Vaccines: Concerns about immunizing your childVVaccines: Concerns about immunizing your childVaccines: Concerns about immunizing your childEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NAImmune systemHealthy living and preventionAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2019-07-12T04:00:00ZShaun Morris, MD, MPH, FRCPC, FAAP10.700000000000048.80000000000001264.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Many parents have questions about vaccines. Find information about how many diseases vaccines protect children against in Canada. Also learn about the safety of vaccines and what side effects your child may experience. Finally, learn about how vaccines are given and what you can do to make it less stressful for your child.</p> <p>As a parent, do you have concerns about vaccinating your children? You are not alone. One in three parents in Canada have said they have some minor doubts and concerns about vaccinating their child. For example, in Ontario, the average vaccination rate for seven year olds for measles was 88% for the 2017-18 school year. Areas such as Toronto, however, only had a 74% vaccination rate for measles for seven year olds. The reasons why people choose not to vaccinate their children are complex.</p><p>In addition to all of the questions you might have, you may not be sure what and who to believe or where to get your information. You hear about vaccines from your child’s primary health-care provider, in the media, from friends and family, or by reading information on the Internet. Often, the information seems to conflict.</p> <h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>All diseases that children are vaccinated against are serious and can cause illness, complications and even death.</li><li>Children who are not vaccinated are at risk in their own communities, when travelling or when infections are brought into the country.</li><li>Vaccines are very safe and thoroughly tested before being approved for use, and most provide over 90% protection against the disease. </li><li>There is a lot of scientific evidence that vaccines do not cause autism and none to support the belief that they do.</li><li>Receiving multiple vaccines at a single time is safe for your child and most side effects are minor and temporary.</li></ul><h2>References</h2><p>Caring for Kids. (2016, November). <em>Vaccine safety: Canada’s system</em>. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/vaccine_safety">https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/vaccine_safety</a></p><p>Caring for Kids. (2016, November). <em>Vaccines: Common concerns</em>. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/vaccines-common-concerns">https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/vaccines-common-concerns</a></p><p>Caring for Kids. (2016, November). <em>Vaccines: Myths and facts</em>. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/vaccines-myths-and-facts">https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/vaccines-myths-and-facts</a></p><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). Measles. In Hamborsky, J., Kroger, A., Wolfe, S. (Eds.), <em>Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases, 13th ed.</em> (pp. 209-30). Washington D.C. Public Health Foundation. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/meas.html">https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/meas.html</a></p><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). <em>Multiple Vaccines and the Immune System</em>. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/concerns/multiple-vaccines-immunity.html">https://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/concerns/multiple-vaccines-immunity.html</a></p><p>EKOS Research Associates. (2018). <em>Survey for the Development of the Childhood Vaccination Campaign Findings Report Prepared for Health Canada</em>. Retrieved from <a href="http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/200/301/pwgsc-tpsgc/por-ef/health/2018/022-17-e/report.pdf">http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/200/301/pwgsc-tpsgc/por-ef/health/2018/022-17-e/report.pdf</a></p><p>Hviid, A., Hansen, J.V., Frisch, M., Melbye, M. (2019). Measles, Mumps, Rubella Vaccination and Autism: A Nationwide Cohort Study. <em>Annals of Internal Medicine</em>, 170, 513–520. doi: <a href="https://annals.org/aim/fullarticle/2727726/measles-mumps-rubella-vaccination-autism-nationwide-cohort-study">10.7326/M18-2101</a></p><p>Public Health Agency of Canada. (2016, September 1). <em>Canadian Immunization Guide: Part 1 - Key Immunization Information</em>. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/publications/healthy-living/canadian-immunization-guide-part-1-key-immunization-information.html">https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/publications/healthy-living/canadian-immunization-guide-part-1-key-immunization-information.html</a></p><p>Public Health Agency of Canada (2018, October 18). <em>Vaccines for children: Deciding to vaccinate</em>. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/vaccination-children.html">https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/vaccination-children.html</a></p><p>Public Health Ontario (2019, May). <em>Immunization Coverage Report for School Pupils in Ontario: 2017-18 School Year</em>. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.publichealthontario.ca/-/media/documents/immunization-coverage-2017-18.pdf">https://www.publichealthontario.ca/-/media/documents/immunization-coverage-2017-18.pdf</a></p><p>Statistics Canada. (2019). <em>Childhood National Immunization Coverage Survey, 2017</em>. Retrieved from <a href="https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/190326/dq190326d-eng.htm">https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/190326/dq190326d-eng.htm</a></p><p>World Health Organization. (2019). <em>Ten threats to global health in 2019</em>. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.who.int/emergencies/ten-threats-to-global-health-in-2019">https://www.who.int/emergencies/ten-threats-to-global-health-in-2019</a></p>

 

 

 

 

Vaccines: Concerns about immunizing your child3811.00000000000Vaccines: Concerns about immunizing your childVaccines: Concerns about immunizing your childVEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NAImmune systemHealthy living and preventionAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2019-07-12T04:00:00ZShaun Morris, MD, MPH, FRCPC, FAAP10.700000000000048.80000000000001264.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Many parents have questions about vaccines. Find information about how many diseases vaccines protect children against in Canada. Also learn about the safety of vaccines and what side effects your child may experience. Finally, learn about how vaccines are given and what you can do to make it less stressful for your child.</p> <p>As a parent, do you have concerns about vaccinating your children? You are not alone. One in three parents in Canada have said they have some minor doubts and concerns about vaccinating their child. For example, in Ontario, the average vaccination rate for seven year olds for measles was 88% for the 2017-18 school year. Areas such as Toronto, however, only had a 74% vaccination rate for measles for seven year olds. The reasons why people choose not to vaccinate their children are complex.</p><p>In addition to all of the questions you might have, you may not be sure what and who to believe or where to get your information. You hear about vaccines from your child’s primary health-care provider, in the media, from friends and family, or by reading information on the Internet. Often, the information seems to conflict.</p> <h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>All diseases that children are vaccinated against are serious and can cause illness, complications and even death.</li><li>Children who are not vaccinated are at risk in their own communities, when travelling or when infections are brought into the country.</li><li>Vaccines are very safe and thoroughly tested before being approved for use, and most provide over 90% protection against the disease. </li><li>There is a lot of scientific evidence that vaccines do not cause autism and none to support the belief that they do.</li><li>Receiving multiple vaccines at a single time is safe for your child and most side effects are minor and temporary.</li></ul><h2>The truth about vaccines</h2><p>To get the information you need, it is beneficial to have a good relationship and open communication with your child’s health-care provider. <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1144&language=English">Tips for preparing for your child’s visit with their health-care provider</a> include writing down any questions or concerns about vaccines that you have beforehand to make sure you do not forget anything and talking to your health-care provider about what is on your mind.</p><p>Vaccination programs in Canada currently protect children against 15 diseases. In most cases, these vaccines provide over 90% protection against the disease. Globally, vaccination currently prevents two to three million deaths each year.</p><p>All diseases that children are vaccinated against are serious. All vaccine-preventable diseases can cause illness, complications and even death. For example, measles complications include <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a>, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=8&language=English">ear infections</a> and <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=784&language=English"> pneumonia</a>, and happen in about three out of 10 cases. One to two in every 1,000 cases of measles also result in death. Between one and four babies in Canada die every year from pertussis (whooping cough); and about one in 400 babies who survive pertussis will have permanent brain damage.</p><p>Outbreaks of vaccine-preventable infections continue to happen. When immunization rates drop, more people are likely to get the infection; and what used to be a rare illness can become more common in the population. Vaccine-preventable infections that are uncommon in Canada still occur in other parts of the world. Any child who is not vaccinated is at risk when they are travelling or when infections are brought back to Canada.</p><p>The best protection for a population is when most or all people are fully immunized. The fewer vulnerable people there are in a population, the less chance an infectious disease will have to spread (herd immunity).</p><h2>Safety of vaccines</h2><p>Vaccines are very safe. Before vaccines are approved for use, they are thoroughly tested. They go through many steps to demonstrate they are safe and effective. Even after a vaccine is approved for use, it is still monitored for any possible side effects.</p><p>Most side effects from vaccines are minor and temporary, such as a sore arm or mild fever, and babies are no more likely to get side effects than older children. Because many infectious diseases are more common in babies and young children, delaying vaccines leaves them at higher risk of the diseases and the complications of disease.</p><p>Most vaccines do not have live bacteria or viruses and cannot cause infections. Live vaccines have weakened bacteria or viruses that are unable to cause disease in healthy people. With live weakened vaccines, very rarely, a mild form of infection may occur that is not harmful.</p><p>It is recommended that your baby start to receive their vaccines starting at two months of age. This will help protect your baby as early as possible against diseases such as whooping cough (pertussis).</p><p>It is not better to allow your child to get sick from a disease and acquire natural immunity instead of being vaccinated. Natural infection comes with the risks of serious complications related to that infection. With vaccines, the immune system is stimulated to develop protection against future infection without making your child sick.</p><h3>Vaccines and autism</h3><p>All routine childhood vaccines in Canada use single-dose vials and do not contain preservatives such as thimerosal, with the exception of multi-dose vials of influenza vaccine. Preservatives such as thimerosal are used in multi-dose vials to prevent microbial contamination.</p><p>Vaccines (including the MMR vaccine) do not cause autism. There is no scientific evidence to support the belief that vaccines cause autism, but there is a lot of scientific evidence that shows that vaccines do not cause autism. For example, a study published in March 2019 followed 650,943 children and, again, found no link between the MMR vaccine and autism. The study took into account numerous subgroups of potentially susceptible children and found that the MMR vaccine did not cause autism, nor did it trigger autism in susceptible children.</p><p>Signs of autism sometimes appear around the same age that children receive the MMR vaccine, and some people believed there was a connection between the two. One of the reasons the number of children diagnosed with autism has increased is because children with milder symptoms are now being included in the diagnosis. There is also now more awareness of autism, so more parents are seeking help.</p><h2>Getting a vaccine</h2><p>Getting vaccines can be painful and cause stress for both you and your child. There are things that you can do to reduce the pain of vaccination in your <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=989&language=English">baby</a> or <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=990&language=English">child</a>, such as using numbing creams, comfort positions and distraction techniques.</p><p>Most vaccines are given using a syringe. These syringes are single-use syringes and are not reused. This eliminates any risk of transmitting infections through needles. Some vaccines are given using other methods that also eliminate risk of infection. The rotavirus vaccine is given in a liquid form by mouth, and the flu vaccine can be given using a nasal spray.</p><p>Many vaccines are given in combination, providing protection to your child for several different diseases with just one injection. For example, the MMR vaccine provides protection against measles, mumps and rubella. Getting more than one vaccine at once also means there is no delay in protection, fewer medical visits and fewer needles for your child.</p><p>Your child’s immune system is able to respond to multiple vaccines given at a single time. The immune system produces antibodies that respond to antigens (substances that resemble parts of bacteria or viruses). It is estimated that children are exposed to thousands of antigens every day from the moment they are born. In their first two years of life, if a child gets all of the recommended vaccines, they will only be exposed to about 320 additional antigens through vaccination. Receiving multiple vaccines at a single time that contain a handful of antigens is safe for your child and their immune system.</p><p>For more information on immunization schedules for your child, visit:</p><ul><li><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1986&language=English">Immunization schedule</a> – types of immunizations that are recommended during a child's first year of life and onward.</li><li><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1985&language=English">Immunization "catch-up" for children who have not been fully immunized</a>.</li></ul> <h2>References</h2><p>Caring for Kids. (2016, November). <em>Vaccine safety: Canada’s system</em>. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/vaccine_safety">https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/vaccine_safety</a></p><p>Caring for Kids. (2016, November). <em>Vaccines: Common concerns</em>. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/vaccines-common-concerns">https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/vaccines-common-concerns</a></p><p>Caring for Kids. (2016, November). <em>Vaccines: Myths and facts</em>. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/vaccines-myths-and-facts">https://www.caringforkids.cps.ca/handouts/vaccines-myths-and-facts</a></p><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). Measles. In Hamborsky, J., Kroger, A., Wolfe, S. (Eds.), <em>Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases, 13th ed.</em> (pp. 209-30). Washington D.C. Public Health Foundation. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/meas.html">https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/meas.html</a></p><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). <em>Multiple Vaccines and the Immune System</em>. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/concerns/multiple-vaccines-immunity.html">https://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/concerns/multiple-vaccines-immunity.html</a></p><p>EKOS Research Associates. (2018). <em>Survey for the Development of the Childhood Vaccination Campaign Findings Report Prepared for Health Canada</em>. Retrieved from <a href="http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/200/301/pwgsc-tpsgc/por-ef/health/2018/022-17-e/report.pdf">http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/200/301/pwgsc-tpsgc/por-ef/health/2018/022-17-e/report.pdf</a></p><p>Hviid, A., Hansen, J.V., Frisch, M., Melbye, M. (2019). Measles, Mumps, Rubella Vaccination and Autism: A Nationwide Cohort Study. <em>Annals of Internal Medicine</em>, 170, 513–520. doi: <a href="https://annals.org/aim/fullarticle/2727726/measles-mumps-rubella-vaccination-autism-nationwide-cohort-study">10.7326/M18-2101</a></p><p>Public Health Agency of Canada. (2016, September 1). <em>Canadian Immunization Guide: Part 1 - Key Immunization Information</em>. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/publications/healthy-living/canadian-immunization-guide-part-1-key-immunization-information.html">https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/publications/healthy-living/canadian-immunization-guide-part-1-key-immunization-information.html</a></p><p>Public Health Agency of Canada (2018, October 18). <em>Vaccines for children: Deciding to vaccinate</em>. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/vaccination-children.html">https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/vaccination-children.html</a></p><p>Public Health Ontario (2019, May). <em>Immunization Coverage Report for School Pupils in Ontario: 2017-18 School Year</em>. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.publichealthontario.ca/-/media/documents/immunization-coverage-2017-18.pdf">https://www.publichealthontario.ca/-/media/documents/immunization-coverage-2017-18.pdf</a></p><p>Statistics Canada. (2019). <em>Childhood National Immunization Coverage Survey, 2017</em>. Retrieved from <a href="https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/190326/dq190326d-eng.htm">https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/190326/dq190326d-eng.htm</a></p><p>World Health Organization. (2019). <em>Ten threats to global health in 2019</em>. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.who.int/emergencies/ten-threats-to-global-health-in-2019">https://www.who.int/emergencies/ten-threats-to-global-health-in-2019</a></p>Vaccines: Concerns about immunizing your childFalse