Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias)HHeart rhythm problems (arrhythmias)Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias)EnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartHeartConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2010-03-19T04:00:00ZElizabeth Stephenson, MD, MSc9.0000000000000050.00000000000001395.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn about heart rhythm problems. Usually identified as an irregular heartbeat, they can occur at any age and may or may not have symptoms. </p><h2>How does the heart beat?</h2> <p>The heartbeat is controlled by electricity. Special cells called pacemakers release bursts of electrical energy that travel through the heart muscle, causing it to contract. When the muscle contracts, blood is pumped through the heart.</p> <p>To learn more about the heart's electrical system and the normal heartbeat, please see <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=heart">How the Body Works: Electrocardiogram (ECG).</a></p> <h2>What is an arrhythmia?</h2> <p>An arrhythmia (also called dysrhythmia) refers to what is usually an irregular heartbeat. The heart rate can be fast, slow or irregular, taking into consideration age and activity. For example, a newborn's heart beats much faster than a five-year-old child's heart. </p> <p>A fast heart rate is called tachycardia. A slow heart rate is called bradycardia. </p> <p>Some irregular heartbeats are normal:</p> <ul> <li>Sinus arrhythmia is the normal variation in heart rate that accompanies breathing in and out.</li> <li>Sinus tachycardia is the normal increase in the heart rate that occurs in healthy people when they are excited, exercising or have a fever. </li> </ul> <p>An arrhythmia can be short-lived (acute) and resolve on its own, or long-lasting (chronic) requiring treatment. </p> <p>Arrhythmias can occur at any age and may or may not cause symptoms. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>An arrhythmia is a fast, slow, or irregular heartbeat.</li> <li>Arrhythmias may be short-lived, or they may last for a long time and need treatment.</li> <li>Your child may not notice any symptoms of an arrhythmia.</li> <li>Arrhythmias are identified through electrocardiograms, which measure the heart's electrical activity.</li> <li>Treatment depends on what is causing the arrhythmia.</li> </ul><h2>What causes arrhythmias?</h2> <p>Arrhythmias can develop on their own (primary arrhythmia) or because of another condition, typically after heart surgery (secondary arrhythmia). </p> <p>Some types of arrhythmia may have a genetic component. If someone in your family had an arrhythmia, it may be more likely that your child might too. </p> <p>Arrhythmias can occur in structurally healthy hearts, but sometimes arrhythmias are a symptom of a heart abnormality. </p> <p>Sometimes arrhythmias can be caused by an external factor, like a drug a child is taking or a fever. </p><h2>How is an arrhythmia diagnosed?</h2><p>You or your child may not notice anything unusual about their heart rhythm. Arrhythmias may be discovered during a usual check-up. The doctor may ask you questions like:</p><ul><li>Is your child aware of unusual heartbeats?</li><li>Are unusual heartbeats brought on by anything in particular?</li><li>If the heart rate is fast, how fast is it?</li><li>Has your child shown any symptoms, like feeling weak or dizzy?</li><li>Has your child ever fainted?</li></ul><div class="akh-series"><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">Electrocardiogram</span><img alt="Electrocardiogram pattern" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/ECG_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.jpg" /> </figure> <p>Arrhythmias are identified through electrocardiograms. These tests show the electrical activity in the atria (upper chambers) and the ventricles (lower chambers) of the heart. Doctors examine the heart rate activity, how often these electrical signals occur, and how regularly the heart beats to determine if a child has an arrhythmia.</p></div></div></div> <p>A test called a Holter monitor may be done. This is a recording of an electrocardiogram reading for a 24-hour period. Because arrhythmias tend to happen only once in a while, it is important to monitor the child for a good amount of time.</p><p>For more information, please read <a href="/Article?contentid=1281&language=English">Holter Monitors</a>.</p><p>Fetal arrhythmias can also be identified when the baby is still in the womb. To manage this situation, the mother is generally given anti-arrhythmic drugs. Intermittent fetal tachycardias can pose a threat to the baby, possibly before or after birth, and the arrhythmias tend to recur in infancy.</p>
Troubles du rythme cardiaque (arythmies)TTroubles du rythme cardiaque (arythmies)Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias)FrenchCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartHeartConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2010-03-19T04:00:00ZElizabeth Stephenson, MD, MSc9.0000000000000050.00000000000001395.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Apprenez-en davantage sur les troubles du rythme cardiaque. Habituellement désignés comme des battements cardiaques irréguliers, ils peuvent se produire à tout âge et s’accompagnent parfois de symptômes, mais pas toujours.</p><h2>Comment le cœur bat-il?</h2> <p>Le battement du cœur est contrôlé par l'électricité. Le nœud sinusal est composé de cellules spéciales qui relâchent des décharges d'énergie électrique qui voyagent dans le muscle du cœur provoquant ainsi sa contraction. Lorsque le muscle se contracte, le sang est pompé dans le cœur.</p> <p>Pour en savoir plus sur le système électrique du cœur et le battement cardiaque normal, veuillez consultez <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=heart"> « Comment fonctionne le corps : Électrocardiogramme (ECG) ».</a></p> <h2>Qu’est-ce qu'une arythmie?</h2> <p>Une arythmie (également appelée dysrythmie) fait référence à ce que l'on désigne habituellement comme un battement de cœur irrégulier. Le rythme cardiaque peut être rapide, lent ou irrégulier selon l'âge et le niveau d'activité. Ainsi par exemple, le cœur d'un bébé bat beaucoup plus rapidement que celui d'un enfant de 5 ans.</p> <p>Un rythme cardiaque rapide est appelé tachycardie et un rythme cardiaque lent est appelé bradycardie.</p> <p>Certains battements de cœur irréguliers sont normaux :</p> <ul> <li>L'arythmie sinusale est une variation normale du rythme cardiaque qui accompagne l'inspiration et l'expiration.</li> <li>La tachycardie sinusale est l'augmentation normale du rythme cardiaque qui se produit chez les personnes en santé lorsqu’elles sont excitées, qu'elles font de l'exercice ou qu'elles font de la fièvre.</li> </ul> <p>Une arythmie peut être de courte durée (aigüe) et disparaître d'elle-même ou être de longue durée (chronique) et requérir un traitement. </p> <p>Les arythmies peuvent se produire à tout âge. Elles s'accompagnent parfois de symptômes, mais pas toujours.</p><h2>À retenir</h2> <ul><li>Une arythmie, c'est un battement cardiaque rapide, lent ou irrégulier.</li><li>Les arythmies peuvent être de courte durée ou elles peuvent durer longtemps et nécessiter un traitement.</li><li>Il se peut que votre enfant ne remarque aucun symptôme d'une arythmie.</li><li>Les arythmies sont détectées au moyen d'électrocardiogrammes, lesquels mesurent l'activité électrique du cœur.</li><li>Le traitement dépend de ce qui cause l'arythmie.</li></ul><h2>Qu'est-ce qui cause les arythmies?</h2> <p>Les arythmies peuvent se développer d'elles-mêmes (arythmie primaire) ou être causées par d'autres situations, généralement à la suite d’une chirurgie cardiaque (arythmie secondaire).</p> <p>Certains types d'arythmie peuvent avoir une composante génétique. Si quelqu'un dans votre famille fait de l'arythmie, il y a plus de chance que votre enfant en fasse également. </p> <p>Les arythmies peuvent se produire chez les personnes dont le cœur est en santé mais elles sont parfois un symptôme d'une anomalie cardiaque.</p> <p>Les arythmies sont parfois causées par un facteur externe, comme un médicament ou une fièvre.</p><h2>Comment diagnostique-t-on l'arythmie?</h2><p>Il se peut que vous ou votre enfant ne remarquiez rien d'inhabituel en ce qui concerne son rythme cardiaque. On découvre parfois les arythmies au cours d'un examen de routine. Il se peut que le médecin vous pose des questions telles que :</p><ul><li>Votre enfant a-t-il rapporté des battements de cœur inhabituels?</li><li>Les battements de cœur inhabituels sont-ils provoqués par quelque chose en particulier?</li><li>Le rythme cardiaque est-il rapide? Quelle est la vitesse du rythme cardiaque?</li><li>Votre enfant a-t-il affiché certains symptômes, comme se sentir faible ou étourdi?</li><li>Votre enfant s’est-il déjà évanoui?</li></ul><p>On détecte les arythmies au moyen d'électrocardiogrammes. Ces tests montrent l'activité électrique dans les atria (chambres supérieures) et dans les ventricules (chambres inférieures) du cœur. Les médecins examinent l'activité du rythme cardiaque, à quelle fréquence les signaux électriques se produisent, et à quelle régularité le cœur bat de façon à déterminer si un enfant a une arythmie. </p> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Électrocardiogramme</span><img alt="Electrocardiogram pattern" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/ECG_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.jpg" /></figure> <p>On peut effectuer un test appelé moniteur Holter. Il s'agit de l'enregistrement des relevés d'un électrocardiogramme pendant une période de 24 heures. Comme les arythmies ont tendance à se produire de temps à autre, il est important de faire le suivi du cœur de l'enfant pendant une période assez longue.</p><p>Pour plus de renseignements à ce sujet, veuillez consulter<a href="/Article?contentid=1281&language=French"> « moniteurs Holter »</a>.</p><p>On peut également détecter des arythmies fœtales alors que le bébé est encore dans le ventre de sa mère. Dans une telle situation, on donne habituellement des médicaments antiarythmiques à la mère. Des tachycardies fœtales intermittentes peuvent constituer un danger pour le bébé, possiblement avant ou après la naissance, et les arythmies tendent à revenir durant l’enfance. </p>

 

 

Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias)890.000000000000Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias)Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias)HEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartHeartConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2010-03-19T04:00:00ZElizabeth Stephenson, MD, MSc9.0000000000000050.00000000000001395.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn about heart rhythm problems. Usually identified as an irregular heartbeat, they can occur at any age and may or may not have symptoms. </p><h2>How does the heart beat?</h2> <p>The heartbeat is controlled by electricity. Special cells called pacemakers release bursts of electrical energy that travel through the heart muscle, causing it to contract. When the muscle contracts, blood is pumped through the heart.</p> <p>To learn more about the heart's electrical system and the normal heartbeat, please see <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=heart">How the Body Works: Electrocardiogram (ECG).</a></p> <h2>What is an arrhythmia?</h2> <p>An arrhythmia (also called dysrhythmia) refers to what is usually an irregular heartbeat. The heart rate can be fast, slow or irregular, taking into consideration age and activity. For example, a newborn's heart beats much faster than a five-year-old child's heart. </p> <p>A fast heart rate is called tachycardia. A slow heart rate is called bradycardia. </p> <p>Some irregular heartbeats are normal:</p> <ul> <li>Sinus arrhythmia is the normal variation in heart rate that accompanies breathing in and out.</li> <li>Sinus tachycardia is the normal increase in the heart rate that occurs in healthy people when they are excited, exercising or have a fever. </li> </ul> <p>An arrhythmia can be short-lived (acute) and resolve on its own, or long-lasting (chronic) requiring treatment. </p> <p>Arrhythmias can occur at any age and may or may not cause symptoms. </p><p>Different types of arrhythmias, and some syndromes that can cause arrhythmias, are described below.</p><h2>What is tachycardia?</h2><p>Tachycardia is a fast heart rate. With tachycardia, the resting heart rate for a newborn can increase to over 160 beats per minute. This can last for seconds, minutes or even hours, depending on how serious it is. Symptoms include feeling dizzy, weak and generally uncomfortable. </p><p>It is important to know that it is unusual for tachycardia to cause the heart to stop all of a sudden, and it usually does not last long enough to cause serious damage.</p><p>There are two basic types of tachycardia: </p><ul><li>ventricular tachycardia, which involves only the ventricles </li><li>supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), which involves both the atria and the ventricles; this is the most common type in children</li></ul><p>For more information, please read <a href="/Article?contentid=894&language=English">Fast heart rate (tachycardia).</a></p><h3>How is tachycardia treated?</h3><p>Treatment depends on what is causing the tachycardia. Some SVTs can be stopped with certain techniques called vasovagal manoeuvres, including: </p><ul><li>blowing on your thumb like it's a horn </li><li>blowing through a straw with your hand on the end to plug it </li><li>putting ice or cold water on the face for a few seconds</li></ul><p>Other tachycardias can be helped with medication. Drugs can help prevent the episodes from starting, decrease the heart rate during the episode or shorten how long the episode lasts. </p><p>Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) is another option. This approach delivers electricity to the heart to permanently interrupt the abnormal electrical pathway. One of the newer approaches is cryoablation, which involves the use of freezing. </p><h2>What is bradycardia?</h2><p>Bradycardia is a slow heart rate. It is less common than tachycardia. </p><p>Bradycardia is usually caused by damage to the sinus node, which is the heart's natural pacemaker. This can occur during surgery or from abnormalities of the sinus node (sick sinus syndrome). It can also be caused by heart block. </p><p>When bradycardia is detected very soon after birth, it is sometimes caused by complete heart block, although it can also develop later in life (acquired heart block). </p><h3>How is bradycardia treated?</h3><p>In some cases, children may need to have surgery to implant a permanent pacemaker. In other cases, the condition is not serious. </p><h2>What are premature heartbeats?</h2><p>Premature heartbeats, or extra beats, usually cause irregular heart rhythms. These can start in the atria (premature atrial contraction or PAC) or in the ventricles (premature ventricular contraction or PVC).</p><p>This type of arrhythmia feels like your heart has "skipped a beat." What actually happens is a beat comes earlier than expected, then there is a pause, and then the next beat is very strong. </p><p>Premature heartbeats are often completely normal. Many people have them at one time or another. However, in some cases they may indicate disease or damage in the heart. </p><h2>What is sick sinus syndrome?</h2><p>The sinus node (also called the sinoatrial node) is the heart's natural pacemaker. When the sinus node does not work properly, it is called sick sinus syndrome. Children with this syndrome experience tachycardia and bradycardia. </p><p>Treatment may involve medication and/or an artificial pacemaker. </p><h2>What is heart block?</h2><p>Heart block means that the electrical signal that causes the heart to beat cannot move from the upper chambers of the heart (atria) to the lower chambers (ventricles). When this happens, another signal takes over in the lower chambers, but at a slower rate. </p><p>The most serious form of this condition is complete heart block. This heart rhythm abnormality can occur before birth (congenital heart block) or happen as a result of disease or injury (acquired heart block). Complete heart block is also known as third-degree heart block. </p> <figure class="swf-asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Complete heart block</span> <div class="asset-animation"> src="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/Style%20Library/akh/swfanimations/swf.html?swffile=Complete_heart_block_MED_ANI_EN.swf" </div> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The electrical signal that causes the heart to beat cannot move from the upper to the lower chambers of the heart (from the atria to the ventricles).</figcaption> </figure> <p>Congenital heart block is more common in children born to mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or related conditions. Exactly what causes heart block in these children is unknown. It is thought that mothers with this disease pass on the SLE antibodies to their babies. Antibodies are proteins that help protect against infection.</p><h3>How is heart block treated?</h3><p>When the heart's "pacemaker" cannot do its job properly, surgery to implant an artificial pacemaker may be done. Without treatment, the heart beats so slowly that it cannot get enough blood to the vital organs of the body.</p><h2>What is Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome (WPW)?</h2><p>In WPW syndrome, an abnormal pathway that conducts electrical signals causes the signal to get to the ventricles too quickly. This condition may or may not have symptoms. It may be connected with supraventricular tachycardia. Occasionally, dangerous rhythms can be seen in patients with WPW.</p><h3>How is WPW treated?</h3><p>WPW can sometimes be successfully controlled with medication, but sometimes radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) is needed. </p> <figure class="swf-asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW)</span> <div class="asset-animation"> src="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/Style%20Library/akh/swfanimations/swf.html?swffile=ARR_wpw_MED_ANI_EN.swf" </div> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">An abnormal pathway that conducts electrical signals causes the signal to get to the ventricles too quickly.</figcaption> </figure> <h2>What is long QT syndrome?</h2><p>This syndrome involves electrical instability in the heart. The irregularity in the electrical conduction can cause ventricular tachycardia. </p><p>Long QT syndrome is not common and usually has no symptoms. Often, the first sign may be fainting under stress or during intense exercising. </p><p>In rare cases, long QT syndrome is associated with congenital deafness. It usually runs in families. </p><h3>How is long QT syndrome treated?</h3><p>In most cases, treatment is needed. Treatment usually involves the use of drugs called beta blockers, which can slow down the heart's reaction to stress. Treatment can also involve the use of pacemakers or implantable cardiac defibrillators. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>An arrhythmia is a fast, slow, or irregular heartbeat.</li> <li>Arrhythmias may be short-lived, or they may last for a long time and need treatment.</li> <li>Your child may not notice any symptoms of an arrhythmia.</li> <li>Arrhythmias are identified through electrocardiograms, which measure the heart's electrical activity.</li> <li>Treatment depends on what is causing the arrhythmia.</li> </ul><h2>What causes arrhythmias?</h2> <p>Arrhythmias can develop on their own (primary arrhythmia) or because of another condition, typically after heart surgery (secondary arrhythmia). </p> <p>Some types of arrhythmia may have a genetic component. If someone in your family had an arrhythmia, it may be more likely that your child might too. </p> <p>Arrhythmias can occur in structurally healthy hearts, but sometimes arrhythmias are a symptom of a heart abnormality. </p> <p>Sometimes arrhythmias can be caused by an external factor, like a drug a child is taking or a fever. </p><h2>How is an arrhythmia diagnosed?</h2><p>You or your child may not notice anything unusual about their heart rhythm. Arrhythmias may be discovered during a usual check-up. The doctor may ask you questions like:</p><ul><li>Is your child aware of unusual heartbeats?</li><li>Are unusual heartbeats brought on by anything in particular?</li><li>If the heart rate is fast, how fast is it?</li><li>Has your child shown any symptoms, like feeling weak or dizzy?</li><li>Has your child ever fainted?</li></ul><div class="akh-series"><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">Electrocardiogram</span><img alt="Electrocardiogram pattern" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/ECG_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.jpg" /> </figure> <p>Arrhythmias are identified through electrocardiograms. These tests show the electrical activity in the atria (upper chambers) and the ventricles (lower chambers) of the heart. Doctors examine the heart rate activity, how often these electrical signals occur, and how regularly the heart beats to determine if a child has an arrhythmia.</p></div></div></div> <p>A test called a Holter monitor may be done. This is a recording of an electrocardiogram reading for a 24-hour period. Because arrhythmias tend to happen only once in a while, it is important to monitor the child for a good amount of time.</p><p>For more information, please read <a href="/Article?contentid=1281&language=English">Holter Monitors</a>.</p><p>Fetal arrhythmias can also be identified when the baby is still in the womb. To manage this situation, the mother is generally given anti-arrhythmic drugs. Intermittent fetal tachycardias can pose a threat to the baby, possibly before or after birth, and the arrhythmias tend to recur in infancy.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/ECG_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.jpgHeart rhythm problems (arrhythmias)False

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