Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: OverviewAAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder: OverviewAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder: OverviewEnglishPsychiatrySchool age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainBrainConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2017-06-16T04:00:00ZAlice Charach, MD, MSc, FRCPC;Rosemary Tannock, PhD10.000000000000048.0000000000000683.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Find out the main features and causes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.</p><h2>What is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?</h2><p>Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental condition (a condition that causes subtle differences in the brain at or around birth). It mainly involves difficulties with:</p><ul><li>controlling attention</li><li>regulating behaviour and activity levels (impulsivity/hyperactivity)</li></ul><p>When left untreated, ADHD can lead to difficulties with school performance, self-control, memory, emotions, friendships, relationships with family and <a href="/Article?contentid=1923&language=English">other areas of life</a>.</p><br><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>ADHD is a neurodevelopmental condition that causes difficulties with controlling attention to a task at hand and regulating behaviour and activity levels.</li> <li>ADHD can affect a child’s learning ability, school performance and relationships with peers and family, among other areas.</li> <li>ADHD is more common when a parent or sibling has the condition. Symptoms can worsen if a child experiences stresses such as divorce, family financial difficulties, harsh or inconsistent parenting or family conflict.</li> <li>ADHD is linked with a number of neurological, mental health and physical conditions.</li> </ul><h2>What causes ADHD?</h2> <p>The exact causes of ADHD are not known. However, two factors associated with the disorder are genetics and environmental factors.</p> <h3>Genetics</h3> <p>ADHD runs in families. A child with ADHD is likely to have a sibling or parent with ADHD. When a doctor diagnoses ADHD in a child, it is not uncommon for parents to suspect that a parent or another child may also have the disorder. That being said, there is currently no genetic test to confirm or rule out a diagnosis of ADHD.</p> <p>Genetic causes differ for each child. Researchers are now studying:</p> <ul> <li>how genes work together</li> <li>how genes interact with environmental factors to influence behaviour</li> <li>how genes influence responses to treatment.</li> </ul> <h3>Environmental factors</h3> <p>Environmental factors that play a role in ADHD include:</p> <ul> <li>smoking or alcohol use in pregnancy</li> <li>prematurity or low birth weight</li> <li>exposure to lead or other toxins</li> </ul> <p>Other environmental factors can worsen symptoms of ADHD. These include family stressors such as:</p> <ul> <li>financial difficulties</li> <li>exposure to violence</li> <li>family breakup</li> <li>harsh or inconsistent parenting</li> <li>inconsistent supervision or support, for example if a caregiver cannot supervise a child properly because of their own physical or mental health challenges.</li> </ul> <h2>How common is ADHD?</h2> <p>On average, ADHD affects 5 per cent of school-aged children around the world, or about one in every 20 children. ADHD also affects about 4 per cent of adults, or about one adult in 25.</p> <p>ADHD is about three times more common in boys than in girls. It is often easier to recognize and diagnose ADHD in boys because they tend to be more active. Girls with ADHD may be more likely to be overlooked because their symptoms are less obvious even though they may have as much difficulty as boys with academic and social skills.</p><h2>When to see a doctor about ADHD</h2> <p>See your child’s doctor if you suspect your child may have ADHD. You can find out more in the page about ADHD <a href="/Article?contentid=1923&language=English">signs and symptoms</a>.</p> <p>If your child is diagnosed with ADHD, your doctor can review <a href="/Article?contentid=1997&language=English">parenting approaches</a> and, depending on your child’s age, discuss <a href="/Article?contentid=1998&language=English">medication treatments</a>.</p><h2>Further information</h2> <p>For more information on ADHD, please see the following pages:</p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=1923&language=English"><span>ADHD: S</span>igns and symptoms</a></p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=1997&language=English">ADHD: How to help your child at home</a></p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=1999&language=English">ADHD: Communicating with your child's school</a></p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=1998&language=English">ADHD: Treatment with medications</a></p> <h2>Resources</h2> <p>The following resources offer support and additional information about ADHD. </p> <h3>Websites</h3> <p><a href="http://www.ldao.ca/" target="_blank">Learning Disabilities Association of Ontario</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.caddac.ca/cms/page.php?2" target="_blank">Centre for ADHD Awareness, Canada - CADAC</a></p> <h3>Journal articles</h3> <p>Heinonen, K. et al (2010). <a href="https://bmcpediatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2431-10-91" target="_blank">Behavioural symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in preterm and term children born small and appropriate for gestational age: A longitudinal study</a>. <em>BMC Pediatrics</em>. Dec 15 2010 10:91. doi: 10.1186/1471-2431-10-91.</p> <p>Sucksdorff, M. et al (2015). <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/136/3/e599..info" target="_blank">Preterm Birth and Poor Fetal Growth as Risk Factors of Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder</a>. <em>Pediatrics</em> Sept 2015 136 (3) e599-e608. doi:10.1542/peds.2015-1043.</p>
Trouble de déficit de l’attention et hyperactivité: présentation généraleTTrouble de déficit de l’attention et hyperactivité: présentation généraleAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder: OverviewFrenchPsychiatrySchool age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainBrainConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2017-06-16T04:00:00ZAlice Charach, MD, MSc, FRCPC;Rosemary Tannock, PhD10.000000000000048.0000000000000683.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Découvrez les caractéristiques et les causes principales du trouble de déficit de l’attention et hyperactivité.</p><h2>Qu’est-ce que le trouble de déficit de l’attention et hyperactivité?</h2><p>Le trouble de déficit de l’attention et hyperactivité (TDAH) est un trouble du développement neurologique (une affection qui entraîne des différences subtiles dans le cerveau avant ou au moment de la naissance). Il se traduit surtout par les difficultés suivantes:</p><ul><li>régulation de l’attention;</li><li>maîtrise du comportement et des niveaux d’activité (impulsivité ou hyperactivité).</li></ul><p>Quand il n’est pas traité, le TDAH peut entraîner des difficultés sur le plan de l’apprentissage, de la maîtrise de soi, de la mémoire, des émotions, de l’amitié, des relations familiales et <a href="/Article?contentid=1923&language=French">d’autres aspects de la vie</a>.</p><br><h2>À retenir</h2> <ul> <li>Le TDAH est un trouble du développement neurologique qui affecte la régulation de l’attention lors d’une tâche, du comportement et des niveaux d’activité.</li> <li>Le TDAH peut compromettre la capacité d’apprentissage, le rendement scolaire et les relations avec les pairs et la famille, entre autres.</li> <li>Le TDAH est plus fréquent quand un parent, un frère ou une sœur en est atteint. Les symptômes peuvent s’aggraver si un enfant est en situation de stress, comme dans le cas d’un divorce, de difficultés financières familiales, de parents agressifs ou irresponsables ou de conflit familial.</li> <li>Le TDAH est associé à certains troubles neurologiques, physiques et mentaux.</li> </ul><h2>Quelles sont les causes du TDAH?</h2> <p>Les causes exactes du TDAH sont inconnues. Cependant, deux types de facteurs, génétiques et environnementaux, sont associés à ce trouble.</p> <h3>Facteurs génétiques</h3> <p>Le TDAH est héréditaire. Lorsqu’un enfant est atteint du TDAH, il est probable qu’un de ses parents ou frères et sœurs le soit aussi. Quand un médecin diagnostique un TDAH à un enfant, il n’est pas rare que les parents présument qu’un membre de la famille proche en est atteint. Ceci étant dit, il n’existe actuellement aucun examen génétique qui permet de confirmer ou d’infirmer un diagnostic de TDAH.</p> <p>Les causes génétiques diffèrent selon chaque enfant. Les chercheurs étudient actuellement:</p> <ul> <li>les rapports entre les gènes;</li> <li>l’interaction entre les gènes et les facteurs environnementaux, et leur influence sur le comportement;</li> <li>l’influence des gènes sur la réaction au traitement.</li> </ul> <h3>Facteurs environnementaux</h3> <p>Parmi les facteurs environnementaux jouant un rôle dans le TDAH, on compte:</p> <ul> <li>le tabagisme ou la consommation d’alcool durant la grossesse;</li> <li>la naissance prématurée ou un faible poids à la naissance;</li> <li>l’exposition au plomb ou à d’autres toxines.</li> </ul> <p>D’autres facteurs environnementaux peuvent aggraver les symptômes de TDAH. Il s’agit de facteurs de stress familiaux comme:</p> <ul> <li>les difficultés financières;</li> <li>l’exposition à la violence;</li> <li>la séparation familiale;</li> <li>les parents agressifs ou irresponsables;</li> <li>la supervision ou le soutien inconstant, par exemple, si un parent ou soignant ne peut pas prendre en charge un enfant convenablement en raison de ses propres difficultés physiques ou mentales.</li> </ul> <h2>Quelle est la fréquence du TDAH?</h2> <p>En moyenne, le TDAH touche cinq pour cent des enfants d’âge scolaire dans le monde, soit environ un enfant sur 20. Le TDAH touche aussi quatre pour cent des adultes, soit un adulte sur 25.</p> <p>Ce trouble touche les garçons trois fois plus que les filles. Il est souvent plus simple de détecter et de diagnostiquer le TDAH chez les garçons, car ils ont tendance à être plus actifs. Il est par contre plus difficile de déceler le TDAH chez les filles, car leurs symptômes sont moins apparents, même si elles sont confrontées aux mêmes difficultés que les garçons sur le plan des compétences scolaires et sociales.</p><h2>Quand consulter un médecin au sujet du TDAH</h2> <p>Consultez votre médecin de famille si vous pensez que votre enfant peut être atteint du TDAH. Pour en savoir plus, consultez <a href="/Article?contentid=1923&language=French">la page signes and symptômes </a>.</p> <p>Si votre enfant a reçu un diagnostic de TDAH, votre médecin peut passer en revue <a href="/Article?contentid=1997&language=French">les stratégies en matière de responsabilités parentales</a> et, selon l’âge de votre enfant, envisager des <a href="/Article?contentid=1998&language=French">traitements médicaux</a>.</p><h2>Pour de plus amples renseignements</h2> <p>Pour de plus amples renseignements sur le TDAH, veuillez consulter les pages suivantes:</p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=1923&language=French">TDAH: signes et symptômes</a></p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=1997&language=French">TDAH: comment aider votre enfant à la maison</a></p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=1999&language=French">TDAH: communiquer avec l’école de votre enfant</a></p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=1998&language=French">TDAH: traitements médicaux</a></p> <h2>Sources de renseignements</h2> <p>Les sources de renseignements suivantes peuvent vous offrir un soutien et un complément d’informations sur le TDAH. </p> <h3>Sites Web</h3> <p><a href="http://www.ldao.ca/" target="_blank">Learning Disabilities Association of Ontario</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.caddac.ca/cms/page.php?2" target="_blank">Centre for ADHD Awareness, Canada - CADAC</a></p>

 

 

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Overview1922.00000000000Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: OverviewAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder: OverviewAEnglishPsychiatrySchool age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainBrainConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2017-06-16T04:00:00ZAlice Charach, MD, MSc, FRCPC;Rosemary Tannock, PhD10.000000000000048.0000000000000683.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Find out the main features and causes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.</p><h2>What is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?</h2><p>Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental condition (a condition that causes subtle differences in the brain at or around birth). It mainly involves difficulties with:</p><ul><li>controlling attention</li><li>regulating behaviour and activity levels (impulsivity/hyperactivity)</li></ul><p>When left untreated, ADHD can lead to difficulties with school performance, self-control, memory, emotions, friendships, relationships with family and <a href="/Article?contentid=1923&language=English">other areas of life</a>.</p><br><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>ADHD is a neurodevelopmental condition that causes difficulties with controlling attention to a task at hand and regulating behaviour and activity levels.</li> <li>ADHD can affect a child’s learning ability, school performance and relationships with peers and family, among other areas.</li> <li>ADHD is more common when a parent or sibling has the condition. Symptoms can worsen if a child experiences stresses such as divorce, family financial difficulties, harsh or inconsistent parenting or family conflict.</li> <li>ADHD is linked with a number of neurological, mental health and physical conditions.</li> </ul><h2>What causes ADHD?</h2> <p>The exact causes of ADHD are not known. However, two factors associated with the disorder are genetics and environmental factors.</p> <h3>Genetics</h3> <p>ADHD runs in families. A child with ADHD is likely to have a sibling or parent with ADHD. When a doctor diagnoses ADHD in a child, it is not uncommon for parents to suspect that a parent or another child may also have the disorder. That being said, there is currently no genetic test to confirm or rule out a diagnosis of ADHD.</p> <p>Genetic causes differ for each child. Researchers are now studying:</p> <ul> <li>how genes work together</li> <li>how genes interact with environmental factors to influence behaviour</li> <li>how genes influence responses to treatment.</li> </ul> <h3>Environmental factors</h3> <p>Environmental factors that play a role in ADHD include:</p> <ul> <li>smoking or alcohol use in pregnancy</li> <li>prematurity or low birth weight</li> <li>exposure to lead or other toxins</li> </ul> <p>Other environmental factors can worsen symptoms of ADHD. These include family stressors such as:</p> <ul> <li>financial difficulties</li> <li>exposure to violence</li> <li>family breakup</li> <li>harsh or inconsistent parenting</li> <li>inconsistent supervision or support, for example if a caregiver cannot supervise a child properly because of their own physical or mental health challenges.</li> </ul> <h2>How common is ADHD?</h2> <p>On average, ADHD affects 5 per cent of school-aged children around the world, or about one in every 20 children. ADHD also affects about 4 per cent of adults, or about one adult in 25.</p> <p>ADHD is about three times more common in boys than in girls. It is often easier to recognize and diagnose ADHD in boys because they tend to be more active. Girls with ADHD may be more likely to be overlooked because their symptoms are less obvious even though they may have as much difficulty as boys with academic and social skills.</p><h2>Does ADHD occur with other conditions?</h2> <p>ADHD can occur with other conditions such as:</p> <ul> <li><a>autism spectrum disorder</a></li> <li>speech and language difficulties</li> <li>specific learning difficulties</li> <li>Tourette’s syndrome and other tic disorders (conditions that cause short, sudden and repeated movements or sounds)</li> <li><a>epilepsy</a></li> <li>developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD) (suspected when a child’s co-ordination is poorer than expected for their age and intelligence)</li> <li>acquired brain injury</li> </ul> <p>Children with ADHD may sometimes also have mental health conditions such as <a>anxiety</a>, mood disorders (such as <a>depression</a> or <a>bipolar disorder</a>) or <a href="/Article?contentid=1924&language=English">behaviour disorders</a>. These can affect school performance and lead to problems in the teen years.</p> <p>ADHD has also been linked with physical conditions such as <a>asthma</a>, sleep difficulties, and hearing and vision problems.</p> <p>About two thirds of children with ADHD have at least one other condition. It is important to understand if a child has another condition alongside ADHD, as it may affect diagnosis and treatment.</p><h2>When to see a doctor about ADHD</h2> <p>See your child’s doctor if you suspect your child may have ADHD. You can find out more in the page about ADHD <a href="/Article?contentid=1923&language=English">signs and symptoms</a>.</p> <p>If your child is diagnosed with ADHD, your doctor can review <a href="/Article?contentid=1997&language=English">parenting approaches</a> and, depending on your child’s age, discuss <a href="/Article?contentid=1998&language=English">medication treatments</a>.</p><h2>Further information</h2> <p>For more information on ADHD, please see the following pages:</p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=1923&language=English"><span>ADHD: S</span>igns and symptoms</a></p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=1997&language=English">ADHD: How to help your child at home</a></p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=1999&language=English">ADHD: Communicating with your child's school</a></p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=1998&language=English">ADHD: Treatment with medications</a></p> <h2>Resources</h2> <p>The following resources offer support and additional information about ADHD. </p> <h3>Websites</h3> <p><a href="http://www.ldao.ca/" target="_blank">Learning Disabilities Association of Ontario</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.caddac.ca/cms/page.php?2" target="_blank">Centre for ADHD Awareness, Canada - CADAC</a></p> <h3>Journal articles</h3> <p>Heinonen, K. et al (2010). <a href="https://bmcpediatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2431-10-91" target="_blank">Behavioural symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in preterm and term children born small and appropriate for gestational age: A longitudinal study</a>. <em>BMC Pediatrics</em>. Dec 15 2010 10:91. doi: 10.1186/1471-2431-10-91.</p> <p>Sucksdorff, M. et al (2015). <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/136/3/e599..info" target="_blank">Preterm Birth and Poor Fetal Growth as Risk Factors of Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder</a>. <em>Pediatrics</em> Sept 2015 136 (3) e599-e608. doi:10.1542/peds.2015-1043.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/attention_deficit_hyperactivity_disorder_overview.jpgAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder: OverviewFalse

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