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Childhood stroke: Arterial ischemic stroke (AIS)CChildhood stroke: Arterial ischemic stroke (AIS)Childhood stroke: Arterial ischemic stroke (AIS)EnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainArteriesConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2023-09-29T04:00:00Z6.3000000000000074.20000000000001648.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Stroke is caused by a blockage of blood vessels in the brain and can happen at any age. Read about arterial ischemic strokes (AIS) which are blood clots in an artery of the brain.</p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/doMDhyZeIYw?si=K1-PZXQ0tPyrTfSU"> </iframe>  </div><h2>What is a stroke?</h2><p>Arteries and veins are types of blood vessels. Arteries carry fresh blood, oxygen and nutrients from the heart to all the tissues in the body, including the brain. Veins drain the blood from tissues, including the brain, back to the heart.</p><p>Stroke results from a sudden blockage of or damage to the blood vessels of the brain. This could stop the blood from flowing to a part of the brain, and as a result, less oxygen and other nutrients are able to reach that part of the brain. This can cause permanent damage to that part of the brain and stop it from working properly.</p><p>This page explains some of the possible causes of stroke in children, what tests may be used when stroke is suspected and available treatment options. The warning signs of stroke are also discussed.</p><p>Stroke can happen to anyone at any age. Strokes can happen in babies, children and teenagers, not just adults and seniors. Reasons for stroke in children are different from those in adults.</p><p>Finding the cause of the stroke is important:</p><ul><li>It helps decide what kind of treatment is best.</li><li>It may help prevent more damage.</li><li>It may stop your child from having another stroke in the future.</li></ul><p>However, even after many tests, sometimes it is not possible to find out the exact cause of stroke.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Stroke can occur in people of all ages, including babies and children.</li><li>Stroke can happen due to many different reasons.</li><li>Trying to find out the cause of stroke is important. It may help decide on the best treatment.</li><li>Treatment of stroke may include blood thinners. It focuses on minimizing damage and preventing more strokes.</li></ul><h2>Warning signs of arterial ischemic stroke</h2><h3>Warning signs of AIS in children, teenagers and young adults</h3><p>Children, teenagers and young adults who are having a stroke may suddenly show one or more of these signs:</p><ul><li>They find that their face, arm or leg feels weak or numb, usually on one side of the body.</li><li>They slur their speech, lose their ability to speak, or have trouble speaking and/or understanding simple statements.</li><li>They cannot see clearly in one or both eyes.</li><li>They have a new, very severe headache with or without vomiting (throwing up).</li><li>They feel very dizzy like the room is “spinning”, lose their balance, have trouble walking or fall for no reason </li></ul><p>Any of these can last for a few minutes to days, or they may have lasting effects.</p><h3>Warning signs of AIS in babies</h3><p>Babies may show only subtle signs of stroke, such as the following:</p><ul><li>Have seizures without a clear reason; for example, rhythmic jerking of one or more limbs.</li><li>Have extreme trouble staying awake and alert during the day and outside of their normal sleeping time; in smaller babies, being drowsy and unable to wake for feeds.</li><li>Prefer to use only one side of their body as they grow during their first year of life</li></ul><p>One way to recognize some of the signs of stroke is to think of the acronym FAST.</p><ul><li>F for face drooping</li><li>A for arm weakness</li><li>S for slurred speech</li><li>T for time to call 9-1-1</li></ul><h2>Possible causes of arterial ischemic stroke</h2><p>About four out of 10 childhood strokes occur in children who are otherwise healthy. Some children may have problems with their blood clotting systems.</p><p>Other children may already have a serious condition that may lead to a stroke. These conditions include:</p><ul><li>heart disease which the child was born with (congenital) or acquires later, such as rheumatic heart disease</li><li>heart or brain surgery</li><li>sickle cell disease</li><li>leukemia</li><li>Moyamoya disease </li><li>a problem with the system in the body's cells that turns food into energy; this is called metabolic illness</li><li>blood clotting disorders</li><li>serious infections, especially in the head and neck</li><li>migraine headaches</li><li>accidents involving the head and neck region</li><li>other trauma</li></ul><h2>Common tests for childhood stroke</h2><p>The health-care provider may order some or all of the following tests when a child has AIS.</p><p>Some of these are routine tests, which mean that they are done on many children throughout the hospital for many different reasons. If you want to learn more about an individual test your child is having, ask your health-care team for more detailed information.</p><p>Over time, most of these tests will be repeated to see how well your child is doing.</p><h3>Computed tomography (CT) scan of the head</h3><p>A CT scan takes pictures of the area in the brain where stroke has occurred. It may also show what kind of stroke has happened, and which parts of the brain are affected.</p><h3>Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)</h3> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">Arterial ischemic stroke </span><span class="asset-image-title"></span><span class="asset-image-title"></span><span class="asset-image-title">MRI</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Arterial_ischemic_stroke_MRI_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.jpg" alt="An MRI of the brain with affected area identified" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The</figcaption><figcaption class="asset-image-caption"></figcaption><figcaption class="asset-image-caption"></figcaption><figcaption class="asset-image-caption"> light area in this MRI shows damaged brain tissue caused by decreased blood flow from a stroke.</figcaption> </figure> <p>An MRI is another way to take more detailed pictures of your child’s brain without X-rays. An MRI can show if a stroke occurred or not, often in more detail. It can also show when the stroke occurred, and the size of the injury. Younger children may require a general anaesthetic for an MRI scan as it takes longer and they need to stay still for at least 45 minutes.</p><p>A magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) works the same way but looks at the arteries in the brain instead of brain tissue.</p><h3>Echocardiogram</h3><p>An echocardiogram uses sound waves to take a picture of your child’s heart. This is sometimes done as a blood clot may form in the heart and can travel up to the brain.</p><h3>Bloodwork</h3><p>Blood tests help the health-care team better understand why your child had a stroke. Children who need to take blood thinners may also need some blood tests to see:</p><ul><li>how well they are working</li><li>if dosages need to be changed</li></ul><h3>Lumbar puncture</h3><p>A lumbar puncture is also called a spinal tap. This test looks for signs of infection or inflammation in your child’s nervous system. It may be performed if the health-care team suspects infection or inflammation in the brain.</p><h3>Cerebral angiogram</h3> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">Arterial ischemic stroke </span><span class="asset-image-title"></span><span class="asset-image-title"></span><span class="asset-image-title">angiogram</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Arterial_ischemic_stroke_angio_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.jpg" alt="Cerebral angiogram showing a narrowed artery with poor blood flow and a smooth artery with normal blood flow" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The</figcaption><figcaption class="asset-image-caption"></figcaption><figcaption class="asset-image-caption"></figcaption><figcaption class="asset-image-caption"> angiogram shows an artery with an area of irregular narrowing. This can lead to poor blood flow and the formation of clots.</figcaption> </figure> <p>A cerebral catheter angiogram is a very detailed picture of the brain arteries. This is a special type of an X-ray of the head and a special dye is injected into the arteries. The dye makes the arteries show up on the X-ray.</p><h2>Treating arterial ischemic stroke</h2><p>These are the main goals in the treatment of AIS:</p><ul><li>Decrease the damage that the stroke can cause.</li><li>Prevent another stroke from happening.</li></ul><p>Treatments may include medicines called blood thinners, which help stop the blood from forming clots. Your child may receive one or more of the following blood thinners:</p><ul><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=265&language=English">warfarin</a> given by mouth</li><li>heparin, given intravenously</li><li>low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), given by injections under the skin</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=77&language=English">acetylsalicylic acid</a> (ASA or Aspirin), given by mouth</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=108&language=English">clopidogrel</a> (Plavix), given by mouth </li></ul><h2>Rehabilitation for stroke</h2><p>After stroke, some children may have difficulties with movement, balance, coordination, speech, learning, mood and behaviour. Rehabilitation therapy is very important to help these children recover. There are many different health-care professionals that may help your child. These include:</p><ul><li>physiotherapists</li><li>occupational therapists</li><li>speech language pathologists</li><li>social workers</li><li>neuropsychologists</li></ul>
Accident vasculaire cérébral (AVC) chez les enfants : AVC artériel ischémiqueAAccident vasculaire cérébral (AVC) chez les enfants : AVC artériel ischémiqueChildhood stroke: Arterial ischemic stroke (AIS)FrenchNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainArteriesConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-06T05:00:00Z6.0000000000000075.00000000000001310.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>L’accident vasculaire cérébral (AVC) est causé par un blocage dans le cerveau et peut survenir à tout âge. Apprenez-en davantage sur les AVC artériels ischémiques, causés par un caillot de sang dans une artère du cerveau.</p><h2>Qu’est-ce qu’un accident vasculaire cérébral (AVC)?</h2> <p>Les artères et les veines constituent les vaisseaux sanguins. Ce sont eux qui transportent le sang, l’oxygène et les éléments nutritifs vers les tissus du corps, y compris le cerveau. Le sang est pompé dans les vaisseaux sanguins par le cœur, lors de chaque pulsation.</p> <p>Un accident vasculaire cérébral (AVC) désigne un blocage soudain ou une détérioration des vaisseaux sanguins dans un secteur du cerveau. Le sang ne peut alors plus circuler dans cette région du cerveau et, par conséquent, il est en partie privé d’oxygène et d’éléments nutritifs. Il peut en résulter des dommages permanents et le cerveau peut ne plus fonctionner correctement.</p> <p>La présente rubrique explique certaines des causes d’un AVC chez les enfants, les examens qui peuvent être faits lorsqu’on soupçonne qu’il y a AVC et les traitements disponibles. On y aborde également les signaux avant-coureurs d’un AVC. </p> <p>Un accident vasculaire cérébral peut se produire à tout âge. Il peut se produire chez les bébés, les enfants et les adolescents, ainsi que chez les adultes et les personnes âgées. Il existe de nombreuses raisons pour lesquelles un enfant peut avoir un AVC et celles-ci peuvent différer des causes chez les adultes. </p> <p>Il est important de trouver la cause de l’AVC pour les raisons suivantes :</p> <ul> <li>pour décider du type de traitement qui convient,</li> <li>pour éviter d’autres dommages au cerveau,</li> <li>pour éviter que votre enfant connaisse un autre AVC à l’avenir.</li> </ul> <p>Même après plusieurs examens, il n’est parfois pas possible de trouver la cause exacte d’un AVC.</p><h2>À retenir</h2> <ul> <li>Un accident vasculaire cérébral (AVC) se produit chez les gens de tout âge, y compris les bébés et les enfants.</li> <li>Un AVC peut se produire pour diverses raisons.</li> <li>Il est important de tenter de trouver la cause de l’AVC, car cela peut aider à choisir le traitement approprié.</li> <li>Le traitement d’un AVC peut comprendre l’administration d’anticoagulants. Il cherche à minimiser les dommages et à éviter d’autres AVC. </li> </ul><h2>Signes avant-coureurs d’un AVC artériel ischémique</h2> <h3>Signes avant-coureurs d’un AVC artériel ischémique chez les enfants, les adolescents et les jeunes adultes</h3> <p>Les enfants, les adolescents et les jeunes adultes qui ont un AVC peuvent soudainement montrer un ou plusieurs des signes suivants :</p> <ul> <li>Avoir le visage, le bras ou la jambe faibles ou engourdis, habituellement d’un seul côté du corps.</li> <li>Parler avec difficulté ou ne plus pouvoir parler et/ou avoir du mal à comprendre de simples énoncés.</li> <li>Voir difficilement d’un œil ou des deux yeux.</li> <li>Ressentir un mal de tête nouveau et violent, avec ou sans vomissement.</li> <li>Se sentir étourdi, comme si la pièce tournait, perdre l'équilibre, avoir du mal à marcher ou tomber sans raison.</li> </ul> <p>Ces symptômes peuvent être passagers ou perdurer.</p> <h3>Signes avant-coureurs d’un AVC artériel ischémique chez les bébés</h3> <p>Les bébés peuvent montrer des signes subtils d’AVC tels que :</p> <ul> <li>Avoir une crise sans raison apparente.</li> <li>Avoir de la difficulté à rester réveillé ou alerte pendant la journée, en dehors de leurs périodes normales de sommeil.</li> <li>Préférer utiliser un côté de leur corps au cours de leur première année de croissance.</li> </ul><h2>Causes possibles d’AVC artériel ischémique</h2> <p>Environ 4 AVC sur 10 se produisent chez des enfants qui, par ailleurs, sont en bonne santé. Certains enfants peuvent avoir des problèmes avec le système qui gère la coagulation du sang.</p> <p>D’autres enfants peuvent avoir déjà d’autres problèmes de santé graves qui peuvent mener à un AVC, entre autres :</p> <ul> <li>une maladie du cœur à la naissance (cardiopahtie congénitale) ou acquise plus tard telle qu’un rhumatisme cardiaque,</li> <li>une chirurgie au cœur ou au cerveau,</li> <li>une drépanocytose,</li> <li>une leucémie,</li> <li>une maladie de Moya-Moya</li> <li>un problème avec le système dans les cellules qui transforme les aliments en énergie; on appelle cela une maladie métabolique,</li> <li>un problème de coagulation sanguine,</li> <li>des infections sérieuses, surtout à la tête ou dans le cou,</li> <li>des migraines,</li> <li>des accidents au niveau de la tête ou du cou,</li> <li>autres traumatismes.</li> </ul><h2>Examens courants pour déceler les AVC chez les enfants</h2><p>Le médecin peut demander un ou plusieurs des examens suivants lorsqu’un enfant subit un AVC artériel ischémique.</p><p>Certains de ces examens sont des examens de routine, ce qui signifie qu’ils sont pratiqués sur de nombreux enfants à l’hôpital pour diverses raisons. Si vous voulez en savoir plus sur un examen en particulier que votre enfant doit subir, demandez à votre équipe médicale de vous donner des renseignements plus détaillés.</p><p>Avec le temps, la plupart de ces examens seront repris pour vérifier la progression de l’état de votre enfant.</p><h3>Analyses sanguines</h3><p>Les analyses sanguines permettent aux médecins de mieux comprendre pourquoi votre enfant a eu un AVC. Les enfants qui prennent des anticoagulants peuvent également devoir faire faire des analyses sanguines pour vérifier : </p><ul><li>si les anticoagulants fonctionnent bien,</li><li>s’il faut changer les dosages.</li></ul><h3>Angiogramme cérébral</h3><p>Un angiogramme cérébral est une photo détaillée des artères du cerveau. On prendra une radiographie de votre enfant alors qu’un colorant particulier sera injecté dans ses artères pour qu’elles ressortent sur la radiographie.</p> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">Angiogramme d'un accident cérébro-vasculaire ischémique artériel</span><img alt="Artère rétrécie avec mauvaise circulation sanguine et artère normale avec circulation normale" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Arterial_ischemic_stroke_angio_MEDIMG_PHO_FR.jpg" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">L'angiogramme montre une artère avec un rétrécissement anormal. Il peut en résulter une mauvaise circulation et la formation de caillots.</figcaption> </figure> <h3>Tomodensitogramme</h3><p>Un tomodensitogramme utilise des rayons X pour prendre des photos détaillées de la région touchée du cerveau. Cet examen peut indiquer :</p><ul><li>si votre enfant a eu un AVC ou non,</li><li>le type d’AVC dont il s’agit,</li><li>les tissus touchés.</li></ul><h3>Imagerie par résonnance magnétique (IRM)</h3><p>Une IRM constitue une autre façon de prendre des images détaillées du cerveau de votre enfant sans recourir à la radiographie. Elle peut donner le même genre de renseignements sur l’AVC qu’une tomodensitométrie, mais souvent plus en détail. Une IRM peut indiquer :</p><ul><li>si votre enfant a eu un AVC,</li><li>le moment où l’AVC s’est produit,</li><li>sa gravité.</li></ul><p>Une angiographie par résonance magnétique (ARM) fonctionne de la même façon, mais elle porte sur les artères du cerveau plutôt que sur les tissus du cerveau.<br></p> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">IRM - Accident cérébro-vasculaire ischémique artériel</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Arterial_ischemic_stroke_MRI_MEDIMG_PHO_FR.jpg" alt="Une IRM du cerveau avec la zone touchée identifiée" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">La région pâle de cette IRM indique des tissus du cerveau endommagés par une diminution de la circulation sanguine après un accident cérébro-vasculaire.</figcaption> </figure> <h3>Échocardiogramme</h3><p>Un échocardiogramme utilise des ondes sonores pour prendre une image du cœur de votre enfant.</p><h3>Ponction lombaire</h3><p>Une ponction lombaire permet de chercher des signes d’infection ou d’inflammation dans le système nerveux de votre enfant.</p><h2>Traitement d’un AVC artériel ischémique</h2> <p>Voici les principaux objectifs d’un traitement d’un AVC artériel ischémique :</p> <ul> <li>diminuer les dommages que l’AVC peut causer,</li> <li>éviter un autre AVC. </li> </ul> <p>Les traitements peuvent comprendre des médicaments qui fluidifient le sang (anticoagulants), ce qui évite la formation de caillots. Votre enfant peut recevoir un ou plusieurs de ces anticoagulants : </p> <ul> <li>warfarine (Coumadin), par voie orale (la bouche)</li> <li>héparine, par intraveineuse</li> <li>héparine de faible poids moléculaire (HBPM), par injections sous-cutanées</li> <li>acide acétylsalicylique (aspirine), par voie orale</li> <li>clopidogrel (Plavix), par voie orale</li> </ul> <h2>Thérapie en cas d'AVC</h2> <p>Après un AVC, certains enfants peuvent avoir des problèmes physiques ou mentaux. Une thérapie fonctionnelle est très importante pour aider ces enfants à se rétablir. De nombreux professionnels de la santé peuvent aider votre enfant, par exemple :</p> <ul> <li>des physiothérapeutes (kinésithérapeutes),</li> <li>des ergothérapeutes,</li> <li>des orthophonistes,</li> <li>des travailleurs sociaux,</li> <li>des neuropsychologues. </li> </ul><p>Pour plus de renseignements sur les différents types d’AVC chez les bébés et les enfants, consultez <a href="/Article?contentid=860&language=French">Les accidents vasculaires cérébraux chez les nouveau-nés</a> et <a href="/Article?contentid=855&language=French">Accident vasculaire cérébral chez les enfants : Thrombose sino-veineuse cérébrale</a>.</p>

 

 

 

 

Childhood stroke: Arterial ischemic stroke (AIS)854.000000000000Childhood stroke: Arterial ischemic stroke (AIS)Childhood stroke: Arterial ischemic stroke (AIS)CEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainArteriesConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2023-09-29T04:00:00Z6.3000000000000074.20000000000001648.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Stroke is caused by a blockage of blood vessels in the brain and can happen at any age. Read about arterial ischemic strokes (AIS) which are blood clots in an artery of the brain.</p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/doMDhyZeIYw?si=K1-PZXQ0tPyrTfSU"> </iframe>  </div><h2>What is a stroke?</h2><p>Arteries and veins are types of blood vessels. Arteries carry fresh blood, oxygen and nutrients from the heart to all the tissues in the body, including the brain. Veins drain the blood from tissues, including the brain, back to the heart.</p><p>Stroke results from a sudden blockage of or damage to the blood vessels of the brain. This could stop the blood from flowing to a part of the brain, and as a result, less oxygen and other nutrients are able to reach that part of the brain. This can cause permanent damage to that part of the brain and stop it from working properly.</p><p>This page explains some of the possible causes of stroke in children, what tests may be used when stroke is suspected and available treatment options. The warning signs of stroke are also discussed.</p><p>Stroke can happen to anyone at any age. Strokes can happen in babies, children and teenagers, not just adults and seniors. Reasons for stroke in children are different from those in adults.</p><p>Finding the cause of the stroke is important:</p><ul><li>It helps decide what kind of treatment is best.</li><li>It may help prevent more damage.</li><li>It may stop your child from having another stroke in the future.</li></ul><p>However, even after many tests, sometimes it is not possible to find out the exact cause of stroke.</p><h2>A blood clot is the most common cause of stroke in children</h2><p>A blood clot is the most common cause of strokes in children. A blood clot or clotting occurs when blood changes from liquid to solid form. Some blood clotting in the body is normal. But a blood clot that gets stuck in a blood vessel while moving through the body is not normal. If this happens in the brain, it can cause stroke.</p><p>A stroke caused by blockage of a blood vessel by a blood clot is called an ischemic stroke.</p><h3>Blood vessels</h3><p>Arteries and veins are both blood vessels in the body.</p><ul><li>An artery carries blood from the heart to the body’s tissues, including the brain.</li><li>A vein carries blood from the body’s tissues back to the heart.</li></ul><p>Because there are two kinds of blood vessels, there are two kinds of ischemic strokes:</p><ul><li>A stroke caused by a blood clot in an artery is called arterial ischemic stroke (AIS).</li><li>A stroke caused by a blood clot in a vein is called cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT).</li></ul><h2>Arterial ischemic stroke</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Arterial ischemic stroke (AIS)</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Arterial_ischemic_stroke_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Clot in blood vessel and area of the brain affected" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">A blood clot blocks the flow in a blood vessel in the brain. This can cause damage to brain tissue.</figcaption> </figure> <p>AIS can occur in either of the following ways:</p><ul><li>A blood clot forms in the body and travels to a blood vessel in the brain and gets stuck there. This is called an embolism.</li><li>A blood clot forms directly in an artery that supplies blood to the brain. It blocks blood flow in that artery. This is called thrombosis.</li></ul><p>Either way, a blood clot blocks the supply of blood to a part of the brain.</p><p>Detailed information on strokes caused by cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT) described briefly above, is available <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=855&language=English">here</a>.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Stroke can occur in people of all ages, including babies and children.</li><li>Stroke can happen due to many different reasons.</li><li>Trying to find out the cause of stroke is important. It may help decide on the best treatment.</li><li>Treatment of stroke may include blood thinners. It focuses on minimizing damage and preventing more strokes.</li></ul><h2>Warning signs of arterial ischemic stroke</h2><h3>Warning signs of AIS in children, teenagers and young adults</h3><p>Children, teenagers and young adults who are having a stroke may suddenly show one or more of these signs:</p><ul><li>They find that their face, arm or leg feels weak or numb, usually on one side of the body.</li><li>They slur their speech, lose their ability to speak, or have trouble speaking and/or understanding simple statements.</li><li>They cannot see clearly in one or both eyes.</li><li>They have a new, very severe headache with or without vomiting (throwing up).</li><li>They feel very dizzy like the room is “spinning”, lose their balance, have trouble walking or fall for no reason </li></ul><p>Any of these can last for a few minutes to days, or they may have lasting effects.</p><h3>Warning signs of AIS in babies</h3><p>Babies may show only subtle signs of stroke, such as the following:</p><ul><li>Have seizures without a clear reason; for example, rhythmic jerking of one or more limbs.</li><li>Have extreme trouble staying awake and alert during the day and outside of their normal sleeping time; in smaller babies, being drowsy and unable to wake for feeds.</li><li>Prefer to use only one side of their body as they grow during their first year of life</li></ul><p>One way to recognize some of the signs of stroke is to think of the acronym FAST.</p><ul><li>F for face drooping</li><li>A for arm weakness</li><li>S for slurred speech</li><li>T for time to call 9-1-1</li></ul><h2>Possible causes of arterial ischemic stroke</h2><p>About four out of 10 childhood strokes occur in children who are otherwise healthy. Some children may have problems with their blood clotting systems.</p><p>Other children may already have a serious condition that may lead to a stroke. These conditions include:</p><ul><li>heart disease which the child was born with (congenital) or acquires later, such as rheumatic heart disease</li><li>heart or brain surgery</li><li>sickle cell disease</li><li>leukemia</li><li>Moyamoya disease </li><li>a problem with the system in the body's cells that turns food into energy; this is called metabolic illness</li><li>blood clotting disorders</li><li>serious infections, especially in the head and neck</li><li>migraine headaches</li><li>accidents involving the head and neck region</li><li>other trauma</li></ul><h2>Common tests for childhood stroke</h2><p>The health-care provider may order some or all of the following tests when a child has AIS.</p><p>Some of these are routine tests, which mean that they are done on many children throughout the hospital for many different reasons. If you want to learn more about an individual test your child is having, ask your health-care team for more detailed information.</p><p>Over time, most of these tests will be repeated to see how well your child is doing.</p><h3>Computed tomography (CT) scan of the head</h3><p>A CT scan takes pictures of the area in the brain where stroke has occurred. It may also show what kind of stroke has happened, and which parts of the brain are affected.</p><h3>Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)</h3> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">Arterial ischemic stroke </span><span class="asset-image-title"></span><span class="asset-image-title"></span><span class="asset-image-title">MRI</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Arterial_ischemic_stroke_MRI_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.jpg" alt="An MRI of the brain with affected area identified" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The</figcaption><figcaption class="asset-image-caption"></figcaption><figcaption class="asset-image-caption"></figcaption><figcaption class="asset-image-caption"> light area in this MRI shows damaged brain tissue caused by decreased blood flow from a stroke.</figcaption> </figure> <p>An MRI is another way to take more detailed pictures of your child’s brain without X-rays. An MRI can show if a stroke occurred or not, often in more detail. It can also show when the stroke occurred, and the size of the injury. Younger children may require a general anaesthetic for an MRI scan as it takes longer and they need to stay still for at least 45 minutes.</p><p>A magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) works the same way but looks at the arteries in the brain instead of brain tissue.</p><h3>Echocardiogram</h3><p>An echocardiogram uses sound waves to take a picture of your child’s heart. This is sometimes done as a blood clot may form in the heart and can travel up to the brain.</p><h3>Bloodwork</h3><p>Blood tests help the health-care team better understand why your child had a stroke. Children who need to take blood thinners may also need some blood tests to see:</p><ul><li>how well they are working</li><li>if dosages need to be changed</li></ul><h3>Lumbar puncture</h3><p>A lumbar puncture is also called a spinal tap. This test looks for signs of infection or inflammation in your child’s nervous system. It may be performed if the health-care team suspects infection or inflammation in the brain.</p><h3>Cerebral angiogram</h3> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">Arterial ischemic stroke </span><span class="asset-image-title"></span><span class="asset-image-title"></span><span class="asset-image-title">angiogram</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Arterial_ischemic_stroke_angio_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.jpg" alt="Cerebral angiogram showing a narrowed artery with poor blood flow and a smooth artery with normal blood flow" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The</figcaption><figcaption class="asset-image-caption"></figcaption><figcaption class="asset-image-caption"></figcaption><figcaption class="asset-image-caption"> angiogram shows an artery with an area of irregular narrowing. This can lead to poor blood flow and the formation of clots.</figcaption> </figure> <p>A cerebral catheter angiogram is a very detailed picture of the brain arteries. This is a special type of an X-ray of the head and a special dye is injected into the arteries. The dye makes the arteries show up on the X-ray.</p><h2>Treating arterial ischemic stroke</h2><p>These are the main goals in the treatment of AIS:</p><ul><li>Decrease the damage that the stroke can cause.</li><li>Prevent another stroke from happening.</li></ul><p>Treatments may include medicines called blood thinners, which help stop the blood from forming clots. Your child may receive one or more of the following blood thinners:</p><ul><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=265&language=English">warfarin</a> given by mouth</li><li>heparin, given intravenously</li><li>low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), given by injections under the skin</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=77&language=English">acetylsalicylic acid</a> (ASA or Aspirin), given by mouth</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=108&language=English">clopidogrel</a> (Plavix), given by mouth </li></ul><h2>Rehabilitation for stroke</h2><p>After stroke, some children may have difficulties with movement, balance, coordination, speech, learning, mood and behaviour. Rehabilitation therapy is very important to help these children recover. There are many different health-care professionals that may help your child. These include:</p><ul><li>physiotherapists</li><li>occupational therapists</li><li>speech language pathologists</li><li>social workers</li><li>neuropsychologists</li></ul><h2>Arterial ischemic stroke can happen again</h2><p>The chance that a stroke will happen again depends on the cause of the stroke, as well as treatment at the time of the stroke. If the stroke occurred during the newborn period, your child is much less likely to have another stroke.</p><h2>For more information</h2><p>If you have any questions, please write them down so that your child's health-care team can answer them for you.</p><p>For more information about different types of stroke in children and babies, see <a href="/Article?contentid=860&language=English">Stroke in newborns</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=855&language=English">Childhood stroke: Cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT)</a>, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=2440&language=English">Angiography</a> and <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1647&language=English">Imaging tests: X-ray, CT scan and MRI</a>.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Arterial_ischemic_stroke_MED_ILL_EN.jpgChildhood stroke: Arterial ischemic stroke (AIS)False

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