Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)FFetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)EnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyNAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-06T05:00:00ZMargaret Lintott, RN;Peggy Kirkpatrick, MD, FRCPC9.0000000000000054.00000000000001132.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn how drinking alcohol while pregnant can cause physical and cognitive delays in the baby, known collectively as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD).</p><h2>What is fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)?</h2> <p>Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a general or "umbrella" term used to describe disabilities caused when a woman drinks alcohol during pregnancy. FASD includes any of the following diagnoses: </p> <ul> <li>fetal alcohol syndrome </li> <li>partial fetal alcohol syndrome </li> <li>alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder </li> <li>alcohol-related birth defects </li> </ul><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can cause many different problems for the baby, including physical problems and problems with learning, attention, memory and behaviour. </li> <li>Problems caused by drinking during pregnancy are called fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). </li> <li>There is no cure for FASD, but it may be possible to get help for specific problems. It is important to diagnose FASD early. </li> <li>If you are pregnant, do not drink alcohol. </li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of FASD</h2> <p>The effects of FASD are not always obvious at birth. Often, behavioural and learning problems are not noticed until the child is old enough to go to school. Differences from other children become more apparent at about grade 3 or 4. </p> <p>Some people with FASD have a mixture of physical and mental problems. Many children with FASD do not have physical problems.</p> <h3>Problems with intelligence and learning</h3> <p>Children with FASD may have one or more of the following problems:</p> <ul> <li>intellectual disability (IQ below 70); however, most children with FASD have IQs in the normal range </li> <li>slow learning, short attention span, hyperactivity or memory problems </li> <li>learning disabilities, especially with reading, comprehension and abstract math </li> <li>delays or lack of abilities in speech and language: for example, the child may have receptive language disorder, interrupt, talk out of context or chat with no content </li> <li>lack of executive function skills, including difficulties with organization, planning and reasoning </li> <li>inability to manage money, for example by saving and budgeting </li> <li>inability to understand cause and effect </li> </ul> <h3>Sensory integration problems</h3> <p>Children with FASD may need more or less stimulation than the average person. This is called a problem with sensory integration. These problems may involve one or more senses, such as: </p> <ul> <li>sensitivity to touch; the child may not be able to tolerate tags in shirts or seams in clothing </li> <li>seeming to need more touch than other children; for example, the child may need tight hugs or may not seem to feel pain </li> <li>hating bright lights or noise </li> <li>noticing smells more than others </li> <li>being bothered by "every little thing" </li> </ul> <p>These problems may occur in combination. A child with FASD could be hypersensitive to bright lights, but crave deep pressure or touch. </p> <h3>Behaviour and mood problems</h3> <p>Babies with FASD may have one or more of the following problems:</p> <ul> <li>irritable, nervous, or sensitive to sound and light </li> <li>cry often </li> <li>very quiet and not very responsive </li> </ul> <p>Children with FASD may have one or more of the following problems:</p> <ul> <li>behavioural problems, such as oppositional defiant disorder and aggressive or defiant behaviours </li> <li>mental illness, such as depression or psychosis </li> <li>drug and alcohol problems </li> <li>anger control problems or violence </li> </ul> <p>Poor judgment and the inability to connect an action with its consequences are the hallmarks of FASD. As a result, people with FASD are at high risk for getting in trouble with the law. </p> <h3>Physical problems</h3> <p>At birth, babies may have one or more of the following:</p> <ul> <li>low birth weight (less than 2.5 kg or 5 lb 8 oz) </li> <li>small head size </li> <li>face and mouth deformities </li> <li>flat shape of the face </li> <li>specific facial features may include thin upper lip, flatness under nose and smaller eyes</li> </ul> <p>Other physical problems may include:</p> <ul> <li>delayed growth </li> <li>small height and/or weight </li> <li>short height as an adult </li> <li>bone, joint, or muscle problems </li> <li>hearing problems </li> <li>repeated ear infections </li> <li>visual and eye problems </li> <li>genital defects </li> <li>heart defects </li> <li>kidney problems </li></ul><h2>FASD is caused by drinking alcohol during pregnancy</h2> <p>FASD can happen when a pregnant woman drinks any type of alcohol, including beer, wine, hard liquor or coolers. Alcohol crosses the placental barrier from mother to baby. Any amount of drinking during pregnancy can cause FASD. </p> <ul> <li>High risk begins when a woman has two drinks a day, or 14 drinks on average per week, or four or more drinks on any one occasion. </li> <li>Recent evidence suggests that even one drink per day may cause behavioural problems. </li> </ul> <p>The kinds of problems the baby may have depends on when the mother drinks during the pregnancy:</p> <ul> <li>Since the brain is developing during the entire pregnancy, the brain is always being affected if the mother drinks regularly. </li> <li>Drinking during the first trimester increases the chance that the baby will have a small brain, physical problems and/or severe intellectual disability. </li> <li>Drinking during the second trimester increases the chances of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage). </li> <li>Drinking during the third trimester, and during nursing, can affect intelligence. </li> </ul> <p>Not all babies who are exposed to alcohol during pregnancy will have FASD. We do not yet understand why some babies are born with problems and others are not, even when their mothers drank about the same amount of alcohol during their pregnancies. In some cases, one baby will have FASD but their fraternal twin will not. </p> <h2>FASD is common</h2> <p>FASD affects approximately 1% of people living in Canada. This means that there may be about 300,000 people with FASD living in Canada today. </p><h2>How FASD is diagnosed</h2> <p>If you think that your baby could have been exposed to alcohol before birth, speak to your doctor. A health care provider can diagnose FASD by: </p> <ul> <li>asking about the mother's pregnancy and the child's birth </li> <li>doing a physical exam </li> <li>testing the child's abilities to understand, communicate, move and adapt </li> <li>measuring facial features </li> </ul><h2>There is no cure for FASD</h2> <p>It is not easy to "treat" FASD. However, it is important to diagnose FASD early because there are some things that can help.</p> <ul> <li>Physical and occupational therapy can often help somewhat. </li> <li>A child with FASD should have psycho-educational testing to find specific difficulties. This will help the child get services in school that will help with the difficulties. </li> <li>Social workers can help the family cope and deal with family issues. </li> </ul>
Ensemble des troubles causés par l’alcoolisation fœtale (ETCAF)EEnsemble des troubles causés par l’alcoolisation fœtale (ETCAF)Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)FrenchNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyNAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-06T05:00:00ZMargaret Lintott, RN;Peggy Kirkpatrick, MD, FRCPC9.0000000000000054.00000000000001132.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Apprenez comment la consommation d’alcool pendant la grossesse peut entraîner des retards physiques et cognitifs chez le bébé, appelés collectivement l’ensemble des troubles causés par l’alcoolisation fœtale (ETCAF).</p><h2>Qu’est-ce que l’ensemble des troubles causés par l’alcoolisation fœtale (ETCAF)?</h2> <p>L’ensemble des troubles causés par l’alcoolisation fœtale (ETCAF) est un terme générique qui décrit les affections qui découlent de la consommation d’alcool par une femme enceinte. L’ETCAF comprend les diagnostics suivants :</p> <ul> <li>le syndrome d'alcoolisation fœtale (SAF)</li> <li>le syndrome d'alcoolisation fœtale partielle (SAFp)</li> <li>les troubles neurologiques du développement liés à l'alcool (TNDLA)</li> <li>les anomalies congénitales liées à l'alcool (ACLA).</li> </ul><h2>À retenir</h2> <ul> <li>La consommation d’alcool pendant la grossesse peut entraîner de nombreux problèmes variés chez les bébés, y compris des problèmes physiques et des problèmes d’apprentissage, d’attention, de mémoire et de comportement.</li> <li>Les problèmes causés par la consommation d’alcool pendant la grossesse s’appellent l’ensemble des troubles causés par l’alcoolisation fœtale (ETCAF).</li> <li>Il n’existe aucun traitement pour l’ETCAF, mais il est possible d’obtenir de l’aide pour certains problèmes précis. C’est important de diagnostiquer l’ETCAF tôt.</li> <li>Si vous êtes enceinte, ne buvez pas d’alcool.</li> </ul><h2>Signes et symptômes de l’ETCAF</h2> <p>Les effets de l’ETCAF ne sont pas toujours évidents à la naissance. Souvent, des problèmes de comportement ou d’apprentissage ne sont décelés que lorsque l’enfant est assez âgé pour aller à l’école. Des différences avec les autres enfants deviennent apparentes à les 3e et 4e années.</p> <p>Certaines personnes atteintes de l’ETCAF présentent un mélange de problèmes physiques et de santé mentale. De nombreux enfants avec l’ETCAF n’ont aucun problème physique./p> <h3>Problèmes d’intelligence et d’apprentissage</h3> <p>Les enfants atteints de l’ETCAF peuvent avoir un ou plusieurs des problèmes suivants :</p> <ul> <li>QI en-dessous de 70; toutefois, la plupart des enfants atteints de l’ETCAF ont un QI normal,</li> <li>retard d’apprentissage, capacité d’attention réduite, hyperactivité ou problèmes de mémoire,</li> <li>problèmes d’apprentissage, surtout de la lecture, la compréhension et les mathématiques abstraites,</li> <li>des retards ou des manques de compétences en matière d’expression orale et de langage: par exemple, l’enfant peut avoir un problème pour comprendre ce qu'on lui dit, il peut interrompre, parler à tord et à travers, ou babiller sans contenu,</li> <li>manque de capacité d’organisation, de planification et de raisonnement,</li> <li>incapacité à gérer de l’argent, par exemple à économiser ou faire un budget,</li> <li>incapacité à comprendre les liens de cause à effet. </li> </ul> <h3>Problèmes d’intégration sensorielle</h3> <p>Les enfants atteints de l’ETCAF peuvent avoir besoin de plus ou de moins de stimulation que tout un chacun. On appelle cela un problème d’intégration sensorielle. Ces problèmes peuvent impliquer un sens ou plusieurs :</p> <ul> <li>avoir une sensibilité au toucher; l’enfant peut ne pas supporter les étiquettes ou les coutures des vêtements,</li> <li>sembler avoir besoin de plus de contacts physiques que d’autres enfants; par exemple, l’enfant peut avoir besoin d’être serré fort et peut ne pas sembler ressentir de douleur,</li> <li>détester les lumières vives ou les bruits,</li> <li>percevoir des odeurs plus que les autres,</li> <li>être dérangé par des choses insignifiantes. </li> </ul> <p>Ces problèmes peuvent être présents en combinaison. Un enfant atteint de l’ETCAF pourrait être hypersensible à la lumière, mais avoir besoin de pression ou de toucher.</p> <h3>Comportement et sautes d’humeur</h3> <p>Les bébés atteints de l’ETCAF peuvent présenter un ou plusieurs des problèmes suivants :</p> <ul> <li>ils sont irritables, nerveux ou sensibles aux sons et à la lumière,</li> <li>ils pleurent souvent,</li> <li>ils sont très calmes et peu réceptifs. </li> </ul> <p>Les enfants atteints de l’ETCAF peuvent présenter un ou plusieurs des problèmes suivants :</p> <ul> <li>problèmes de comportement, comme un trouble oppositionnel avec provocation et des comportements agressifs ou de défiance, </li> <li>problèmes de santé mentale, comme de la dépression ou des psychoses, </li> <li>problèmes de drogue et d’alcool, </li> <li>difficultés à contrôler leur colère ou ont des comportements violents. </li> </ul> <p>Un mauvais jugement et l’incapacité à relier une action avec ses conséquences sont des caractéristiques de l’ETCAF. Ainsi, les personnes atteintes de l’ETCAF risquent fort d’avoir des problèmes avec la loi.</p> <h3>Problèmes physiques</h3> <p>À la naissance, les bébés peuvent avoir un ou plusieurs des problèmes suivants :</p> <ul> <li>faible poids à la naissance (moins de 2,5 kg ou 5 lb 8 oz),</li> <li>petite tête,</li> <li>déformations du visage et de la bouche,</li> <li>visage aplati,</li> <li>caractéristiques faciales types telles qu’une lèvre supérieure mince, une zone aplatie sous le nez et de petits yeux.</li> </ul> <p>D’autres problèmes physiques peuvent comprendre :</p> <ul> <li>un retard de croissance,</li> <li>une petite taille ou un petit poids,</li> <li>une petite taille à l’âge adulte,</li> <li>des problèmes osseux, articulaires ou musculaires,</li> <li>problèmes d’audition,</li> <li>otites à répétition,</li> <li>problèmes oculaires et de vision,</li> <li>malformations génitales,</li> <li>malformations cardiaques,</li> <li>problèmes rénaux.</li> </ul><h2>L’ETCAF est causé par la consommation d’alcool pendant la grossesse</h2> <p>L’ETCAF peut se produire lorsqu’une femme enceinte consomme n’importe quel type d’alcool, ce qui inclut la bière, le vin, les spiritueux ou les vins panachés. L’alcool traverse la barrière placentaire de la mère vers le bébé. Toute consommation d’alcool pendant la grossesse présente des risques d’ETCAF.</p> <ul> <li>Les risques élevés commencent à partir de deux consommations par jour ou de 14 consommations en moyenne par semaine, ou encore, 4 consommations ou plus en une fois.</li> <li>Des études récentes tendent à suggérer que même un verre par jour peut entraîner des problèmes de comportement. </li> </ul> <p>Les problèmes que le bébé peut connaître dépendent du moment où la mère consomme de l’alcool durant la grossesse :</p> <ul> <li>Puisque le cerveau se développe pendant toute la grossesse, le cerveau est touché si la mère boit régulièrement de l’alcool.</li> <li>La consommation d’alcool au cours du premier trimestre accroît les risques pour le bébé d’avoir un petit cerveau, des problèmes d’ordre physique et un retard mental grave.</li> <li>La consommation d’alcool pendant le second trimestre augmente les risques d’avortement spontané (fausse couche).</li> <li>La consommation d’alcool au cours du troisième trimestre et pendant l’allaitement peut avoir une incidence sur l’intelligence.</li> </ul> <p>Ce ne sont pas tous les bébés exposés à l’alcool au cours de la grossesse qui seront atteints d’ETCAF. Nous ne savons pas encore pourquoi certains bébés ont des problèmes et d’autres pas, même si leur mère a consommé de l’alcool pendant sa grossesse. Dans certains cas, un bébé peut avoir un ETCAF, mais pas son faux jumeau.</p> <h2>L’ETCAF est courant</h2> <p>L’ETCAF touche environ 1 % des personnes au Canada. Cela signifie qu’il peut y avoir environ 300 000 personnes atteintes de l’ETCAF au Canada aujourd'hui. </p><h2>Comment l’ETCAF est-il diagnostiqué</h2> <p>Si vous pensez que votre bébé a pu être exposé à l’alcool avant sa naissance, parlez-en avec votre médecin. Un fournisseur de soins de santé peut diagnostiquer l’ETCAF comme suit : </p> <ul> <li>il posera des questions sur la grossesse de la mère et la naissance de l’enfant,</li> <li>il fera passer un examen physique,</li> <li>il vérifiera les capacités de compréhension, de communication, de déplacement et d’adaptation de l’enfant,</li> <li>il mesurera certaines caractéristiques faciales.</li> </ul><h2>Il n’existe aucun traitement pour l’ETCAF</h2> <p>Il n’est pas facile de « traiter » l’ETCAF. Cependant, il est important de poser le diagnostic d’ETCAF le plus tôt possible, car il existe des mesures qui peuvent aider.</p> <ul> <li>La physiothérapie et l’ergothérapie peuvent aider quelque peu.</li> <li>Un enfant atteint de l’ETCAF devrait subir un examen psychoéducatif pour déterminer s’il a des problèmes d’apprentissage particuliers. Cela permettra à l’enfant d’obtenir à l’école des services qui l’aideront à surmonter ses difficultés.</li> <li>Des travailleurs sociaux peuvent aider la famille à composer avec la situation.</li> </ul>

 

 

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)857.000000000000Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)FEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyNAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-06T05:00:00ZMargaret Lintott, RN;Peggy Kirkpatrick, MD, FRCPC9.0000000000000054.00000000000001132.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn how drinking alcohol while pregnant can cause physical and cognitive delays in the baby, known collectively as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD).</p><h2>What is fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)?</h2> <p>Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a general or "umbrella" term used to describe disabilities caused when a woman drinks alcohol during pregnancy. FASD includes any of the following diagnoses: </p> <ul> <li>fetal alcohol syndrome </li> <li>partial fetal alcohol syndrome </li> <li>alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder </li> <li>alcohol-related birth defects </li> </ul><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can cause many different problems for the baby, including physical problems and problems with learning, attention, memory and behaviour. </li> <li>Problems caused by drinking during pregnancy are called fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). </li> <li>There is no cure for FASD, but it may be possible to get help for specific problems. It is important to diagnose FASD early. </li> <li>If you are pregnant, do not drink alcohol. </li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of FASD</h2> <p>The effects of FASD are not always obvious at birth. Often, behavioural and learning problems are not noticed until the child is old enough to go to school. Differences from other children become more apparent at about grade 3 or 4. </p> <p>Some people with FASD have a mixture of physical and mental problems. Many children with FASD do not have physical problems.</p> <h3>Problems with intelligence and learning</h3> <p>Children with FASD may have one or more of the following problems:</p> <ul> <li>intellectual disability (IQ below 70); however, most children with FASD have IQs in the normal range </li> <li>slow learning, short attention span, hyperactivity or memory problems </li> <li>learning disabilities, especially with reading, comprehension and abstract math </li> <li>delays or lack of abilities in speech and language: for example, the child may have receptive language disorder, interrupt, talk out of context or chat with no content </li> <li>lack of executive function skills, including difficulties with organization, planning and reasoning </li> <li>inability to manage money, for example by saving and budgeting </li> <li>inability to understand cause and effect </li> </ul> <h3>Sensory integration problems</h3> <p>Children with FASD may need more or less stimulation than the average person. This is called a problem with sensory integration. These problems may involve one or more senses, such as: </p> <ul> <li>sensitivity to touch; the child may not be able to tolerate tags in shirts or seams in clothing </li> <li>seeming to need more touch than other children; for example, the child may need tight hugs or may not seem to feel pain </li> <li>hating bright lights or noise </li> <li>noticing smells more than others </li> <li>being bothered by "every little thing" </li> </ul> <p>These problems may occur in combination. A child with FASD could be hypersensitive to bright lights, but crave deep pressure or touch. </p> <h3>Behaviour and mood problems</h3> <p>Babies with FASD may have one or more of the following problems:</p> <ul> <li>irritable, nervous, or sensitive to sound and light </li> <li>cry often </li> <li>very quiet and not very responsive </li> </ul> <p>Children with FASD may have one or more of the following problems:</p> <ul> <li>behavioural problems, such as oppositional defiant disorder and aggressive or defiant behaviours </li> <li>mental illness, such as depression or psychosis </li> <li>drug and alcohol problems </li> <li>anger control problems or violence </li> </ul> <p>Poor judgment and the inability to connect an action with its consequences are the hallmarks of FASD. As a result, people with FASD are at high risk for getting in trouble with the law. </p> <h3>Physical problems</h3> <p>At birth, babies may have one or more of the following:</p> <ul> <li>low birth weight (less than 2.5 kg or 5 lb 8 oz) </li> <li>small head size </li> <li>face and mouth deformities </li> <li>flat shape of the face </li> <li>specific facial features may include thin upper lip, flatness under nose and smaller eyes</li> </ul> <p>Other physical problems may include:</p> <ul> <li>delayed growth </li> <li>small height and/or weight </li> <li>short height as an adult </li> <li>bone, joint, or muscle problems </li> <li>hearing problems </li> <li>repeated ear infections </li> <li>visual and eye problems </li> <li>genital defects </li> <li>heart defects </li> <li>kidney problems </li></ul><h2>FASD is caused by drinking alcohol during pregnancy</h2> <p>FASD can happen when a pregnant woman drinks any type of alcohol, including beer, wine, hard liquor or coolers. Alcohol crosses the placental barrier from mother to baby. Any amount of drinking during pregnancy can cause FASD. </p> <ul> <li>High risk begins when a woman has two drinks a day, or 14 drinks on average per week, or four or more drinks on any one occasion. </li> <li>Recent evidence suggests that even one drink per day may cause behavioural problems. </li> </ul> <p>The kinds of problems the baby may have depends on when the mother drinks during the pregnancy:</p> <ul> <li>Since the brain is developing during the entire pregnancy, the brain is always being affected if the mother drinks regularly. </li> <li>Drinking during the first trimester increases the chance that the baby will have a small brain, physical problems and/or severe intellectual disability. </li> <li>Drinking during the second trimester increases the chances of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage). </li> <li>Drinking during the third trimester, and during nursing, can affect intelligence. </li> </ul> <p>Not all babies who are exposed to alcohol during pregnancy will have FASD. We do not yet understand why some babies are born with problems and others are not, even when their mothers drank about the same amount of alcohol during their pregnancies. In some cases, one baby will have FASD but their fraternal twin will not. </p> <h2>FASD is common</h2> <p>FASD affects approximately 1% of people living in Canada. This means that there may be about 300,000 people with FASD living in Canada today. </p><h2>How FASD is diagnosed</h2> <p>If you think that your baby could have been exposed to alcohol before birth, speak to your doctor. A health care provider can diagnose FASD by: </p> <ul> <li>asking about the mother's pregnancy and the child's birth </li> <li>doing a physical exam </li> <li>testing the child's abilities to understand, communicate, move and adapt </li> <li>measuring facial features </li> </ul><h2>There is no cure for FASD</h2> <p>It is not easy to "treat" FASD. However, it is important to diagnose FASD early because there are some things that can help.</p> <ul> <li>Physical and occupational therapy can often help somewhat. </li> <li>A child with FASD should have psycho-educational testing to find specific difficulties. This will help the child get services in school that will help with the difficulties. </li> <li>Social workers can help the family cope and deal with family issues. </li> </ul><h2>Preventing FASD</h2> <p>The only way to prevent FASD is by not drinking when pregnant.</p> <p>For more information, please see the <a href="/Article?contentid=316&language=English">AboutKidsHealth Pregnancy resource centre</a>. </p> <p>If you are pregnant or think you might be pregnant, do not drink alcohol. If you have a problem with drinking, talk to your doctor or another health professional. They may be able to help you stop drinking, or to cut back on your drinking as much as possible. </p><h2>FASD lasts throughout a child's life</h2> <p>The effects of FASD last throughout life. The problems change as the child grows up. Behaviour and mood problems such as alcohol and drug abuse, depression, psychosis and aggressive behaviour often begin in the teenage years. </p> <p>People with FASD are commonly not able to manage their own lives, or to be totally independent as adults. They will need some kind of help their whole lives to be successful. </p>Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)

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