a></p><p>Thanh, N.X., Jonsson, E., Salmon, A., & Sebastianski, M. (2014). Incidence and prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder by sex and age group in Alberta, Canada. <em>Journal of Population Therapeutics & Clinical Pharmacology, 21(3)</em>, e395-e404. Retrieved from: <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25381628/">https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25381628/</a></p> https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/fetal_alcohol_spectrum_disorder.jpg ​September is FASD Awareness Month. Learn about the effects of drinking alcohol during pregnancy and how to help a child with FASD.Main
SepsisSepsisSepsisSEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/sepsis_development_EN.jpg2022-10-10T04:00:00Z8.9000000000000055.8000000000000825.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Sepsis occurs when an infection spreads to the entire body. Find out what causes sepsis and how sepsis is treated. </p><h2>What is sepsis?</h2><p>The body's immune system is responsible for fighting infections. Sometimes, the immune response can get out of control, resulting in sepsis. Sepsis can damage the body’s organs, for example the <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/body/interactive?module=kidney-child">kidneys</a>, liver, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/body/interactive?module=lung-child">lungs</a> or <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/body/interactive?module=brain-child">brain</a>, and possibly lead to death. Sepsis can be hard to identify as early on, some of the symptoms are similar to common infections.</p> <figure class="asset-c-100"> <span class="asset-image-title">Development of sepsis</span> <img alt="Medical illustration of bacteria entering the blood stream and spreading throughout the body, leading to sepsis" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/sepsis_development_EN.jpg" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Sepsis is most often caused by bacteria but can also be caused by viral or fungal infections.</figcaption> </figure><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Sepsis is a very serious complication of an infection, and is caused by the body’s immune response to the infection. </li><li>Sepsis is a medical emergency and needs to be treated quickly.</li><li>Signs and symptoms of sepsis include common infection symptoms, such as fever, along with a fast heart rate, fast breathing, low blood pressure, pale or cool skin, excessive sleepiness or confusion.</li><li>If your child is showing symptoms of sepsis, they should be treated right away even if an infection is not yet confirmed through testing. Initial treatment includes antibiotics, intravenous fluids and/or oxygen.</li><li>Regular hand washing and routine immunizations can help prevent some causes of infection and sepsis.</li></ul><h2>What are the signs and symptoms of sepsis?</h2><p>A child with sepsis may display typical signs of an infection, including <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=774&language=English">cough</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a>, along with:</p><ul><li>a <a href="/Article?contentid=894&language=English">fast heart rate</a></li><li>fast breathing</li><li>low blood pressure</li><li>cool or clammy skin</li><li>excessive sleepiness </li><li>confusion (not knowing where they are)</li><li>decrease in urination</li></ul><p>If you suspect your child has sepsis, you should seek immediate medical care.</p><h2>What causes sepsis?</h2> <p>Sepsis is most often caused by bacteria. Some common bacterial causes include <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, various types of <em>Streptococcus</em> species and <em><a href="/Article?contentid=509&language=English#ecoli">E. coli</a></em>. Sepsis can also be caused by viral or fungal infections. Sometimes the specific infection and source of sepsis is not found.</p> <p>Bacteria cause local infections such as <a href="/Article?contentid=784&language=English">pneumonia</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=935&language=English">urinary tract infections</a> and infections of the <a href="/Article?contentid=509&language=English">gastrointestinal tract</a> or skin. If bacteria from these infections enter the bloodstream, the infection can spread to the rest of the body. This forces the body’s immune system to generate a strong immune response to fight the infection.</p> <p>The strong immune response, along with the bacteria already in the body, creates <a href="/Article?contentid=926&language=English">inflammation</a>. This inflammation damages tissue and interferes with blood flow. The change in blood flow can lead to a dangerous drop in blood pressure, which stops oxygen from reaching the body’s organs and tissues. This series of events is known as sepsis.</p> <h2>Who can develop sepsis?</h2> <p>Any child with an infection can develop sepsis. However, there is a higher risk for certain populations, including the following:</p> <ul> <li>newborns and young infants</li> <li>children who have recently had surgery</li> <li>children with weakened immune systems, for example due to cancer or an organ transplant</li> <li>children with chronic (long-term) diseases, such as gastrointestinal conditions or kidney disease</li> </ul> <p>Some medications, such as steroids used over a long time and other forms of chemotherapy, can also put children at higher risk of developing sepsis.<br></p><h2>How is sepsis diagnosed?</h2><p>There is not a specific test to diagnose sepsis. Doctors diagnose sepsis based on some of the signs and symptoms described above. If a doctor suspects sepsis after examining your child, they will order blood tests.</p><p>The tests can reveal if your child has an infection or if their organs, such as the liver and kidneys, are not working properly.<br></p><p>The doctor may also test samples of urine and, sometimes, spinal fluid (with a lumbar puncture or spinal tap) to check for bacteria or viruses in these places.</p><h2>How is sepsis treated?</h2> <p>Your child will be admitted to hospital for treatment even if sepsis is only suspected, as it can take some time for test results to come back. Initial treatment for sepsis includes <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=1120&language=English">antibiotics</a>, intravenous (IV) fluids and oxygen.</p> <p>Sometimes children with sepsis need to be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for closer monitoring and further treatment. If a child has severely low blood pressure, they may need special medications to raise it. If sepsis has caused kidney failure, a child may need dialysis. If sepsis has caused lung damage, a child may need a ventilator to help with breathing.<br></p><h2>What can I do to prevent sepsis?</h2> <p>One effective way to prevent sepsis is to minimize the risk of infections.</p> <ul> <li>Make sure your child receives their routine vaccinations.</li> <li>Pay attention to careful <a href="/Article?contentid=1981&language=English">hand washing</a> and encourage your child to do the same.</li> <li>Clean any cuts or scrapes carefully and see your doctor if signs of infection develop (such as redness, pain or pus).</li> </ul><h3>Take your child to the nearest Emergency Department or call 911 if your child has signs of infection or a fever with any of the following symptoms:</h3><ul><li>racing heart rate</li><li>fast breathing</li><li>cool or clammy skin</li><li>excessive sleepiness</li><li>confusion (not knowing where they are)</li><li>decrease in urination</li><li>irritability or severe pain</li></ul><p>Your child may show physical changes when their condition is serious or when their condition gets worse. Parents and caregivers can learn how to <a href="https://www.healthcareexcellence.ca/media/s3bbk5nv/20221216_signsmaterialsqr_en.pdf">spot these signs</a> in order to seek help from a health-care provider.</p><br> September is Sepsis Awareness Month. Learn about sepsis, a serious complication caused by the body’s immune response to infection. Main
Sleep tips: How to help your child get a good night's sleepSleep tips: How to help your child get a good night's sleepSleep tips: How to help your child get a good night's sleepSEnglishPreventionChild (0-12 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2020-04-13T04:00:00Z7.4000000000000069.90000000000001305.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>​Learn some tips to help your child get enough sleep.</p><p>Sleep brings your child a wide range of <a href="/Article?contentid=645&language=English">physical and mental benefits</a>. From birth onwards, your child’s wellbeing depends on their getting enough sleep for their age and activity levels. Following the tips below will help your child fall asleep and stay asleep through the night.<br></p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/videoseries?list=PLjJtOP3StIuUzDEHQ26azPp3X36nXGstg" frameborder="0"></iframe> <br> <p>For more videos from SickKids experts in collaboration with Youngster, visit <a href="https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCoKMd2cYwegtZX19uHdNLQA">Youngster on YouTube</a>.</p></div><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>​Help your child get enough sleep by following a regular schedule, encouraging your child to exercise and follow a balanced diet and limiting caffeine from the afternoon onwards.</li> <li>A relaxing routine and a comfortable sleep environment - free of electronics - can also help a child fall asleep more easily and sleep through the night.</li> <li>Make the morning routine easier by preparing breakfast and laying out clothes the night before.</li> <li>See a doctor if your child seems inattentive or sleepy during the day or experiences loud snoring or pauses in their breathing at night.</li> </ul><h2>Keep to a schedule</h2><p>Your child's body likes a regular schedule. Keep a regular sleep routine that allows your child to wake up and go to bed at about the same time every day. During times of stress or uncertainty, it is especially important to keep to a regular schedule of sleep and wake times. Older children may see the lack of formal school or routine as a reason to allow later bedtimes and as a result, later wake up times, but try to encourage them to keep to a regular sleep and wake schedule. </p><p>Try to make sure your child falls asleep and wakes up at the same time at least six days a week. Bedtimes and wake times should not vary by more than one hour from one day to the next, including on weekends.</p><p>Try to avoid letting your child sleep in late on weekends. Sleeping in can make it harder for your child to keep a regular schedule during the week. If your child is well rested, you can change the schedule once in a while for special events and they can recover from the occasional late night much faster.</p><h2>Help your child develop healthy habits</h2><p>Help your child develop and maintain good daily lifestyle habits. These will help make your child comfortable and ready for sleep.</p><ul><li>Encourage your child to get regular exercise.</li><li>Avoid or limit caffeine (from pop, energy drinks, coffee, tea or chocolate) from the afternoon onwards.</li><li>Offer regular, balanced meals based on the four food groups in <a href="/Article?contentid=1436&language=English">Canada's Food Guide</a>.</li></ul><h2>Avoid naps for children aged six and older</h2><p>A healthy child over six years of age should not need a nap during the day. Daytime naps for older children can affect the time the child will fall asleep at night. This results in a later bedtime and may lead to poorer quality nighttime sleep.</p><p>If your child is under six years of age, allow them to have a nap if they need one. If your child is six years old or older, try to limit daytime napping. Napping during the day, or early evening, will make it harder for your child to fall asleep at bedtime.</p><h2>Create a relaxing routine</h2><p>Create a relaxing bedtime routine that your child can follow each night. To start, be clear about when it is bedtime each night. For example, tell your child that 8:00pm is ‘pyjama time’ and 8:30pm is lights out, and stick with those times. If your child has difficulty falling asleep, you could allow extra time by starting their bedtime a little earlier.</p><p>Encourage your child to take a bath or shower before bed to help them feel sleepier and more relaxed. Going to bed with a calm state of mind can reduce the risk and frequency of common <a href="/Article?contentid=306&language=English">sleeping problems</a> such as nightmares, sleep walking and <a href="/Article?contentid=305&language=English">night terrors</a>.</p><p>Include 20 to 30 minutes of quiet time in your child’s bedtime routine. Good wind-down activities include reading, looking through a magazine, listening to music or writing in a journal. Dimming the lights half an hour before your child’s bedtime will help your child feel sleepy.</p><p>Avoid and discourage stimulating activities such as playing videogames, using the computer, using a cell phone. <a href="/Article?contentid=644&language=English">Turn off all electronics</a> at least one hour before bedtime.</p><h2>Create a comfortable sleep environment</h2><p>Make sure your child’s pyjamas are comfortable and appropriate for the season and that their bedroom is cool and quiet. It is also important for them to sleep on a mattress and pillow that offer good support to their spine.</p><p>Keep the bed for sleeping only. In other words, discourage your child from doing their homework or using a computer in bed. These activities can cause your child to link bedtime with stress or active thinking when they are trying to sleep.</p><p>Avoid having a television, computer, tablet or cell phone in the bedroom. Watching television or using a computer, tablet or a phone at night can stimulate the brain rather than relax it. In addition, your child may get into the habit of turning on the television or checking their phone if they cannot stay asleep during the night. If you are watching television after your child falls asleep, make sure the volume is low enough that they cannot hear it.</p><p>Put a glass of water by the bed so your child does not need to get out of bed if they are thirsty during the night. Make sure the water is in easy reach for your child.</p><p>Consider engaging your child’s different senses to help them fall asleep. For instance, children who have trouble falling asleep may enjoy the relaxing smell of lavender. You could use lavender scented laundry detergent or place a few drops of lavender oil on your child’s pillow.</p><h2>Tips for a happier morning</h2><p>Offer your child some options for breakfast and prepare it with your child the night before, if possible. For example, you could cut up fresh fruit and cook oatmeal the night before so you or your child can quickly combine them the next morning.</p><p>Help your child choose an outfit the night before. If your child is old enough to get dressed alone, place the outfit somewhere they can easily reach it in the morning.</p><p>If your child is in school, help them pack their backpack before bed. Making sure everything is packed and ready to go the night before makes for a much less stressful morning. At night, you have more time to look for something that may be missing or to sign an important school note.</p><p>Let your child know what time you will wake them up in the morning. Calmly wake your child in the morning by giving them a hug, gently rubbing their arm or quietly saying their name.</p><h2>When to see a doctor about your child’s sleep</h2><h3>Toddler/preschooler</h3><p>See your child’s doctor if your child:</p><ul><li>has persistent and loud snoring or pauses or <a href="/Article?contentid=1918&language=English">problems breathing</a> while sleeping</li><li>seems irritable, hyperactive, inattentive or sleepy during the day</li><li>has excessive <a href="/Article?contentid=271&language=English">anxiety</a> about being separated from you during the day and night</li><li>has just developed a problem with sleep</li><li>finds it hard to change from two naps to one nap a day</li><li>sleepwalks</li><li>has <a href="/Article?contentid=305&language=English">night terrors</a> or frequent nightmares.</li></ul><h3>School-aged child</h3><p>See your child’s doctor if:</p><ul><li>your child's teacher tells you they seem tired even though you think they get enough sleep</li><li>your child develops new night terrors or sleepwalking habits that they did not have before the age six or seven</li><li>your child needs regular naps</li><li>your child experiences loud snoring, pauses in their breathing or extreme restlessness at night.</li></ul><h2>Further information</h2><p>For more tips on maintaining your child's mental health, please see the following pages:</p><p><a href="https://meant2prevent.ca/">Meant2Prevent</a></p> <p> <a href="/Article?contentid=639&language=English">Nutrition: How a balanced diet and healthy eating habits can support your child's mental health</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=642&language=English">Physical activity: Guidelines for children and teens​</a><br></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=641&language=English">Physical activity: Benefits of exercise for health and wellbeing​</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=645&language=English">Sleep: Benefits and recommended amounts​</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=647&language=English">Sleep tips: How to help your teen get a good night's sleep</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=643&language=English">Screen time: Overview</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=644&language=English">Screen time: How to help your child set healthy limits</a></p><h2>Resources</h2><p>Canadian Paediatric Society (2012). <em> <a target="_blank" href="http://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/healthy_sleep_for_your_baby_and_child">Healthy sleep for your baby and child​</a></em>.​</p><p>National Sleep Foundation (2016). <em> <a target="_blank" href="https://sleepfoundation.org/sleep-topics/children-and-sleep">Children and sleep</a></em>.</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/sleep_benefits_recommended_amounts.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/sleep_benefits_recommended_amounts.jpgTips for a good night's sleep Sleep brings many physical and mental benefits. Follow these tips to help your child fall asleep and stay asleep through the night. Main
Suicide and self-harmSuicide and self-harmSuicide and self-harmSEnglishAdolescent;PsychiatryTeen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2019-09-12T04:00:00Z9.5000000000000058.5000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about suicide and self-harm, including why these thoughts may occur, the signs and symptoms and how to find help.</p><h2>Suicide and self-harm</h2><p>Thoughts of suicide and self-harm behaviours often result from overwhelming emotional pain. If someone has been going through a very difficult time, self-harm, or even suicide, can sometimes seem like the only way out.</p><p>Self-harm is when someone hurts themselves on purpose. Teens who self-harm may be trying to relieve emotional pain or suffering, or create a physical wound to represent their emotional pain. People who self-harm may sometimes have thoughts of suicide, but not always.</p><p>If you are having thoughts of suicide or self-harm, there are treatments available that can help you figure out why you feel so sad and learn new methods to manage and overcome your pain. Talking openly and honestly with someone you trust can help you feel less alone, lighten your burden and remind you that people care about you and want to help.</p><div class="callout2"><p>If you need help immediately, contact your health-care provider, or call <a href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/">Kids Help Phone</a> at 1-800-668-6868. You can also contact the Crisis Text Line from Kids Help Phone by texting CONNECT to 686868.</p></div><h2>Common signs and symptoms of suicidal thoughts </h2><p>While each person is different, there are some general signs and symptoms of distress. Typically, someone who is experiencing suicidal thoughts would experience both behavioural (actions) and emotional (feelings) signs and symptoms of distress. </p><p>Behavioural signs include: </p><ul><li>thinking about or planning self-harm or suicide </li><li>talking about suicide or not wanting to be in the world anymore</li><li>experiencing big changes in sleep habits and appetite</li><li>isolating yourself from friends, family and activities</li><li>engaging in self-harm</li><li>starting or changing substance use</li></ul><p>Emotional signs include:</p><ul><li>feeling worthless, hopeless or trapped</li><li>feeling irritable </li><li>feeling angry or even experiencing rage</li></ul><h2>What causes suicidal thoughts and behaviours?</h2><p>There is no single cause for suicidal thoughts and self-harm behaviours. These thoughts may go away after some time, but they may also come up quickly in response to an event.</p><p>Stressful life events play a big role in the onset of suicidal thoughts. For instance, events such as a difficult break-up, a fight with family or friends, bullying, failing a test or losing a loved one may cause deep feelings of distress and despair and make someone believe that suicide is the only way to escape. </p><p>Other possible causes include mental health conditions such as <a href="/Article?contentid=3810&language=English&hub=mentalhealthAZ#mentalhealth">anxiety</a> and depression. If these are not recognized or treated properly, someone may feel overwhelming sadness and that there is no way out. </p><h2>How are suicidal thoughts and self-harm treated?</h2><p>The first step is talking to someone you trust. This might be a parent, a counsellor, another family member, a counsellor or another adult in your life at home or at school.</p><p>Therapy can also help you sort out what stressful events are happening in your life and causing you to feel sad and hopeless. A therapist can work with you to come up with strategies and skills to handle your feelings and deal with the situations that are causing stress.</p><h2>What can I do to relieve any suicidal thoughts or self-harming behaviour?</h2><p>There are a number of things you can do to support yourself when you are feeling distressed. </p><h3>Talk to someone</h3><p>It can be really difficult to share your deepest thoughts and feelings, but talking with a parent, a teacher or another trusted adult can help.</p><p>Sometimes you might find it easier to share your feelings with a stranger than with someone who knows you well. If you feel distressed and need someone to listen, a crisis help line might be helpful. In Canada, you can call Kids Help Phone on 1-800-668-6868 24 hours a day, seven days a week. You can also contact the Crisis Text Line from Kids Help Phone by texting CONNECT to 686868, or chat with someone through the online Live Chat or the Always There app. For more information visit <a href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/">kidshelpphone.ca</a>.</p><h3>Distract yourself</h3><p>If you’re feeling especially stressed, do an activity you enjoy, whether it’s watching a movie, listening to music, drawing, reading or writing. Or you could do some vigorous physical activity such as a brisk walk or a run for 10 or 20 minutes. It may also help to eat your favourite food or snack.</p><h3>Use relaxation</h3><p>Use deep breathing or muscle relaxation to help calm yourself. There are many apps available for download, or you can try some of the <a href="/mentalhealth?topic=guidedmeditations">guided meditations</a> on this site. Another option is to take a warm shower and use body wash or other skin products that smell good and might help you to relax. </p><h2>When should I see a doctor?</h2><p>It is very important to see your health-care provider if you:</p><ul><li>are already self-harming</li><li>have suicidal thoughts and cannot see a way out</li></ul><p>Your health-care provider can suggest helpful ways to cope or may refer you to a mental health professional for further help. If they are concerned for your immediate safety, they may send you to your nearest emergency department.</p> <h3>Kids Help Phone – <a href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/">kidshelpphone.ca</a></h3><p>Kids Help Phone is a 24/7 e-mental health service offering free, confidential support to young people.</p><p> <a href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/get-info/how-cope-thoughts-suicide/">How to cope with thoughts of suicide</a></p><p> <a href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/get-info/self-injury-positive-coping-strategies/">Self-injury: What it is and how to cope</a></p><p> <a href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/get-info/8-ways-foster-hope-your-daily-life/">8 ways to foster hope in your daily life</a></p><p> <a href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/get-info/letter-writing/">Need to share what’s on your mind? Try letter writing!</a></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/self_harm_overview.jpg Read about suicide and self-harm, including why these thoughts may occur, the signs and symptoms and how to find help.Teens



MeaslesMeaslesMeaslesMEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)SkinImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Cough;Eye discomfort and redness;Fever;Rash;Runny nosehttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Measles_closeup_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.jpg2023-06-28T04:00:00Z9.2000000000000056.50000000000001244.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Measles is an infection caused by a highly contagious virus. Learn the symptoms and causes of measles and how it can be prevented. </p><p>Measles is an infection caused by a highly contagious virus. When someone with the virus coughs or sneezes, contaminated respiratory particles spread through the air and land on nearby surfaces. Your child can catch the virus by inhaling these particles or by touching them and then touching their face, mouth or eyes.</p><p>Your child is more likely to develop measles if they do not have the measles vaccination, and if they travel to other countries, where measles is more common, without being vaccinated. Vaccination can be considered for children as young as 6 months of age if they are travelling to an at-risk area—talk to your health-care provider. Your child is also more likely to be exposed to measles if overall measles vaccination rates drop in your community. It is important to catch up on all delayed or missed vaccinations.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Measles is an infection caused by a virus. It is very contagious and has no specific antiviral treatment.</li><li>Usually, measles causes fever, runny nose, cough, conjunctivitis (red and watery eyes) and a rash.</li><li>Complication rates are highest among young children and include pneumonia, encephalitis (brain swelling or infection), blindness and death.</li><li>Measles can be prevented with immunization.</li><li>If you think your child has measles and needs to be seen, call your health-care provider, clinic or emergency department before arriving. Precautions can then be made to prevent the spread of the infection to others.</li></ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of measles</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Measles rash</span> <img alt="Torso of child with measles rash" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Measles_torso_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.jpg" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The measles rash starts on the face, and spreads down the body towards the feet.</figcaption> </figure> <p>Common symptoms of measles include:</p><ul> <li>a <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a> that lasts for a couple of days</li><li>a cough, runny nose, and red and watery eyes (<a href="/Article?contentid=782&language=English">conjunctivitis</a>)</li><li>a rash that starts on the face, upper neck and behind the ears, and then spreads down the body before spreading to the arms, hands, legs and feet</li></ul><p>After about five days, the rash fades in the same order it appeared.</p><h2>How measles spreads</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Close-up of a measles rash</span> <img alt="Close-up of measles rash" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Measles_closeup_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.jpg" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The characteristic measles rash is red and blotchy.</figcaption> </figure> <p>Measles is a very contagious disease. It spreads very easily from one person to another and can also spread in the air.</p><p>The measles virus lives in the nose and throat of infected people. When an infected person sneezes or coughs, respiratory particles spray into the air. The virus can stay in the air or land on surfaces nearby, where the virus can spread for up to two hours. Sharing the same room or area with someone who has measles, even for a brief period of time, can be enough to transmit the infection to someone who is not immune. This is why parents need to call ahead before going to their doctor, a clinic or the emergency department when they suspect their child has measles so that precautions can be put in place to prevent further spread.</p><p>People with measles are usually contagious from four days before, until four days after the rash appears. Children with immune system problems may stay contagious much longer.</p><h2>How measles is diagnosed</h2><p>Measles is diagnosed by a physical examination of your child. The health-care provider may also order blood and urine tests and viral swabs from the nose or throat. If you think your child has measles, call your child’s health-care provider, the clinic or emergency department before going to see them so the infection is not passed on to other patients.</p><h2>Complications of measles</h2><p>Complications are dangerous and rates are highest in young children. About a quarter of children under five years of age with measles will require admission to hospital. Some children with a measles infection will also get an <a href="/article?contentid=8&language=english">ear infection</a>, <a href="/article?contentid=7&language=english">diarrhea</a> or even <a href="/article?contentid=784&language=english">pneumonia</a>.</p><p>Rarely, some children who have measles also get a swelling or infection of the brain (encephalitis). Severe cases of encephalitis can lead to seizures, hearing loss, brain damage or death.</p><p>Children with vitamin A deficiency who get measles can become blind.</p><h2>Caring for your child at home</h2><p>There is no specific treatment for measles. You can support your child by trying to make them comfortable.</p><h3>Monitor the fever</h3><p>You can use <a href="/article?contentid=62&language=english">acetaminophen</a> or <a href="/article?contentid=153&language=english">ibuprofen</a> to treat the fever. Do not give <a href="/article?contentid=77&language=english">ASA (acetylsalicylic acid, Aspirin)</a> to children.</p><h3>Isolate your child and allow them bed rest</h3><p>Your child should isolate at home (e.g., cannot go to school or daycare) until at least five days after the rash first appears. In Canada, cases of measles are reported to the Public Health Department. They will follow up with you about when it is safe for your child to return to their daily routine.</p><h3>Give your child fluids</h3><p>Offer your child water and other fluids often.</p><br><h2>How to prevent measles</h2><p>The only way to prevent measles and its complications is to receive measles vaccinations. The measles vaccine is available free of charge in many countries. Children receive two doses of the measles vaccine.</p><ul><li>The first dose is usually given soon after your child's first birthday.</li><li>The second dose is usually given when your child starts kindergarten.</li></ul><p>Measles is included in the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) and measles, mumps, rubella and varicella (MMRV) vaccines. Ask your child's health-care provider if your child's measles vaccination is up to date.</p><h3>Reactions to the vaccine</h3><p>When given the measles vaccine, some children develop mild symptoms. Often, a pink rash appears about seven to 10 days after the vaccination. This rash lasts for about three days. The child may also develop a mild fever and minor joint pain at the same time as the rash. If you are concerned in any way, call your child’s health-care provider.</p><h3>Importance of measles vaccination</h3><p>Since the introduction of the measles vaccine in Canada, the number of measles infections fell from an estimated 400,000 cases a year in 1963 to only 29 cases in 2018.</p><p>In countries where the vaccine is free and readily available, vaccination has helped to reduce measles to very low levels. However, measles is still common in many parts of the world and because not all children are being vaccinated, measles is becoming more common in many countries that previously had low levels of infection. You, your child and your family should be vaccinated against measles to protect yourself from the disease and its complications, especially if you are travelling to other countries. In some cases, vaccination may be recommended as early as six months of age. If a dose of measles vaccine is given early, an additional second and third dose would still be needed according to the routine schedule. Talk with your child’s health-care provider before travelling.</p><h2>When to see a doctor</h2><p>Call your child's regular health-care provider if:</p><ul><li>your child's fever does not lessen four days after the rash starts</li><li>your child's coughing gets worse</li><li>your child develops ear pain</li></ul><p>Take your child to the nearest Emergency Department or call 911 if your child:</p><ul><li>becomes short of breath or develops persistently noisy breathing</li><li>shows a change in behaviour or movement problems</li><li>has a seizure</li><li>develops a severe headache or persistent vomiting</li></ul><p>Let the clinic or emergency department know your child may have measles before you arrive so that precautions can be made to prevent the spread of the infection to others.</p><p>Your child may show physical changes when their condition is serious or when their condition gets worse. Parents and caregivers can learn how to <a href="https://www.healthcareexcellence.ca/media/s3bbk5nv/20221216_signsmaterialsqr_en.pdf">spot these signs</a> in order to seek help from a health-care provider.</p><h2>References</h2><p>Government of Canada. (2019, April 1). <em>Measles in Canada</em>. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/diseases/measles/measles-in-canada.html</p><br>Main
Sore throat and tonsillitisSore throat and tonsillitisSore throat and tonsillitisSEnglishOtolaryngologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Mouth;EsophagusMouth;EsophagusConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Abdominal pain;Cough;Fever;Nausea;Runny nose;Sore throat2023-06-26T04:00:00Z7.1000000000000068.50000000000001028.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>A sore throat is usually a symptom of an illness. Learn possible causes, how long it lasts, and how to take care of your child. </p>​​​<p>Pharyngitis and tonsillitis are infections in the throat that cause it to be sore. If the tonsils are primarily involved, it is called tonsillitis and if the throat is primarily involved it is called pharyngitis. Your child's throat may feel dry, itchy, scratchy or painful.</p><p>The tonsils are small round pieces of tissue at the back of the throat. The tonsils are a part of the body's defensive lymphatic system. They help fight germs that cause infection and prevent you from getting sick. When tonsils are doing their job of fighting viruses and bacteria, they increase in size, become inflamed and red, and can feel painful.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Sore throats have many different causes.</li> <li>Most sore throats do not need antibiotics.</li> <li>Take your child to the doctor if your child has a sore throat and is unable to move their neck, is unable to drink or cannot swallow their saliva.</li> <li>You can help your child be more comfortable by giving plenty of liquids, soft foods and pain medicine if needed.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of a sore throat</h2><ul><li>Your child may say their throat or neck is sore.</li><li>Your child may say it hurts when swallowing, drinking or eating.</li><li>Your child may have a hoarse voice.</li><li>Younger children may refuse to eat or drink, take smaller amounts than usual, or cry when feeding and swallowing.</li></ul><h3>Some children may have other symptoms including:</h3><ul><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a>, cough and runny nose<br></li><li>nausea and stomach (tummy) pain</li><li>their throat may be redder than normal, possibly with pus. There can be more redness with both viral and bacterial throat infections.</li></ul><h2>Causes of a sore throat</h2><ul><li>Illnesses like a <a href="/Article?contentid=12&language=English">cold</a> or the <a href="/article?contentid=763&language=English">flu</a> can cause a sore throat.<br></li><li>Sometimes sore throats can be caused when children sleep with their mouths open and wake up with a dry mouth and sore throat.</li><li>Children with post-nasal drip may get sore throats from clearing their throats or coughing at night.</li><li>Certain viruses can cause sores in the mouth or throat, resulting in a sore throat.</li><li>Sore throats can be caused by a bacterial infection, most commonly by <a href="/Article?contentid=11&language=English">strep throat</a> (a family of bacteria called streptococcus). In this family, Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is the most common bacteria and can cause complications in other parts of the body.</li></ul><h2>​Caring for your child at home</h2><ul><li>If your child is having trouble swallowing, give soft foods that are easy to swallow.<br></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=776&language=English">Give plenty of liquids</a>.<br></li><li>If your child is more than one year old, try giving pasteurized honey to soothe the throat and help with the cough (infants less than one year should not be given any honey).<br></li><li>Older children can try gargling with warm salt water.<br></li></ul><h3>​Sore throats caused by sleeping with the mouth open</h3><ul><li>Offer your child something to drink if their throat is sore.</li><li>Use a humidifier at night to put more moisture in the air. This may help prevent sore throats.</li></ul><p>If this happens often or if it is associated with snoring, breathing difficulty or excessive daytime sleepiness, discuss it with your health-care provider.<br></p><h3>​Sore throats caused by post-nasal drip</h3><ul><li>Rinsing the nasal passages with a saline solution can help to lessen throat clearing or coughing.</li></ul><h3>Sore throats caused by viruses</h3><p>If your child has a sore throat caused by a virus, you can:</p><ul><li>give your child <a href="/Article?contentid=62&language=English">acetaminophen</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=153&language=English">ibuprofen</a> to treat pain and fever. Follow the instructions on the label.</li><li>use a liquid preparation or rectal suppositories instead if your child’s throat is too sore to swallow pills.</li></ul><p>​Sore throats caused by a virus should go away in about seven days. Antibiotics will not help sore throats caused by viruses.<br></p><h3>Sore throats caused by strep throat</h3><p>Most strep throat (an infection caused by GAS) cases get better in three to seven days without <a href="/Article?contentid=1120&language=English">antibiotics</a>. Antibiotic treatment reduces the risk of other people becoming infected and reduces the risk of developing a serious condition called <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=2315&language=English">rheumatic fever</a>.</p><h3>Sore throat caused by tonsillitis</h3><p>Tonsillitis may cause the tonsils to become enlarged, leading to difficulty swallowing, transient breathing difficulty or snoring at night. These symptoms improve as the tonsillitis gets better. Enlarged tonsils may be caused by a strep infection.<br></p><p>Persistently enlarged tonsils and/or adenoids may cause your child to have obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This is when your child goes through long pauses between breaths while sleeping and can occur when your child's tonsils have become large enough to block your child's air passage. If you are concerned that your child may have OSA, discuss this with their health-care provider.<br></p><h3>​Treatments that will not help a sore throat</h3><p>Treatments that should not be used to help sore throat include:</p><ul> <li>over-the-counter throat sprays. There is no evidence that over-the-counter sprays help with a sore throat. Some throat sprays may contain ingredients (Benzocaine) that may cause an allergic reaction or other problems.</li><li>throat lozenges or hard candies. These remedies are a choking hazard for young children.</li><li>any leftover medicine from family or friends. Leftover medicine may not be the right medicine or the right dose. You could harm your child without intending to.</li><li>Antibiotics will not help cure a sore throat caused by a virus.</li></ul><h2>​Complications of a sore throat</h2><p>Sore throats that are caused by viruses, throat clearing, dryness or irritants rarely have any long-term complications. These types of sore throats do not need antibiotics and tend to resolve on their own. </p><p>Untreated throat infections caused by GAS can lead to rheumatic fever.</p><h2>​Prevent a sore throat<br></h2><p><a href="/article?contentid=1981&language=English">Wash your hands​</a> and your child’s hands often. This will help to stop the spread of germs and lower the chances of getting a sore throat caused by infection or virus.</p><p>Make an appointment with your child's doctor if:</p><ul><li>Your child has been in contact with someone with strep throat, or your child has had strep throat in the past.</li><li>Your child has a sore throat that lasts longer than a few days.</li></ul><p>Go to the nearest Emergency Department or call 911 if:</p><ul><li>Your child is having trouble breathing.</li><li>Your child is drooling or having a lot of trouble swallowing.</li><li>Your child is acting very sick.</li><li>Your child is having trouble moving their neck.</li></ul><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/sore_throat_tonsillitis.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />sorethroatsorethroathttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/sore_throat_tonsillitis.jpgMain
Strep throatStrep throatStrep throatSEnglishInfectious DiseasesPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years)Mouth;Trachea;EsophagusMouth;Esophagus;TracheaConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Fever;Sore throat2023-06-26T04:00:00Z7.7000000000000065.7000000000000952.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Strep throat is a throat infection caused by a type of bacteria called streptococci. Learn how you can take care of your child.</p><br><h2>What is strep throat?</h2><p>Strep throat is a throat infection caused by a type of bacteria called <em>Streptococcus</em>.</p><p>Strep throat is more common in school-age children.</p><p>The most common cause of strep throat is group A beta-haemolytic <em>Streptococcus</em> (GAS). This bacteria can also cause complications in other parts of the body.​</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>The main symptoms of strep throat are fever and sore throat.</li> <li>If you suspect that your child might have strep throat, see a health-care provider for a throat swab.</li> <li>Make sure your child finishes any antibiotics they are prescribed to prevent relapse and complications.</li> <li>Use soft foods, cold drinks and pain medications, if needed, to reduce any pain.</li> <li>Make sure that any other family members or close contacts with similar symptoms see their healthcare provider.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of strep throat</h2> <p>The symptoms for strep throat are similar to symptoms for a sore throat caused by a virus or other illnesses. The most common symptoms are:</p> <ul> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English" style="line-height:18px;background-color:initial;">fever</a></li> <li><a href="/article?contentid=748&language=English">sore throat</a></li> <li>loss of interest in eating or drinking because of pain</li> <li>difficulty swallowing</li> <li><a href="/article?contentid=748&language=English">enlarged red tonsils</a>, sometimes covered with white-yellow coating.</li> </ul> <p>Some children may have other symptoms such as <a href="/Article?contentid=29&language=English">headache</a>, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and muscle pain.<br></p><h2>Reduce the spread of the infection</h2> <p>Strep throat can spread easily to family members and your child's classmates. Any child or adult who lives in your home and has the same symptoms in the five days after your child is diagnosed should have a throat swab.</p> <p>Your child's infection is no longer contagious after your child has been on antibiotics for 24 hours. This means that your child can return to school after one day of antibiotic treatment if they are feeling better.</p> <h3>Other tips to prevent the spread of infection</h3> <ul> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=1981&language=English">Wash your hands</a> with warm soapy water or alcohol-based hand sanitizer often.</li> <li>Do not let your child share drinking glasses or eating utensils with friends or classmates.</li> <li>Be sure to wash your child's glasses and utensils in hot soapy water or a dishwasher.</li> <li>Have your child sneeze into their elbow or cover their mouth and nose when coughing.</li> <li>Avoid kissing and having close facial contact with your child until they are better.</li> </ul> <h2>How is strep throat diagnosed?</h2><p>Strep throat cannot be diagnosed by looking at your child’s throat. The diagnosis must be confirmed by a throat swab. This involves wiping a thin cotton bud along the side and back of your child's throat. The swab is then sent to a lab to be tested for GAS bacteria. The results are usually available within a day or two.</p><p>Some clinics may use a rapid test, which gives results within minutes to identify strep. Rapid tests are only useful if they show that your child has the <em>Streptococcus</em> bacteria (known as a positive result). A negative rapid test result does not always mean that your child does not have strep throat. If your child has a negative rapid test, a throat swab should be sent to a lab to confirm they do not have strep.</p><p>A throat swab is very important for diagnosis as strep throat looks similar to <a href="/Article?contentid=748&language=English">viral pharyngitis</a>, which cannot be treated with antibiotics.</p><h2>How is strep throat treated?</h2> <p>If the rapid test or throat swab is positive for GAS, the doctor will prescribe oral antibiotics (antibiotics to be taken by mouth) for your child. Strep throat can sometimes get better without medication, but a GAS infection can cause complications if it is not treated.</p> <h2>Complications of strep throat</h2><h3>Throat abscess</h3><p>A throat abscess (a collection of pus in the throat tissues) can develop from strep throat. The symptoms include high fever, muffled voice, difficulty opening the mouth, increased salivation and drooling and neck swelling. See a health-care provider if these symptoms occur.</p><h3>Rheumatic fever</h3><p>Although rare, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=2315&language=English">rheumatic fever</a> can also develop as a complication of strep throat. The condition can involve the skin, joints, heart and brain. Treating the strep throat with antibiotics almost always prevents rheumatic fever.</p><h3>Other complications</h3><p> These can include joint inflammation (arthritis) and kidney inflammation. GAS is also the bacteria responsible for <a href="/Article?contentid=751&language=English">scarlet fever</a> and sometimes causes a skin infection called <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=796&language=English">impetigo</a>.</p><h2>Taking care of your child at home</h2> <h3>Manage the fever and pain</h3> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=62&language=English">Acetaminophen</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=153&language=English">ibuprofen</a> can be used to treat fever or pain. <a href="/Article?contentid=77&language=English">ASA (acetylsalicylic acid)</a> should not be given to children.</p> <h3>Complete the antibiotics</h3> <p>The fever and the throat pain usually improve about three days after your child starts taking antibiotics. However, even if your child seems to be better, it is very important to complete the entire course of antibiotics. This will make sure the infection does not return and will also prevent complications.</p> <h3>Offer your child soft foods and a liquid diet</h3> <p>Eating and drinking may be painful for a child with strep throat. Here are some tips to make it easier for them.</p> <ul> <li>If your child is having trouble swallowing, give soft foods that are easy to swallow, such as soups, ice cream, pudding or yogurt.</li> <li>Give plenty of liquids. Sipping with a straw or sippy cup may help.</li> <li>If your child is more than 12 months old, try giving one or two teaspoons (5 to 10 mL) of pasteurized honey to soothe the throat and ease the cough.</li> <li>Let an older child try gargling with warm salt water to soothe their throat.</li> </ul> <p>Ice cubes and lozenges may provide some relief for older children or teens. Do not give them to younger children, however, because they are a choking hazard.</p><h2>When to get medical attention</h2><p>Call your child's regular health-care provider if:</p><ul><li>the fever does not go away within three days of starting antibiotics</li><li>your child develops a fever, a rash, joint swelling, or has difficulty drinking liquids or keeping liquids down</li></ul><p>Go to the nearest Emergency Department or call 911 if your child:<br></p><ul><li>has trouble breathing or shortness of breath<br></li></ul><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/strep_throat.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />strepthroatstrepthroathttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/strep_throat.jpgMain
Invasive group A streptococcal disease (iGAS)Invasive group A streptococcal disease (iGAS)Invasive group A streptococcal disease (iGAS)IEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2023-07-05T04:00:00Z10.200000000000048.0000000000000661.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Invasive group A streptococcal disease (iGAS) is a serious infection that occurs when bacteria called group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GAS) spread to different organs in the body.</p><h2>Who is at risk of getting an iGAS infection?</h2><p>Group A streptococcal (GAS) infections most commonly cause <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=11&language=English">strep throat</a> in school-age children. It can also cause <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=751&language=English">scarlet fever</a> or <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=796&language=English">skin infections</a>. These are easily treated with antibiotics at home. In rare cases, some strains of the same bacteria can cause severe disease by producing toxins and invading other organs. Invasive GAS (iGAS) disease can occur in people who are at higher risk. This includes infants, children and senior adults, anyone with a weak immune system, and anyone with a recent influenza or varicella (chicken pox) infection. However, there has been an unexplained increase in the number of healthy children with no previous risk factors who have been diagnosed with iGAS infections.</p><h2>Key points<br></h2><ul><li>A GAS infection causes common childhood illnesses that can be treated with antibiotics.</li><li>In some cases, the GAS bacteria invade and infect other organs, such as the bloodstream, muscles, bones, joints, lungs and the brain. Children with invasive group A streptococcal disease can experience severe skin and muscle infection and damage (necrotizing fasciitis).</li><li>The bacteria produce toxins that can have life-threatening effects and require intravenous (IV) antibiotics to treat the infection and other medications to minimize damage to vital organs.</li><li>It is not known why some healthy children with no risk factors get more severe GAS infections than others.</li></ul><h2>My child was diagnosed with strep throat. Will they get iGAS?</h2><p>Children with strep throat do not appear to be at higher risk of developing iGAS. While the same bacteria (GAS) cause strep throat and iGAS, there are many different strains, or sub-types, of group A <em>Streptococcus</em>. Only certain strains cause invasive disease, and they may be different from the ones that cause common strep infections.</p><h2>How do I know if my child has iGAS?</h2><p>Children with iGAS have a fever and are ill. Parents or caregivers should seek medical care if their child:</p><ul><li>has a change in behaviour: Behaviour changes include being less alert, not responding as usual, or having unusual movements or unusual speech.</li><li>has a change in breathing: Breathing changes include fast breathing, difficulty speaking and breathlessness.</li><li>is dehydrated: If your child is not drinking enough, has frequent vomiting or diarrhea, or is urinating less than every 8 hours they may be dehydrated.</li><li>has a change in skin tone or colour: Children with cold, clammy skin, blue lips, gray skin colour or purple blotches should be seen by a health-care provider immediately.</li></ul><h2>How can I protect my child?</h2><p>If your child has been exposed to someone with a strep infection and develops similar symptoms (skin infection, sore throat, rash or fever), take them to their health-care provider to get a throat swab. Inform their health-care provider they have been exposed to someone with strep. If diagnosed with a strep infection, make sure your child completes the prescribed course of antibiotic.</p><p>Ensure that your child’s <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1986&language=English">vaccinations</a> are up to date against all preventable infections, including varicella (chicken pox) and influenza.</p><h2>My child has been diagnosed with iGAS. Is the rest of my family safe?</h2><p>Your local public health unit will investigate any child diagnosed with iGAS and provide counselling regarding the risk of exposure to household members. In some cases, the public health practitioner will recommend prophylaxis (preventative) oral antibiotics for people who had close contact with the ill child to reduce the risk of infection from exposure to the bacteria.</p><p>Toronto Public Health. (August 2010). Invasive Group A Streptococcal Disease Fact Sheet. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.toronto.ca/community-people/health-wellness-care/diseases-medications-vaccines/invasive-group-a-streptococcal-disease-fact-sheet/">https://www.toronto.ca/community-people/health-wellness-care/diseases-medications-vaccines/invasive-group-a-streptococcal-disease-fact-sheet/</a></p><p>Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (June 27, 2022). Group A Streptococcal Disease. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/groupastrep/diseases-public/index.html">https://www.cdc.gov/groupastrep/diseases-public/index.html</a></p> <br><p>Healthcare Excellence Canada (December 20, 2022). SIGNS: Spot Severe Illness in Infants, Children and Adolescents. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.healthcareexcellence.ca/media/s3bbk5nv/20221216_signsmaterialsqr_en.pdf">https://www.healthcareexcellence.ca/media/s3bbk5nv/20221216_signsmaterialsqr_en.pdf</a></p><br>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-1389745306.jpgInvasive group A streptococcal disease Learn about this serious infection that occurs when group A beta-hemolytic streptococci spread to other organs.Main

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