AboutKidsHealth is a health education website for children, youth and their caregivers.



The impact of cancerThe impact of cancerThe impact of cancerTEnglishAdolescent;OncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANANAAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z8.1000000000000063.5000000000000153.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the different ways cancer will impact you and your teenager, and how other parents have coped when their child is diagnosed with cancer.</p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe width="560" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/NA57GggEUwc?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> <br></div><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>It is normal to experience a range of emotions when your child is diagnosed with cancer.</li><li>Try to avoid unhelpful thoughts, instead focusing on what you can do to care for your teen and for yourself.</li></ul><p>You have probably experienced a wide range of emotions since the day your teenager was diagnosed with cancer. It is common to feel shock, disbelief or guilt. Many parents and caregivers describe the experience as being on an emotional roller coaster. You may find yourself wondering whether your teenager’s cancer was caused by something you did or didn’t do. You may also worry about the impact that your teenager’s cancer will have on their future, their independence and your family’s finances. These types of thoughts are common for parents and caregivers. However, these thoughts don’t help you or your teenager, and have the potential to create other difficulties. Instead, it is important to focus on what you can do for your teen, and to take care of yourself so that you are a strong source of support for them.</p><p>Your worries are real, valid and important. Fortunately, there are helpful ways to manage these worries. </p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/The_impact_of_cancer.jpgImpact of cancer ​Learn about the different ways cancer will impact you and your teenager, and how other parents have coped when their child is diagnosed. Main
Crying in newbornsCrying in newbornsCrying in newbornsCEnglishNeonatologyNewborn (0-28 days)BodyNANAAdult (19+)NA2024-02-13T05:00:00Z7.3000000000000069.6000000000000731.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Crying in newborns is part of normal development. Learn how to effectively recognize the different types of cries your newborn baby might have.</p><p>Parents are programmed to find their baby’s cries distressing. Your baby’s crying, and your response to their crying, is your first shared language. When your baby is soothed by your response to their cry, you feel competent. When your baby’s crying is frequent, intense and difficult to soothe, you can feel frustrated or anxious. The information here will help you understand your baby’s crying. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Some babies cry more than others but studies show that the maximum crying occurs in the first three months of life.</li><li>Different cries can mean your baby is trying to communicate different things such as hunger, pain or fussiness.</li><li>Very high-pitched crying that persists, or in some cases very low-pitched crying that persists, can be associated with illness.</li></ul><h2>What do we know about crying in the first three months of life?</h2><ul><li>Some babies cry more than others, but all babies cry more in the first three months of life than later in development.</li><li>During the first three months of life crying follows a developmental pattern. This pattern is called the crying curve. Crying begins to increase at two or three weeks of age, peaks at around six to eight weeks of age, and gradually declines to the age of about 12 weeks. Some other studies have shown different peaks of crying, but all studies agree that maximum crying occurs in the first three months of life. </li><li>Crying in the first three months is often unexplained. It starts and ends without warning and may not stop no matter what you try.</li><li>Babies can cry as much as 5 hours a day and often more in the late afternoon or evening.</li></ul><h2>Do different cries mean different things?</h2><p>Babies’ cries can mean different things but it may take time for parents and caregivers to learn what each cry means. As your baby develops, you will find that you are usually able to correctly guess your baby’s needs based on the sound of their cry. At about three months of age, crying becomes much more interactive, and your baby will use different cries to mean different things. This change coincides with a baby’s social development. Here are some general guidelines about types of crying.</p><h3>Hunger</h3><p>Your baby’s hunger cry can begin quietly and slowly, but it builds in volume, becoming loud and rhythmic. Unless you have fed your baby recently and are certain they had enough to eat, try feeding your baby.</p><h3>Pain</h3><p>The typical pain cry is high-pitched, tense, harsh, non-melodious, sharp, short and loud. A crying baby may also look like they are in pain even when they are not.</p><h3>Fussiness</h3><p>Your baby may cry in a mild, intermittent way when they are upset. Most babies have a "fussy time," usually in the late afternoon or early evening. The sound of fussy crying differs from a hunger cry, but like the hunger cry, it can grow in volume. Some of the reasons for this type of crying can include:</p><ul><li>Your baby wants to be held. This is often an effective technique to quiet your baby.</li><li>A wet or soiled diaper is causing discomfort.</li><li>Your baby is tired. Sometimes babies become frustrated when they cannot soothe themselves to fall asleep.</li><li>Your baby is over- or under-stimulated. Use the context to decide whether to reduce or increase interaction or environmental sources of stimulation such as music or light.</li></ul><p>Remember, during the first three months of life, fussy crying may be unexplained as noted above, and may start and stop regardless of what a parent or caregiver does.</p><h3>Abnormal crying</h3><p>As parents and caregivers get to know your baby’s different types of cries, they can usually be identified by a change in the pitch, pattern or volume of the cry. Sometimes an abnormal cry is a sign that your baby is ill. Bring your baby to a health-care provider if you are concerned about a change in your baby’s cry. Seek immediate medical attention if your baby has a change in their cry and also has:</p><ul><li>fever</li><li>pain</li><li>poor feeding or</li><li>vomiting</li></ul><p>Your child may show physical changes when their condition is serious or when their condition gets worse. Parents and caregivers can learn how to <a href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/20231025_SIGNSMaterials_EN.pdf">spot these signs</a> in order to seek help from a health-care provider.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/crying_newborn.jpgMain
How to keep your child activeHow to keep your child activeHow to keep your child activeHEnglishInfectious DiseasesSchool age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2022-09-08T04:00:00Z9.9000000000000051.40000000000001223.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to help your child stay active and provide them with the support they need to stay motivated.</p><p>Our busy life schedule has made it difficult to manage many aspects of our lives, especially physical activity levels. This can also be seen in children, and many of them have become more sedentary. These changes in activity levels can be a risk to your child’s health and can also have a negative impact on their sleep and mental health. It is important that your child stays active during their free time. Physical activity is an important part of growth and has many health-related benefits.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Find an activity that your child enjoys. This is the best source of motivation!</li><li>Get the family involved. If it is an activity that the family can do (e.g. going for walks), everyone can keep each other motivated.</li><li>Plan ahead to make sure your child knows the daily physical activities. Create a weekly plan to allot time to the activities.</li></ul> <h2>How active should your child be?</h2><p>The Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines say that children and youth aged 5 to 17 should accumulate <strong>at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity every day.</strong> This should include doing aerobic activities at least three days a week and activities that strengthen muscles and bones at least three days a week.</p><h2>Exercise snacking</h2><p>One way you can incorporate activity into your child’s day is with the idea of "exercise snacking". You do this by planning multiple shorter activities, or exercise snacks, for your child that are spread throughout the day. These exercise snacks can add up to meet the goal of 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. This approach also helps to break up the amount of time your child spends sitting.</p><h2>How to build your best day</h2><p>It may feel like a challenge to get your child and family started on a physical activity routine but it can be helpful to create a plan! Using a plan helps to keep your child motivated and to make sure they get 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity every day. Creating a plan for the week ahead can be a good visual reminder and make the physical activity goals more attainable and realistic. Check out the Build Your Best Day resource for a fun way of developing a day that meets the physical activity recommendations (<a href="http://buildyourbestday.participaction.com/en-ca/">http://buildyourbestday.participaction.com/en-ca/</a>).</p><p>Doctors, physiotherapists and exercise physiologists use a simple formula called the FITT principle to prescribe exercise. The FITT principle stands for:</p><ul><li> <strong>Frequency:</strong> How many days per week you are physically active?</li><li> <strong>Intensity:</strong> How much effort does your activity take (low, moderate or high)?</li><li> <strong>Time:</strong> How long are you active each day?</li><li> <strong>Type:</strong> What type of activity are you doing (strength, yoga, dance, skating, etc.)?</li></ul><p>The FIIT principle can act as a guide to help you develop a physical activity plan that is specific for you and your child. You can use each of the components of FIIT as outlined below to help you set realistic goals for your child.</p><ul><li>Start with a smaller goal such as having your child be active three days a week and then increase the number of active days over time.</li><li>Start with low-intensity activities if that is best for your child and help them build up their tolerance. It will be more enjoyable for your child to go at a pace they can keep up with.</li><li>Get your child exercising for 30 minutes a day at the start, half the recommended amount of activity and build from there.</li><li>Remember that your child does not have to do all the activity at one time. For example, it can be two activities of 15 minutes each.</li></ul><p>As important as each of the components of the FIIT principle are, the most important thing is that your child just gets moving every day. Here are some examples of lower and higher-intensity activities that your child could do.</p><p>Lower intensity</p><ul><li>Going for walks</li><li>Yoga</li><li>Low-intensity cycling</li><li>Low-intensity/low-impact fitness videos</li><li>Walking on a treadmill</li></ul><p>Higher intensity</p><ul><li>Sports (soccer, basketball, volleyball, etc.)</li><li>Dancing</li><li>Fitness videos</li><li>Jogging/running</li><li>Running around with friends outside</li></ul><h2>Use this time to try something new</h2><p>Your child’s preferred activities might not be available at the moment, but you can still promote active time. Your child can use equipment that is available at home (e.g., treadmill, elliptical, bicycle) or a fun fitness video on YouTube. YouTube has a variety of videos for dancing, full body exercises, strengthening and yoga. You may want to expose your child to a variety of activities to see which they prefer. Finding an activity that your child likes will be the most important factor in keeping your child active and motivated to develop and maintain a healthy lifestyle.</p><h2>Let’s get started!</h2><ul><li>Below is a list of activities. Suggest these to your child and find what sparks their interest.</li><li>Create a weekly plan to visually lay out what activities to do and when to do them by organizing each day.</li><li>Participate in the activities with your child when possible.</li><li>Take advantage of weekends to plan family activities involving movement.</li><li>Set reminders to get up and move around every hour.</li><li>Set mini goals with your child. This could range from doing 10 minutes of any activity three times per day to accumulating 30 minutes of movement each day.</li><li>If your child owns an activity tracking device, they can track their daily steps. Setting a step count goal can be a great way to create mini-challenges.</li><ul><li>These devices can also track amounts of exercise and give reminders to move.</li></ul><li>Encourage, encourage, encourage!!!</li><li>Positively reinforce any effort your child makes to be active.</li></ul><h2>Examples of activities</h2><p>Outdoor activities</p><ul><li>Walking</li><li>Skating</li><li>Cycling</li><li>Tobogganing</li><li>Skiing/snowboarding</li><li>Running around/playing outside</li></ul><p>Indoor activities</p><ul><li>Dancing</li><li><a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=2606&language=English">Yoga</a></li><li>Online fitness videos</li><li>Using any at-home equipment (free weights, resistance bands, treadmill, etc.)</li><li>Children fitness videos</li></ul><p>Online platforms for children:</p><ul><li> <a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/CosmicKidsYoga">https://www.youtube.com/user/CosmicKidsYoga</a> (Cosmic Kids - Yoga)</li><li> <a href="https://family.gonoodle.com/channels/indoor-recess/">https://family.gonoodle.com/channels/indoor-recess/</a> (GoNoodle - Activities)</li><li> <a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/MovetoLearnMS/playlists">https://www.youtube.com/user/MovetoLearnMS/playlists</a> (MovetoLearn - Exercise)</li><li> <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oe_HDfdmnaM&list=PLCpoNIIHvo1TVazT_kiWL194kefYiAed1&index=21">https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oe_HDfdmnaM&list=PLCpoNIIHvo1TVazT_kiWL194kefYiAed1&index=21</a> (Just Dance playlist)</li></ul><p>Online platforms for adolescents:</p><ul><li> <a href="https://www.downdogapp.com/">https://www.downdogapp.com</a> (Down Dog Yoga)</li><li> <a href="https://www.fitnessblender.com/">https://www.fitnessblender.com</a> (Fitness Blender - Workouts)</li><li> <a href="https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLiQyPKgbtKzdPqALmEyIu5B3cWBhY0N0w">https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLiQyPKgbtKzdPqALmEyIu5B3cWBhY0N0w</a> (Beginner HIIT Workouts)</li><li> <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nbYZH3Eu6hs&list=PLGS4SAu2FI3fVzyTI-sCpXrPu42AKkNNO">https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nbYZH3Eu6hs&list=PLGS4SAu2FI3fVzyTI-sCpXrPu42AKkNNO</a> (Just Dance playlist - more videos to explore on YouTube)</li></ul><h2>Additional benefits of physical activity</h2><p> <strong>Sleep</strong></p><p>Physical activity is not only important for reducing the amount of time your child is inactive but it will also help improve their <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=645&language=English&hub=Sleep">sleep quality</a>. Having an increased level of physical activity throughout the day can contribute to a better sleep schedule and quality of sleep.</p><p>Here are some suggestions to help your child get a good night’s sleep:</p><ul><li>Have a relaxing bedtime routine. Your child should go to bed at about the same time each night. You should keep their room cool, dark and quiet but open the curtains or turn on the lights as soon as they get up in the morning.</li><li>Your child should always fall asleep in their bed. They should use their bed for sleeping only. Your child should avoid doing homework, using a smartphone or tablet, or playing video games while in bed. They should turn off screens at least 30 minutes before the time they want to sleep. Children aged 14 to 17 should be in their beds with the lights out for 8 to 10 hours every night. Children aged 5 to 13 should be in their beds with the lights out for 9 to 11 hours every night.</li><li>Napping during the day can make it difficult to fall asleep at night. If your child wants to nap, they keep it short (less than 30 minutes). Definitely do not nap after dinner.</li><li>Get exercise every day.</li><li>Avoid caffeine (coffee, tea, pop, energy drinks), especially after mid-afternoon.</li><li>On weekends, no matter how late your child goes to bed, they should get up within 2 to 4 hours of their usual wake-up time. This is especially important if they have trouble falling asleep on Sunday nights.</li><li>Make sure your child is not trying to do too much. Make sure your child still has time to have fun and to get enough sleep. If your child is having trouble sleeping because they have too much on their mind, suggest they keep a diary or a to-do list. If they write things down before sleep, they may feel less worried or stressed.</li></ul><p> <strong>Mental well-being</strong></p><p>Keeping a healthy mind by doing physical activities, as well as mindfulness, can help your child cope with general life stressors. Below is a list of mindful resources to help with coping.</p><p>The Exercise Medicine Program at The Hospital for Sick Children provides support to patients and their families by promoting a healthy active lifestyle looking at four domains: Physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleeping hygiene and nutrition. This program utilizes the FITT principle to prescribe physical activity plans to children by giving suitable recommendations for optimizing their health.</p> <h2>Resources for children</h2><h3>Website</h3><p><strong>AboutKidsHealth for teens</strong><br> <a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3778&language=English&hub=mentalhealthAZ#mentalhealth">https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3778&language=English&hub=mentalhealthAZ#mentalhealth</a></p><h3>Apps</h3><p><strong>MyLife Meditation: Mindfulnes‪s‬</strong><br> Learn to meditate and be more mindful with MyLife Meditation. MyLife Meditation is a meditation and mindfulness app personalized to how you feel. It will help you develop simple habits and learn to maintain perspective.</p>‬‬‬ <p><strong>Breathe, Think, Do with Sesame</strong><br> Share this app with your child to help teach skills such as problem-solving, self-control, planning and task persistence using a breathe, think, do strategy. It is available in English and Spanish.</p><p><strong>Smiling Mind</strong><br> Smiling Mind is a unique web and app-based program developed by psychologists and educators to help bring balance to people’s lives.</p><h2>Resources for adolescents</h2><h3>Website</h3><p><strong>Mindfulness for Teens</strong><br> <a href="https://mindfulnessforteens.com/">https://mindfulnessforteens.com/</a></p><h3>Apps</h3><p><strong>MindShift CBT</strong><br> This is an app designed to help teens and young adults cope with anxiety. It can help you change how you think about anxiety. Instead of trying to avoid anxiety, you can decide to face it. It is available in English and French.</p><p><strong>Virtual Hope Box</strong><br> This app provides simple tools to help people with coping, relaxation, distraction and positive thinking. Personalized content such as photos, videos, recorded messages, inspirational quotes, poetry, music you find soothing, positive life experiences and future aspirations can be stored in the app to use when you need it.</p><p><strong>Smiling Mind</strong><br> Smiling Mind is a unique web and app-based program developed by psychologists and educators to help bring balance to people’s lives.</p> <p>Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology. Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth (ages 5-17 years): An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour and Sleep. Retrieved from <a href="https://csepguidelines.ca/children-and-youth-5-17/">https://csepguidelines.ca/children-and-youth-5-17/</a></p><p>Participaction. Benefits & Guidelines: Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: Ages 5-17. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.participaction.com/en-ca/benefits-and-guidelines/children-and-youth-age-5-to-17">https://www.participaction.com/en-ca/benefits-and-guidelines/children-and-youth-age-5-to-17</a></p> https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-1080443848.jpg ​This World Health Day, learn how to help your child stay active and provide them with the support they need to stay motivated. Main
Immunization "catch-up" for children who have not been fully immunizedImmunization "catch-up" for children who have not been fully immunizedImmunization "catch-up" for children who have not been fully immunizedIEnglishImmunologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANADrug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2023-06-22T04:00:00Z10.300000000000047.4000000000000509.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>An overview of immunization for children who have not been fully immunized according to the standard schedule.</p><p>Immunization (vaccines) protects your child against several serious, life-threatening infectious diseases. Your child should receive vaccinations according to the schedule recommended for your province, state or country. Your child should also have a written record of which immunizations they have had and when.</p><p>Children who are new to Canada — immigrant, refugee or adopted children — may not be vaccinated according to Canada's schedule.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Immunization protects your child against disease.</li> <li>In Canada, children normally receive vaccines according to a schedule. </li> <li>There are several reasons why a child may not be fully immunized, including illness or being new to Canada.</li> <li>If your child has not been immunized according to the normal schedule, speak to your child’s doctor.</li> <li>Your child should have a written immunization record.</li> </ul><h2>The immunization schedule</h2><p>The following chart is the recommended schedule of immunizations during childhood for the <a href="http://www.health.gov.on.ca/en/pro/programs/immunization/docs/immunization_schedule.pdf" target="_blank">province of Ontario</a> as of June 2022. For the most current recommendations according to the National Advisory Committee on Immunization and for each province and territory, go to the <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/provincial-territorial-immunization-information/provincial-territorial-routine-vaccination-programs-infants-children.html" target="_blank">Government of Canada</a> website.</p> <figure class="asset-c-100"><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/immunization_table_EN.png" alt="Immunization schedule chart" /> </figure> <h2>If your child has not been fully immunized</h2><p>There are several reasons why children may not have received all their vaccines, such as:</p><ul><li>missing one or more appointments with their primary care provider<br></li><li>illness during the time they should have had a vaccine<br></li><li>being new to Canada: immigrant, refugee and internationally adopted children may not have been immunized according to Canada’s schedule or some vaccines may not be available where they come from</li></ul><p>These children could be at risk of catching a vaccine-preventable disease. If your child has not been fully immunized for any reason, talk to your primary care provider about how to make up the missing vaccines. </p><p>If your child has not been in your care since birth, it may be hard to determine their vaccine history. If your child has a written immunization record, show it to your doctor.<br></p><p>All children who have not been fully immunized, or who do not have a written immunization record, should start receiving vaccines on a routine schedule. This schedule depends on your child’s age. Speak to your doctor about what is right for your child.</p><p>If you are unsure of your child's immunization history, it is always preferable to give a vaccine. There is no harm to repeating any immunization, unless the child has had an allergic reaction to the vaccine in the past or has an underlying disease that could affect the response to the vaccine. </p><h2>Reasons not to vaccinate</h2><p>If any of the following conditions apply to your child, talk to your doctor before getting your child vaccinated:</p><ul><li>Your child had an allergic reaction to a previous vaccination.</li><li>Your child has a condition or is receiving treatment that is known to weaken the immune system. Your child’s health-care provider may delay or avoid certain vaccines for your child.</li></ul><h2>References</h2><p>Government of Canada. Canadian Immunization Guide. Last updated: January 2022. Retrieved from: <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/canadian-immunization-guide.html">https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/canadian-immunization-guide.html</a></p> <br>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/immunization_catch_up.jpgImmunization "catch-up" ​Read about the standard vaccination schedule and how your child can catch up on their vaccinations if they have not been fully immunized. Main
Limb lengthening and reconstructionLimb lengthening and reconstructionLimb lengthening and reconstructionLEnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Arm;LegsBonesConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2018-01-19T05:00:00Z000Landing PageLearning Hub<p>The purpose of limb lengthening and reconstruction surgery is to treat limb length discrepancy, limb deformity and fractures. Learn about the different limb lengthening and reconstruction treatment options.<br></p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/j4-YG1rKubw?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> <br></div><p>The purpose of limb lengthening and reconstruction surgery is to treat limb length discrepancy, limb deformity and fractures. Learn about the different limb lengthening and reconstruction treatment options.<br></p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">About limb lengthening and reconstruction</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Limb lengthening and reconstruction can seem very daunting at first. Learn how this treatment can help your child and about different types of surgery that may be considered.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2537&language=English">Goal of surgery</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2538&language=English">Types of surgery</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">The patient journey</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Surgery is often the first major step in your child's limb lengthening or reconstruction treatment. Find out about the healthcare team who will help your child through their patient journey and what you can expect before, during and after surgery.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2539&language=English">Your child’s patient journey</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2546&language=English">Your child’s healthcare team</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2423&language=English">Coming for surgery at SickKids</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2540&language=English">Your child’s hospital stay after surgery</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2541&language=English">Possible complications after surgery</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2542&language=English">Pin and wire site care</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3833&language=English">Exercises to manage edema and improve range of motion with a femoral frame</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=3832&language=English">Exercises to manage edema and improve range of motion with a tibial frame</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Typical hardware (fixators or devices)</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Your child may be fitted with an internal or external device to lengthen or correct their limb. Discover the main types of hardware and how to adjust them.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2543&language=English">Taylor Spatial Frame</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2544&language=English">Monolateral rail</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2545&language=English">Motorized intramedullary nail</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Coping with limb lengthening and reconstruction</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Once your child goes home after surgery, they will need to adjust to life with a device. Find out how to handle everyday tasks, such as bathing, dressing and going to school, and cope with any social, emotional and financial aspects of treatment.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2547&language=English">Living with a fixator</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2548&language=English">Managing the impact of limb reconstruction on your family</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"> <i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span><h2 class="panel-title">Additional Information</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Find out what to look for when getting crutches for your child, how to use crutches, and the different parts of the skeleton and how they work.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=1048&language=English">Crutches: How to use</a></li><li class="list-group-item"><a class="overview-links" href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/body/interactive?module=skeleton-child">How the skeleton works</a></li></ol></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/limb_reconstruction_learning_hub.jpglimbslimbsLimb Lengthening Learning Hub ​Limb lengthening/reconstruction is used to treat limb deformity, length discrepancy, and fractures. Learn about the different treatment options.Main
Nutrition before and during pregnancyNutrition before and during pregnancyNutrition before and during pregnancyNEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)NANANon-drug treatmentAdult (19+)NA2024-02-01T05:00:00Z11.000000000000047.50000000000002386.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Find out how to get the right nutrients to support you and your baby before and during pregnancy.</p><p>Eating a balanced diet, before and during pregnancy, can help make sure that your body receives all the nutrients in the right amounts to support a healthy pregnancy. Healthy eating can also help to reduce your risk of developing conditions that can affect pregnancy, such as high blood pressure, gestational diabetes and obesity.</p><p>It is important to consider nutrition and exercise <strong>before</strong> pregnancy or while planning for pregnancy. Adopting healthy food behaviours (include food choices recommended by <a href="/article?contentid=1436&language=english">Canada's Food Guide</a>), engaging in regular exercise and taking a daily multivitamin supplement will support the health of both you and your growing baby. This is especially important during the first trimester (three months) when vital organs begin to develop (brain, heart and lungs). Speak with your health-care provider to choose the most appropriate prenatal multivitamin supplement for you.</p><p>Learning about good nutrition will benefit you and your baby through your pregnancy and have long-term benefits for your child as they grow up.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Nutrition plays an important role in supporting a healthy pregnancy—it promotes healthy and recommended weight gain, supports fetal development and reduces the risk of complications during pregnancy and birth.</li><li>Eat a variety of health foods each day with a focus on fruits and vegetables, whole grains and protein-rich foods.</li><li>Important nutrients in pregnancy include folic acid, calcium, vitamin D, iron, protein, iodine, vitamin C, choline, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids.</li><li>Eat folate-rich foods and take a prenatal multivitamin with folic acid before (or as soon as you suspect) you are pregnant until four to six weeks after giving birth or as long as breastfeeding continues.</li><li>If eating fish, choose varieties with low levels of methyl mercury, such as sole, haddock, salmon and trout.</li></ul><h2>General healthy eating recommendations for people of childbearing age</h2><p>Consuming a healthy diet involves choosing a variety of healthy foods each day including vegetables and fruit, whole grains and protein-rich foods.</p><p>Every day, choose a variety of:</p><ul><li> <a href="/article?contentid=1437&language=english">fruits and vegetables</a>:</li><ul><li>dark leafy green vegetables (e.g., kale)</li><li>orange-coloured vegetables (e.g., carrots or sweet potatoes)</li></ul><li> <a href="/article?contentid=1438&language=english">whole-grain products</a>:</li><ul><li>oats, wild rice, whole wheat pasta, etc.</li></ul><li> <a href="/article?contentid=1439&language=english">protein-rich foods</a>:</li><ul><li>eggs</li><li>fish and shellfish</li><li>beans, peas and lentils</li><li>lean meats or lean cuts of red meat</li><li>lower-fat dairy products (e.g., milk and yogurt)</li><li>fortified soy beverages, tofu, soybeans and other soy products</li></ul></ul><p>Try to eat less of:</p><ul><li>foods that are high in sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages</li><li>foods that are high in sodium, such as processed meat</li></ul><p>While pregnant and/or breastfeeding, your body will need extra nutrients and energy. To make sure that both you and your baby get enough nutrition, Health Canada recommends adding an <strong>extra snack or small meal each day</strong> during your second and third trimesters and while breastfeeding.</p><p>If you are pregnant and carrying more than one child, you will need even more calories and nutrients. Health Canada recommends adding an extra snack or small meal for <strong>each</strong> baby during the second and third trimesters.</p><h3>Fluids</h3><p>Keeping yourself hydrated while pregnant is important. You may find you are thirstier during this time as your body produces greater volumes of blood to support your baby. Drinking water can help you stay cool, control swelling, prevent constipation and deliver nutrients from your body to your baby. Other healthy beverage options include pasteurized milk (e.g., cow's milk or goat's milk) and unsweetened fortified plant-based beverages.</p><h2>Key nutrients for pregnancy</h2><h3>Calcium and vitamin D<br></h3><p>Your developing baby will need <a href="/article?contentid=1448&language=english">calcium</a> to grow strong bones and teeth, a healthy heart, nerves and muscles.</p><p> <strong>The recommended calcium intake for people of childbearing age is 1000 mg/day.</strong> Continue to eat foods and beverages rich in calcium during pregnancy such as lower-fat milk, yogurt, cheese, calcium, fortified beverages, tofu, salmon or dairy-free products. Some people may benefit from a calcium supplement in addition to a prenatal multivitamin. Speak with your health-care provider to determine if you need additional calcium supplementation.</p><p> <a href="/article?contentid=1447&language=english">Vitamin D</a> helps the body utilize calcium, to support the bone health of both you and your baby. The recommended vitamin D intake for pregnancy is 600 IU/day. Many prenatal multivitamin supplements will include this amount of vitamin D.</p><h3>Iron</h3><p> <a href="/article?contentid=1450&language=english">Iron</a> is important in forming enough healthy red blood cells to deliver oxygen throughout the body. Both you and your baby will need a rich source of iron during pregnancy. Iron requirements increase throughout pregnancy and peak in the third trimester. Not receiving enough iron during pregnancy can cause deficiencies and may lead to anemia, which can increase the risk for complications during pregnancy and childbirth.</p><p>To ensure a healthy intake of iron that meets your and your baby's needs, eat foods rich in iron, including:</p><ul><li>beans</li><li>peas</li><li>lentils</li><li>tofu</li><li>lean meats</li><li>poultry</li><li>fish</li><li>eggs</li><li>whole grain foods</li></ul><p> <strong>Note:</strong> Animal sources of iron, such as beef, are better absorbed by the body over non-animal sources, such as vegetables or beans. To help your body absorb iron from non-animal sources, eat these foods with foods that are rich in vitamin C. For example, choose orange juice to drink when eating a lentil dish.</p><p> <strong>Note:</strong> Calcium supplements and calcium-rich foods can reduce the absorption of iron supplements and iron-rich foods. Do not take calcium supplements or have calcium-rich foods or beverages at the same time as iron supplements. Taking iron supplements with vitamin C-rich food or fruit juice can also help your body absorb iron.</p><p> <strong>Health Canada recommends that pregnant people should take a prenatal multivitamin that has 16–20 mg of iron</strong>. Some people may need an additional low-dose iron supplement.</p><h3>Folic acid</h3><p>Folic acid, also known as <a href="/article?contentid=1449&language=english">folate</a>, is a B vitamin that promotes healthy development of your baby's spine, brain and skull. Folic acid plays a key role in reducing your baby's risk for neural tube defects (defects that affect the brain and spinal cord, such as <a href="/article?contentid=848&language=english">spina bifida</a>), which develop during the first month of pregnancy.</p><p>To reduce the risk for neural tube defects, it is important to take folic acid <strong>before conceiving and throughout pregnancy</strong>.</p><ul><li>Start taking folic acid two to three months before becoming pregnant.</li><li>Continue use until four to six weeks after giving birth, or until you are no longer breastfeeding.</li></ul><p>If you did not take folic acid before becoming pregnant, start taking it as soon as you suspect you are pregnant.</p><p> <strong>Health Canada recommends taking a daily prenatal multivitamin supplement with 0.4–1.0 mg of folic acid.</strong> In addition to a multivitamin, focus on eating a well-balanced diet with folate-rich foods, including:<br></p><ul><li>dark green vegetables (e.g., broccoli, spinach, peas, brussels sprouts)<br></li><li>corn</li><li>lentils and other legumes</li><li>oranges<br></li><li>fortified products (e.g., enriched white wheat flour and grain products)<br></li></ul><p> <strong>Note:</strong> The form of folic acid present in food is called folate.<br></p><table class="akh-table"><tbody><tr><td><p> <em>Health Canada recommends taking extra folic acid if you:</em></p><ul><li> <em>have previously given birth to a child with a neural tube defect</em></li><li> <em>have a family history of folic acid–related birth defects</em></li><li> <em>are conceiving with a partner who has a family history of neural tube defects</em></li></ul><p> <em>The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) recommends:</em></p><ul><li> <em>eating a diet high in folate-rich foods</em></li><li> <em>taking a daily multivitamin with 1 mg to 4 mg folic acid (depending on the risk for neural tube defects and 2.6 µg of vitamin B12 three months before pregnancy up to the end of the first trimester</em></li><li> <em>taking a daily multivitamin supplement containing 0.4 mg to 1 mg folic acid after the end of the first trimester</em></li></ul></td></tr></tbody></table><p>Health Canada and the SOGC do not advise taking more than one multivitamin supplement a day. Taking too many daily supplements can lead to overconsumption of some vitamins and minerals, which may be more harmful than good. For example, taking too much vitamin A in retinol form (including retinyl palmitate and retinyl acetate) can lead to birth defects.<br></p><p>Speak to your health-care provider about finding the right prenatal multivitamin supplement for you.</p><h2>Other important nutrients in pregnancy</h2><ul><li> <strong>Protein:</strong> You will need more dietary <a href="/article?contentid=1439&language=english">protein</a> during pregnancy. Protein plays an important role in supporting the growth and development of the placenta, uterus and breast tissue, and it helps increase your blood volume. Good sources of protein include meat, fish, eggs, milk products and plant sources such as tofu, beans and nuts.</li><li> <strong>Iodine:</strong> Iodine is required to support the development of your baby's brain and nervous system. Iodized salt is the most common source of iodine. Iodine-rich foods include dairy products and seafood.</li><li> <strong>Vitamin C:</strong> Vitamin C supports the immune system, aids in growth and repair of tissues and helps the body absorb iron from iron supplements and plant-based foods. Include vitamin C-rich foods in your diet, such as citrus fruit, red peppers or tomatoes, and consume these foods with iron-rich animal foods, such as meat.</li><li> <strong>Vitamin B12: </strong><a href="/article?contentid=1446&language=english">Vitamin B12</a> helps to make healthy red blood cells and keep nerves working properly. Dairy and meat products are good sources of vitamin B12. If you follow a diet that does not include animal sources, include vitamin B12–fortified foods in your diet.</li><li> <strong>Choline:</strong> Choline is an important nutrient during pregnancy, as it plays a crucial role in baby's brain development and prevention of neural tube defects. Maternal choline intake requirements are higher than during non-pregnant periods. Choline-rich foods include egg yolk, dairy products, meat, fish and whole grains such as quinoa.</li></ul><h2>Fish and omega-3 fatty acids</h2><p>Fish is an excellent source of protein, vitamin D, iron, selenium, zinc and omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential fats (fats that we can only get from our diet) that play an important role in the unborn baby’s growth and development.</p><p>Health Canada suggests that all people with female reproductive systems who are of childbearing age, particularly those who are pregnant or breastfeeding, pay special attention to the types of fish they eat. Some fish contain methyl mercury, a metal that builds up in the bloodstream over time and can damage an unborn baby’s nervous system. Though the body removes methyl mercury naturally, it can take a year for it to drop to safe levels.</p><p>Health Canada recommends eating at least 150 grams (5 oz.) of cooked fish (with low mercury) each week during pregnancy. The table below lists types of fish to include and avoid before and during pregnancy.<br></p><table class="akh-table"><thead><tr><th>Fish with low levels of methyl mercury (eat 5 oz. a week)</th><th>Fish with higher levels of methyl mercury (eat less than 5 oz. a month)*</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>Salmon</td><td>Tuna (fresh or frozen)</td></tr><tr><td>Trout</td><td>Shark</td></tr><tr><td>Herring</td><td>Swordfish</td></tr><tr><td>Haddock</td><td>Marlin</td></tr><tr><td>Canned light tuna</td><td>Orange roughy</td></tr><tr><td>Pollock (Boston bluefish)</td><td>Escolar</td></tr><tr><td>Sole</td><td></td></tr><tr><td>Flounder</td><td></td></tr><tr><td>Anchovy</td><td></td></tr><tr><td>Char</td><td></td></tr><tr><td>Hake</td><td></td></tr><tr><td>Mullet</td><td></td></tr><tr><td>Smelt</td><td></td></tr><tr><td>Atlantic mackerel</td><td></td></tr><tr><td>Lake white fish</td><td></td></tr></tbody></table><p>*These fish are all predatory (they hunt other fish), so they tend to accumulate methyl mercury from their diet as well as the surrounding water.</p><h2>Caffeine</h2><p>Health Canada recommends limiting caffeine to 200 to 300 mg a day. Consuming this amount of caffeine a day will not negatively affect fertility, pregnancy or a baby’s development. The effects of consuming more than 300 mg of caffeine a day are still unknown.</p><p>This table lists the typical caffeine content of common drinks.</p><table class="akh-table"><thead><tr><th>Drink</th><th>Caffeine level</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>8 oz. cup of brewed coffee</td><td>150 mg</td></tr><tr><td>8 oz. cup of regular tea</td><td>35 mg</td></tr><tr><td>12 oz. can of cola</td><td>30-100 mg</td></tr></tbody></table><h2>Artificial sweeteners</h2><p>Moderate use of some artificial sweeteners is safe during pregnancy. Other sweeteners, such as those in the table below, are considered unsafe and should be avoided.</p><table class="akh-table"><thead><tr><th>Approved sweeteners during pregnancy</th><th>Unsafe sweeteners during pregnancy</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td> Aspartame (NutraSweet, Equal)</td><td> Cyclamates (Sweet 'N Low, Sugar Twin)</td></tr><tr><td> Acesulfame potassium (Ace K)</td><td></td></tr><tr><td> Sucralose (Splenda)</td><td></td></tr><tr><td> Saccharin</td><td></td></tr><tr><td>Stevia</td><td></td></tr><tr><td> Sugar alcohols</td><td></td></tr></tbody></table><h2>Alcohol during pregnancy</h2><p>The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) recommends avoiding alcohol entirely during pregnancy. Consuming alcohol during pregnancy can cause negative outcomes to the baby, including <a href="/article?contentid=857&language=english">fetal alcohol spectrum disorder</a>. There is not enough evidence to confirm how much harm even small amounts may cause your baby.</p><h2>Managing your weight during pregnancy</h2><p>During pregnancy, it is important to gain a steady amount of weight by eating a balanced diet. Pregnancy is not a time to restrict food unless instructed by your health-care provider.<br></p><p>The amount of weight you should gain is based on your body mass index (BMI)* prior to pregnancy.</p><p>Health Canada and the Institute of Medicine recommend the following rates of weight gain during pregnancy.</p><table class="akh-table"><thead><tr><th>Pre-pregnancy BMI</th><th>Second and third trimester weight gain</th><th>Recommended total weight gain</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>Underweight (BMI less than 18.5)</td><td>1 lb (about half a kilogram) a week</td><td>28 to 40 lbs (about 12 to 18 kilograms)</td></tr><tr><td>Normal weight (BMI 18.5 to 24.9)</td><td>1 lb (about half a kilogram) a week</td><td>25 to 35 lbs (about 11 to 16 kilograms)</td></tr><tr><td>Overweight (BMI 25.0 to 29.9)</td><td>0.6 lbs (about 300 g) a week</td><td>15 to 25 lbs (about 7 to 11 kilograms)</td></tr><tr><td>Obese (BMI greater than 30)</td><td>0.5 lbs (about 250 g) a week</td><td>11 to 20 lbs (about 5 to 9 kilograms)</td></tr></tbody></table><p>*Your BMI is the ratio between your weight and your height. To calculate your BMI, divide your weight in kilograms (kg) by your height in metres squared (m<sup>2</sup>)<sup></sup>. For example, someone who is 5 feet 6 inches (1.676 meters) and 135 lbs (61.4 kg) has a BMI of 21.8 → 61.4/(1.676 x 1.676 ) = 21.8.</p><p>Pregnant people who eat a nutritious, balanced diet and gain at least their recommended amount of weight can reduce the risk of having a baby who is premature and of a low birth weight. In contrast, excessive weight gain is linked to high birth weight, longer labour, birth trauma and caesarean section.</p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=313&language=English">Exercise</a> can also support a healthy pregnancy. According to the SOGC, everyone should do regular aerobic and strength exercises as part of a healthy lifestyle during pregnancy, unless there is a medical reason to avoid it.</p><h2>Special dietary considerations</h2><p> <strong>Veganism:</strong> Many of the nutrients critical to a healthy pregnancy are found more readily in animal-based foods as opposed to plant-based foods. For this reason, special consideration must be taken to ensure adequate intake of nutrients such as vitamin B12, zinc, omega-3 fatty acids and iron.</p><p>If you have questions about how your personal dietary choices or allergies/intolerances may affect your nutritional intake during your pregnancy, consult your health-care provider.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/nutrition_before_and_during_pregnancy.jpg ​Nutrition plays an important role in supporting a healthy pregnancy. Find out how to get the right nutrients to support you and your baby. Main
SepsisSepsisSepsisSEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NAhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/sepsis_development_EN.jpg2022-10-10T04:00:00Z8.9000000000000055.8000000000000825.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Sepsis occurs when an infection spreads to the entire body. Find out what causes sepsis and how sepsis is treated. </p><h2>What is sepsis?</h2><p>The body's immune system is responsible for fighting infections. Sometimes, the immune response can get out of control, resulting in sepsis. Sepsis can damage the body’s organs, for example the <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/body/interactive?module=kidney-child">kidneys</a>, liver, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/body/interactive?module=lung-child">lungs</a> or <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/body/interactive?module=brain-child">brain</a>, and possibly lead to death. Sepsis can be hard to identify as early on, some of the symptoms are similar to common infections.</p> <figure class="asset-c-100"> <span class="asset-image-title">Development of sepsis</span> <img alt="Medical illustration of bacteria entering the blood stream and spreading throughout the body, leading to sepsis" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/sepsis_development_EN.jpg" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Sepsis is most often caused by bacteria but can also be caused by viral or fungal infections.</figcaption> </figure><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Sepsis is a very serious complication of an infection, and is caused by the body’s immune response to the infection. </li><li>Sepsis is a medical emergency and needs to be treated quickly.</li><li>Signs and symptoms of sepsis include common infection symptoms, such as fever, along with a fast heart rate, fast breathing, low blood pressure, pale or cool skin, excessive sleepiness or confusion.</li><li>If your child is showing symptoms of sepsis, they should be treated right away even if an infection is not yet confirmed through testing. Initial treatment includes antibiotics, intravenous fluids and/or oxygen.</li><li>Regular hand washing and routine immunizations can help prevent some causes of infection and sepsis.</li></ul><h2>What are the signs and symptoms of sepsis?</h2><p>A child with sepsis may display typical signs of an infection, including <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=774&language=English">cough</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a>, along with:</p><ul><li>a <a href="/Article?contentid=894&language=English">fast heart rate</a></li><li>fast breathing</li><li>low blood pressure</li><li>cool or clammy skin</li><li>excessive sleepiness </li><li>confusion (not knowing where they are)</li><li>decrease in urination</li></ul><p>If you suspect your child has sepsis, you should seek immediate medical care.</p><h2>What causes sepsis?</h2> <p>Sepsis is most often caused by bacteria. Some common bacterial causes include <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, various types of <em>Streptococcus</em> species and <em><a href="/Article?contentid=509&language=English#ecoli">E. coli</a></em>. Sepsis can also be caused by viral or fungal infections. Sometimes the specific infection and source of sepsis is not found.</p> <p>Bacteria cause local infections such as <a href="/Article?contentid=784&language=English">pneumonia</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=935&language=English">urinary tract infections</a> and infections of the <a href="/Article?contentid=509&language=English">gastrointestinal tract</a> or skin. If bacteria from these infections enter the bloodstream, the infection can spread to the rest of the body. This forces the body’s immune system to generate a strong immune response to fight the infection.</p> <p>The strong immune response, along with the bacteria already in the body, creates <a href="/Article?contentid=926&language=English">inflammation</a>. This inflammation damages tissue and interferes with blood flow. The change in blood flow can lead to a dangerous drop in blood pressure, which stops oxygen from reaching the body’s organs and tissues. This series of events is known as sepsis.</p> <h2>Who can develop sepsis?</h2> <p>Any child with an infection can develop sepsis. However, there is a higher risk for certain populations, including the following:</p> <ul> <li>newborns and young infants</li> <li>children who have recently had surgery</li> <li>children with weakened immune systems, for example due to cancer or an organ transplant</li> <li>children with chronic (long-term) diseases, such as gastrointestinal conditions or kidney disease</li> </ul> <p>Some medications, such as steroids used over a long time and other forms of chemotherapy, can also put children at higher risk of developing sepsis.<br></p><h2>How is sepsis diagnosed?</h2><p>There is not a specific test to diagnose sepsis. Doctors diagnose sepsis based on some of the signs and symptoms described above. If a doctor suspects sepsis after examining your child, they will order blood tests.</p><p>The tests can reveal if your child has an infection or if their organs, such as the liver and kidneys, are not working properly.<br></p><p>The doctor may also test samples of urine and, sometimes, spinal fluid (with a lumbar puncture or spinal tap) to check for bacteria or viruses in these places.</p><h2>How is sepsis treated?</h2> <p>Your child will be admitted to hospital for treatment even if sepsis is only suspected, as it can take some time for test results to come back. Initial treatment for sepsis includes <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=1120&language=English">antibiotics</a>, intravenous (IV) fluids and oxygen.</p> <p>Sometimes children with sepsis need to be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for closer monitoring and further treatment. If a child has severely low blood pressure, they may need special medications to raise it. If sepsis has caused kidney failure, a child may need dialysis. If sepsis has caused lung damage, a child may need a ventilator to help with breathing.<br></p><h2>What can I do to prevent sepsis?</h2> <p>One effective way to prevent sepsis is to minimize the risk of infections.</p> <ul> <li>Make sure your child receives their routine vaccinations.</li> <li>Pay attention to careful <a href="/Article?contentid=1981&language=English">hand washing</a> and encourage your child to do the same.</li> <li>Clean any cuts or scrapes carefully and see your doctor if signs of infection develop (such as redness, pain or pus).</li> </ul><h3>Take your child to the nearest Emergency Department or call 911 if your child has signs of infection or a fever with any of the following symptoms:</h3><ul><li>racing heart rate</li><li>fast breathing</li><li>cool or clammy skin</li><li>excessive sleepiness</li><li>confusion (not knowing where they are)</li><li>decrease in urination</li><li>irritability or severe pain</li></ul><p>Your child may show physical changes when their condition is serious or when their condition gets worse. Parents and caregivers can learn how to <a href="https://www.healthcareexcellence.ca/media/s3bbk5nv/20221216_signsmaterialsqr_en.pdf">spot these signs</a> in order to seek help from a health-care provider.</p><br> Sepsis occurs when an infection spreads to the entire body. Find out what causes sepsis, how it is treated, and when to seek medical attention. Main
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)SEnglishAdolescentTeen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversPain;Bleeding;Painful urination;Rash;Vision problems2023-04-10T04:00:00Z8.7000000000000057.40000000000001772.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Sexually transmitted infections are diseases that are spread through sexual contact. Learn about the different types of STIs and when and how to talk to your child or teen about STIs.</p><h2>What is a sexually transmitted infection (STI)?</h2><p>Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are diseases that can spread from person to person through any sexual contact. Many STIs do not have any obvious signs or symptoms at first. This is why it is very important that sexually active teens protect themselves and their partner(s) by using protection and getting tested regularly.</p><h2>Why talk to your child about sex</h2><p>It is important that your child receives information from a trusted, educated adult rather than friends or other sources that may not be reliable. Talking to your child about sex does not make them more likely to have sex. Having correct information can help your child make safe decisions and makes them less likely to engage in risky sexual activity. For more information about the importance of sex education, please see <a href="/article?contentid=718&language=english">Sex education for children: Why parents should talk to their kids about sex</a>.</p><h2>When to talk to your child about STIs</h2><p>By about 10 to 13 years old, most children understand what sex is and are ready to learn about STIs. For more information about what children should learn and can typically understand at various developmental stages, please see <a href="/article?contentid=716&language=english">Sexuality: What children should learn and when</a>.</p><h2>How to talk to your child about STIs</h2><p>It is best to have a continuing conversation about STIs rather than giving one big, and likely uncomfortable, talk once your child reaches adolescence. These conversations tend to be easier when they come out of a life experience. For example, you might discuss STIs during a TV show or movie that shows a romantic relationship, before your child gets the HPV vaccine or if your child asks questions about sex.</p><p>Your child should know how STIs are transmitted, how to protect themselves and their partner(s) from STIs and what to do if they suspect they have an STI. For more information about talking to your child about sex and STIs, please see <a href="/article?contentid=717&language=english">Sex education for children: Eight tips for parents</a>.</p><h2>What are the different types of STIs?</h2><ul><li> <a href="#topic1">Chlamydia</a></li><li> <a href="#topic2">Gonorrhea</a></li><li> <a href="#topic3">Syphilis</a></li><li> <a href="#topic4">HPV</a></li><li> <a href="#topic5">Trichomoniasis</a></li><li> <a href="#topic6">Hepatitis B</a></li><li> <a href="#topic7">Hepatitis C</a></li><li> <a href="#topic8">Herpes</a></li><li> <a href="#topic9">Pubic lice</a></li><li> <a href="#topic10">Scabies</a></li><li> <a href="#topic11">HIV</a></li></ul><h3 id="topic1">Chlamydia</h3><p>Chlamydia affects the cervix and urethra, and sometimes the rectum, throat and eyes. It is the most common bacterial STI and is more common in female-bodied people than male-bodied people.</p><p>Most people with chlamydia have no symptoms at all. Signs and symptoms of chlamydia may include:</p><ul><li>discharge from the penis or vagina</li><li>vaginal bleeding after sex or between periods</li><li>pain in the abdomen or lower back</li><li>pain during sex</li><li>itchy urethra</li><li>pain or swelling in testicles</li><li>pain or burning while urinating (peeing)</li></ul><p>Chlamydia is diagnosed through a:</p><ul><li>urine sample or</li><li>swab of cervix, urethra, vagina, rectum, nose, throat and/or eyes</li></ul><p>Treatment for chlamydia is antibiotic pills.</p><p>A person who has had chlamydia should be retested six months after treatment.</p><h3 id="topic2">Gonorrhea</h3><p>Gonorrhea affects the cervix and urethra, and sometimes the rectum and throat. It is the second most common bacterial STI. You might sometimes hear it called ‘the clap’.</p><p>Signs and symptoms of gonorrhea may include:</p><ul><li>discharge from penis or vagina</li><li>pain during sex</li><li>pain in lower abdomen or pelvis</li><li>vaginal bleeding after sex or between periods</li><li>irregular periods</li><li>pain or swelling in testicles</li><li>pain or burning while urinating</li></ul><p>Some people may have no symptoms.</p><p>Gonorrhea is diagnosed through a:</p><ul><li>urine sample or</li><li>swab of the infected area (penis, vagina, cervix, anus, throat and/or eye)</li></ul><p>Gonorrhea is treated with antibiotic pills and muscular injection.</p><p>A person who has had gonorrhea may be instructed by their health-care provider to be re-tested two to three weeks after treatment to ensure the infection is gone. All individuals who have been treated for gonorrhea should be retested six months after treatment. </p><h3 id="topic3">Syphilis</h3><p>Syphilis is caused by bacteria. Rates of cases have been increasing in Canada.</p><p>Syphilis has four stages of symptoms:</p><ol><li>Primary – a painless sore at the affected area.</li><li>Secondary – flu-like symptoms and rash developing three weeks to six months after infection.</li><li>Latent – syphilis is untreated and generally has no symptoms; this phase can continue for years.</li><li>Tertiary – 10–30 years after infection; damage to organs.</li></ol><p>Syphilis is diagnosed through a:</p><ul><li>swab of affected area (primary syphilis only)</li><li>blood test</li></ul><p>Syphilis is treated with penicillin or other antibiotics. Early treatment is important as damage caused by syphilis cannot be reversed.</p><h3 id="topic4">HPV and genital warts</h3><p> <a href="/article?contentid=25&language=english">Human papillomavirus (HPV)</a> is the most common STI. The highest rates of HPV are in teens and young adults aged 15–24 years old.</p><p>Some types of HPV can cause genital warts, and others can cause cancer if left untreated.</p><p>A vaccine is available to prevent HPV. Please see <a href="/article?contentid=151&language=english">Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine</a> for more information.</p><p>Some people may not have any signs or symptoms at all, while others might have the following:</p><ul><li>warts that look like tiny bumps on the vagina, anus, cervix or inside of the thigh; these may be small or hard to see</li><li>pain or bleeding</li></ul><p>HPV is diagnosed through a:</p><ul><li>visual exam</li><li>pap test (typically only for those age 25 or older, but guidelines vary by province. In some places, a pap test may be recommended as early as age 21)</li></ul><p>Treatment for HPV includes watching the warts to see if they go away or wart removal by a health-care professional <strong>(over-the-counter wart medicine should never be used on genital warts unless prescribed by a health-care professional)</strong>.</p><h3 id="topic5">Trichomoniasis</h3><p>Trichomoniasis is a common infection affecting the vulva, vagina, cervix, urethra, bladder and penis. </p><p>Signs and symptoms of trichomoniasis may include:</p><ul><li>discharge or odor from the vagina or penis</li><li>pain or burning while peeing</li><li>pain during sex</li><li>itchiness</li></ul><p>It is diagnosed through a swab of the affected area.</p><p>Treatment for trichomoniasis is antibiotic pills.</p><h3 id="topic6">Hepatitis B</h3><p> <a href="/article?contentid=827&language=english">Hepatitis B</a> is a virus that affects the liver.</p><p>A vaccine is available to prevent hepatitis B.</p><p>Most people do not have signs of hepatitis B. Up to eight weeks after exposure, they may have flu-like symptoms.</p><p>Hepatitis B is diagnosed with a blood test.</p><p>There is no cure for hepatitis B, but most people recover and have no symptoms after six months.</p><h3 id="topic7">Hepatitis C</h3><p> <a href="/article?contentid=2306&language=english">Hepatitis C</a> is a virus that affects the liver.</p><p>Acute symptoms of hepatitis C may include:</p><ul><li>flu-like symptoms</li><li>decreased appetite, weight loss</li><li>jaundice</li><li>rash</li><li>dark urine or clay-coloured stool</li></ul><p>Chronic symptoms of hepatitis C may include:</p><ul><li>jaundice</li><li>swelling of the abdomen (belly)</li><li>blood in stool (poo) and vomit</li><li>interrupted sleep</li><li> <a href="/article?contentid=19&language=english">depression</a></li><li>weight loss</li><li>itchy skin</li><li>brain disease</li></ul><p>Hepatitis C is diagnosed with a blood test.</p><p>A combination of medications is used to treat the hepatitis C infection. Treatment also includes preventing liver damage.</p><h3 id="topic8">Herpes</h3><p>There are two types of herpes:</p><ul><li>HSV-1 more commonly causes oral infection (cold sores, fever blisters around the mouth)</li><li>HSV-2 more commonly causes genital herpes with lesions/sores around the vulva, vagina, cervix, anus and penis</li></ul><p>Both HSV-1 and HSV-2 can infect both the mouth and the genitals. They can both be spread by kissing, touching, oral sex and unprotected vaginal or anal sex.</p><p>Symptoms of a first infection may include:</p><ul><li>flu-like symptoms</li><li> <a href="/article?contentid=793&language=english">cold sore or fever blister</a> around the nose, lips or in the mouth</li><li>pain while peeing</li><li>genital pain</li><li>genital blisters</li><li>genital ulcers</li></ul><p>Symptoms of a recurrent infection (an infection that comes back) include:</p><ul><li>tingling, itching or burning</li><li>sores inside the mouth or on the lips, vulva, vagina or penis</li></ul><p>Herpes is diagnosed through a swab of a lesion/sore.</p><p>Medication is used to decrease the length and severity of a herpes outbreak. There is no cure for herpes.</p><h3 id="topic9">Pubic lice</h3><p>Pubic lice are small insects that nest in pubic hair. They are sometimes called ‘crabs’ because of their appearance.</p><p>Pubic lice can also be found in the eyebrows, armpit hair, beards and mustaches.</p><p>The main signs and symptoms of pubic lice are itching, redness or irritation at the affected area.</p><p>They are diagnosed through a physical exam of the infected area by a health-care professional.</p><p>Pubic lice are treated with medicated creams, lotions or shampoos to apply to the affected area.</p><h3 id="topic10">Scabies</h3><p> <a href="/article?contentid=797&language=english">Scabies</a> are mites that burrow under the skin to lay eggs.</p><p>Signs and symptoms of scabies may include:</p><ul><li>rash or bumps, particularly in a line </li><li>itching</li></ul><p>Scabies is diagnosed through:</p><ul><li>a physical exam of the infected area by a health-care professional</li><li>scraping of the rash to look for mites, fecal matter of mites or mite eggs under a microscope</li></ul><p>Scabies are treated with scabicide creams or lotions to apply to the affected area.</p><h3 id="topic11">HIV</h3><p>Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus that attacks the immune system. In some cases, it can develop into AIDS.</p><p>Signs and symptoms of HIV may include:</p><ul><li>mild flu-like symptoms that develop two to four weeks after exposure then disappear</li></ul><p>After several years (usually after at least 10 years), symptoms may include:</p><ul><li>flu-like symptoms</li><li>enlarged lymph nodes</li><li>shortness of breath or dry cough</li><li>vision loss</li><li>lesions on skin</li><li>anemia</li><li>severe shingles or oral or genital ulcers</li></ul><p>In very rare cases, some people do not have any symptoms (chronic asymptomatic HIV). </p><p>HIV is diagnosed through blood work.</p><p>Antiretroviral therapy is used to slow the progression of HIV.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are spread from person to person through sexual contact.</li><li>STIs can be prevented by using protection such as condoms, discussing STIs and safe sex with a partner or partners, asking a health-care provider about vaccines, and getting regularly tested.</li><li>If your teen thinks they have an STI, they should make an appointment with a health-care provider right away so they can be tested and start treatment.</li></ul><h2>How to prevent STIs</h2><p>The best ways to prevent STIs are to:</p><ul><li>use protection such as condoms</li><li>discuss STIs and safe sex with partner(s) in order to protect each other</li><li>ask a health-care provider about getting vaccinated against hepatitis B and human papilloma virus (HPV)</li><li>get tested regularly for STIs</li></ul><p>If your teen has an STI, they must not have sex until the infection is gone, and their health-care provider says it is OK. If the STI has no cure (such as herpes or HIV) it is important that your teen always uses protection.</p><h2>What if my teen thinks they have an STI?</h2><p>If your teen thinks they might have an STI, they should contact their health-care provider. Or they can visit the <a href="https://www.actioncanadashr.org/resources/services">Action Canada for Sexual Health and Rights website</a> to find a sexual health clinic near them.</p><h2>Resources</h2><p><a href="https://www.sexandu.ca/stis/">Sex & U</a></p><p><a href="https://youngwomenshealth.org/sexual-health-index/">Center for Young Women's Health</a></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Sexually_transmitted_infections-Parent.jpg ​Learn about the different types of sexually transmitted infections and when and how to talk to your child or teen about them. Main



CroupCroupCroupCEnglishInfectious DiseasesBaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years)TracheaTracheaConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Cough;Fever;Sore throathttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Croup_MED_ILL_EN.jpg2019-04-01T04:00:00Z7.2000000000000071.30000000000001069.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Croup is a viral infection that causes airway inflammation, making it difficult to breathe. Learn about the symptoms and treatment of croup.</p><h2>What is croup?</h2><p>Croup is a common childhood illness that is caused by a viral infection. The virus causes swelling in the upper airways, including the larynx (the upper airway between the throat and the trachea) and the <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/body/interactive?module=lung-child">trachea</a> (the windpipe or airway passage from the larynx to the lungs).</p><p>The swelling can cause changes in your child’s voice and make breathing difficult. Your child may develop a hoarse voice, barky cough or a high-pitched wheezing sound when they breathe in. This sound is called stridor. This is especially likely in younger children, because their airways are smaller.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Croup</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Croup_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Normal larynx with trachea and vocal cords identified and inflamed larynx with swollen vocal cords and surrounding structures" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Croup is an infection that affects the upper part of the airway (larynx or voice box, and trachea or windpipe). This leads to temporary swelling and narrowing of the airway.</figcaption> </figure><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Croup is a common childhood illness that is caused by a viral infection.</li><li>For most children, croup is a mild illness that can be managed at home. There is no medicine that will make the virus go away faster, but there are ways to make your child more comfortable.</li><li>If croup is more severe, take your child to see a health-care provider.</li></ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of croup</h2><p>Croup usually begins like a regular cold, with nasal congestion and dry cough. Sometimes children also have fever. Usually by day two or three, the cough becomes barky, the voice becomes hoarse and children can develop noisy breathing called stridor. Stridor is a high-pitched noise that occurs when breathing in through narrowed airways. In mild croup, your child may have stridor only when crying or coughing. If croup gets worse, your child may also have stridor when relaxed or sleeping and may have trouble breathing.</p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/ESvlOfNkjaA"> </iframe>  </div><p>Other symptoms of croup include: </p><ul><li>harsh barky cough</li><li>noisy breathing (stridor)</li><li>trouble breathing</li><li>hoarse voice</li><li>mild sore throat</li><li>runny or <a href="/Article?contentid=778&language=English">stuffy nose</a></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a></li></ul><h3>Croup usually lasts for about one week</h3><p>The viruses that cause croup usually last about one week. The barky cough and noisy breathing are usually worse during the first two or three days, and often worse at night.</p><h2>How did my child get croup?</h2><p>Croup is caused by viruses that spread easily from person to person. These viruses are spread when a sick person coughs or sneezes.</p><h2>What can doctors do for croup?</h2><h3>Steroid medicine</h3><p>Your doctor may prescribe a steroid medicine called <a href="/Article?contentid=221&language=English">dexamethasone</a> to be taken by mouth. This medicine works to reduce the swelling in the airways and to reduce stridor. It takes a few hours for the steroid medicine to work fully, and the effect lasts for 24 to 36 hours. Usually, only one or two doses are needed.</p><h3>Epinephrine</h3><p>In the Emergency Department, if your child is having severe problems breathing, your child may be given a medicine called epinephrine. This is given with a mask that sprays epinephrine into your child's airways. This medicine will reduce the swelling in your child's airways very quickly. The effect lasts for about four hours. After four hours, the swelling may come back, and your child may have problems breathing again. If epinephrine is needed, the health-care team will want your child to stay in hospital for four to six hours or until their symptoms improve.</p><h3>Croup can spread easily</h3><p>The viruses that cause croup are spread easily from one person to another, especially during the first few days. Keep your child home from daycare or school until the fever is gone and the barky cough has gone away. Keep your child away from young babies (under two months old) as much as you can.</p><p>Adults can become infected with the same virus that caused their child's croup. However, adults and older children have larger airways, and the illness is usually mild and can seem more like a cold.</p><h2>Taking care of your child at home</h2><p>For most children, croup is a mild illness that can be managed at home. Here are some ways to help your child feel better:</p><h3>Cool mist</h3><p>Cool, humid air may help reduce the swelling in the airways that is causing the noisy or difficult breathing. Placing your child near a cool mist vaporizer is ideal. If you do not have a cool mist vaporizer, even a simple humidifier in your child’s bedroom may be helpful. During the winter, you can open your child’s bedroom window to let in some cool air or take your child outside for a short time to breathe in the cool night air.</p><h3>Steamy bathroom</h3><p>You can try running a hot shower with the bathroom door closed and the fan off, so the bathroom fills with steam. Sit with your child in the steam-filled bathroom for at least 10 minutes.</p><h3>Fever and pain medicines</h3><p>You can treat fever or sore throat with <a href="/Article?contentid=62&language=English">acetaminophen</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=153&language=English">ibuprofen</a>.</p><h3>Helping your child's cough</h3><p>Cough is a symptom of croup. Cough medicines should not be given to children less than 6 years old. The cough will get better as the virus runs its course.</p><p>However, the viruses that cause croup can also trigger wheezing in children with <a href="/Article?contentid=1470&language=English">asthma</a> and can sometimes cause a chest infection. Take your child to their health-care provider if your child’s cough seems severe, or if your child is having difficulty breathing or is working hard to breathe.</p><p>Children with croup can suddenly start to have trouble breathing, and this can happen more than once. While your child has croup, you may wish to sleep in the same room. This will let you know about any problems during the night.</p><h2>When to see a health-care provider</h2><h3>Call your child's health-care provider if:</h3><ul><li>the fever lasts more than three days</li><li>the cough lasts more than one week</li><li>your child is having noisy breathing</li><li>your child complains of an earache</li></ul><h3>Take your child to the nearest Emergency Department or call 911 if:</h3><ul><li>the cool mist does not clear up the stridor in 15 minutes</li><li>your child has repeated episodes of stridor or trouble breathing</li><li>your child's chest or stomach is pulling in while breathing</li><li>your child's lips look blue or purple</li><li>your child starts drooling, has difficulty swallowing or refuses to drink</li><li>your child has neck pain or neck stiffness</li><li>your child seems lethargic (very sleepy) or irritable (very cranky)</li><li>your child is showing signs of <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=776&language=English">dehydration</a></li></ul><p>Your child may show physical changes when their condition is serious or when their condition gets worse. Parents and caregivers can learn how to <a href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/20231025_SIGNSMaterials_EN.pdf">spot these signs</a> in order to seek help from a health-care provider.</p>croupcroupMain
ImpetigoImpetigoImpetigoIEnglishDermatologyBaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years)SkinSkinConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2023-06-26T04:00:00Z6.8000000000000063.1000000000000630.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Impetigo is a common skin infection that is caused by bacteria. Learn what to look for, and what you and your doctor can do to care for your child.</p><h2>What is impetigo?</h2><p>Impetigo is a bacterial skin infection. It spreads easily. It is very common in young children, especially babies. Without treatment, impetigo can last for several months, it can spread and it can develop into a more severe infection.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Impetigo is a skin infection caused by bacteria.</li><li>Symptoms of impetigo include small or large blisters. The blisters appear on a red background. They are filled with pus. They occur around the mouth or nose area. They may also occur in the diaper area and can spread to other parts of the body.</li><li>Impetigo is caused by bacteria. The bacteria enter the body through a cut or cracked skin.</li><li>An antibiotic ointment and sometimes an oral antibiotic is used to treat the infection.</li><li>Impetigo spreads easily by touch. Keep your child away from other children until the infection clears.</li></ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of impetigo</h2><p>The symptoms of impetigo change over time:</p><ul><li>At first, the child develops small or large blisters on a red background. The blisters contain pus. They appear around the mouth or nose. They may also appear in the diaper area.</li><li>The blisters then split open. They form irregular sores. The sores may grow larger.</li><li>The surface of the sore dries. Honey-coloured crusts form on the sore.</li><li>The sores become itchy after the blisters burst.<br></li></ul><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/uRqJChXxNnA?si=Q3CTJQBgV0eBfw49" frameborder="0"></iframe> </div> <br><h2>Causes of impetigo</h2><p>Impetigo is caused by bacteria. The bacteria enter the body through a cut, open sore, insect bite or cracked skin. Impetigo is usually caused by <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>. This is called a staph infection. Impetigo may also be caused by <em>Streptococcus pyogenes</em>. This is called a strep infection.</p><p>Your child is more likely to get this infection if they have:</p><ul><li>dry or flaky skin</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=773&language=English">eczema</a></li><li>burns, scratches, splinters, cuts or scrapes</li><li>other skin infections</li><li>spider or insect bites</li><li>contact with another person with untreated impetigo</li></ul><h2>What your child's doctor can do</h2><h3>Physical examination</h3><p>Usually, the doctor can see if your child has impetigo just by looking at the skin. The doctor may also suggest other tests. However, these tests are usually not needed.</p><h3>Antibiotics</h3><p>Your child's doctor will likely prescribe an antibiotic ointment. The ointment will be effective against the bacteria. You will need to spread the ointment on the sores a few times a day. </p><p>The impetigo should improve after a few days. However, even if your child feels better, do NOT stop giving the antibiotics before finishing the full amount prescribed. This infection can come back, especially if the complete treatment is not given. </p><p>If your child's impetigo is more severe or getting worse, your child may need an oral antibiotic (taken by mouth).</p><h2>Taking care of your child at home</h2><h3>Apply ointment to open sores</h3><p>Using a clean finger, apply the ointment on the open sores. Do this a few times a day. Gently remove crusts or scabs with a cotton ball dipped in salt water.</p><h3>Finish all antibiotics</h3><p>Make sure to complete all the prescribed antibiotics. Do this even if your child is feeling better.</p><h3>Impetigo spreads easily</h3><p>Impetigo spreads easily from person to person. The infection can be spread by touching an open sore of an infected person. Keep your child away from other children until the infection has cleared up completely. With treatment, impetigo usually clears within five days.</p><h2>When to see a doctor</h2><p>Book an appointment immediately with your child's doctor if your child is showing symptoms of impetigo.</p><p>See your doctor again if:</p><ul><li>your child does not seem to be improving with the prescribed treatment</li><li>your child develops new symptoms, such as fever, difficulty keeping liquids or antibiotics down, or difficulty breathing</li></ul>impetigoimpetigohttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Impetigo_iStock-1204003540.jpgMain
MeaslesMeaslesMeaslesMEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)SkinImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Cough;Eye discomfort and redness;Fever;Rash;Runny nosehttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Measles_closeup_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.jpg2023-06-28T04:00:00Z9.2000000000000056.50000000000001244.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Measles is an infection caused by a highly contagious virus. Learn the symptoms and causes of measles and how it can be prevented. </p><p>Measles is an infection caused by a highly contagious virus. When someone with the virus coughs or sneezes, contaminated respiratory particles spread through the air and land on nearby surfaces. Your child can catch the virus by inhaling these particles or by touching them and then touching their face, mouth or eyes.</p><p>Your child is more likely to develop measles if they do not have the measles vaccination, and if they travel to other countries, where measles is more common, without being vaccinated. Vaccination can be considered for children as young as 6 months of age if they are travelling to an at-risk area—talk to your health-care provider. Your child is also more likely to be exposed to measles if overall measles vaccination rates drop in your community. It is important to catch up on all delayed or missed vaccinations.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Measles is an infection caused by a virus. It is very contagious and has no specific antiviral treatment.</li><li>Usually, measles causes fever, runny nose, cough, conjunctivitis (red and watery eyes) and a rash.</li><li>Complication rates are highest among young children and include pneumonia, encephalitis (brain swelling or infection), blindness and death.</li><li>Measles can be prevented with immunization.</li><li>If you think your child has measles and needs to be seen, call your health-care provider, clinic or emergency department before arriving. Precautions can then be made to prevent the spread of the infection to others.</li></ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of measles</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Measles rash</span> <img alt="Torso of child with measles rash" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Measles_torso_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.jpg" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The measles rash starts on the face, and spreads down the body towards the feet.</figcaption> </figure> <p>Common symptoms of measles include:</p><ul> <li>a <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a> that lasts for a couple of days</li><li>a cough, runny nose, and red and watery eyes (<a href="/Article?contentid=782&language=English">conjunctivitis</a>)</li><li>a rash that starts on the face, upper neck and behind the ears, and then spreads down the body before spreading to the arms, hands, legs and feet</li></ul><p>After about five days, the rash fades in the same order it appeared.</p><h2>How measles spreads</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Close-up of a measles rash</span> <img alt="Close-up of measles rash" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Measles_closeup_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.jpg" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The characteristic measles rash is red and blotchy.</figcaption> </figure> <p>Measles is a very contagious disease. It spreads very easily from one person to another and can also spread in the air.</p><p>The measles virus lives in the nose and throat of infected people. When an infected person sneezes or coughs, respiratory particles spray into the air. The virus can stay in the air or land on surfaces nearby, where the virus can spread for up to two hours. Sharing the same room or area with someone who has measles, even for a brief period of time, can be enough to transmit the infection to someone who is not immune. This is why parents need to call ahead before going to their doctor, a clinic or the emergency department when they suspect their child has measles so that precautions can be put in place to prevent further spread.</p><p>People with measles are usually contagious from four days before, until four days after the rash appears. Children with immune system problems may stay contagious much longer.</p><h2>How measles is diagnosed</h2><p>Measles is diagnosed by a physical examination of your child. The health-care provider may also order blood and urine tests and viral swabs from the nose or throat. If you think your child has measles, call your child’s health-care provider, the clinic or emergency department before going to see them so the infection is not passed on to other patients.</p><h2>Complications of measles</h2><p>Complications are dangerous and rates are highest in young children. About a quarter of children under five years of age with measles will require admission to hospital. Some children with a measles infection will also get an <a href="/article?contentid=8&language=english">ear infection</a>, <a href="/article?contentid=7&language=english">diarrhea</a> or even <a href="/article?contentid=784&language=english">pneumonia</a>.</p><p>Rarely, some children who have measles also get a swelling or infection of the brain (encephalitis). Severe cases of encephalitis can lead to seizures, hearing loss, brain damage or death.</p><p>Children with vitamin A deficiency who get measles can become blind.</p><h2>Caring for your child at home</h2><p>There is no specific treatment for measles. You can support your child by trying to make them comfortable.</p><h3>Monitor the fever</h3><p>You can use <a href="/article?contentid=62&language=english">acetaminophen</a> or <a href="/article?contentid=153&language=english">ibuprofen</a> to treat the fever. Do not give <a href="/article?contentid=77&language=english">ASA (acetylsalicylic acid, Aspirin)</a> to children.</p><h3>Isolate your child and allow them bed rest</h3><p>Your child should isolate at home (e.g., cannot go to school or daycare) until at least five days after the rash first appears. In Canada, cases of measles are reported to the Public Health Department. They will follow up with you about when it is safe for your child to return to their daily routine.</p><h3>Give your child fluids</h3><p>Offer your child water and other fluids often.</p><br><h2>How to prevent measles</h2><p>The only way to prevent measles and its complications is to receive measles vaccinations. The measles vaccine is available free of charge in many countries. Children receive two doses of the measles vaccine.</p><ul><li>The first dose is usually given soon after your child's first birthday.</li><li>The second dose is usually given when your child starts kindergarten.</li></ul><p>Measles is included in the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) and measles, mumps, rubella and varicella (MMRV) vaccines. Ask your child's health-care provider if your child's measles vaccination is up to date.</p><h3>Reactions to the vaccine</h3><p>When given the measles vaccine, some children develop mild symptoms. Often, a pink rash appears about seven to 10 days after the vaccination. This rash lasts for about three days. The child may also develop a mild fever and minor joint pain at the same time as the rash. If you are concerned in any way, call your child’s health-care provider.</p><h3>Importance of measles vaccination</h3><p>Since the introduction of the measles vaccine in Canada, the number of measles infections fell from an estimated 400,000 cases a year in 1963 to only 29 cases in 2018.</p><p>In countries where the vaccine is free and readily available, vaccination has helped to reduce measles to very low levels. However, measles is still common in many parts of the world and because not all children are being vaccinated, measles is becoming more common in many countries that previously had low levels of infection. You, your child and your family should be vaccinated against measles to protect yourself from the disease and its complications, especially if you are travelling to other countries. In some cases, vaccination may be recommended as early as six months of age. If a dose of measles vaccine is given early, an additional second and third dose would still be needed according to the routine schedule. Talk with your child’s health-care provider before travelling.</p><h2>When to see a doctor</h2><p>Call your child's regular health-care provider if:</p><ul><li>your child's fever does not lessen four days after the rash starts</li><li>your child's coughing gets worse</li><li>your child develops ear pain</li></ul><p>Take your child to the nearest Emergency Department or call 911 if your child:</p><ul><li>becomes short of breath or develops persistently noisy breathing</li><li>shows a change in behaviour or movement problems</li><li>has a seizure</li><li>develops a severe headache or persistent vomiting</li></ul><p>Let the clinic or emergency department know your child may have measles before you arrive so that precautions can be made to prevent the spread of the infection to others.</p><p>Your child may show physical changes when their condition is serious or when their condition gets worse. Parents and caregivers can learn how to <a href="https://www.healthcareexcellence.ca/media/s3bbk5nv/20221216_signsmaterialsqr_en.pdf">spot these signs</a> in order to seek help from a health-care provider.</p><h2>References</h2><p>Government of Canada. (2019, April 1). <em>Measles in Canada</em>. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/diseases/measles/measles-in-canada.html</p><br>Main
Pink eye (conjunctivitis)Pink eye (conjunctivitis)Pink eye (conjunctivitis)PEnglishOphthalmologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)EyesNervous systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Eye discomfort and redness2023-08-31T04:00:00Z6.5000000000000069.7000000000000879.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>An overview of the different causes, symptoms and treatments of this common eye infection in children known as pink eye.</p><h2>What is pink eye?</h2><p>Pink eye is an inflammation of the thin membrane (conjunctiva) that covers the white part of the eye (sclera). This membrane becomes pink or red in colour. </p><p>Pink eye is most often caused by a virus. It can also be caused by a bacterial infection or an allergic reaction.<br></p><p>Pink eye is also called conjunctivitis.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Pink eye is most often caused by viral infections associated with the common cold. It can also be caused by bacterial infections or allergies.</li> <li>Children with bacterial pink eye should take antibiotic drops or ointment. These are not needed for viral pink eye.</li> <li>Viral and bacterial pink eye are contagious. Prevent them from spreading with good hand washing and the use of alcohol-based hand rubs.</li> <li>Pink eye should not cause any long-term damage to a child's vision.</li> <li>Seek medical attention if there is a change in vision, persistent redness, eye pain or eyelid swelling.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of pink eye</h2> <p>Your child may have:</p> <ul> <li>eye and inner eyelid redness</li> <li>slightly swollen eyelids</li> <li>itchy eyes</li> <li>clear or yellow-green eye discharge</li> </ul> <p>Viral pink eye usually affects both eyes. Your child may also have other cold symptoms. When your child wakes up from sleeping their eyes may be sticky. Discharge from the eye is usually clear. </p> <p>Bacterial pink eye often affects only one eye at first. You will be able to see yellow or green discharge. This discharge causes crusting on the eyelids.</p> <p>Allergic pink eye may occur when your child is allergic to something in the environment. Your child may have a <a href="/Article?contentid=804&language=English">ragweed pollen, tree pollen, grass or animal allergy</a>. It affects both eyes and there is little or no discharge. Your child may have itchy and watery eyes. </p> <p>Teens who wear contact lenses should remove the lenses. See a health-care provider or eye care specialist to find out if the redness is related to wearing contact lenses. </p><h2>How to treat your child’s pink eye</h2> <p>Viral pink eye may last for one to two weeks and does not need medical treatment. It should resolve on its own. </p> <p>Treat bacterial pink eye by giving your child antibiotic <a href="/Article?contentid=995&language=English">eye drops</a> or <a href="/article?contentid=996&language=English">ointment</a>. Symptoms usually improve within 24 to 48 hours once treatment is started. Bacterial pink eye is usually treated for five to seven days. </p> <p>Treat allergic pink eye by giving your child oral (by mouth) antihistamines or by <a href="https://youtu.be/qXIFTKeDDR8?si=b8fDr5BSJD8bUkOF">giving them eye drops</a> made for allergy symptoms. Discuss treatment with your child's doctor. </p><h2>Taking care of your child with pink eye at home</h2><h3>Prevent contamination</h3><p>Viral and bacterial pink eye are very contagious. Infection can spread easily in the following ways: </p><ul><li>contact with the infected eye and then contact with your own eye </li><li>contact with hands that have touched the eye and then contact with your own eye</li><li>by sharing pillows, towels, face cloths, makeup or other facial products</li><li>contact with someone with congestion, coughing or sneezing and pink eye</li></ul><p>When a close contact has bacterial or viral conjunctivitis, avoid sharing items that touch the face or eye. <a href="/Article?contentid=1981&language=English">Wash hands properly</a> with soap and water and use alcohol-based hand sanitizer to stop the spread of infection. Avoid getting hand sanitizer in the eye.</p><h3>Cleaning the eyes</h3><p>Some children feel better when eye discharge or eye stickiness is washed away with a warm compress. Apply a clean, warm, wet towel or face cloth to the affected eye and gently wipe away any discharge or crust. Use a clean part of the compress for each wipe. Throw out the compress right away or put it into the laundry. Wash your hand after you do this. </p><p>You can also clean the eye and stop itchiness with saline or other soothing eye drops. Ask your pharmacist for advice.</p><p>Pink eye may be irritating, but it is usually not painful. Your child should not need medicine for pain. </p><h3>Reduce the spread of the infection</h3><p>Children with viral pink eye are contagious to others in the same way as children with a cold virus. The virus can spread through coughing or sneezing. Viral pink eye may last for up to two weeks. You do not need to keep your child out of school or day care for that whole time. </p><p>Children with bacterial pink eye may return to school or day care 24 hours after starting eye drops or ointment. If you have any questions about the amount of time your child should stay away from others, ask your health-care provider. </p><p>Help reduce the spread of infection with good hygiene practices described above.</p><p>Children with allergic pink eye are not contagious. Your child may still go to school or day care. </p><h2>When to get medical assistance for pink eye</h2><p>Call your child's health-care provider or local pharmacist if:</p><ul><li>your child develops pink eye symptoms </li><li>your child's symptoms last longer than seven to 10 days</li></ul><p>Take your child to the nearest Emergency Department, or call 911, if your child has:</p><ul><li>any change in vision</li><li>eye pain</li><li>sensitivity to light</li><li>increasing eyelid swelling</li></ul><p>Sometimes your child may notice blurred vision that clears with blinking or clearing the discharge. Pink eye is never associated with constant blurred or decreased vision.</p><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/pink_eye.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />pinkeyepinkeyehttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/pink_eye.jpgPink eyeMain
Strep throatStrep throatStrep throatSEnglishInfectious DiseasesPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years)Mouth;Trachea;EsophagusMouth;Esophagus;TracheaConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Fever;Sore throat2023-06-26T04:00:00Z7.7000000000000065.7000000000000952.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Strep throat is a throat infection caused by a type of bacteria called streptococci. Learn how you can take care of your child.</p><br><h2>What is strep throat?</h2><p>Strep throat is a throat infection caused by a type of bacteria called <em>Streptococcus</em>.</p><p>Strep throat is more common in school-age children.</p><p>The most common cause of strep throat is group A beta-haemolytic <em>Streptococcus</em> (GAS). This bacteria can also cause complications in other parts of the body.​</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>The main symptoms of strep throat are fever and sore throat.</li> <li>If you suspect that your child might have strep throat, see a health-care provider for a throat swab.</li> <li>Make sure your child finishes any antibiotics they are prescribed to prevent relapse and complications.</li> <li>Use soft foods, cold drinks and pain medications, if needed, to reduce any pain.</li> <li>Make sure that any other family members or close contacts with similar symptoms see their healthcare provider.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of strep throat</h2> <p>The symptoms for strep throat are similar to symptoms for a sore throat caused by a virus or other illnesses. The most common symptoms are:</p> <ul> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English" style="line-height:18px;background-color:initial;">fever</a></li> <li><a href="/article?contentid=748&language=English">sore throat</a></li> <li>loss of interest in eating or drinking because of pain</li> <li>difficulty swallowing</li> <li><a href="/article?contentid=748&language=English">enlarged red tonsils</a>, sometimes covered with white-yellow coating.</li> </ul> <p>Some children may have other symptoms such as <a href="/Article?contentid=29&language=English">headache</a>, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and muscle pain.<br></p><h2>Reduce the spread of the infection</h2> <p>Strep throat can spread easily to family members and your child's classmates. Any child or adult who lives in your home and has the same symptoms in the five days after your child is diagnosed should have a throat swab.</p> <p>Your child's infection is no longer contagious after your child has been on antibiotics for 24 hours. This means that your child can return to school after one day of antibiotic treatment if they are feeling better.</p> <h3>Other tips to prevent the spread of infection</h3> <ul> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=1981&language=English">Wash your hands</a> with warm soapy water or alcohol-based hand sanitizer often.</li> <li>Do not let your child share drinking glasses or eating utensils with friends or classmates.</li> <li>Be sure to wash your child's glasses and utensils in hot soapy water or a dishwasher.</li> <li>Have your child sneeze into their elbow or cover their mouth and nose when coughing.</li> <li>Avoid kissing and having close facial contact with your child until they are better.</li> </ul> <h2>How is strep throat diagnosed?</h2><p>Strep throat cannot be diagnosed by looking at your child’s throat. The diagnosis must be confirmed by a throat swab. This involves wiping a thin cotton bud along the side and back of your child's throat. The swab is then sent to a lab to be tested for GAS bacteria. The results are usually available within a day or two.</p><p>Some clinics may use a rapid test, which gives results within minutes to identify strep. Rapid tests are only useful if they show that your child has the <em>Streptococcus</em> bacteria (known as a positive result). A negative rapid test result does not always mean that your child does not have strep throat. If your child has a negative rapid test, a throat swab should be sent to a lab to confirm they do not have strep.</p><p>A throat swab is very important for diagnosis as strep throat looks similar to <a href="/Article?contentid=748&language=English">viral pharyngitis</a>, which cannot be treated with antibiotics.</p><h2>How is strep throat treated?</h2> <p>If the rapid test or throat swab is positive for GAS, the doctor will prescribe oral antibiotics (antibiotics to be taken by mouth) for your child. Strep throat can sometimes get better without medication, but a GAS infection can cause complications if it is not treated.</p> <h2>Complications of strep throat</h2><h3>Throat abscess</h3><p>A throat abscess (a collection of pus in the throat tissues) can develop from strep throat. The symptoms include high fever, muffled voice, difficulty opening the mouth, increased salivation and drooling and neck swelling. See a health-care provider if these symptoms occur.</p><h3>Rheumatic fever</h3><p>Although rare, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=2315&language=English">rheumatic fever</a> can also develop as a complication of strep throat. The condition can involve the skin, joints, heart and brain. Treating the strep throat with antibiotics almost always prevents rheumatic fever.</p><h3>Other complications</h3><p> These can include joint inflammation (arthritis) and kidney inflammation. GAS is also the bacteria responsible for <a href="/Article?contentid=751&language=English">scarlet fever</a> and sometimes causes a skin infection called <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=796&language=English">impetigo</a>.</p><h2>Taking care of your child at home</h2> <h3>Manage the fever and pain</h3> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=62&language=English">Acetaminophen</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=153&language=English">ibuprofen</a> can be used to treat fever or pain. <a href="/Article?contentid=77&language=English">ASA (acetylsalicylic acid)</a> should not be given to children.</p> <h3>Complete the antibiotics</h3> <p>The fever and the throat pain usually improve about three days after your child starts taking antibiotics. However, even if your child seems to be better, it is very important to complete the entire course of antibiotics. This will make sure the infection does not return and will also prevent complications.</p> <h3>Offer your child soft foods and a liquid diet</h3> <p>Eating and drinking may be painful for a child with strep throat. Here are some tips to make it easier for them.</p> <ul> <li>If your child is having trouble swallowing, give soft foods that are easy to swallow, such as soups, ice cream, pudding or yogurt.</li> <li>Give plenty of liquids. Sipping with a straw or sippy cup may help.</li> <li>If your child is more than 12 months old, try giving one or two teaspoons (5 to 10 mL) of pasteurized honey to soothe the throat and ease the cough.</li> <li>Let an older child try gargling with warm salt water to soothe their throat.</li> </ul> <p>Ice cubes and lozenges may provide some relief for older children or teens. Do not give them to younger children, however, because they are a choking hazard.</p><h2>When to get medical attention</h2><p>Call your child's regular health-care provider if:</p><ul><li>the fever does not go away within three days of starting antibiotics</li><li>your child develops a fever, a rash, joint swelling, or has difficulty drinking liquids or keeping liquids down</li></ul><p>Go to the nearest Emergency Department or call 911 if your child:<br></p><ul><li>has trouble breathing or shortness of breath<br></li></ul><img alt="" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/strep_throat.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />strepthroatstrepthroathttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/strep_throat.jpgMain

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