Kawasaki diseaseKKawasaki diseaseKawasaki diseaseEnglishHaematologyBaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years)HeartArteriesConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2018-12-17T05:00:00ZFlorence Aeschlimann;Michelle Anderson, BScN, RN;Rae SM Yeung, MD, PhD, FRCPC;Shirley Tse, MD, FRCPC8.0000000000000056.00000000000001033.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Kawasaki disease causes swelling of the blood vessels and can affect the heart. Learn about Kawasaki disease including its cause, diagnosis and treatment. </p><h2>What is Kawasaki disease?</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Kawasaki disease</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IHD_kawasaki_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">An inflammatory disease that, among other things, affects blood vessels in the body, particularly the coronary arteries.</figcaption> </figure> <p>Kawasaki disease causes inflammation or swelling of the blood vessels. Kawasaki disease can affect any medium-sized artery in the body but primarily affects the <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=heart">coronary arteries</a>. The coronary arteries are special blood vessels that carry blood and oxygen into the heart muscle. If there is a problem with the coronary arteries, the heart will not get enough blood and oxygen, making it unable to work properly.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Kawasaki disease causes swelling of the blood vessels. It can affect the heart.</li><li>Your child will be admitted to hospital for treatment. Treatment usually involves two medicines: intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) and ASA (Aspirin).</li><li>Most children with Kawasaki disease recover completely.<br></li></ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of Kawasaki disease</h2><p>Signs and symptoms of Kawasaki disease include:</p><ul><li>Five or more consecutive days of fever</li><li>Red or bloodshot eyes</li><li>Red lips, mouth or tongue </li><li>Puffy or red hands and feet</li><li>Rash</li><li>A swollen gland in the neck<br></li></ul><h2>Causes of Kawasaki disease</h2><p>The exact causes of Kawasaki disease are unknown. It is also not known why some children get the disease and others do not. It is possible that genetics play a role in the development of Kawasaki disease. </p><p>It is also possible a viral or bacterial infection may trigger the disease in children. Infections and Kawasaki disease often occur at the same time.</p><h3>Kawasaki disease is not contagious</h3><p>Kawasaki disease not spread from child to child, but infections can trigger Kawasaki disease.</p><p>It is rare for two children in the same family to get Kawasaki disease. When it occurs, it may be related to inherited genes that help to control the immune system.<br></p><h2>Diagnosis of Kawasaki disease</h2><p>The diagnosis of Kawasaki disease is made when a child has at least five consecutive days of fever and at least four out of the other five symptoms mentioned above. In some cases, a child will have fewer than four symptoms. Kawasaki disease often mimics other diseases such as common childhood infections. These factors make the diagnosis of Kawasaki disease more difficult.</p><p>Kawasaki disease is a rare illness. It usually affects children under the age of five, but older children can also be affected.</p><p>There is no specific test to diagnose Kawasaki disease. However, your child will have a blood test and a urine test, as well as an <a href="/article?contentid=1274&language=English">echocardiogram</a>. This is an ultrasound that takes pictures of your child's heart. It lets doctors see if there are any changes in the coronary arteries. If these arteries are affected, they may look widened or swollen.</p><h2>Treatment of Kawasaki disease</h2><p>A child with Kawasaki disease will need to stay in the hospital for several days. The health-care team will give your child medicine to try to prevent damage to the coronary arteries. These medicines are called <a href="/article?contentid=161&language=English">intravenous immune globulin (IVIG)</a> and <a href="/article?contentid=77&language=English">ASA (acetylsalicylic acid or Aspirin)​</a>.</p><p>After a child is treated, the fever usually goes away for good. Sometimes a child will need a second treatment with IVIG or other medicines.</p><h3>IVIG</h3><p>IVIG is given through an intravenous (IV) needle in your child's vein. It helps reduce the inflammation in the body. In turn, this can:</p><ul><li>reduce the fever and redness caused by the disease</li><li>help protect against heart problems.</li></ul><p>IVIG contains antibodies from donated blood. It is screened for viruses and bacteria before it is used as a treatment. Talk to your doctor if you have concerns about this treatment.</p><h3>ASA</h3><p>Low dose ASA is given by mouth once a day. During the first four to six weeks, children with Kawasaki disease may have high platelet counts in their blood. Platelets are involved in clot formation. Low dose ASA prevents your child’s platelets from sticking together. This helps prevent blood clots from forming in the blood vessels.</p><h3>Several different doctors look after children with Kawasaki disease</h3><p>Kawasaki disease may be diagnosed and managed by a paediatrician, an emergency doctor, or a family doctor.</p><p>Two types of paediatric specialists also help care for children with Kawasaki disease. These are rheumatologists and cardiologists.</p><ul><li>A rheumatologist is an inflammation specialist. They can help diagnose Kawasaki disease and decide on treatments with the medical team.</li><li>The cardiologist is a heart specialist. They will look at the echocardiogram. If the coronary arteries are swollen, the cardiologist will determine if the swelling is mild or severe. They will then decide on any further treatments and when they will need to repeat the echocardiogram.</li></ul><h2>Complications of Kawasaki disease </h2><p>Early and appropriate treatment of Kawasaki disease reduces the chances of injury or damage to the coronary arteries. Injury or damage to the arteries occurs in one in five untreated children. In most children, this damage is minor and does not last long. However, in some children the damage can last longer. In these children, the walls of the coronary arteries can become weak and form aneurysms.</p><p>An aneurysm is a localized, balloon-like bulge of the vessel wall. Aneurysms may be dangerous as they can cause problems with blood flow to the heart muscle. Medicine can help prevent further progression of the aneurysm or formation of clots.<br></p>
Maladie de KawasakiMMaladie de KawasakiKawasaki diseaseFrenchHaematology;RheumatologyBaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years)HeartArteriesConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2017-12-18T05:00:00ZFlorence Aeschlimann Michelle Anderson, BScN, RN Rae SM Yeung, MD, PhD, FRCPC Shirley Tse, MD, FRCPC8.0000000000000056.00000000000001033.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Vous en apprendrez davantage sur la cause, le diagnostic et le traitement de la maladie de Kawasaki.</p><h2>Qu’est-ce que la maladie de Kawasaki?</h2> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">Maladie de Kawasaki</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IHD_kawasaki_MED_ILL_FR.jpg" alt="" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Il s'agit d'une maladie inflammatoire qui, entre autres, touche les vaisseaux sanguins du corps, particulièrement les artères coronaires.</figcaption> </figure> <p>La maladie de Kawasaki cause une inflammation ou un gonflement des vaisseaux sanguins. Bien qu’elle puisse toucher n’importe quelle artère de taille moyenne, elle s’attaque surtout aux artères coronaires, qui transportent le sang et l’oxygène au muscle cardiaque. Si ces artères sont touchées, le cœur ne reçoit pas assez de sang et d’oxygène et ne peut donc pas fonctionner normalement.</p> <h2>À retenir</h2><ul><li>La maladie de Kawasaki fait gonfler les vaisseaux sanguins et peut toucher le cœur.</li> <li>Votre enfant sera admis à l’hôpital, où il sera traité. Le traitement nécessite habituellement deux médicaments : les immunoglobulines intraveineuses et l’acide acétylsalicylique (aspirine).</li><li>La plupart des enfants atteints de la maladie de Kawasaki se rétablissent complètement. </li></ul><h2>Symptômes de la maladie de Kawasaki</h2><p>La maladie de Kawasaki cause habituellement les symptômes suivant :</p><ul><li>Fièvre qui dure cinq jours ou plus</li><li>Yeux rouges ou injectés de sang</li><li>Rougeur des lèvres, de la bouche ou de la langue</li><li>Gonflement ou rougeur des mains ou des pieds</li><li>Éruption cutanée</li><li>Gonflement des ganglions du cou</li></ul><h2>Causes de la maladie de Kawasaki</h2><p>On ne connaît pas les causes exactes de la maladie de Kawasaki. On ne sait pas non plus pourquoi certains enfants la contractent et d'autres non. Il se peut que l'hérédité y soit pour quelque chose.</p><p>Il est aussi possible qu'elle soit causée par une infection virale ou bactérienne chez les enfants. Il arrive souvent qu'on souffre simultanément d'infections et de la maladie de Kawasaki.</p><h3>La maladie de Kawasaki n'est pas contagieuse</h3><p>Si la maladie de Kawasaki n'est pas transmise d'un enfant à l'autre, elle peut cependant être déclenchée par des infections.</p><p>Il est rare que deux enfants de la même famille contractent la maladie de Kawasaki. Le cas échéant, la cause en est peut-être héréditaire et attribuable à des gènes qui aident à contrôler le système immunitaire.</p> <h2>Diagnostic de la maladie de Kawasaki</h2><p>On diagnostique la maladie de Kawasaki chez un enfant lorsqu'il a de la fièvre depuis au moins cinq jours d'affilée et présente au moins quatre des cinq autres symptômes ci dessus. Dans certains cas, l'enfant atteint manifeste seulement trois symptômes ou moins. Les symptômes de la maladie de Kawasaki ressemblent souvent à ceux d'autres troubles, dont ceux d'infections infantiles courantes, ce qui rend son diagnostic d'autant plus ardu.</p><p>La maladie de Kawasaki est une maladie rare. Elle touche habituellement les enfants de moins de cinq ans, mais les enfants plus âgés peuvent aussi la contracter.</p><p>Même s'il n'existe aucun test précis pour diagnostiquer la maladie de Kawasaki, votre enfant subira des analyses sanguines et urinaires, ainsi qu'un <a href="/article?contentid=1274&language=French">échocardiogramme</a>, qui est une série de photos du cœur de votre enfant prises au moyen d'ultrasons. Il permet au médecin de voir s'il y a eu des changements dans les artères coronaires. Si elles sont touchées, elles pourraient avoir l'air plus larges ou gonflées. </p><h2>Traitement de la maladie de Kawasaki</h2><p>L'enfant atteint doit être hospitalisé pendant des jours. L'équipe de soins de santé lui donnera des médicaments afin de prévenir tout dommage à ses artères coronaires. Ces médicaments sont les <a href="/article?contentid=161&language=French">immunoglobulines intraveineuses (IgIV)</a> et l'<a href="/article?contentid=77&language=French">acide acétylsalicylique</a> ou aspirine.</p><p>Après que l'enfant a reçu le traitement, la fièvre disparaît habituellement pour de bon. Parfois, il aura besoin d'un traitement secondaire aux IgIV ou à d'autres médicaments.</p><h3>IgIV</h3><p>On administre les IgIV au moyen d'une aiguille intraveineuse insérée dans la veine de l'enfant. Ils peuvent réduire l'inflammation dans son corps, ce qui à son tour peut :</p><ul><li>réduire la fièvre et les rougeurs causées par la maladie;</li><li>protéger contre les problèmes cardiaques.</li></ul><p>Les IgIV contiennent des anticorps tirés du sang de donneurs. On teste le sang pour y dépister des virus et des bactéries avant d'administrer les anticorps. Si vous avez des inquiétudes à ce sujet, parlez-en à votre médecin.</p><h3>Acide acétylsalicylique</h3><p>Il faut administrer une faible dose d'acide acétylsalicylique par voie orale une fois par jour. Au cours des quatre à six premières semaines, les enfants atteints peuvent avoir dans le sang un taux de plaquettes élevé. Les plaquettes sont des cellules jouant un rôle essentiel dans la formation de caillots. Une petite dose d'acide acétylsalicylique empêche leur coagulation, ce qui prévient la formation de caillots dans les vaisseaux sanguins.</p><h3>Plusieurs médecins différents traitent les enfants atteints de la maladie de Kawasaki</h3><p>La maladie de Kawasaki peut être diagnostiquée par un pédiatre, un urgentologue ou un médecin de famille.</p><p>Deux types de pédiatres spécialisés peuvent aussi prendre soin des enfants atteints. Ce sont les rhumatologues et les cardiologues. </p><ul><li>Le rhumatologue est un spécialiste de l'inflammation. Il peut aider à diagnostiquer la maladie de Kawasaki et à décider du traitement avec l'équipe de soins.</li><li>Le cardiologue est un spécialiste du cœur. C'est lui qui regarde l'échocardiogramme. Si les artères coronaires sont enflées, il détermine si l'enflure est modérée ou grave. Il décidera ensuite s'il faudra d'autres traitements et à quel moment on devra faire subir un autre échocardiogramme.</li></ul><h2>Complications de la maladie de Kawasaki</h2><p>En traitant dès le début la maladie de Kawasaki, on réduit les dommages éventuels dans les artères coronaires. Ces dommages se produisent chez un enfant non traité sur cinq. Chez la plupart des enfants, ces dommages sont mineurs et ne durent pas longtemps. Par contre, ils persistent plus longtemps chez d'autres. Dans ce cas là, les parois des artères coronaires s'affaiblissent et forment des anévrismes.</p><p>Un anévrisme est le gonflement localisé de la paroi d'un vaisseau sanguin ayant la forme d'un ballon. Les anévrismes peuvent être dangereux, car ils peuvent compliquer l'acheminement du sang vers le muscle cardiaque. Des médicaments peuvent aider à arrêter la progression de l'anévrisme ou la formation de caillots. </p>

 

 

Kawasaki disease915.000000000000Kawasaki diseaseKawasaki diseaseKEnglishHaematologyBaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years)HeartArteriesConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2018-12-17T05:00:00ZFlorence Aeschlimann;Michelle Anderson, BScN, RN;Rae SM Yeung, MD, PhD, FRCPC;Shirley Tse, MD, FRCPC8.0000000000000056.00000000000001033.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Kawasaki disease causes swelling of the blood vessels and can affect the heart. Learn about Kawasaki disease including its cause, diagnosis and treatment. </p><h2>What is Kawasaki disease?</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Kawasaki disease</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IHD_kawasaki_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">An inflammatory disease that, among other things, affects blood vessels in the body, particularly the coronary arteries.</figcaption> </figure> <p>Kawasaki disease causes inflammation or swelling of the blood vessels. Kawasaki disease can affect any medium-sized artery in the body but primarily affects the <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=heart">coronary arteries</a>. The coronary arteries are special blood vessels that carry blood and oxygen into the heart muscle. If there is a problem with the coronary arteries, the heart will not get enough blood and oxygen, making it unable to work properly.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Kawasaki disease causes swelling of the blood vessels. It can affect the heart.</li><li>Your child will be admitted to hospital for treatment. Treatment usually involves two medicines: intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) and ASA (Aspirin).</li><li>Most children with Kawasaki disease recover completely.<br></li></ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of Kawasaki disease</h2><p>Signs and symptoms of Kawasaki disease include:</p><ul><li>Five or more consecutive days of fever</li><li>Red or bloodshot eyes</li><li>Red lips, mouth or tongue </li><li>Puffy or red hands and feet</li><li>Rash</li><li>A swollen gland in the neck<br></li></ul><h2>Causes of Kawasaki disease</h2><p>The exact causes of Kawasaki disease are unknown. It is also not known why some children get the disease and others do not. It is possible that genetics play a role in the development of Kawasaki disease. </p><p>It is also possible a viral or bacterial infection may trigger the disease in children. Infections and Kawasaki disease often occur at the same time.</p><h3>Kawasaki disease is not contagious</h3><p>Kawasaki disease not spread from child to child, but infections can trigger Kawasaki disease.</p><p>It is rare for two children in the same family to get Kawasaki disease. When it occurs, it may be related to inherited genes that help to control the immune system.<br></p><h2>Diagnosis of Kawasaki disease</h2><p>The diagnosis of Kawasaki disease is made when a child has at least five consecutive days of fever and at least four out of the other five symptoms mentioned above. In some cases, a child will have fewer than four symptoms. Kawasaki disease often mimics other diseases such as common childhood infections. These factors make the diagnosis of Kawasaki disease more difficult.</p><p>Kawasaki disease is a rare illness. It usually affects children under the age of five, but older children can also be affected.</p><p>There is no specific test to diagnose Kawasaki disease. However, your child will have a blood test and a urine test, as well as an <a href="/article?contentid=1274&language=English">echocardiogram</a>. This is an ultrasound that takes pictures of your child's heart. It lets doctors see if there are any changes in the coronary arteries. If these arteries are affected, they may look widened or swollen.</p><h2>Treatment of Kawasaki disease</h2><p>A child with Kawasaki disease will need to stay in the hospital for several days. The health-care team will give your child medicine to try to prevent damage to the coronary arteries. These medicines are called <a href="/article?contentid=161&language=English">intravenous immune globulin (IVIG)</a> and <a href="/article?contentid=77&language=English">ASA (acetylsalicylic acid or Aspirin)​</a>.</p><p>After a child is treated, the fever usually goes away for good. Sometimes a child will need a second treatment with IVIG or other medicines.</p><h3>IVIG</h3><p>IVIG is given through an intravenous (IV) needle in your child's vein. It helps reduce the inflammation in the body. In turn, this can:</p><ul><li>reduce the fever and redness caused by the disease</li><li>help protect against heart problems.</li></ul><p>IVIG contains antibodies from donated blood. It is screened for viruses and bacteria before it is used as a treatment. Talk to your doctor if you have concerns about this treatment.</p><h3>ASA</h3><p>Low dose ASA is given by mouth once a day. During the first four to six weeks, children with Kawasaki disease may have high platelet counts in their blood. Platelets are involved in clot formation. Low dose ASA prevents your child’s platelets from sticking together. This helps prevent blood clots from forming in the blood vessels.</p><h3>Several different doctors look after children with Kawasaki disease</h3><p>Kawasaki disease may be diagnosed and managed by a paediatrician, an emergency doctor, or a family doctor.</p><p>Two types of paediatric specialists also help care for children with Kawasaki disease. These are rheumatologists and cardiologists.</p><ul><li>A rheumatologist is an inflammation specialist. They can help diagnose Kawasaki disease and decide on treatments with the medical team.</li><li>The cardiologist is a heart specialist. They will look at the echocardiogram. If the coronary arteries are swollen, the cardiologist will determine if the swelling is mild or severe. They will then decide on any further treatments and when they will need to repeat the echocardiogram.</li></ul><h2>Complications of Kawasaki disease </h2><p>Early and appropriate treatment of Kawasaki disease reduces the chances of injury or damage to the coronary arteries. Injury or damage to the arteries occurs in one in five untreated children. In most children, this damage is minor and does not last long. However, in some children the damage can last longer. In these children, the walls of the coronary arteries can become weak and form aneurysms.</p><p>An aneurysm is a localized, balloon-like bulge of the vessel wall. Aneurysms may be dangerous as they can cause problems with blood flow to the heart muscle. Medicine can help prevent further progression of the aneurysm or formation of clots.<br></p><h2>Caring for your child with Kawasaki disease at home </h2><p>Most children go home from hospital after a few days. Usually, the only medicine your child will keep taking at home is ASA, once a day. ASA prevents your child’s blood platelets from sticking together. This helps prevent blood clots and will protect the heart until your child has another echocardiogram. This will happen about six weeks after the diagnosis.</p><p>After the echocardiogram and a blood test, your child will likely be able to stop taking ASA. Your child may have another echocardiogram one year later. This is to make sure the disease has gone away completely.</p><p>Most children with Kawasaki disease recover completely. In some cases, the cardiologist will want to do more heart tests or prescribe other medicines.</p><h3>Your child should continue to exercise regularly and make healthy food choices </h3><p>At this time, it is not known if children who have had Kawasaki disease and who have normal echocardiograms are more likely to develop heart problems when they are adults. All children should follow a healthy active lifestyle, but it may be even more important in children who have had Kawasaki disease. A healthy lifestyle includes:</p><ul><li>making healthy food choices</li><li>taking part in activities and exercise</li><li>avoiding known risk factors for heart disease, such as smoking.</li></ul><p>Please speak with your family doctor or paediatrician for information about healthy active living.</p><h3>Your child should wait at least six months until their next vaccines</h3><p>After treatment with IVIG, your child should wait at least six months to have their next scheduled immunizations (vaccines). Before six months, the vaccines will not hurt your child, but they may not work as well.</p><p>Your child <strong>should</strong> have the flu vaccine. It is dangerous to get the <a href="/article?contentid=763&language=English">flu</a> while taking ASA. The two have been linked with an illness called Reye’s syndrome, which can cause liver and brain damage. </p><h3>Your child should avoid getting chickenpox </h3><p>If your child has not had <a href="/article?contentid=760&language=English">chickenpox (varicella)​</a> and has not been vaccinated, they should avoid getting chickenpox while taking ASA. The combination of ASA and chickenpox is dangerous, and has also been linked to Reye's syndrome. Tell your child's teachers about this. Ask them to let you know if any other students in the classroom have chickenpox.</p><p>While your child is taking ASA, if they are in contact with chickenpox or get chickenpox, call your child's doctor right away.</p><p>If your child has had chickenpox or has been vaccinated, they are protected. Ask your child’s paediatrician if you are not sure. </p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IHD_kawasaki_MED_ILL_EN.jpgKawasaki disease

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