Hypertension (high blood pressure)HHypertension (high blood pressure)Hypertension (high blood pressure)EnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-07-24T04:00:00ZShawna Silver, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, PEng10.000000000000053.0000000000000978.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the causes and treatment of hypertension, or high blood pressure. </p><p>Blood pressure is the pressure placed on the inner walls of our blood vessels (veins, arteries and capillaries) as the <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=heart">heart</a> pushes blood through the body.</p><p>When the heart beats, the blood pressure is called systolic blood pressure. When the heart relaxes between beats, the resulting blood pressure is called diastolic blood pressure.</p><p>Blood pressure is measured in units of pressure called millimetres of mercury (mmHg). For example, a measurement of 105/55 mmHg means the systolic blood pressure is 105 mmHg and the diastolic blood pressure is 55 mmHg. It is reported as 105 over 55 mmHg.</p><p>Systolic and diastolic blood pressures increase gradually from infancy to adulthood.</p> <h2>What is hypertension?</h2><p>Hypertension is another name for high blood pressure.</p><p>Normal values for blood pressure depend on a child's age, gender and height. Hypertension occurs when a child's blood pressure is recorded as higher than that of 95 percent of children of the same age, gender and height on three or more occasions. Another category of high blood pressure, "pre-hypertension", occurs when a child's blood pressure is higher than that of 90 percent of children of the same age, gender and height.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Blood pressure is a measurement of how hard the heart pumps blood through the body.</li> <li>Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is diagnosed based on a person's age, gender and height.</li> <li>Symptoms are more likely in children with secondary hypertension. They can include headaches, blurred vision, puffy hands or feet or shortness of breath.</li> <li>Hypertension is usually treated with diet, exercise and, sometimes, medications.</li> <li>Go to the nearest emergency department or call 911 immediately if your child has a seizure, has a very severe, persistent headache, becomes lethargic or becomes very short of breath.</li> </ul><h2>Symptoms of hypertension</h2> <p>A child is more likely to have hypertension symptoms with secondary hypertension. Symptoms include:</p> <ul> <li>increasing irritability or other behaviour changes</li> <li>blurred vision</li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=29&language=English">headaches</a></li> <li>shortness of breath</li> <li>puffy hands or feet</li> </ul> <p>Very severe hypertension can cause seizures.</p><h2>How hypertension is treated</h2> <p>Hypertension is treated differently depending on its cause. Both primary and secondary hypertension may be treated with diet, exercise and, sometimes, medication. Children with secondary hypertension may also receive treatment for the medical condition that is causing the high blood pressure.</p> <h3>Diet and exercise</h3> <p>If your child is overweight or obese, losing weight may help lower their blood pressure. Maintaining normal weight gain should also lead to less hypertension in adulthood.</p> <ul> <li>Try to give your child a diet that is low in salt and has lots of <a href="/Article?contentid=1437&language=English">vegetables</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=1437&language=English">fresh fruit</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=964&language=English">fibre</a> and low-fat <a href="/Article?contentid=1439&language=English">dairy</a>.</li> <li>Limit your child's portion sizes, serve them fewer sugary drinks such as juice and pop and have them eat regular meals, including a healthy breakfast.</li> <li>Encourage your child to do regular <a href="/Article?contentid=642&language=English">physical activity</a> (30 to 60 minutes of moderate physical activity on most days) and <a href="/Article?contentid=644&language=English">limit screen time</a> to less than two hours a day.</li> </ul> <h3>Anti-hypertensive medication</h3> <p>If your child needs to take medication to control their high blood pressure, follow your doctor's instructions carefully both for taking the medication and for monitoring any side effects.</p> <h2>When to have your child's blood pressure checked</h2> <p>All children over three years of age should have their blood pressure measured at least once a year during routine visits to their doctor. If your doctor has not measured your child's blood pressure starting at age three, ask them to measure it at your child's next appointment.</p> <p>Blood pressure measurements may be recommended for children under age three if they are at a higher risk for high blood pressure, for example if they have kidney or <a href="/Article?contentid=1576&language=English">heart disease</a>.</p> <h3>Getting an accurate blood pressure measurement</h3> <p>Doctors normally measure the blood pressure in an artery using an inflatable cuff wrapped around an arm or a leg. It is important for blood pressure to be measured on a calm child with the correct-sized cuff. Blood pressure measurements can be incorrect if they are taken with a poorly-fitting cuff or when a child is frightened or crying.</p><h2>Long-term consequences of hypertension</h2> <p>Children and teenagers with hypertension are at risk of damage to many different parts of the body, including the heart, eyes and kidneys. Children with hypertension who are also overweight and obese may also have difficulties sleeping or have trouble using the body's sugars, a condition known as pre-diabetes.</p><h2>When to see a doctor for hypertension</h2> <p>Make an appointment with your child's doctor if your child:</p> <ul> <li>has high blood pressure when being monitored at home or by another health-care professional</li> <li>is taking anti-hypertensive medications and needs a new prescription</li> <li>has a persistent headache or one that wakes them from sleep or occurs with <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a></li> <li>becomes short of breath</li> <li>becomes puffy or swollen in their hands, feet or face</li> </ul> <p>Go to your nearest Emergency Department or call 911 if your child:</p> <ul> <li>becomes very lethargic or cannot be roused</li> <li>has a seizure</li> <li>suddenly becomes weak in one arm or leg or on one side of the body</li> <li>becomes very short of breath and is breathing very quickly</li> <li>has a very severe, persistent headache</li> </ul>
Hypertension (tension artérielle élevée)HHypertension (tension artérielle élevée)Hypertension (high blood pressure)FrenchCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-07-24T04:00:00ZShawna Silver, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, PEng10.000000000000053.0000000000000978.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Renseignez-vous sur les causes et le traitement de l’hypertension (tension artérielle élevée). </p><p>La tension artérielle est la pression exercée sur les parois internes des vaisseaux sanguins (veines, artères et capillaires) pendant que <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=heart">le cœur</a> propulse le sang dans l’organisme.</p><p>Durant les battements de cœur, la tension artérielle s’appelle tension systolique. Quand le cœur est au repos entre les battements, elle s’appelle tension diastolique.</p><p>La tension artérielle se mesure en unités de tension appelées millimètres de mercure (mm Hg) et s'exprime par la valeur de la tension systolique sur celle de la tension diastolique. Par exemple, une lecture de 105/55 mm Hg veut dire que la tension artérielle systolique est de 105 mm Hg et que la tension artérielle diastolique est de 55 mm Hg.</p><p>Tant la tension artérielle systolique que la tension artérielle diastolique augmentent progressivement de la petite enfance à l'âge adulte.</p> <h2>Qu’entend-on par hypertension?</h2><p>L’hypertension renvoie à une tension artérielle élevée.</p><p>Chez les enfants, les valeurs normales de la tension artérielle varient selon l’âge, le sexe et la taille. Le diagnostic d’hypertension est retenu quand la tension artérielle d’un enfant dépasse les valeurs mesurées chez 95 p. cent des enfants d’âge, de sexe ou de taille identiques à au moins trois reprises. Une autre catégorie de tension artérielle élevée est la « préhypertension ». Un diagnostic de préhypertension est retenu quand la tension artérielle d’un enfant dépasse les valeurs mesurées chez 90 p. cent des enfants d’âge, de sexe ou de taille identiques.</p><h2>À retenir</h2> <ul> <li>La tension artérielle est une mesure de l’intensité avec laquelle le cœur pompe le sang dans l’organisme.</li> <li>Le diagnostic d’hypertension (tension artérielle élevée) est établi en fonction de l’âge, du sexe ou de la taille.</li> <li>Des symptômes sont plus susceptibles de se manifester chez les enfants atteints d’hypertension secondaire. Les symptômes possibles sont les suivants : maux de tête, vision floue, gonflement des mains ou des pieds ou essoufflement.</li> <li>L’hypertension se traite généralement à l’aide du régime alimentaire et d’activités physiques auxquels des médicaments sont parfois ajoutés.</li> <li>Rendez-vous aux services d’urgence les plus près ou composez le 911 sans tarder si votre enfant fait des convulsions, souffre d’un mal de tête très intense et persistant, est léthargique ou devient très essoufflé.</li> </ul><h2>Symptômes de l’hypertension</h2> <p>Des symptômes risquent davantage de se manifester chez un enfant atteint d’hypertension secondaire. Les symptômes possibles sont les suivants :</p> <ul> <li>irritabilité grandissante ou autres changements de comportement,</li> <li>vision floue,</li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=29&language=French">maux de tête,</a></li> <li>essoufflements,</li> <li>mains ou pieds enflés.</li> </ul> <p>L’hypertension aiguë peut provoquer des convulsions.</p><h2>Comment traite-t-on l’hypertension?</h2><p>Le traitement de l’hypertension varie selon ses causes. Tant l’hypertension primaire que l’hypertension secondaire se traitent à l’aide du régime alimentaire et d’activités physiques auxquels on ajoute parfois des médicaments. Chez les enfants atteints d’hypertension secondaire, on peut aussi en traiter la cause sous-jacente.</p><h3>Régime alimentaire et activités physiques</h3><p>Si votre enfant fait de l’embonpoint ou est obèse, le fait de perdre du poids peut permettre de réduire sa tension artérielle. Une prise de poids normale devrait aussi limiter son hypertension à l’âge adulte.</p><ul><li>Essayez d’alimenter votre enfant au moyen d’un régime faible en sel et riche en fibres qui comporte beaucoup de légumes,de fruits frais, et de de produits laitiers à faible teneur en matières grasses. </li><li>Limitez la taille de ses portions, réduisez le nombre de boissons sucrées comme les jus de fruits et les boissons gazeuses que vous lui donnez et veillez à ce qu’il prenne régulièrement trois repas par jour, y compris un repas sain le matin.</li><li>Encouragez-le à faire régulièrement <a href="/Article?contentid=642&language=French">des activités physiques </a> (de 30 à 60 minutes d’activités physiques modérées la plupart des jours) et <a href="/article?contentid=644&language=French">limitez son « temps d’écran » </a> à moins de deux heures par jour. </li></ul><h3>Antihypertenseurs</h3><p>Si votre enfant a besoin d’antihypertenseurs (médicaments pour maîtriser l’hypertension), suivez minutieusement les instructions que vous donne votre médecin à la fois pour leur administration et pour la surveillance des effets secondaires.</p><h2>Quand faire prendre la tension artérielle de votre enfant</h2><p>La tension artérielle des enfants de plus de trois ans doit être prise au moins une fois par année durant leurs rendez-vous de routine chez le médecin. Si votre médecin n’a pas commencé à prendre la tension artérielle de votre enfant à compter de trois ans, demandez-lui de le faire au cours du prochain rendez-vous.</p><p>Il peut être recommandé de prendre la tension artérielle des enfants de moins de trois ans s’ils sont davantage à risque d’être atteint d’hypertension. C’est le cas, par exemple, de ceux qui souffrent de néphropathies (affections des reins) ou <a href="/Article?contentid=1576&language=French">de cardiopathies (affections du cœur).</a>.</p><h3>Prise exacte de la tension artérielle</h3><p>Les médecins prennent normalement la tension artérielle à l’aide d’un brassard gonflable dont ils entourent un bras ou une jambe. Quand on prend la tension artérielle d’un enfant, Il est important que celui-ci soit calme et d’utiliser un brassard de la bonne taille. Les valeurs peuvent être erronées si un enfant a peur ou s’il pleure ou si le brassard utilisé s’ajuste mal.</p><h2>Répercussions à long terme de l’hypertension</h2> <p>Chez les enfants et les adolescents, l’hypertension est susceptible d’endommager de nombreuses parties du corps, dont le cœur, les yeux et les reins. Les enfants atteints d’hypertension qui font de l’embonpoint ou sont obèses peuvent avoir des difficultés à dormir ou être prédiabétiques, ce qui veut dire que l’organisme fait une mauvaise utilisation du glucose (sucres).</p><h2>Quand consulter un médecin pour l’hypertension</h2> <p>Prenez un rendez-vous avec votre médecin si :</p> <ul> <li>votre enfant fait de l’hypertension quand un autre professionnel de la santé ou vous-même assurez la surveillance de sa tension artérielle,</li> <li>s’il prend des antihypertenseurs et que son ordonnance doit être renouvelée,</li> <li>s’il est atteint d’un mal de tête qui persiste, qui le réveille pendant son sommeil ou qui est accompagné de vomissements,</li> <li>s’il devient essoufflé,</li> <li>si ses mains, ses pieds ou son visage enflent.</li> </ul> <p>Rendez-vous aux services d’urgence les plus près ou composez le 911 :</p> <ul> <li>si votre enfant devient très léthargique ou que vous ne pouvez pas le réveiller,</li> <li>s’il fait des convulsions,</li> <li>s’il est soudainement pris d’une faiblesse dans un bras ou une jambe ou d’un côté du corps,</li> <li>s’il devient très essoufflé et respire très rapidement,</li> <li>s’il souffre d’un mal de tête très intense et persistant.</li> </ul>

 

 

Hypertension (high blood pressure)898.000000000000Hypertension (high blood pressure)Hypertension (high blood pressure)HEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-07-24T04:00:00ZShawna Silver, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, PEng10.000000000000053.0000000000000978.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the causes and treatment of hypertension, or high blood pressure. </p><p>Blood pressure is the pressure placed on the inner walls of our blood vessels (veins, arteries and capillaries) as the <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=heart">heart</a> pushes blood through the body.</p><p>When the heart beats, the blood pressure is called systolic blood pressure. When the heart relaxes between beats, the resulting blood pressure is called diastolic blood pressure.</p><p>Blood pressure is measured in units of pressure called millimetres of mercury (mmHg). For example, a measurement of 105/55 mmHg means the systolic blood pressure is 105 mmHg and the diastolic blood pressure is 55 mmHg. It is reported as 105 over 55 mmHg.</p><p>Systolic and diastolic blood pressures increase gradually from infancy to adulthood.</p> <h2>What is hypertension?</h2><p>Hypertension is another name for high blood pressure.</p><p>Normal values for blood pressure depend on a child's age, gender and height. Hypertension occurs when a child's blood pressure is recorded as higher than that of 95 percent of children of the same age, gender and height on three or more occasions. Another category of high blood pressure, "pre-hypertension", occurs when a child's blood pressure is higher than that of 90 percent of children of the same age, gender and height.</p><h2>Types of hypertension in children</h2> <p>There are two main types of hypertension in children:</p> <ul> <li>primary hypertension</li> <li>secondary hypertension.</li> </ul> <h3>Primary hypertension</h3> <p>Primary hypertension is the most common type of high blood pressure in older children and teenagers. It is more likely to occur in those who are overweight or obese or have a family history of high blood pressure or heart disease. It is called primary hypertension because no cause has been identified for the high blood pressure. It should only be diagnosed after other causes are ruled out.</p> <h3>Secondary hypertension</h3> <p>Secondary hypertension is more common in children than in teenagers and adults. It can be caused by one or more of the following:</p> <ul> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=936&language=English">kidney disease</a></li> <li>hormone problems (for example, endocrine disease)</li> <li>medications or other drugs</li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=2478&language=English">neurological conditions</a> (conditions that affect the brain and central nervous system)</li> <li>heart or blood vessel problems.</li> </ul><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Blood pressure is a measurement of how hard the heart pumps blood through the body.</li> <li>Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is diagnosed based on a person's age, gender and height.</li> <li>Symptoms are more likely in children with secondary hypertension. They can include headaches, blurred vision, puffy hands or feet or shortness of breath.</li> <li>Hypertension is usually treated with diet, exercise and, sometimes, medications.</li> <li>Go to the nearest emergency department or call 911 immediately if your child has a seizure, has a very severe, persistent headache, becomes lethargic or becomes very short of breath.</li> </ul><h2>Symptoms of hypertension</h2> <p>A child is more likely to have hypertension symptoms with secondary hypertension. Symptoms include:</p> <ul> <li>increasing irritability or other behaviour changes</li> <li>blurred vision</li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=29&language=English">headaches</a></li> <li>shortness of breath</li> <li>puffy hands or feet</li> </ul> <p>Very severe hypertension can cause seizures.</p><h2>How hypertension is treated</h2> <p>Hypertension is treated differently depending on its cause. Both primary and secondary hypertension may be treated with diet, exercise and, sometimes, medication. Children with secondary hypertension may also receive treatment for the medical condition that is causing the high blood pressure.</p> <h3>Diet and exercise</h3> <p>If your child is overweight or obese, losing weight may help lower their blood pressure. Maintaining normal weight gain should also lead to less hypertension in adulthood.</p> <ul> <li>Try to give your child a diet that is low in salt and has lots of <a href="/Article?contentid=1437&language=English">vegetables</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=1437&language=English">fresh fruit</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=964&language=English">fibre</a> and low-fat <a href="/Article?contentid=1439&language=English">dairy</a>.</li> <li>Limit your child's portion sizes, serve them fewer sugary drinks such as juice and pop and have them eat regular meals, including a healthy breakfast.</li> <li>Encourage your child to do regular <a href="/Article?contentid=642&language=English">physical activity</a> (30 to 60 minutes of moderate physical activity on most days) and <a href="/Article?contentid=644&language=English">limit screen time</a> to less than two hours a day.</li> </ul> <h3>Anti-hypertensive medication</h3> <p>If your child needs to take medication to control their high blood pressure, follow your doctor's instructions carefully both for taking the medication and for monitoring any side effects.</p> <h2>When to have your child's blood pressure checked</h2> <p>All children over three years of age should have their blood pressure measured at least once a year during routine visits to their doctor. If your doctor has not measured your child's blood pressure starting at age three, ask them to measure it at your child's next appointment.</p> <p>Blood pressure measurements may be recommended for children under age three if they are at a higher risk for high blood pressure, for example if they have kidney or <a href="/Article?contentid=1576&language=English">heart disease</a>.</p> <h3>Getting an accurate blood pressure measurement</h3> <p>Doctors normally measure the blood pressure in an artery using an inflatable cuff wrapped around an arm or a leg. It is important for blood pressure to be measured on a calm child with the correct-sized cuff. Blood pressure measurements can be incorrect if they are taken with a poorly-fitting cuff or when a child is frightened or crying.</p><h2>Long-term consequences of hypertension</h2> <p>Children and teenagers with hypertension are at risk of damage to many different parts of the body, including the heart, eyes and kidneys. Children with hypertension who are also overweight and obese may also have difficulties sleeping or have trouble using the body's sugars, a condition known as pre-diabetes.</p><h2>When to see a doctor for hypertension</h2> <p>Make an appointment with your child's doctor if your child:</p> <ul> <li>has high blood pressure when being monitored at home or by another health-care professional</li> <li>is taking anti-hypertensive medications and needs a new prescription</li> <li>has a persistent headache or one that wakes them from sleep or occurs with <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a></li> <li>becomes short of breath</li> <li>becomes puffy or swollen in their hands, feet or face</li> </ul> <p>Go to your nearest Emergency Department or call 911 if your child:</p> <ul> <li>becomes very lethargic or cannot be roused</li> <li>has a seizure</li> <li>suddenly becomes weak in one arm or leg or on one side of the body</li> <li>becomes very short of breath and is breathing very quickly</li> <li>has a very severe, persistent headache</li> </ul>Hypertension (high blood pressure)

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