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Heat-related illness in young athletesHHeat-related illness in young athletesHeat-related illness in young athletesEnglishPreventionSchool age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyNAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Headache;Nausea;Vomiting2014-05-30T04:00:00ZShawna Silver, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, PEng9.0000000000000059.00000000000001204.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to prevent and treat heat-related illness in children and teens who exercise in hot and humid conditions.</p><p>Sports are an important part of summer for many children and teens. But physical activity in heat and humidity can increase the risk of the heat-related illness.</p> <p>The American Academy of Pediatrics lists a number of factors that make children and teens more vulnerable to heat-related illness caused by physical exertion. They include:</p><ul><li>a hot or humid climate</li><li>insufficient adjustment to exercising in the heat and humidity</li><li>insufficient adjustment to the intensity or duration of activity or to the uniform and protective equipment</li><li>excessive physical exertion in terms of intensity or duration</li><li>clothing, uniform or protective equipment that does not allow the body to release enough heat</li><li>poor hydration</li><li>insufficient cardiovascular fitness</li><li>inadequate sleep or rest</li><li>insufficient rest and recovery time between same-day practice or training sessions and competitions</li><li>being overweight or obese</li><li>a current or recent illness and other medical conditions (or medications) that affect hydration and the body’s ability to regulate temperature.</li></ul><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>A number of factors make heat-related illness more likely for young athletes. These include wearing clothing or protective equipment that does not allow enough heat to escape from the body, exercising too intensively or for too long in the heat and not having enough rest between same-day training sessions and competitions.</li> <li>Dehydration is a common heat-related illness. If it is not treated in time or correctly, it can result in heat cramps, hyponatremia, heat exhaustion and heat stroke.</li> <li>Hyponatremia, heat cramps and heat exhaustion can usually be treated first by replacing lost fluids and salt, resting in a shaded area and removing extra clothing or equipment, if any. A child should see a doctor only if their symptoms last more than an hour or get worse.</li> <li>Heat stroke is a medical emergency. While waiting for a doctor, it is important to cool the child using whatever means are available, such as immersing them in or spraying them with cold water.</li> <li>To prevent the risk of heat-related illness during physical activity, drink enough fluids before, during and after exercise, take frequent breaks, reduce the intensity and length of the exercise and wear lightweight and loose clothing.</li> </ul><h2>Common heat-related illnesses during sports activities</h2> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=776&language=French">Dehydration</a> is commonly the first sign of a <a href="/Article?contentid=1966&language=English">heat-related illness</a>. If it is not addressed correctly, it can be followed by:</p> <ul> <li>heat cramps</li> <li>hyponatremia</li> <li>heat exhaustion</li> <li>in extreme cases, heat stroke – a medical emergency.</li> </ul> <h2>Heat cramps</h2> <p>Heat cramps are the most common heat-related injury. They usually occur in cases of mild dehydration or salt loss, normally after someone has been physically active for a while.</p> <p>Symptoms of heat cramps include intense muscle pain or spasms that are not caused by injury. These cramps normally affect the legs, but they can also affect the arms or abdomen.</p> <h3>How to treat heat cramps</h3> <p>If your child has heat cramps, they should:</p> <ul> <li>stop exercising and sit down</li> <li>drink clear juice or a sports drink to help replace fluid and salt</li> <li>do some light stretching or relaxation</li> </ul> <p>Massaging the area of the body affected by the cramps may also help.</p> <p>Your child can return to the physical activity when the cramps go away.</p> <h3>When to see a doctor</h3> <p>Take your child to a doctor if the cramps do not go away after an hour.</p> <h2>Hyponatremia</h2> <p>The body needs a tiny amount of sodium to control blood pressure and blood volume and help muscles and nerves work properly.</p> <p>Hyponatremia occurs when the body’s blood sodium level becomes too low. It is more likely to happen if a child:</p> <ul> <li>does not usually get enough salt in their diet</li> <li>loses large amounts of salt during strenuous or prolonged exercise</li> <li>drinks much more water than they need during or after exercise</li> </ul> <p>Hyponatremia is quite a rare condition, but it can be dangerous. Teens are at higher risk of hyponatremia than younger children.</p> <h3>How to treat hyponatremia</h3> <p>For prolonged activity (one hour or more) in the sun, your child should replace lost water and lost salt with a sports drink or a meal. Salt pills are not recommended.</p> <h2>Heat exhaustion</h2> <p>Heat exhaustion is caused by loss of water and salt, often as a result of exercise in hot weather. If heat exhaustion is not treated, it may progress to heat stroke.</p> <p>Symptoms of heat exhaustion include:</p> <ul> <li>normal or raised body temperature, but less than 40°C (104°F)</li> <li>pale skin</li> <li>cool and moist skin</li> <li><a href="/article?contentid=29&language=English">headache</a></li> <li>nausea or vomiting</li> <li>dizziness, weakness or fainting</li> </ul> <h3>How to treat heat exhaustion</h3> <ul> <li>Move your child to a shady or air-conditioned area and have them lie comfortably.</li> <li>Remove extra clothing and sports equipment, if any.</li> <li>Cool them with cold water, fans or cold towels.</li> <li>If your child is not vomiting or feeling nauseous, have them drink chilled water, juice or a sports drink.</li> </ul> <h3>When to see a doctor</h3> <p>Take your child to see a doctor if:</p> <ul> <li>they do not seem better after an hour</li> <li>their symptoms are severe</li> <li>they seem confused or disoriented</li> <li>they are behaving oddly</li> </ul> <h2>Heat stroke</h2> <p>Heat stroke is a dangerous illness that can lead to organ damage or death. In fact, heat stroke caused by exertion is the leading cause of preventable death in youth sports.</p> <p>Heat stroke happens when a child's body creates more heat than it can release. The main symptoms are:</p> <ul> <li>increase in core body temperature, usually above 40°C (104°F)</li> <li>break down of the central nervous system, which may appear as altered consciousness, seizures, confusion, emotional instability or irrational behaviour</li> <li>hot and wet or dry skin (profuse sweating usually occurs with intense exertion)</li> </ul> <h3>How to treat heat stroke</h3> <ul> <li>Heat stroke is a medical emergency. Call 911 right away.</li> <li>While waiting for emergency services, remove the child's clothing and any sports equipment.</li> <li>Begin cooling the child by any means available, including immersing them in cold water, spraying them with cold water, placing fans in front of them or using ice bags.</li> <li>Do not give the child anything to drink.</li> <li>Monitor the child's body temperature.</li> </ul> <p>Even if a child with heat stroke feels better after cooling, they should not return to their activities until they have been seen by a doctor.</p><h2>Sources</h2> <p>American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Sports Medicine and Fitness. (2011). Climatic heat stress and the exercising child or adolescent. <em>Pediatrics, 128(3),</em> 741-747.</p> <p>Bergeron, MF (2013). Reducing Sports Heat Illness Risk. <em>Pediatrics in Review, 34, </em> 270-279.</p> <p>U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Tips for Preventing Heat-Related Illness. <em>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.</em> Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/disasters/extremeheat/heattips.html.</p> <p>Parents' and Coaches' Guide to Dehydration and Other Heat Illnesses in Children. (2003). <em>National Athletic Trainers' Association.</em> Retrieved from http://www.nata.org/sites/default/files/Heat-Illness-Parent-Coach-Guide.pdf.</p>
Maladies dues à la chaleur chez les jeunes athlètesMMaladies dues à la chaleur chez les jeunes athlètesHeat-related illness in young athletesFrenchPreventionSchool age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyNAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Headache;Nausea;Vomiting2014-05-30T04:00:00ZShawna Silver, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, PEng9.0000000000000059.00000000000001204.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Apprenez comment prévenir et traiter les maladies dues à la chaleur chez les enfants et les adolescents qui font des activités physiques par temps chaud et humide. </p><p>En été, les sports occupent une place importante pour de nombreux enfants et adolescents. Toutefois, la pratique d’activités physiques par temps chaud et humide peut accroître les risques de maladies dues à la chaleur.</p> <p>Selon l’American Academy of Pediatrics, bon nombre de facteurs rendent les enfants et les adolescents plus vulnérables aux maladies dues à la chaleur causées par l’effort physique. Ils comprennent:</p><ul><li>les climats chauds et humides</li><li>l’adaptation insuffisante aux activités physiques dans la chaleur et l’humidité</li><li>l’adaptation insuffisante à l’intensité ou à la durée de l’activité ou à l’uniforme et à l’équipement de protection</li><li>l’effort physique d’intensité ou de durée excessive</li><li>les vêtements, l’uniforme ou l’équipement de protection qui ne permet pas au corps d’évacuer assez de chaleur</li><li>une hydratation inadéquate</li><li>une capacité cardiovasculaire insuffisante</li><li>un sommeil ou un repos inadéquats</li><li>une période insuffisante de repos et de récupération entre les séances de pratique ou d’entraînement et les parties ayant lieu le même jour</li><li>l’embonpoint ou l’obésité</li><li>une maladie dont souffre l’enfant ou dont il a récemment été atteint et autres troubles médicaux (ou médicaments) qui ont une incidence sur l’hydratation et la capacité de l’organisme de réguler sa température.</li></ul><h2>À retenir</h2> <ul> <li>De nombreux facteurs rendent les jeunes athlètes plus vulnérables aux maladies dues à la chaleur. Ils comprennent, entre autres, le port de vêtements ou d’un équipement de protection ne permettant pas au corps d’évacuer assez de chaleur, la pratique d’activités physiques de façon trop intense ou d’une durée excessive et une période insuffisante de repos entre les séances d’entraînement et les parties ayant lieu le même jour.</li> <li>La déshydratation est une maladie due à la chaleur courante. Si elle n’est pas traitée à temps ou correctement, elle peut provoquer des crampes de chaleur, l’hyponatrémie, l’épuisement par la chaleur et un coup de chaleur.</li> <li>En règle générale, l’hyponatrémie, les crampes de chaleur et l’épuisement par la chaleur peuvent d’abord être traités de la façon suivante : remplacement des liquides et du sodium évacués du corps, repos à l'ombre et, s’il y a lieu, enlèvement des vêtements ou de l’équipement excessifs. Il ne faut amener un enfant déshydraté chez le médecin que si ses symptômes persistent pendant plus d’une heure ou s’aggravent.</li> <li>Le coup de chaleur est une urgence médicale. En attendant l’arrivée d’un médecin, il est important d’abaisser la température corporelle en utilisant les moyens disponibles comme l’immersion dans l’eau froide ou la vaporisation d’eau froide.</li> <li>Pour prévenir le risque de maladies dues à la chaleur, il faut boire assez de liquides avant, pendant et après les activités physiques et réduire l’intensité et la durée de ces dernières, prendre fréquemment des pauses et porter des vêtements amples et légers. </li> </ul><h2>Maladies dues à la chaleur courantes pendant la pratique de sports</h2> <p>La <a href="/Article?contentid=776&language=French">déshydratation</a> est couramment le premier signe d’une maladie due à la chaleur. Si des mesures appropriées ne sont pas prises pour y remédier, elle peut entraîner:</p> <ul> <li>des crampes de chaleur</li> <li>l’hyponatrémie</li> <li>l’épuisement par la chaleur</li> <li>dans les cas extrêmes, un coup de chaleur (qui est une urgence médicale).</li> </ul> <h2>Crampes de chaleur</h2> <p>Les crampes de chaleur constituent les blessures musculaires attribuables à la chaleur les plus courantes. Elles surviennent d’habitude dans les cas de déshydratation légère ou de perte de sodium (sel) se produisant normalement par suite d’activités physiques d’une certaine durée.</p> <p>Les symptômes des crampes de chaleur comprennent de fortes douleurs musculaires (ou spasmes) non attribuables à une blessure. En règle générale, les crampes touchent les jambes, mais elles peuvent aussi se produire dans les bras ou l’abdomen.</p> <h3>Comment traiter les crampes de chaleur</h3> <p>Si votre enfant présente des crampes de chaleur, il doit:</p> <ul> <li>cesser son activité et s’asseoir</li> <li>boire du jus de fruits dilué ou une boisson énergisante pour remplacer les liquides et le sodium perdus</li> <li>faire de légers étirements ou de la relaxation.</li> </ul> <p>Le fait de masser la zone du corps atteinte peut aussi soulager les crampes.</p> <p>Votre enfant pourra poursuivre son activité physique quand les crampes auront disparu.</p> <h3>Quand consulter un médecin</h3> <p>Amenez votre enfant chez le médecin si ses crampes durent plus d’une heure.</p> <h2>Hyponatrémie</h2> <p>L’organisme a besoin d’une quantité minuscule de sodium pour réguler sa tension artérielle et sa volémie (volume de sang) et permettre aux muscles et aux nerfs de bien fonctionner.</p> <p>L’hyponatrémie survient quand le taux de sodium dans le sang est trop faible. Elle est davantage susceptible de se produire si un enfant:</p> <ul> <li>n’obtient habituellement pas assez de sodium dans son régime alimentaire</li> <li>perd une importante quantité de sodium durant des activités physiques ardues prolongées</li> <li>boit beaucoup plus d’eau que nécessaire pendant et après ses activités physiques.</li> </ul> <p>L’hyponatrémie est un trouble assez rare qui peut être dangereux. Les adolescents sont plus à risque que les jeunes enfants d’en être atteints.</p> <h3>Comment traiter l’hyponatrémie</h3> <p>Quand votre enfant pratique des activités prolongées (pendant au moins une heure) au soleil, il doit remplacer l’eau et le sodium perdus en prenant une boisson énergisante ou un repas. L’emploi de pilules d’iode n’est pas recommandé.</p> <h2>Coup de chaleur</h2> <p>Le coup de chaleur est une affection dangereuse qui peut entraîner des lésions aux organes et la mort. De fait, le coup de chaleur attribuable à l’effort physique constitue la principale cause des cas de mortalité évitables dans les sports pour les jeunes.</p> <p>Le coup de chaleur survient quand le corps d’un enfant produit plus de chaleur qu’il en élimine. Ses principaux symptômes sont:</p> <ul> <li>l’augmentation de la température interne du corps à une valeur habituellement supérieure à 40 °C (104 °F)</li> <li>l’altération du système nerveux central pouvant se traduire par une altération de l’état de conscience, des convulsions, une confusion, une instabilité affective ou un comportement irrationnel</li> <li>la peau chaude et humide ou sèche (l’effort physique intense provoque habituellement une transpiration abondante).</li> </ul> <h3>Comment traiter le coup de chaleur</h3> <ul> <li>Le coup de chaleur est une urgence médicale. Composez alors immédiatement le 911.</li> <li>En attendant les services d’urgence, enlevez les vêtements et l’équipement de sport de l’enfant.</li> <li>Commencez à abaisser sa température par tout moyen disponible: en l’immergeant dans l’eau froide, en le vaporisant d’eau froide, en plaçant des ventilateurs devant lui ou en utilisant des sacs à glace.</li> <li>Ne lui donnez rien à boire.</li> <li>Surveillez sa température corporelle.</li> </ul> <p>Même si un enfant atteint d’un coup de chaleur se sent mieux une fois que vous lui avez refroidi le corps, il ne doit pas reprendre ses activités avant d’avoir été examiné par un médecin.</p><h2>Sources</h2> <p>American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Sports Medicine and Fitness. (2011). Climatic heat stress and the exercising child or adolescent. <em>Pediatrics, 128(3),</em> 741-747.</p> <p>Bergeron, MF (2013). Reducing Sports Heat Illness Risk. <em>Pediatrics in Review, 34, </em> 270-279.</p> <p>U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Tips for Preventing Heat-Related Illness. <em>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.</em> Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/disasters/extremeheat/heattips.html.</p> <p>Parents' and Coaches' Guide to Dehydration and Other Heat Illnesses in Children. (2003). <em>National Athletic Trainers' Association.</em> Retrieved from http://www.nata.org/sites/default/files/Heat-Illness-Parent-Coach-Guide.pdf.</p>

 

 

Heat-related illness in young athletes1915.00000000000Heat-related illness in young athletesHeat-related illness in young athletesHEnglishPreventionSchool age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyNAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Headache;Nausea;Vomiting2014-05-30T04:00:00ZShawna Silver, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, PEng9.0000000000000059.00000000000001204.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to prevent and treat heat-related illness in children and teens who exercise in hot and humid conditions.</p><p>Sports are an important part of summer for many children and teens. But physical activity in heat and humidity can increase the risk of the heat-related illness.</p> <p>The American Academy of Pediatrics lists a number of factors that make children and teens more vulnerable to heat-related illness caused by physical exertion. They include:</p><ul><li>a hot or humid climate</li><li>insufficient adjustment to exercising in the heat and humidity</li><li>insufficient adjustment to the intensity or duration of activity or to the uniform and protective equipment</li><li>excessive physical exertion in terms of intensity or duration</li><li>clothing, uniform or protective equipment that does not allow the body to release enough heat</li><li>poor hydration</li><li>insufficient cardiovascular fitness</li><li>inadequate sleep or rest</li><li>insufficient rest and recovery time between same-day practice or training sessions and competitions</li><li>being overweight or obese</li><li>a current or recent illness and other medical conditions (or medications) that affect hydration and the body’s ability to regulate temperature.</li></ul><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>A number of factors make heat-related illness more likely for young athletes. These include wearing clothing or protective equipment that does not allow enough heat to escape from the body, exercising too intensively or for too long in the heat and not having enough rest between same-day training sessions and competitions.</li> <li>Dehydration is a common heat-related illness. If it is not treated in time or correctly, it can result in heat cramps, hyponatremia, heat exhaustion and heat stroke.</li> <li>Hyponatremia, heat cramps and heat exhaustion can usually be treated first by replacing lost fluids and salt, resting in a shaded area and removing extra clothing or equipment, if any. A child should see a doctor only if their symptoms last more than an hour or get worse.</li> <li>Heat stroke is a medical emergency. While waiting for a doctor, it is important to cool the child using whatever means are available, such as immersing them in or spraying them with cold water.</li> <li>To prevent the risk of heat-related illness during physical activity, drink enough fluids before, during and after exercise, take frequent breaks, reduce the intensity and length of the exercise and wear lightweight and loose clothing.</li> </ul><h2>Common heat-related illnesses during sports activities</h2> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=776&language=French">Dehydration</a> is commonly the first sign of a <a href="/Article?contentid=1966&language=English">heat-related illness</a>. If it is not addressed correctly, it can be followed by:</p> <ul> <li>heat cramps</li> <li>hyponatremia</li> <li>heat exhaustion</li> <li>in extreme cases, heat stroke – a medical emergency.</li> </ul> <h2>Heat cramps</h2> <p>Heat cramps are the most common heat-related injury. They usually occur in cases of mild dehydration or salt loss, normally after someone has been physically active for a while.</p> <p>Symptoms of heat cramps include intense muscle pain or spasms that are not caused by injury. These cramps normally affect the legs, but they can also affect the arms or abdomen.</p> <h3>How to treat heat cramps</h3> <p>If your child has heat cramps, they should:</p> <ul> <li>stop exercising and sit down</li> <li>drink clear juice or a sports drink to help replace fluid and salt</li> <li>do some light stretching or relaxation</li> </ul> <p>Massaging the area of the body affected by the cramps may also help.</p> <p>Your child can return to the physical activity when the cramps go away.</p> <h3>When to see a doctor</h3> <p>Take your child to a doctor if the cramps do not go away after an hour.</p> <h2>Hyponatremia</h2> <p>The body needs a tiny amount of sodium to control blood pressure and blood volume and help muscles and nerves work properly.</p> <p>Hyponatremia occurs when the body’s blood sodium level becomes too low. It is more likely to happen if a child:</p> <ul> <li>does not usually get enough salt in their diet</li> <li>loses large amounts of salt during strenuous or prolonged exercise</li> <li>drinks much more water than they need during or after exercise</li> </ul> <p>Hyponatremia is quite a rare condition, but it can be dangerous. Teens are at higher risk of hyponatremia than younger children.</p> <h3>How to treat hyponatremia</h3> <p>For prolonged activity (one hour or more) in the sun, your child should replace lost water and lost salt with a sports drink or a meal. Salt pills are not recommended.</p> <h2>Heat exhaustion</h2> <p>Heat exhaustion is caused by loss of water and salt, often as a result of exercise in hot weather. If heat exhaustion is not treated, it may progress to heat stroke.</p> <p>Symptoms of heat exhaustion include:</p> <ul> <li>normal or raised body temperature, but less than 40°C (104°F)</li> <li>pale skin</li> <li>cool and moist skin</li> <li><a href="/article?contentid=29&language=English">headache</a></li> <li>nausea or vomiting</li> <li>dizziness, weakness or fainting</li> </ul> <h3>How to treat heat exhaustion</h3> <ul> <li>Move your child to a shady or air-conditioned area and have them lie comfortably.</li> <li>Remove extra clothing and sports equipment, if any.</li> <li>Cool them with cold water, fans or cold towels.</li> <li>If your child is not vomiting or feeling nauseous, have them drink chilled water, juice or a sports drink.</li> </ul> <h3>When to see a doctor</h3> <p>Take your child to see a doctor if:</p> <ul> <li>they do not seem better after an hour</li> <li>their symptoms are severe</li> <li>they seem confused or disoriented</li> <li>they are behaving oddly</li> </ul> <h2>Heat stroke</h2> <p>Heat stroke is a dangerous illness that can lead to organ damage or death. In fact, heat stroke caused by exertion is the leading cause of preventable death in youth sports.</p> <p>Heat stroke happens when a child's body creates more heat than it can release. The main symptoms are:</p> <ul> <li>increase in core body temperature, usually above 40°C (104°F)</li> <li>break down of the central nervous system, which may appear as altered consciousness, seizures, confusion, emotional instability or irrational behaviour</li> <li>hot and wet or dry skin (profuse sweating usually occurs with intense exertion)</li> </ul> <h3>How to treat heat stroke</h3> <ul> <li>Heat stroke is a medical emergency. Call 911 right away.</li> <li>While waiting for emergency services, remove the child's clothing and any sports equipment.</li> <li>Begin cooling the child by any means available, including immersing them in cold water, spraying them with cold water, placing fans in front of them or using ice bags.</li> <li>Do not give the child anything to drink.</li> <li>Monitor the child's body temperature.</li> </ul> <p>Even if a child with heat stroke feels better after cooling, they should not return to their activities until they have been seen by a doctor.</p><h2>How to prevent heat-related illness during sports and exercise</h2> <ul> <li>Make sure your child’s coach or supervisor knows about exercising in the heat and has a plan to deal with heat-related illnesses if they arise.</li> <li>Reduce the intensity of exercise when it is very hot, humid or sunny.</li> <li>Take frequent breaks.</li> <li>Wear lightweight, light-coloured, loose clothing.</li> <li>Make sure your child is well hydrated before exercising.</li> <li>Make sure your child drinks every 15 to 20 minutes when exercising, even if they do not feel thirsty. Generally, nine to 12 year olds need 100 mL to 250 mL every 20 minutes. Teens need up to 1 L to 1.5 L of fluid for every hour of exercise.</li> <li>If your child has been exercising for less than an hour, they can rehydrate with water. If they have been exercising for more than an hour, they should have a sports drink to replace the water and salt lost through sweat. Do not use salt tablets to restore the levels of sodium and other electrolytes in the blood, as they provide too much salt.</li> <li>If it is very hot and humid, cancel the activity or move to an air-conditioned space.</li> </ul><h2>Sources</h2> <p>American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Sports Medicine and Fitness. (2011). Climatic heat stress and the exercising child or adolescent. <em>Pediatrics, 128(3),</em> 741-747.</p> <p>Bergeron, MF (2013). Reducing Sports Heat Illness Risk. <em>Pediatrics in Review, 34, </em> 270-279.</p> <p>U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Tips for Preventing Heat-Related Illness. <em>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.</em> Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/disasters/extremeheat/heattips.html.</p> <p>Parents' and Coaches' Guide to Dehydration and Other Heat Illnesses in Children. (2003). <em>National Athletic Trainers' Association.</em> Retrieved from http://www.nata.org/sites/default/files/Heat-Illness-Parent-Coach-Guide.pdf.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/heat_related_illness_in_youg_athletes.jpgHeat-related illness in young athletes

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