SepsisSSepsisSepsisEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2017-07-19T04:00:00ZDeborah Schonfeld MD, FRCPC;Maya Harel-Sterling​, MD10.000000000000052.0000000000000709.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Sepsis occurs when a local infection spreads to the entire body. Find out what causes sepsis and how sepsis is treated. </p><h2>What is sepsis?</h2><p>Sepsis is a serious condition that occurs as a complication of a severe local infection (an infection affecting one part of the body). If left untreated, sepsis can damage the body’s organs, for example the <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=bladder-child">kidneys</a>, liver, <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=lung-child">lungs</a> or <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=brain-child">brain</a>, and possibly lead to death.</p> <figure class="asset-c-100"> <span class="asset-image-title">Development of sepsis</span> <img alt="ALT TEXT HERE" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/sepsis_development_EN.jpg" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Sepsis is most often caused by bacteria but can also be caused by viral or fungal infections.</figcaption> </figure><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Sepsis can occur as a complication of a severe infection, and is caused by the body’s immune response to the infection.</li> <li>Signs and symptoms of sepsis include common infection symptoms along with a fast heart rate, fast breathing, low blood pressure, pale or patchy skin, excessive sleepiness or disorientation.</li> <li>If your child is showing signs or symptoms of sepsis, they are treated right away even if the diagnosis is not yet confirmed through blood tests. Initial treatment includes antibiotics, intravenous fluids and/or oxygen.</li> <li>Regular hand washing and routine immunizations can help prevent some causes of sepsis.</li> </ul><h2>What are the signs and symptoms of sepsis?</h2> <p>A child with sepsis may display typical signs of an infection, including <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=774&language=English">cough</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a>, along with:</p> <ul> <li>a <a href="/Article?contentid=894&language=English">fast heart rate</a></li> <li>fast breathing</li> <li>low blood pressure</li> <li>cool or clammy skin</li> <li>excessive sleepiness </li> <li>disorientation (not knowing where they are)</li> </ul><h2>What causes sepsis?</h2> <p>Sepsis is most often caused by bacteria. Some common bacterial causes include <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, various types of <em>Streptococcus</em> species and <em><a href="/Article?contentid=509&language=English#ecoli">E. coli</a></em>. Sepsis can also be caused by viral or fungal infections. Sometimes the specific infection and source of sepsis cannot be identified.</p> <p>Bacteria cause local infections such as <a href="/Article?contentid=784&language=English">pneumonia</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=935&language=English">urinary tract infections</a> and infections of the <a href="/Article?contentid=509&language=English">gastrointestinal tract</a> or skin. If bacteria from these infections enter the bloodstream, the infection can spread to the rest of the body. This forces the body’s immune system to release antibodies and other molecules to fight the infection.</p> <p>The strong immune response, along with the bacteria already in the body, creates a lot of <a href="/Article?contentid=926&language=English">inflammation</a>. This inflammation damages tissue and interferes with blood flow. The change in blood flow can lead to a dangerous drop in blood pressure, which stops oxygen from reaching the body’s organs and tissues. This series of events is known as sepsis.</p> <h2>Who can develop sepsis?</h2> <p>Any child with an infection can develop sepsis. However, there is a higher risk for:</p> <ul> <li>newborns and young infants</li> <li>children who have recently had surgery</li> <li>children with weakened immune systems, for example due to cancer or an organ transplant</li> <li>children with chronic (long-term) diseases, such as gastrointestinal conditions or kidney disease</li> </ul> <p>Some medications, such as steroids used over a long time and other forms of chemotherapy, can also put children at higher risk of developing sepsis.</p><h2>How is sepsis diagnosed?</h2> <p>If a doctor suspects sepsis after examining your child, they will seek to confirm the diagnosis through a number of blood tests.</p> <p>The tests can reveal if your child has an infection, for instance through a high white blood cell count or signs of bacteria, or if their organs are not working properly, for example through higher levels of certain enzymes, waste materials or other substances.</p> <p>The doctor may also test samples of urine and, sometimes, spinal fluid (with a <a href="/Article?contentid=1336&language=English">lumbar puncture</a> or spinal tap) to check for bacteria or viruses.</p><h2>How is sepsis treated?</h2> <p>Your child will be admitted to hospital for treatment even if sepsis is only suspected, as it can take some time for test results to come back. Initial treatment for sepsis includes <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=1120&language=English">antibiotics</a>, intravenous (IV) fluids and oxygen.</p> <p>Sometimes children with sepsis need to be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for closer monitoring and further treatment. For instance, if a child has a severe case of low blood pressure, they may need special types of medications to raise it. Or if sepsis has caused organ damage, a child may need dialysis, in the case of kidney failure, or a ventilator to help with breathing, in the case of lung damage.</p>

 

 

Sepsis2316.00000000000SepsisSepsisSEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2017-07-19T04:00:00ZDeborah Schonfeld MD, FRCPC;Maya Harel-Sterling​, MD10.000000000000052.0000000000000709.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Sepsis occurs when a local infection spreads to the entire body. Find out what causes sepsis and how sepsis is treated. </p><h2>What is sepsis?</h2><p>Sepsis is a serious condition that occurs as a complication of a severe local infection (an infection affecting one part of the body). If left untreated, sepsis can damage the body’s organs, for example the <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=bladder-child">kidneys</a>, liver, <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=lung-child">lungs</a> or <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=brain-child">brain</a>, and possibly lead to death.</p> <figure class="asset-c-100"> <span class="asset-image-title">Development of sepsis</span> <img alt="ALT TEXT HERE" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/sepsis_development_EN.jpg" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Sepsis is most often caused by bacteria but can also be caused by viral or fungal infections.</figcaption> </figure><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Sepsis can occur as a complication of a severe infection, and is caused by the body’s immune response to the infection.</li> <li>Signs and symptoms of sepsis include common infection symptoms along with a fast heart rate, fast breathing, low blood pressure, pale or patchy skin, excessive sleepiness or disorientation.</li> <li>If your child is showing signs or symptoms of sepsis, they are treated right away even if the diagnosis is not yet confirmed through blood tests. Initial treatment includes antibiotics, intravenous fluids and/or oxygen.</li> <li>Regular hand washing and routine immunizations can help prevent some causes of sepsis.</li> </ul><h2>What are the signs and symptoms of sepsis?</h2> <p>A child with sepsis may display typical signs of an infection, including <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=774&language=English">cough</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a>, along with:</p> <ul> <li>a <a href="/Article?contentid=894&language=English">fast heart rate</a></li> <li>fast breathing</li> <li>low blood pressure</li> <li>cool or clammy skin</li> <li>excessive sleepiness </li> <li>disorientation (not knowing where they are)</li> </ul><h2>What causes sepsis?</h2> <p>Sepsis is most often caused by bacteria. Some common bacterial causes include <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, various types of <em>Streptococcus</em> species and <em><a href="/Article?contentid=509&language=English#ecoli">E. coli</a></em>. Sepsis can also be caused by viral or fungal infections. Sometimes the specific infection and source of sepsis cannot be identified.</p> <p>Bacteria cause local infections such as <a href="/Article?contentid=784&language=English">pneumonia</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=935&language=English">urinary tract infections</a> and infections of the <a href="/Article?contentid=509&language=English">gastrointestinal tract</a> or skin. If bacteria from these infections enter the bloodstream, the infection can spread to the rest of the body. This forces the body’s immune system to release antibodies and other molecules to fight the infection.</p> <p>The strong immune response, along with the bacteria already in the body, creates a lot of <a href="/Article?contentid=926&language=English">inflammation</a>. This inflammation damages tissue and interferes with blood flow. The change in blood flow can lead to a dangerous drop in blood pressure, which stops oxygen from reaching the body’s organs and tissues. This series of events is known as sepsis.</p> <h2>Who can develop sepsis?</h2> <p>Any child with an infection can develop sepsis. However, there is a higher risk for:</p> <ul> <li>newborns and young infants</li> <li>children who have recently had surgery</li> <li>children with weakened immune systems, for example due to cancer or an organ transplant</li> <li>children with chronic (long-term) diseases, such as gastrointestinal conditions or kidney disease</li> </ul> <p>Some medications, such as steroids used over a long time and other forms of chemotherapy, can also put children at higher risk of developing sepsis.</p><h2>How is sepsis diagnosed?</h2> <p>If a doctor suspects sepsis after examining your child, they will seek to confirm the diagnosis through a number of blood tests.</p> <p>The tests can reveal if your child has an infection, for instance through a high white blood cell count or signs of bacteria, or if their organs are not working properly, for example through higher levels of certain enzymes, waste materials or other substances.</p> <p>The doctor may also test samples of urine and, sometimes, spinal fluid (with a <a href="/Article?contentid=1336&language=English">lumbar puncture</a> or spinal tap) to check for bacteria or viruses.</p><h2>How is sepsis treated?</h2> <p>Your child will be admitted to hospital for treatment even if sepsis is only suspected, as it can take some time for test results to come back. Initial treatment for sepsis includes <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=1120&language=English">antibiotics</a>, intravenous (IV) fluids and oxygen.</p> <p>Sometimes children with sepsis need to be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for closer monitoring and further treatment. For instance, if a child has a severe case of low blood pressure, they may need special types of medications to raise it. Or if sepsis has caused organ damage, a child may need dialysis, in the case of kidney failure, or a ventilator to help with breathing, in the case of lung damage.</p><h2>What can I do to prevent sepsis?</h2> <p>One effective way to prevent sepsis is to minimize the risk of infections.</p> <ul> <li>Make sure your child receives their routine vaccinations.</li> <li>Pay attention to careful <a href="/Article?contentid=1981&language=English">hand washing</a> and encourage your child to do the same.</li> <li>Clean any cuts or scrapes carefully.</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/sepsis_development_EN.jpgSepsis

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