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ADHD: Signs and symptomsAADHD: Signs and symptomsADHD: Signs and symptomsEnglishPsychiatrySchool age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainBrainConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2017-06-16T04:00:00ZAlice Charach, MD, MSc, FRCPC;Rosemary Tannock, PhD10.000000000000054.00000000000001571.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Discover the main sign and symptoms of ADHD in school-aged children and teens.</p><h2>What are the main symptoms of ADHD in children?</h2><p>The main symptoms of <a href="/Article?contentid=1922&language=English">ADHD </a>are difficulties controlling attention, behaviour and emotions, as expected for age.</p><h3>Difficulty controlling attention</h3><p>A child who has difficulty controlling attention may make careless mistakes or fail to pay attention to detail, not seem to listen when spoken to, have trouble organizing tasks and activities and be easily distracted. Sometimes they may focus very well (over-focus) on tasks of high interest such as video games but not on tasks that may be difficult, require more effort or be less interesting to them, such as school work.</p><h3>Difficulty controlling behaviour and emotions</h3><p>A child who finds it difficult to control their behaviour might show symptoms of hyperactivity. They may often fidget, have trouble playing quietly, be "on the go" or talk too much. If a child has symptoms of impulsivity, they may have trouble waiting for their turn and frequently interrupt others.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>The main symptoms of ADHD are difficulty controlling attention, behaviour and impulses. This can appear as inattention, over-focusing, hyperactivity and impulsivity.</li> <li>Symptoms usually become more obvious from age seven to nine but can sometimes appear as late as age 13 to 15.</li> <li>ADHD is diagnosed when a child’s symptoms are excessive, last for a number of months and occur in at two or more settings. </li> <li>An ADHD diagnosis is made by a qualified health-care professional, based on a thorough clinical history, a physical examination and descriptions of symptoms by the parent and teacher.</li> </ul><h2>How ADHD appears in school-age children</h2><p>One of the key times for diagnosing children is when they are aged seven to nine years old. At this age, parents and teachers often start to notice problems with the child's school work and friendships.</p><h3>School performance</h3><p>Many children with ADHD may also have more difficulties than their peers with learning to read, spell or do math. But even without any specific learning difficulty (such as dyslexia), ADHD can interfere with a child’s ability to learn, follow classroom routines and complete school work. They may have trouble understanding how the classroom works and may find it hard to give focused, organized answers to a teacher's questions. Homework can also be a challenge, as ADHD may make it difficult for a child to write down homework, remember to take the necessary books home and start or complete homework by themselves.</p><p>The website <a href="http://www.teachadhd.ca/Pages/default.aspx" target="_blank">TeachADHD</a> offers more information on how ADHD affects children in the classroom and offers a range of guidelines for teachers. </p><h3>Social emotional abilities</h3><p>Children with ADHD often have more social and emotional problems than other children. This is true for both boys and girls. For instance, ADHD is linked with being a victim of bullying and being rejected by peers.</p><p>In terms of emotions, children with ADHD can experience sudden mood swings, which may appear as over-reactions to small issues or becoming frustrated very quickly. They may also have a strong need for instant satisfaction.</p><p>These social and emotional issues can occur because of a child’s:</p><ul><li>difficulty reading social cues, for example failing to read facial expressions accurately or interpreting neutral behaviour or comments as negative</li><li>problems with conversation skills, problem-solving or other social skills</li><li>trouble controlling behaviour, for instance interrupting or not taking turns, which may irritate other children</li><li>difficulty controlling their emotions, for example reacting angrily or inappropriately when they are upset</li></ul><h2>How ADHD appears in teens</h2><p>While a diagnosis of ADHD is usually confirmed by age nine, some older children may not be diagnosed until they transition to high school. This is because the transition and adjustment to high school usually place new demands on a child's organizational skills and reveal difficulties with controlling attention that might have been hidden previously.</p><h3>School performance</h3><p>Many of the school difficulties experienced by younger children with ADHD continue into the teen years. Compared with their peers, teens with ADHD are three times more likely to drop out of school. However, many students with ADHD do graduate from high school and go on to higher education, which is encouraging. They may still face challenges with learning and academic performance, however, so proper supports remain essential.</p><h3>Social emotional abilities</h3><p>Teens with ADHD may have:</p><ul><li>more negative moods, such as anger, <a href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">anxiety</a> and stress</li><li>fewer positive moods, such as happiness, alertness and a sense of wellbeing</li></ul><p>In teenage boys, ADHD may contribute to risky behaviours such as gambling and addictions, including substance abuse and video addiction. In girls, ADHD is more likely to be associated with obesity, <a href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">depression</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">anxiety</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=291&language=English">suicide</a> and <a href="/Article?contentid=289&language=English">self-harm</a>, and eating disorders such as <a href="/Article?contentid=268&language=English">anorexia</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=282&language=English">bulimia</a> and <a href="/Article?contentid=277&language=English">binge eating</a>. For older teens, there is increased risk of driving offences and accidents.</p><h2>How is ADHD diagnosed?</h2> <p>There is no specific test for ADHD. Usually, your doctor or another qualified health-care professional will examine your child and ask questions about:</p> <ul> <li>your child’s developmental history</li> <li>how your child behaves at home and in other situations</li> <li>how long your child has had symptoms and whether they cause problems</li> <li>whether your child is experiencing problems at school or with school work</li> </ul> <p>The health-care professional will usually ask you to fill in some structured questionnaires so they can learn about your child’s general behaviour at home. If you have any concerns that the doctor has not asked about, such as problems with your child’s nutrition or sleep, make sure to discuss them. It might help to write down your questions before your child’s appointment.</p> <p>Often families seek advice from a doctor after they and/or the child’s teacher have expressed concerns about the child’s symptoms.</p> <p>Once your child is in school, the health-care professional can find out if they are inattentive, impulsive or hyperactive in that setting as well as at home. Your child’s teacher will likely be asked to fill in structured questionnaires or rating scales as well as report cards to provide the information the health-care professional needs. A child will be diagnosed with ADHD only if their symptoms are excessive and persistent and cause difficulties at home and at school.</p> <h2>Will a diagnosis be made right away?</h2> <p>It will probably take two or three visits to the doctor to diagnose ADHD, as they will need time to collect information from your child's teacher and consider all the information that has been gathered.</p><h2>What happens after a diagnosis of ADHD?</h2> <p>Once your child is diagnosed with ADHD, treatment can begin. You, your child's doctor or psychologist and the school will need to work together on a plan to manage your child’s ADHD.</p> <p>This plan will begin with a thorough discussion about ADHD and possible treatments and supports for parents and for your child or teen. Next, a treatment plan is developed based on a clear discussion with you and your child about your needs and preferences.</p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=1998&language=English">Medication</a> is often an important part of treatment, but it is rarely enough to help a child do their best. Before starting a child on medication, many parents prefer to engage with other forms of treatment, such as <a href="/Article?contentid=1997&language=English">adapting their parenting style</a> for challenging behaviour and <a href="/Article?contentid=1999&language=English">working with the child’s school</a> to develop an individual education plan (IEP).</p><h2>Further information</h2> <p>For more information on ADHD, please see the following pages:</p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=1922&language=English">ADHD: Overview</a></p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=1997&language=English">ADHD: How to help your child at home</a></p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=1999&language=English">ADHD: Communicating with your child's school</a></p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=1998&language=English">ADHD: Treatment with medications</a></p> <h2>Resources</h2> <p>The following resources offer support and additional information on ADHD.</p> <h3>Websites</h3> <p><a href="http://www.ldao.ca/" target="_blank">Learning Disabilities Association of Ontario</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.caddac.ca/cms/page.php?2" target="_blank">Centre for ADHD Awareness, Canada - CADAC</a></p> <h3>Journal articles</h3> <p>Cortese, S. & Tessari, L. (2016). <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5247534/" target="_blank">Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obesity: Update 2016</a>. <em>Current Psychiatry Reports </em>19 (4) doi: 10.1007/s11920-017-0754-1.</p> <p>Heinonen, K. et al (2010). <a href="https://bmcpediatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2431-10-91" target="_blank">Behavioural symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in preterm and term children born small and appropriate for gestational age: A longitudinal study</a>. <em>BMC Pediatrics</em>. Dec 15 2010 10:91. doi: 10.1186/1471-2431-10-91.</p> <p>Sucksdorff, M. et al (2015). <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/136/3/e599..info" target="_blank">Preterm Birth and Poor Fetal Growth as Risk Factors of Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder</a>. <em>Pediatrics</em> Sept 2015 136 (3) e599-e608. doi:10.1542/peds.2015-1043.</p>
TDAH: signes et symptômesTTDAH: signes et symptômesADHD: Signs and symptomsFrenchPsychiatrySchool age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainBrainConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2017-06-16T04:00:00ZAlice Charach, MD, MSc, FRCPC;Rosemary Tannock, PhD10.000000000000054.00000000000001571.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Découvrez les principaux signes et symptômes du TDAH chez les enfants d’âge scolaire et les adolescents.</p><h2>Quels sont les principaux symptômes du TDAH chez les enfants?</h2><p>Les principaux symptômes du <a href="/Article?contentid=1922&language=French">TDAH</a> chez les enfants sont des difficultés à réguler l’attention, le comportement et les émotions par rapport aux autres enfants du même âge.</p><h3>Difficulté à réguler l’attention</h3><p>Un enfant qui éprouve des difficultés à réguler son attention peut commettre des erreurs d’inattention, ne pas prêter attention aux détails, sembler ne pas être à l’écoute, avoir du mal à organiser des tâches et activités, ou être facilement distrait. Il est parfois capable de bien se concentrer (voire trop) pour des tâches qui l’intéressent beaucoup, par exemple, des jeux vidéo, mais pas pour des tâches plus difficiles, moins intéressantes ou qui nécessitent plus d’efforts, comme le travail scolaire.</p><h3>Difficulté à réguler le comportement et les émotions</h3><p>Un enfant qui a du mal à réguler son comportement présente possiblement des symptômes d’hyperactivité. Il ne tient pas en place, a du mal à jouer calmement, déborde d’énergie ou parle trop. S’il présente des symptômes d’impulsivité, il a peut-être du mal à attendre son tour et interrompt souvent les autres.</p><h2>À retenir</h2> <ul> <li>Les principaux symptômes du TDAH sont des difficultés à réguler l’attention, le comportement et les impulsions. Cela peut se traduire par de l’inattention, une concentration excessive, de l’hyperactivité et de l’impulsivité.</li> <li>Les symptômes deviennent généralement plus apparents entre sept et neuf ans, mais ils peuvent aussi apparaître plus tard, entre 13 et 15 ans.</li> <li>Un diagnostic de TDAH est établi quand les symptômes d’un enfant sont excessifs, s’étendent sur plusieurs mois et surviennent dans au moins deux environnements différents.</li> <li>Un diagnostic de TDAH est établi par un professionnel de la santé qualifié. Il est fondé sur un historique clinique approfondi, un examen médical et une description des symptômes par le parent et l’enseignant.</li> </ul><h2>Comment le TDAH se manifeste chez les enfants d’âge scolaire</h2><p>Pour établir un diagnostic de TDAH chez un enfant, la période entre sept et neuf ans est un moment clé. À cet âge, les parents et les enseignants commencent souvent à remarquer les problèmes scolaires et relationnels de l’enfant.</p><h3>Rendement scolaire</h3><p>Par rapport aux autres enfants de leur âge, de nombreux enfants atteints du TDAH peuvent présenter de plus grandes difficultés dans les domaines de la lecture, de l’orthographe et des mathématiques. Même sans difficulté d’apprentissage particulière (comme avec la dyslexie), le TDAH peut influer sur la capacité de l’enfant à apprendre, à suivre la routine en classe et à effectuer un travail scolaire. L’enfant peut avoir du mal à comprendre le fonctionnement de la classe ou à donner des réponses réfléchies et organisées aux questions de l’enseignant. Les devoirs peuvent aussi poser problème, car l’enfant atteint du TDAH peut avoir du mal à les noter dans son agenda, à se souvenir d’emporter les manuels nécessaires ou à les faire seul.</p><p>Le site Web <a href="http://www.teachadhd.ca/Pages/default.aspx" target="_blank">TeachADHD</a> (en anglais) fournit des renseignements sur la façon dont le TDAH touche les enfants à l’école et de nombreuses lignes directrices aux enseignants. </p><h3>Aptitudes émotionnelles et sociales</h3><p>Les enfants atteints du TDAH (filles et garçons) présentent des problèmes sociaux et émotionnels plus fréquents que les autres enfants. Par exemple, ils peuvent être victimes d’intimidation et de rejet de la part de leurs pairs.</p><p>Sur le plan émotionnel, ils peuvent manifester des sautes d’humeur sous forme de réaction excessive ou d’irritation soudaine. Ils peuvent aussi éprouver un besoin criant de satisfaction immédiate.</p><p>Ces problèmes sociaux et émotionnels peuvent survenir pour les raisons suivantes:</p><ul><li>difficultés à décoder les signaux sociaux, par exemple, en interprétant mal les expressions faciales ou en interprétant des comportements ou des commentaires neutres comme négatifs;</li><li>faibles habiletés en conversation, résolution de problèmes ou vie sociale;</li><li>difficultés à réguler leur comportement, par exemple, en interrompant ou n’attendant pas son tour, ce qui peut irriter les autres enfants;</li><li>difficultés à réguler leurs émotions, par exemple, en réagissant avec colère ou de façon inappropriée quand ils sont contrariés.</li></ul><h2>Comment le TDAH se manifeste chez les adolescents</h2><p>Un diagnostic du TDAH est habituellement attesté chez l’enfant à l’âge de neuf ans. Mais chez certains d’entre eux, ce trouble n’est pas détecté avant l’école secondaire. La raison en serait que la transition et l’adaptation à l’école secondaire exercent généralement de nouvelles pressions sur leurs compétences organisationnelles et révèlent les difficultés qu’ils ont à réguler leur attention, ces difficultés n’ayant peut-être pas été détectées plus tôt.</p><h3>Rendement scolaire</h3><p>Beaucoup des difficultés scolaires que vivent les enfants en bas âge atteints du TDAH se poursuivent à l’adolescence. Par rapport à leurs pairs, les adolescents atteints du TDAH présentent un risque d’abandonner l’école trois fois supérieur. Mais de nombreux élèves atteints du TDAH terminent l’école secondaire et poursuivent des études supérieures, ce qui est encourageant. Ils peuvent toutefois vivre des difficultés sur le plan de l’apprentissage et du rendement scolaire. Il est donc essentiel qu’ils bénéficient d’un soutien approprié.</p><h3>Aptitudes émotionnelles et sociales</h3><p>Les adolescents atteints du TDAH peuvent manifester:</p><ul><li>des émotions négatives plus fréquentes, comme la colère, <a href="/Article?contentid=18&language=French">l'anxiété</a> et le stress; </li><li>des émotions positives moins fréquentes, comme la joie, la vivacité et un sentiment de bien-être.</li></ul><p>Chez les garçons, le TDAH peut prendre la forme de comportements à risque, comme les jeux d’argent et certaines dépendances, comme l’abus d’alcool ou d’autres drogues et la dépendance aux jeux vidéo. Chez les filles, le TDAH a plutôt tendance à être associé à l’obésité, la <a href="/Article?contentid=19&language=French">dépression</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=18&language=French">l'anxiété</a>, le <a href="/Article?contentid=291&language=French">suicide</a> et <a href="/Article?contentid=289&language=French">l’automutilation </a>, et les troubles de l’alimentation, comme l’<a href="/Article?contentid=268&language=French">anorexie</a>, la <a href="/Article?contentid=282&language=French">boulimie</a> et l'<a href="/Article?contentid=277&language=French">hyperphagie boulimique.</a>. Chez les adolescents plus âgés, il existe un risque accru d’infractions et d’accidents de la route.</p><h2>Comment le TDAH est-il diagnostiqué?</h2> <p>Il n’existe aucun examen particulier pour le TDAH. En règle générale, votre médecin ou un autre professionnel de la santé examinera votre enfant et s’informera sur:</p> <ul> <li>l’historique de développement de votre enfant;</li> <li>le comportement de l’enfant à la maison et dans d’autres situations;</li> <li>la durée et la gravité des symptômes de votre enfant;</li> <li>les difficultés qu’il vit à l’école ou avec les travaux scolaires.</li> </ul> <p>La plupart du temps, le professionnel de la santé vous demandera de remplir des questionnaires structurés afin de mieux connaître le comportement général de votre enfant à la maison. Si le médecin n’a pas abordé d’autres aspects qui vous préoccupent comme des problèmes de nutrition ou de sommeil, assurez-vous de lui en parler. Il pourrait être sage de noter vos questions avant le rendez-vous pour votre enfant.</p> <p>Les familles consultent souvent le médecin une fois que celles-ci ou que l’enseignant de l’enfant sont préoccupés par les symptômes qu’il présente.</p> <p>Si votre enfant est d’âge scolaire, le professionnel de la santé voudra savoir s’il a aussi été inattentif, impulsif ou hyperactif à l’école. L’enseignant de votre enfant devra probablement remplir des questionnaires structurés ou des échelles d’évaluation ainsi que des fiches de rendement afin de fournir les renseignements nécessaires au professionnel de la santé. Un diagnostic de TDAH sera établi uniquement si les symptômes de l’enfant sont excessifs, persistants et qu’ils causent des difficultés à la maison et à l’école.</p> <h2>Un diagnostic sera-t-il établi immédiatement?</h2> <p>Deux ou trois visites seront probablement nécessaires avant que le médecin établisse un diagnostic de TDAH. Il lui faudra du temps pour recueillir les renseignements auprès de l’enseignant de votre enfant et pour les examiner.</p><h2>Que se passe-t-il après un diagnostic de TDAH?</h2> <p>Une fois que le médecin a diagnostiqué un TDAH chez votre enfant, le traitement peut commencer. Le médecin ou le psychologue de l’enfant, l’école et vous devrez collaborer pour mettre en place un plan permettant de gérer le TDAH de votre enfant.</p> <p>Ce plan s’amorcera par une discussion approfondie sur le TDAH et sur les traitements et le soutien disponibles pour les parents et pour l’enfant ou l’adolescent. Ensuite, un plan de traitement sera défini à la suite d’une discussion claire avec votre enfant et vous au sujet de vos besoins et préférences.</p> <p>Les <a href="/Article?contentid=1998&language=French">médicaments </a> jouent souvent un rôle important dans le traitement, mais ils suffisent rarement à aider l’enfant à bien réussir. Avant de traiter un enfant avec des médicaments, de nombreux parents privilégient d’autres traitements, comme <a href="/Article?contentid=1997&language=French">l’adaptation de leurs pratiques parentales</a> à ces comportements problématiques et <a href="/Article?contentid=1999&language=French">la collaboration avec l’école de l’enfant</a> afin de développer un plan d’enseignement individualisé.</p><h2>Pour de plus amples renseignements</h2> <p>Pour de plus amples renseignements sur le TDAH, veuillez consulter les pages suivantes:</p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=1922&language=French">TDAH: présentation générale</a></p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=1997&language=French">TDAH: comment aider votre enfant à la maison</a></p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=1999&language=French">TDAH: communiquer avec l’école de votre enfant</a></p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=1998&language=French">TDAH: traitements médicaux</a></p> <h2>Sources de renseignements</h2> <p>Les sources de renseignements suivantes peuvent vous offrir un soutien et un complément d’informations sur le TDAH. </p> <h3>Sites Web</h3> <p><a href="http://www.ldao.ca/" target="_blank">Learning Disabilities Association of Ontario</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.caddac.ca/cms/page.php?2" target="_blank">Centre for ADHD Awareness, Canada - CADAC</a></p>

 

 

ADHD: Signs and symptoms1923.00000000000ADHD: Signs and symptomsADHD: Signs and symptomsAEnglishPsychiatrySchool age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainBrainConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2017-06-16T04:00:00ZAlice Charach, MD, MSc, FRCPC;Rosemary Tannock, PhD10.000000000000054.00000000000001571.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Discover the main sign and symptoms of ADHD in school-aged children and teens.</p><h2>What are the main symptoms of ADHD in children?</h2><p>The main symptoms of <a href="/Article?contentid=1922&language=English">ADHD </a>are difficulties controlling attention, behaviour and emotions, as expected for age.</p><h3>Difficulty controlling attention</h3><p>A child who has difficulty controlling attention may make careless mistakes or fail to pay attention to detail, not seem to listen when spoken to, have trouble organizing tasks and activities and be easily distracted. Sometimes they may focus very well (over-focus) on tasks of high interest such as video games but not on tasks that may be difficult, require more effort or be less interesting to them, such as school work.</p><h3>Difficulty controlling behaviour and emotions</h3><p>A child who finds it difficult to control their behaviour might show symptoms of hyperactivity. They may often fidget, have trouble playing quietly, be "on the go" or talk too much. If a child has symptoms of impulsivity, they may have trouble waiting for their turn and frequently interrupt others.</p><h2>What is the difference between ADHD and normal inattention or high energy in children?</h2> <p>It is not unusual for most children to have one or two symptoms of ADHD now and then. For a diagnosis of ADHD, however, the symptoms must cause problems for the child at home, play and school. In particular, they must be:</p> <ul> <li>excessive</li> <li>persistent</li> <li>pervasive</li> </ul> <h3>Excessive</h3> <p>This means a child must experience more frequent and/or more severe symptoms than other children of the same age and sex.</p> <h3>Persistent</h3> <p>ADHD symptoms have continued for many months and are not a response to a temporary stressful situation such as divorce, trauma or starting a new school or grade.</p> <h3>Pervasive</h3> <p>When symptoms are pervasive, they occur in several different settings such as at school, at home, restaurants, church, shopping malls, after-school activities and so on.</p> <h2>Does a child with ADHD show symptoms all the time?</h2> <p>ADHD symptoms may not be present all the time. Usually, they become more obvious in more demanding situations. For instance, obvious symptoms appear to be minimal when a child with ADHD is watching TV or playing a videogame but more noticeable when they need to sit still and focus on a long or difficult task.</p> <h2>Do ADHD symptoms change over time?</h2> <p>Symptoms of ADHD may look different at different ages.</p> <p>Hyperactive and impulsive symptoms are more easily noticed by parents and teachers in early childhood. They may first appear when a child is in kindergarten or primary grade school. Children may act without thinking or seem "driven by a motor". These symptoms often become less obvious as a child grows and may disappear by the teen years. However, while teens and adults may appear calmer, they may still feel restless, make rash decisions without thinking and talk in sudden bursts.</p> <p>Difficulties controlling attention often last from childhood into adulthood. They are less obvious to other people than hyperactivity and impulsivity and tend to emerge later in childhood, when school work and expectations for following classroom routines increase. The symptoms of inattention include forgetfulness, disorganization and problems concentrating, especially when the material is not interesting.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>The main symptoms of ADHD are difficulty controlling attention, behaviour and impulses. This can appear as inattention, over-focusing, hyperactivity and impulsivity.</li> <li>Symptoms usually become more obvious from age seven to nine but can sometimes appear as late as age 13 to 15.</li> <li>ADHD is diagnosed when a child’s symptoms are excessive, last for a number of months and occur in at two or more settings. </li> <li>An ADHD diagnosis is made by a qualified health-care professional, based on a thorough clinical history, a physical examination and descriptions of symptoms by the parent and teacher.</li> </ul><h2>How ADHD appears in school-age children</h2><p>One of the key times for diagnosing children is when they are aged seven to nine years old. At this age, parents and teachers often start to notice problems with the child's school work and friendships.</p><h3>School performance</h3><p>Many children with ADHD may also have more difficulties than their peers with learning to read, spell or do math. But even without any specific learning difficulty (such as dyslexia), ADHD can interfere with a child’s ability to learn, follow classroom routines and complete school work. They may have trouble understanding how the classroom works and may find it hard to give focused, organized answers to a teacher's questions. Homework can also be a challenge, as ADHD may make it difficult for a child to write down homework, remember to take the necessary books home and start or complete homework by themselves.</p><p>The website <a href="http://www.teachadhd.ca/Pages/default.aspx" target="_blank">TeachADHD</a> offers more information on how ADHD affects children in the classroom and offers a range of guidelines for teachers. </p><h3>Social emotional abilities</h3><p>Children with ADHD often have more social and emotional problems than other children. This is true for both boys and girls. For instance, ADHD is linked with being a victim of bullying and being rejected by peers.</p><p>In terms of emotions, children with ADHD can experience sudden mood swings, which may appear as over-reactions to small issues or becoming frustrated very quickly. They may also have a strong need for instant satisfaction.</p><p>These social and emotional issues can occur because of a child’s:</p><ul><li>difficulty reading social cues, for example failing to read facial expressions accurately or interpreting neutral behaviour or comments as negative</li><li>problems with conversation skills, problem-solving or other social skills</li><li>trouble controlling behaviour, for instance interrupting or not taking turns, which may irritate other children</li><li>difficulty controlling their emotions, for example reacting angrily or inappropriately when they are upset</li></ul><h2>How ADHD appears in teens</h2><p>While a diagnosis of ADHD is usually confirmed by age nine, some older children may not be diagnosed until they transition to high school. This is because the transition and adjustment to high school usually place new demands on a child's organizational skills and reveal difficulties with controlling attention that might have been hidden previously.</p><h3>School performance</h3><p>Many of the school difficulties experienced by younger children with ADHD continue into the teen years. Compared with their peers, teens with ADHD are three times more likely to drop out of school. However, many students with ADHD do graduate from high school and go on to higher education, which is encouraging. They may still face challenges with learning and academic performance, however, so proper supports remain essential.</p><h3>Social emotional abilities</h3><p>Teens with ADHD may have:</p><ul><li>more negative moods, such as anger, <a href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">anxiety</a> and stress</li><li>fewer positive moods, such as happiness, alertness and a sense of wellbeing</li></ul><p>In teenage boys, ADHD may contribute to risky behaviours such as gambling and addictions, including substance abuse and video addiction. In girls, ADHD is more likely to be associated with obesity, <a href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">depression</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">anxiety</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=291&language=English">suicide</a> and <a href="/Article?contentid=289&language=English">self-harm</a>, and eating disorders such as <a href="/Article?contentid=268&language=English">anorexia</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=282&language=English">bulimia</a> and <a href="/Article?contentid=277&language=English">binge eating</a>. For older teens, there is increased risk of driving offences and accidents.</p><h2>How is ADHD diagnosed?</h2> <p>There is no specific test for ADHD. Usually, your doctor or another qualified health-care professional will examine your child and ask questions about:</p> <ul> <li>your child’s developmental history</li> <li>how your child behaves at home and in other situations</li> <li>how long your child has had symptoms and whether they cause problems</li> <li>whether your child is experiencing problems at school or with school work</li> </ul> <p>The health-care professional will usually ask you to fill in some structured questionnaires so they can learn about your child’s general behaviour at home. If you have any concerns that the doctor has not asked about, such as problems with your child’s nutrition or sleep, make sure to discuss them. It might help to write down your questions before your child’s appointment.</p> <p>Often families seek advice from a doctor after they and/or the child’s teacher have expressed concerns about the child’s symptoms.</p> <p>Once your child is in school, the health-care professional can find out if they are inattentive, impulsive or hyperactive in that setting as well as at home. Your child’s teacher will likely be asked to fill in structured questionnaires or rating scales as well as report cards to provide the information the health-care professional needs. A child will be diagnosed with ADHD only if their symptoms are excessive and persistent and cause difficulties at home and at school.</p> <h2>Will a diagnosis be made right away?</h2> <p>It will probably take two or three visits to the doctor to diagnose ADHD, as they will need time to collect information from your child's teacher and consider all the information that has been gathered.</p><h2>What happens after a diagnosis of ADHD?</h2> <p>Once your child is diagnosed with ADHD, treatment can begin. You, your child's doctor or psychologist and the school will need to work together on a plan to manage your child’s ADHD.</p> <p>This plan will begin with a thorough discussion about ADHD and possible treatments and supports for parents and for your child or teen. Next, a treatment plan is developed based on a clear discussion with you and your child about your needs and preferences.</p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=1998&language=English">Medication</a> is often an important part of treatment, but it is rarely enough to help a child do their best. Before starting a child on medication, many parents prefer to engage with other forms of treatment, such as <a href="/Article?contentid=1997&language=English">adapting their parenting style</a> for challenging behaviour and <a href="/Article?contentid=1999&language=English">working with the child’s school</a> to develop an individual education plan (IEP).</p><h2>Further information</h2> <p>For more information on ADHD, please see the following pages:</p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=1922&language=English">ADHD: Overview</a></p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=1997&language=English">ADHD: How to help your child at home</a></p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=1999&language=English">ADHD: Communicating with your child's school</a></p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=1998&language=English">ADHD: Treatment with medications</a></p> <h2>Resources</h2> <p>The following resources offer support and additional information on ADHD.</p> <h3>Websites</h3> <p><a href="http://www.ldao.ca/" target="_blank">Learning Disabilities Association of Ontario</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.caddac.ca/cms/page.php?2" target="_blank">Centre for ADHD Awareness, Canada - CADAC</a></p> <h3>Journal articles</h3> <p>Cortese, S. & Tessari, L. (2016). <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5247534/" target="_blank">Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obesity: Update 2016</a>. <em>Current Psychiatry Reports </em>19 (4) doi: 10.1007/s11920-017-0754-1.</p> <p>Heinonen, K. et al (2010). <a href="https://bmcpediatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2431-10-91" target="_blank">Behavioural symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in preterm and term children born small and appropriate for gestational age: A longitudinal study</a>. <em>BMC Pediatrics</em>. Dec 15 2010 10:91. doi: 10.1186/1471-2431-10-91.</p> <p>Sucksdorff, M. et al (2015). <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/136/3/e599..info" target="_blank">Preterm Birth and Poor Fetal Growth as Risk Factors of Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder</a>. <em>Pediatrics</em> Sept 2015 136 (3) e599-e608. doi:10.1542/peds.2015-1043.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/ADHD_signs_and_symptoms.jpgADHD: Signs and symptoms

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