Cerebral palsyCCerebral palsyCerebral palsyEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyBrainConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2010-05-07T04:00:00ZSheila Jacobson, MBBCh, FRCPC7.0000000000000066.0000000000000848.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>An overview of the causes, symptoms and treatment of this group of disorders that affect a child's movements and posture.</p><h2>What is cerebral palsy?</h2> <p>Cerebral palsy (CP) is a term used to describe disorders that affect a child's movements and posture. CP is the result of a brain injury suffered in utero, while a baby is developing in the womb. Premature babies, especially those born before 28 weeks, are at a higher risk of being diagnosed with this disorder. CP can also result from an injury in a near drowning or car accident. </p> <p>In general, CP does not get worse over time. There is no cure for the condition. Therapy can help your child. </p> <p>As many as five in 1,000 babies born in North America have CP.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Cerebral palsy is a term to describe a group of disorders that affect body movements and posture. </li> <li>There is no cure for the condition, but therapy can help.</li> <li>As many as five in 1000 babies born in North America have cerebral palsy.</li> <li>Symptoms include tight muscles, difficulty moving and delayed motor development.</li> <li>A few muscles or the whole body may be affected.</li> <li>Physical therapy will likely be a big part of treatment.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy</h2> <p>Poor gross or fine motor (movement) skills are the most common signs that your child may have CP. If your child is not rolling, sitting or walking by the expected time, it may be a sign that they have CP. Other signs may include:</p> <ul> <li>floppy or stiff muscles</li> <li>unusual muscle movements</li> <li>seizures</li> </ul> <p>The symptoms of CP may be more or less severe, depending on the type of CP and the area of the brain that has been injured.</p> <p>Some children with CP have normal intellect. Other children have severe brain damage or poor hearing and vision. Any of these conditions can make it harder for the child to communicate. </p> <p>Different types of CP cause different symptoms:</p> <h3>Spastic</h3> <p>This is the most common form of CP. Symptoms include:</p> <ul> <li>tight muscles and exaggerated reflexes</li> <li>difficulty moving</li> <li>a few muscles or the whole body may be affected</li> </ul> <h3>Athetoid</h3> <p>This type of CP is marked by involuntary movements. Other symptoms include:</p> <ul> <li>squirming</li> <li>looking as if the child is constantly moving</li> </ul> <h3>Atonic</h3> <p>The atonic child is weak, floppy and lacks normal muscle tone. Symptoms of this type of CP include: </p> <ul> <li>poor balance</li> <li>poor depth perception</li> <li>an unsteady walk</li> <li>poor coordination</li> </ul> <h3>Mixed</h3> <p>This type of CP occurs when the child has a combination of spastic, athetoid or atonic CP symptoms. </p> <p>CP can affect different parts of the body. There are terms to describe the part of the body affected:</p> <ul> <li>monoplegia: one arm or one leg is affected</li> <li>hemiplegia: the arm and leg on the same side are affected</li> <li>paraplegia: only the legs are affected</li> <li>diplegia: paralysis of similar parts on both sides of the body</li> <li>quadriplegia: both arms and both legs are affected</li> </ul><h2>Causes of cerebral palsy</h2> <p>CP is caused by an injury to the brain during pregnancy, delivery or following birth. It can also occur later in childhood . There are many causes of CP. Some causes include:</p> <h3>Before birth and during delivery</h3> <ul> <li>abnormal development of the brain</li> <li>infections</li> <li>genetic problems</li> <li>complications of prematurity</li> <li>decreased oxygen to the brain</li> </ul> <h3>After birth</h3> <ul> <li>severe jaundice</li> <li>meningitis</li> <li>head injury</li> </ul><h2>What a doctor can do to help your child</h2> <p>Some babies with CP will show signs at birth. In other cases, it may be hard to make a diagnosis. Usually, CP is determined by age one or two years.</p> <p>If you are concerned about your child, tell your child's doctor. The doctor will do a physical examination and ask you about your child's medical history. </p> <p>A diagnosis can take months. There is not one single test that will determine the presence of CP. Some tests may be ordered, including:</p> <ul> <li>a <a href="/Article?contentid=1272&language=English">CT scan</a> or an <a href="/Article?contentid=1270&language=English">MRI</a> to look for abnormalities in your child's brain</li> <li>an <a href="/Article?contentid=1277&language=English">EEG</a> to look for evidence of seizures</li> <li>hearing and vision tests</li> <li>blood tests</li> </ul><h2>Treatment of cerebral palsy</h2> <p>Your child's doctor will determine the best line of treatment for your child. Treatment will depend on the severity of the condition.</p> <ul> <li>Physical therapy will likely be a big part of the treatment program. Physical therapy will work on muscle strength, flexibility, balance and mobility.</li> <li>Occupational therapy will work on hand and hand-eye coordination. The therapist may also help your child with equipment like wheelchairs, braces or talking devices.</li> <li>Speech therapy can help your child to communicate better.</li> <li>Some children need medicine to improve motor control and reduce spasticity.</li> </ul>
Infirmité motrice cérébraleIInfirmité motrice cérébraleCerebral palsyFrenchNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyBrainConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2010-05-07T04:00:00ZSheila Jacobson, MBBCh, FRCPC7.0000000000000066.0000000000000848.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Voici un aperçu facile à comprendre des causes, des symptômes et du traitement de ce groupe de maladies qui touchent les mouvements et la posture de l’enfant.</p><h2>Qu’est-ce que l'infirmité motrice cérébrale (ou paralysie cérébrale)?</h2> <p>L'infirmité motrice cérébrale ou paralysie cérébrale (PC) est un terme utilisé pour décrire les maladies qui touchent les mouvements et la posture d'un enfant. La PC est le produit d’une lésion au cerveau in utero, c'est-à-dire pendant que le bébé se développe dans l’utérus. Les bébés prématurés, surtout ceux nés avant 28 semaines, courent un risque plus élevé de recevoir le diagnostic de cette maladie. La PC peut aussi être due à une lésion attribuable à une quasi-noyade ou à un accident de voiture.</p> <p>En général, la PC n’empire pas avec le temps, mais il n’existe aucun remède. La thérapie peut aider votre enfant.</p> <p>Cinq bébés sur 1000 nés en Amérique du Nord sont atteints de PC. </p><h2>A retenir</h2> <ul> <li>La PC est un terme qui décrit un groupe de maladies qui touchent les mouvements du corps et la posture.</li> <li>Il n’existe aucun remède, mais la thérapie physique peut être bénéfique.</li> <li>Cinq bébés sur mille nés en Amérique du Nord ont une forme de PC.</li> <li>Au nombre des symptômes figurent une difficulté à se mouvoir et un développement moteur retardé.</li> <li>Seuls quelques muscles ou le corps entier peuvent être touchés.</li> <li>La thérapie physique sera probablement une composante majeure du traitement.</li> </ul><h2>Signes et symptômes de la PC</h2><p>Une mauvaise motricité (mouvement) générale ou fine est le signe le plus fréquent que votre enfant pourrait souffrir de PC. Si votre enfant ne se retourne pas, ne s'assoit pas ou ne marche pas au moment où il est censé le faire, ce pourrait être un signe qu'il est atteint de PC. Voici d'autres signes possibles :</p><ul><li>muscles sans tonus ou raidis;</li><li>mouvements des muscles inhabituels;</li><li>convulsions.</li></ul><p>Les symptômes de PC peuvent être plus ou moins graves, selon le type de PC et la région du cerveau atteinte.</p><p>Certains enfants atteints de PC ont une intelligence normale. D’autres enfants ont de graves lésions au cerveau, ou une mauvaise ouïe et vue. Chacune de ces pathologies peut compliquer la tâche de l'enfant pour communiquer.</p><p>Différents types de PC causent différents symptômes.</p><h3>Spastiques</h3><p>C’est la forme de PC la plus fréquente, dont voici les symptômes :</p><ul><li>muscles raides et réflexes exagérés;</li><li>difficulté à bouger;</li><li>peut ne toucher que quelques muscles ou le corps au complet.</li></ul><h3>Athétosiques</h3><p>Ce type de PC est caractérisé par les mouvements involontaires. Voici d’autres symptômes :</p><ul><li>tortillement;</li><li>l'enfant a toujours l’air d’être en mouvement.</li></ul><h3>Atoniques</h3><p>L'enfant atonique est faible et n'a pasun tonus musculaire normal. Voici les symptômes de cette PC : </p><ul><li>mauvais équilibre;</li><li>mauvaise perception des profondeurs;</li><li>démarche instable;</li><li>mauvaise coordination.</li></ul><h3>Mixte</h3><p>Ce genre de PC se produit quand l’enfant présente une combinaison de symptômes de la PC spastique, athétosiques ou atoniques. </p><p>La PC peut toucher différentes parties du corps. Il y a des termes précis pour décrire les parties du corps touchées :</p><ul><li>monoplégie : un bras ou une jambe est touché;</li><li>hémiplégie : le bras et la jambe du même côté sont touchés;</li><li>paraplégie : seules les jambes sont touchées;</li><li>diplégie : paralysie des mêmes parties du corps de chaque côté;</li><li>quadriplégie : les deux bras et les deux jambes sont touchés.</li></ul><h2>Causes</h2> <p>La PC est causée par une atteinte du cerveau pendant la grossesse, l'accouchement ou après la grossesse. Elle peut aussi survenir plus tard pendant l'enfance. Il y a de nombreuses causes de PC. En voici quelques unes :</p> <h3>Avant la naissance et pendant l’accouchement :</h3> <ul> <li>développement anormal du cerveau;</li> <li>infections;</li> <li>problèmes génétiques;</li> <li>complications d'une naissance prématurée;</li> <li>diminution du taux d’oxygène dans le cerveau.</li> </ul> <h3>Après la naissance</h3> <ul> <li>grave jaunisse;</li> <li>méningite;</li> <li>blessure à la tête.</li> </ul><h2>Ce qu’un médecin peut faire pour aider votre enfant</h2> <p>Certains bébés atteints de PC en montreront les signes à la naissance. Dans d'autres cas, il pourrait être plus difficile de poser un diagnostic. Habituellement, on décèle la PC vers l'âge 1 an ou 2.</p> <p>Si vous vous inquiétez au sujet de votre enfant, parlez-en à son médecin. Il fera un examen physique et vous posera des questions sur les antécédents médicaux de votre enfant.</p> <p>La confirmation du diagnostic peut prendre des mois. Il n’existe pas d'examen qui puisse déterminer la présence d’une PC. Cependant, pour y arriver, le médecin pourrait demander certainsexamens, dont :</p> <ul> <li>une TAO ou une IRM pour déceler des anomalies dans le cerveau de votre enfant;</li> <li>un EEG pour chercher des signes de convulsions;</li> <li>des tests d’ouïe et de vision;</li> <li>des analyses sanguines.</li> </ul><h2>Traitement</h2> <p>Le médecin de votre enfant déterminera le meilleur traitement pour votre enfant, selon la gravité de son état.</p> <ul> <li>Il est fort probable que la thérapie physique soit une importante partie du programme de traitement. La thérapie physique renforcera les muscles et augmentera la souplesse, l’équilibre et la mobilité de l’enfant.</li> <li>L’ergothérapie permettra de développer la coordination oculo-motrice (c'est-à-dire la coordination des mouvements des mains et du regard). Le thérapeute pourrait aussi aider votre enfant en lui prescrivant des équipements comme des fauteuils roulants ou des appareils orthopédiques, ou encore des appareils d’aide à l’élocution.</li> <li>Les services d’un orthophoniste peuvent aider votre enfant à mieux communiquer.</li> <li>Certains enfants pourraient avoir besoin de médicaments pour améliorer le contrôle moteur et réduire la spasticité (spasmes et/ou raideur musculaire).</li> </ul>

 

 

Cerebral palsy847.000000000000Cerebral palsyCerebral palsyCEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyBrainConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2010-05-07T04:00:00ZSheila Jacobson, MBBCh, FRCPC7.0000000000000066.0000000000000848.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>An overview of the causes, symptoms and treatment of this group of disorders that affect a child's movements and posture.</p><h2>What is cerebral palsy?</h2> <p>Cerebral palsy (CP) is a term used to describe disorders that affect a child's movements and posture. CP is the result of a brain injury suffered in utero, while a baby is developing in the womb. Premature babies, especially those born before 28 weeks, are at a higher risk of being diagnosed with this disorder. CP can also result from an injury in a near drowning or car accident. </p> <p>In general, CP does not get worse over time. There is no cure for the condition. Therapy can help your child. </p> <p>As many as five in 1,000 babies born in North America have CP.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Cerebral palsy is a term to describe a group of disorders that affect body movements and posture. </li> <li>There is no cure for the condition, but therapy can help.</li> <li>As many as five in 1000 babies born in North America have cerebral palsy.</li> <li>Symptoms include tight muscles, difficulty moving and delayed motor development.</li> <li>A few muscles or the whole body may be affected.</li> <li>Physical therapy will likely be a big part of treatment.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy</h2> <p>Poor gross or fine motor (movement) skills are the most common signs that your child may have CP. If your child is not rolling, sitting or walking by the expected time, it may be a sign that they have CP. Other signs may include:</p> <ul> <li>floppy or stiff muscles</li> <li>unusual muscle movements</li> <li>seizures</li> </ul> <p>The symptoms of CP may be more or less severe, depending on the type of CP and the area of the brain that has been injured.</p> <p>Some children with CP have normal intellect. Other children have severe brain damage or poor hearing and vision. Any of these conditions can make it harder for the child to communicate. </p> <p>Different types of CP cause different symptoms:</p> <h3>Spastic</h3> <p>This is the most common form of CP. Symptoms include:</p> <ul> <li>tight muscles and exaggerated reflexes</li> <li>difficulty moving</li> <li>a few muscles or the whole body may be affected</li> </ul> <h3>Athetoid</h3> <p>This type of CP is marked by involuntary movements. Other symptoms include:</p> <ul> <li>squirming</li> <li>looking as if the child is constantly moving</li> </ul> <h3>Atonic</h3> <p>The atonic child is weak, floppy and lacks normal muscle tone. Symptoms of this type of CP include: </p> <ul> <li>poor balance</li> <li>poor depth perception</li> <li>an unsteady walk</li> <li>poor coordination</li> </ul> <h3>Mixed</h3> <p>This type of CP occurs when the child has a combination of spastic, athetoid or atonic CP symptoms. </p> <p>CP can affect different parts of the body. There are terms to describe the part of the body affected:</p> <ul> <li>monoplegia: one arm or one leg is affected</li> <li>hemiplegia: the arm and leg on the same side are affected</li> <li>paraplegia: only the legs are affected</li> <li>diplegia: paralysis of similar parts on both sides of the body</li> <li>quadriplegia: both arms and both legs are affected</li> </ul><h2>Causes of cerebral palsy</h2> <p>CP is caused by an injury to the brain during pregnancy, delivery or following birth. It can also occur later in childhood . There are many causes of CP. Some causes include:</p> <h3>Before birth and during delivery</h3> <ul> <li>abnormal development of the brain</li> <li>infections</li> <li>genetic problems</li> <li>complications of prematurity</li> <li>decreased oxygen to the brain</li> </ul> <h3>After birth</h3> <ul> <li>severe jaundice</li> <li>meningitis</li> <li>head injury</li> </ul><h2>What a doctor can do to help your child</h2> <p>Some babies with CP will show signs at birth. In other cases, it may be hard to make a diagnosis. Usually, CP is determined by age one or two years.</p> <p>If you are concerned about your child, tell your child's doctor. The doctor will do a physical examination and ask you about your child's medical history. </p> <p>A diagnosis can take months. There is not one single test that will determine the presence of CP. Some tests may be ordered, including:</p> <ul> <li>a <a href="/Article?contentid=1272&language=English">CT scan</a> or an <a href="/Article?contentid=1270&language=English">MRI</a> to look for abnormalities in your child's brain</li> <li>an <a href="/Article?contentid=1277&language=English">EEG</a> to look for evidence of seizures</li> <li>hearing and vision tests</li> <li>blood tests</li> </ul><h2>Treatment of cerebral palsy</h2> <p>Your child's doctor will determine the best line of treatment for your child. Treatment will depend on the severity of the condition.</p> <ul> <li>Physical therapy will likely be a big part of the treatment program. Physical therapy will work on muscle strength, flexibility, balance and mobility.</li> <li>Occupational therapy will work on hand and hand-eye coordination. The therapist may also help your child with equipment like wheelchairs, braces or talking devices.</li> <li>Speech therapy can help your child to communicate better.</li> <li>Some children need medicine to improve motor control and reduce spasticity.</li> </ul><h2>What you can do to help your child with cerebral palsy</h2> <h3>Seek support</h3> <p>As a parent of a child with CP, you may be overwhelmed by emotion. Feelings like fear of the future or guilt are common. There is help out there. Support groups, friends, family, therapists, places of faith or community centers can serve to strengthen your abilities as a parent. Ask your doctor for resources.</p> <h3>Encourage your child to be social</h3> <p>It can be difficult for children to cope with having CP. Encourage your child to express their feelings and help them work through them. Encourage your child to join in group activities with other children their age. Such interaction will help your child reach their fullest potential.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/cerebral_palsy.jpgCerebral palsy

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