AboutKidsHealth

 

 

CARDCCARDCARDEnglishPain/AnaesthesiaTeen (13-18 years)NANANon-drug treatmentTeen (13-18 years)NALanding PageLearning Hub<p>Getting vaccinated can be scary and painful. The CARD system gives you strategies to use to help you cope with the pain and fear you may feel during vaccination. You can use the resources below to help make your vaccination a more positive experience.</p><p>Getting vaccinated can be scary and painful. The CARD system gives you strategies to use to help you cope with the pain and fear you may feel during vaccination. You can use the resources below to help make your vaccination a more positive experience.</p>cardhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-1049053526.jpgTeens
CARD SystemCCARD SystemCARD SystemEnglishPain/AnaesthesiaPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANANon-drug treatmentAdult (19+) Caregivers Pre-teen (9-12 years) EducatorsNA2021-05-27T04:00:00ZLanding Page (Overview)Learning Hub<p>The CARD system provides strategies that can be used to help cope before and during vaccination. The system consists of resources such as videos and handouts that will help to prepare you and your child for a vaccination.</p><a href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/CARD_Vaccination_Handout.pdf"><figure class="asset-small"><img alt="Download CARD handout PDF" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/CARD_Vaccination_Handout_download%20thumbnail.jpg" /> </figure> </a> <p>The CARD system provides strategies that can be used to help cope before and during vaccination and needle procedures. The system consists of resources such as videos, handouts and activities that will help to prepare for a vaccination or needle procedure. Download the handout to learn more about strategies you can use.<br></p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/videoseries?list=PLjJtOP3StIuXgKY4sTdiCXtyytn6W-l0H" frameborder="0"></iframe><br></div>card,painfreeinjectionshttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/CARD-Hub.pngMain
CARD for parents and caregiversCCARD for parents and caregiversCARD for parents and caregiversEnglishPain/AnaesthesiaChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANANon-drug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2022-02-17T05:00:00ZFlat ContentHealth A-Z<p>The CARD system provides groups of strategies that can be used before and during vaccination to make the experience a more positive one for you and your child.</p><p>The CARD system (Comfort, Ask, Relax, Distract) provides groups of strategies that can be used before and during vaccination to make the experience a more positive one for you and your child. Learn how you and your child can play your cards to reduce the pain, stress and worries associated with vaccinations. To learn more about CARD, go to <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/card">CardSystem.ca</a>.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>The CARD system can be used to provide a more positive vaccination experience for both you and your child.</li><li>A parent or caregiver’s words and actions can influence how well children cope during vaccination.</li><li>Coping strategies such as distractions, comfort positions, numbing cream and muscle tension exercises can reduce negative reactions during vaccination, including pain, fear and fainting.</li><li>Learn about how you can act, what you can say and what you can do to help promote coping.</li> </ul>Main
CHARGE syndromeCCHARGE syndromeCHARGE syndromeEnglishGeneticsChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2015-06-12T04:00:00Z7.8000000000000066.2000000000000605.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>The effects of CHARGE syndrome differ from one child to the next. Find out how this genetic condition is caused and treated. </p><h2>What is CHARGE syndrome?</h2> <p>CHARGE syndrome is a condition that occurs in one in every 10,000 births worldwide. It is a complex condition that affects many different parts of the body. Children with CHARGE syndrome have medical issues and may also have delays in their development.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>The signs and symptoms of CHARGE syndrome vary from child to child. They include problems with seeing, hearing, breathing, growing and learning.</li> <li>CHARGE syndrome is usually caused by a mutation in the CHD7 gene on chromosome 8.</li> <li>With the right support and medical treatment, a child with CHARGE syndrome can lead a happy and healthy life.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of CHARGE syndrome</h2><p>The symptoms of CHARGE syndrome vary greatly from one child to the next.</p><p>The name "CHARGE" is an acronym for some of the common features seen in children with the syndrome. Specifically, the features are:</p><ul><li> <strong></strong><strong></strong><strong>c</strong>oloboma of the eye (a hole in one part of the eye, usually the iris)</li><li> <strong>h</strong>eart <a href="/Article?contentid=1767&language=English">defects</a><br></li><li> <strong>a</strong>tresia of the choanae (blocked or narrowed airways between the back of the nose and the throat)</li><li> <strong>r</strong>etarded (delayed) growth or development</li><li> <strong>g</strong>enital or urinary abnormalities</li><li> <strong>e</strong>ar abnormalities, for example low cub-shaped ears or deafness.</li></ul><p>This list combines major and minor features of CHARGE syndrome. Major features are extremely common in CHARGE syndrome and rare in other conditions. Minor features are common in CHARGE syndrome and present in other conditions. The list does not include all the important features seen in CHARGE syndrome (for example facial palsy).</p><h2>Causes of CHARGE syndrome</h2> <p>About two-thirds of children with CHARGE have a mutation (change) in a gene called CHD7 on chromosome 8. In most cases, this mutation is a new change in the child, meaning that it is not found in either parent. So if a couple has a child with CHARGE syndrome, it is very unlikely that any of their future children will have CHARGE syndrome.</p> <p>The cause of CHARGE syndrome in the one-third of children who do not have a CHD7 mutation is not yet known. Researchers are investigating other potential causes.</p> <p>A mutation in the CHD7 gene will confirm a doctor’s diagnosis of CHARGE syndrome. However, if a child with CHARGE features is not found to have a mutation in CHD7, it does not mean that they do not have CHARGE syndrome. Rather, it suggests that the cause is not yet known. </p><h2>How CHARGE syndrome is diagnosed</h2> <p>A doctor knowledgeable about CHARGE syndrome will diagnose it based on a child’s features. The diagnosis is based on the presence of major and minor features.</p><h2>How to treat CHARGE syndrome</h2> <p>Each child with CHARGE syndrome is unique and will need extra help in different ways. Children with CHARGE syndrome can lead happy and healthy lives with the right help and support.</p> <p>Based on your child’s physical symptoms and needs, your doctor will involve specialists to evaluate, monitor and support your child in areas such as hearing, vision, breathing, growth and learning. Children with CHARGE syndrome often need medical and educational supports to address their specific needs right through their life.</p><h2>How to learn more about CHARGE syndrome</h2> <p>If you have a child with CHARGE syndrome, you will likely have many questions about what to expect in the years to come. Websites such as that for the <a href="http://www.chargesyndrome.org/" target="_blank">CHARGE Syndrome Foundation</a> are a useful source of information and support. Your child’s doctor will also be able to answer questions and give you advice about where to find the information and support you need.</p>Main
CNS vasculitisCCNS vasculitisCNS vasculitisEnglishHaematologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainArteries;Veins;Capillaries;BrainConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-06T05:00:00Z6.5000000000000069.30000000000001158.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>CNS vasculitis is the inflammation of blood vessels in the brain resulting in restricted blood flow. Read about the diagnosis of CNS vasculitis. </p><h2>What is CNS vasculitis?</h2><p>The brain and the spinal column make up the central nervous system (CNS). Vasculitis is an inflammation of the blood vessels. Blood vessels are the veins and arteries that carry blood around the body including the brain. So CNS vasculitis is an inflammation of blood vessels in the brain. </p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Vessel anatomy of the brain</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Vessel_anatomy_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Large blood vessel in the brain and close-up of brain tissue with microscopic blood vessels" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">There are many blood vessels in the brain. Some are large vessels and they can be seen on an angiogram. The brain has many small vessels that can only be seen with a microscope. A biopsy is needed to examine these smaller vessels.</figcaption> </figure> <p>Inflammation (irritation and swelling) is a normal process. It is how our immune systems protect our bodies from bacteria and viruses that cause infection. But in CNS vasculitis, there is no infection. Instead, the immune system wrongly attacks normal cells causing inflammation. This type of problem is called an autoimmune disease. So far, we do not understand what causes these problems. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>CNS vasculitis is a condition where the immune system attacks the blood vessels in the brain. </li> <li>CNS vasculitis can cause headaches, irritability, learning problems, vision problems, weakness on one side of the body, seizures, or stroke. </li> <li>If you think your child may have CNS vasculitis, contact your family doctor and ask her to examine your child. </li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of CNS vasculitis</h2> <p>The first signs of CNS vasculitis are usually one or more of the following:</p> <ul> <li>headaches </li> <li>irritability </li> <li>learning problems </li> <li>eyesight (vision) problems </li> <li>problems dealing with loud sounds or bright lights </li> </ul> <p>Most children are not diagnosed with CNS vasculitis when these symptoms first appear. Usually, a child is diagnosed with CNS vasculitis after having one of these serious problems: </p> <ul> <li>numbness, weakness, or paralysis of one side of the body (hemiplegia) </li> <li>seizure </li> <li>stroke </li> </ul><h2>There are several steps to diagnosing CNS vasculitis</h2><h3>Medical history and physical exam</h3><p>First, the doctor will ask about your child's symptoms and medical history. The doctor will do a physical exam to see if your child has any symptoms of brain inflammation. </p><h3>Blood sample and spinal tap</h3><p>Next, the doctor will take samples of your child's blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF is the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. To get a sample of CSF, your child will need to have a spinal tap (lumbar puncture). </p><p>Your child's blood and CSF will be tested to see if they contain certain substances that can show if your child has inflammation somewhere in the body. </p><h3>MRI scan</h3><p>Next, the doctor will order an MRI scan. This test makes special pictures of the brain, using radio waves and a strong magnet. The doctor will look at these pictures to see if your child's brain has either of these: </p><ul><li>areas of brain inflammation </li><li>areas where not enough blood is flowing (ischemia or stroke) </li></ul> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">MRI of CNS vasculitis</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/MRI_cnsv_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.jpg" alt="MRI of brain with inflammation" /> </figure> <h3>Angiograms</h3><p>If the MRI shows problems, the doctor will order two kinds of angiogram. An angiogram is a test that gives pictures of the large blood vessels. The two types are as follows: </p><ul><li>A magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) uses the same machine as an MRI. It gives a 3-dimensional picture of the large blood vessels. </li><li>An X-ray angiogram gives a picture of the large blood vessels. Your child will have a special dye injected into his blood. This dye is called contrast fluid. It helps blood vessels show up on the X-ray. </li></ul> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Angiogram of CNS vasculitis</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Angiogram_largevessel_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.jpg" alt="An angiogram of the brain with a thin blood vessel and a normal blood vessel" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">An angiogram shows what the large blood vessels look like.</figcaption> </figure> <p>Angiograms will show if your child has large vessel CNS vasculitis. But they do not show the small blood vessels. So even if these tests do not show any problems, your child could still have small vessel CNS vasculitis. </p><h3>Brain biopsy</h3><p>The only way to find small vessel CNS vasculitis is with a test called a brain biopsy. A neurosurgeon will take a tiny sample from your child's brain. The sample is only the size of a needle. Another doctor will look at it under a microscope. </p><p>This test will show if your child has small vessel vasculitis. It can also help tell CNS vasculitis apart from other diseases, such as infections or brain tumours. </p><h2>CNS vasculitis is treated with medicine</h2> <p>The <a href="/Article?contentid=1173&language=English">treatment of CNS vasculitis </a>aims to do these things:</p> <ul> <li>improve the blood supply to the brain </li> <li>prevent further complications </li> <li>prevent blood clots from forming </li> </ul> <p>CNS vasculitis is treated with medicine that stops the immune system from working so hard. This stops the inflammation and protects the brain. Your child will also need to take medicine to prevent blood clots. </p> <p>A full course of treatment takes about two years.</p><h2>CNS vasculitis can harm the brain</h2><p>The inflammation caused by CNS vasculitis can harm the brain. When they are inflamed, the walls of the blood vessels get thicker and the space inside them gets smaller. This means that less blood can flow through them. Parts of the brain get less blood than they need. Sometimes they get no blood at all. When this happens, two major problems can result: </p><ul><li>Brain tissue around the inflamed blood vessel becomes irritated or damaged. This is also called brain inflammation. </li><li>Brain tissue around inflamed blood vessels does not get enough oxygen. This can cause a stroke. </li></ul><p>CNS vasculitis is treated with medicine. This helps to prevent new damage. It also gives blood vessels time to heal.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Flow_comparison_cnsv_MED_ILL_EN.png" alt="Blood vessels with normal blood flow and blood vessels with restricted blood flow from irritated vessel wall and brain tissue" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Inflammation causes the blood vessel walls to swell, restricting the space inside, and reducing blood flow.</figcaption> </figure>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Flow_comparison_cnsv_MED_ILL_EN.pngMain
CNS vasculitis: Coping with illnessCCNS vasculitis: Coping with illnessCNS vasculitis: Coping with illnessEnglishHaematologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainArteries;Veins;Capillaries;BrainSupport, services and resourcesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-06T05:00:00Z9.5000000000000059.3000000000000985.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>When a child is ill, all of the family members are affected by the stress. Read about effective coping techniques for the families of sick children. </p><h2>CNS vasculitis can be stressful for parents</h2><p>Chronic disease comes with turmoil for you, your child and your other children. Most parents are already very busy caring for children, maintaining the household and usually working at their jobs. It is only natural that taking care of a sick child will make you feel overwhelmed. You may also be worried about money or strained relationships.</p> <p>It is extremely important to ask for support wherever you can:</p><ul><li>Friends and family can help by coming to appointments, doing household chores, caring for other children or just buying you a cup of coffee.</li><li>Your employer can give you time off work for a stress leave. Social workers can help contact employers and arrange this time off.</li><li>Your family doctor can help you stay in good health. It may be tempting to overlook yourself to take care of your child, but if you get sick you will not be able to help at all. If you take care of your own body, your child will learn to do the same.</li><li>Social workers at the hospital can help you and your child deal with personal, family or social problems that are related to your child's illness.</li></ul><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Take care of yourself. Ask friends, work and your family doctor for support. A social worker can also help you. </li> <li>Your other children may feel neglected, guilty or anxious. Try to spend time with them and remind them that their brother or sister's disease is not their fault. </li> <li>You may be able to get financial support. </li> <li>Ask your social worker or doctor if you would like to get in touch with another family whose child has had CNS vasculitis.</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/CNS_vasculitis_coping.jpgMain
CNS vasculitis: Lifestyle changesCCNS vasculitis: Lifestyle changesCNS vasculitis: Lifestyle changesEnglishHaematologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainArteries;Veins;Capillaries;BrainNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-06T05:00:00Z8.0000000000000061.9000000000000455.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>A child who has CNS vasculitis will need to deal with several lifestyle changes. Find out how you can help your child cope through the treatment period. </p><p>CNS vasculitis and its treatment can affect your child's home and school life. Treatment for CNS vasculitis takes about two years. During this time, your child will be taking several kinds of medicine. They will also need to visit the hospital often. All these things can affect their day-to-day life. </p> <p>This page discusses the changes in your child's life and suggests ways to cope. These suggestions come from children, teens and parents who have experienced CNS vasculitis.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>CNS vasculitis is treated with medicine to suppress the immune system. Treatment takes about two years. </li> <li>The medicines your child takes for CNS vasculitis will make them hungrier and more tired than usual. They will gain weight. They may have trouble concentrating at school. </li> <li>If you or your child need help dealing with the effects of treatment, ask a member of the treatment team for help.</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/CNS_vasculitis_lifestyle_changes.jpgMain
CNS vasculitis: Lifestyle changes for school-aged childrenCCNS vasculitis: Lifestyle changes for school-aged childrenCNS vasculitis: Lifestyle changes for school-aged childrenEnglishHaematologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainArteries;Veins;Capillaries;BrainNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-06T05:00:00Z5.2000000000000081.0000000000000474.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Children may find it difficult to attend school while they are being treated for CNS vasculitis. Learn how you can support your child through treatment. </p><p>CNS vasculitis and its treatment can affect your child's home and school life. For example:</p> <ul> <li>Your child may have trouble swallowing pills. </li> <li>They may forget to take their medicine at the right time. </li> <li>They may need to miss school because of appointments. </li> <li>They may feel sick when they are at school. </li> </ul> <p>Your child will need help with the effects of treatment. This page discusses the changes in your child's life and suggests ways to cope. These suggestions come from children, teens and parents who have experienced CNS vasculitis. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Your child will need to take medicine for CNS vasculitis. They may find pills hard to swallow or they may forget to take their medicine. </li> <li>Your child may have to miss school to go to the hospital. They may feel sick when they are at school. </li> <li>If you or your child need help, speak to a member of the treatment team or to your child's teacher. </li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/CNS_vasculisits_changes_school-aged.jpgMain
CNS vasculitis: Lifestyle changes for teenagersCCNS vasculitis: Lifestyle changes for teenagersCNS vasculitis: Lifestyle changes for teenagersEnglishHaematologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainArteries;Veins;Capillaries;BrainNon-drug treatmentTeen (13-18 years)NA2009-11-06T05:00:00Z5.7000000000000072.8000000000000445.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Teenagers with CNS vasculitis face unique challenges. Read about ways to cope with CNS vasculitis, including being involved in your healthcare. </p><p>CNS vasculitis can complicate life for teenagers. Here are some issues that you may want to discuss with your doctor. These suggestions come from other teens who have experienced CNS vasculitis.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Treatment for CNS vasculitis involves medicine. Make sure you know what each pill is for. </li> <li>If you have trouble with side effects, talk to your doctor. </li> <li>Do not smoke or drink alcohol while you are taking medicine for CNS vasculitis.</li> <li>If you are planning to have sex, talk to your doctor about birth control. </li> </ul>Main
CNS vasculitis: Tips from experienced parentsCCNS vasculitis: Tips from experienced parentsCNS vasculitis: Tips from experienced parentsEnglishHaematologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainArteries;Veins;Capillaries;BrainNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-06T05:00:00Z6.6000000000000074.0000000000000865.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>As a parent of a sick child, there are things you can do to remain involved in your child's care. Read about being an advocate for your child. </p><p>This page contains strategies recommended by parents whose children have had CNS vasculitis. To help yourself and your child get through the illness, you should: </p><ul><li>advocate for your child</li><li>keep track of your child's progress</li><li>help your child deal with symptoms</li><li>ask your child's school for support</li><li>educate your child about her illness</li></ul> <br><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>You are a vital member of your child's health care team. Speak up for your child if you believe there is a problem. </li> <li>Use a method that works for you to keep track of your child's progress, symptoms and any questions you have for the doctor. </li> <li>Your child may be irritable and sensitive to noise, light and touch. You can help them by keeping the lights in their room dim and giving them earplugs.</li> <li>Your child's school can help your child keep in touch with friends, keep up with school work and remember medications when they go back to school. </li> <li>Keep things simple when educating your child about their illness.</li> </ul>Main
CNS vasculitis: TreatmentCCNS vasculitis: TreatmentCNS vasculitis: TreatmentEnglishHaematologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainArteries;Veins;Capillaries;BrainDrug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-06T05:00:00Z6.6000000000000069.40000000000001731.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>​CNS vasculitis is treated with a combination of medications that reduce inflammation and suppress immune function. Learn about CNS vasculitis treatment. </p><h2>What is CNS vasculitis?</h2> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=914&language=English">CNS vasculitis</a> is an inflammation of blood vessels in the brain. Blood vessels are the veins and arteries that carry blood around the body. In CNS vasculitis, the immune system mistakes normal cells in the blood vessels for harmful intruders and attacks them. This makes the blood vessel walls swell and get thicker. </p> <p>CNS vasculitis can harm the brain. When the blood vessels are inflamed, less blood can flow through them. This means that the brain tissue around the inflamed blood vessels may be damaged, or it may not get enough oxygen. If CNS vasculitis is not treated, it can cause permanent damage. </p> <p>The treatment of CNS vasculitis aims to:</p> <ul> <li>improve the blood supply to the brain<br></li> <li>prevent further complications<br></li> <li>prevent blood clots from forming. </li> </ul><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>CNS vasculitis is treated with medicine to suppress the immune system and prevent blood clots. Treatment takes about two years. </li> <li>While your child is being treated for CNS vasculitis, it is important to prevent infection and talk to your doctor about any side effects. </li> <li>You know your child best. Tell your child's doctor about any changes in behaviour or anything that seems unusual or important. </li> </ul><h2>Treatment for CNS vasculitis takes about two years</h2> <p>Treatment for CNS vasculitis is a slow process. The entire treatment plan takes at least two years.</p> <p>Not all types of childhood CNS vasculitis are treated the same way. Different children will need different medicines for different amounts of time. If the CNS vasculitis symptoms flare up, the doctors may decide to treat your child for longer. If the treatment works fast, the doctors will give less medicine. </p> <h3>Progressive large vessel CNS vasculitis and small vessel CNS vasculitis</h3> <p>Children with small vessel or progressive large vessel CNS vasculitis are usually treated in two stages:</p> <ul> <li>In the first stage, your child will take high doses of strong medicine. This is called the induction stage. The goal is to rescue the brain by treating the severe inflammation in your child's blood vessels. Your child will start with high doses of prednisone. The doctor will slowly lower the dose over the next nine months. </li> <li>Your child may also take cyclophosphamide. If so, they will take it every month for the first six months. </li> <li>In the second stage, your child will take a gentler combination of medicines for another 18 months. This is called the maintenance stage. The aim during this stage is to help stop CNS vasculitis from coming back while your child's brain is healing. The medicines are usually azathioprine or mycophenolate mofetil, plus low doses of prednisone. </li> </ul> <p>This type of treatment is called an induction-maintenance strategy.</p> <p>At the same time, your child will take a blood thinner to prevent blood clots.</p> <h3>Non-progressive CNS vasculitis</h3> <p>Children with non-progressive CNS vasculitis are usually treated with a high dose of prednisone for three months. Then your child will take smaller and smaller doses of prednisone over the next months. Taking smaller and smaller doses is called tapering.</p> <p>At the same time, your child will take a blood thinner to prevent blood clots.</p><h2>CNS vasculitis is treated with medicine</h2> <p>Your child will need to take different kinds of medicine for CNS vasculitis:</p> <ul> <li>Medicine to suppress the immune system and reduce the inflammation in the blood vessel walls. This includes prednisone, <a href="/Article?contentid=113&language=English">cyclophosphamide</a>, azathioprine and mycophenolate mofetil. </li> <li>Medicine to make the blood thinner and prevent blood clots. This includes low-dose <a href="/Article?contentid=77&language=English">ASA (acetylsalicylic acid)</a> and heparin. </li> </ul> <p>Your child will be taking these medicines for many months. You need to know about them and about the side effects that your child may have. These are described in more detail below. </p> <p>If you are worried about any side effects, talk to your child's doctor.<br></p> <h2>Heparin</h2> <p>Children with large vessel CNS vasculitis often take intravenous (IV) heparin at first. Intravenous means your child will take this medicine through a needle or a tube that puts it directly into their bloodstream. </p> <p>Later, your child may take low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). This medicine is given with a needle under your child's skin.</p> <h2>Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)</h2> <p>If your child has large vessel CNS vasculitis, they will also take <a href="/Article?contentid=1173&language=English">ASA (acetylsalicylic acid)</a> for the whole time they are being treated. ASA makes your child's blood thinner. This helps your child's blood travel through the blood vessels. </p> <p>Your child will take a very low dose of ASA, between 2 and 5 mg per kilogram of body weight per day. At this dose, ASA has no major side effects. Some children may have an upset stomach. </p> <h2>Prednisone</h2> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=221&language=English">Prednisone</a> is a drug that suppresses the immune system. This means that it lowers the number of immune cells that are attacking your child's blood vessels. When your child takes prednisone for a long time, the immune system is able to "reset" itself and make a new set of healthy immune cells. The new immune cells will not attack your child's body. </p> <p>Your child will be taking a high dose of prednisone to start with. As the treatment goes on, the doctor will lower the dosage.</p> <p>Your child needs to take the amount of prednisone that the doctor prescribes. This is very important. If your child is taking high doses of prednisone and then suddenly stops, your child's body will not be able to adjust to the change. </p> <p>The side effects of prednisone are not pleasant, but there is no other way to treat CNS vasculitis. The effects are stronger at higher doses and with longer courses of treatment. The main side effects are: </p> <ul> <li>weight gain </li> <li>more risk of getting infections </li> <li>hair growth </li> <li>stretch marks </li> <li>acne </li> <li>mood swings </li> <li>upset stomach </li> <li>higher blood pressure </li> <li>higher blood sugar </li> <li>thinning bones (osteoporosis) </li> </ul> <p>These side effects are all temporary. They will go away as soon as your child stops taking the prednisone.</p> <h2>Cyclophosphamide</h2> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=113&language=English">Cyclophosphamide</a> also suppresses the immune system. It slows down or stops the growth of immune system cells. Your child will take cyclophosphamide once a month through an IV tube. </p> <p>Cyclophosphamide is also used to treat some kinds of cancer. But we use much lower doses for CNS vasculitis. This means that CNS vasculitis patients have fewer side effects than cancer patients. </p> <p>For children with CNS vasculitis, cyclophosphamide has three main side effects:</p> <ul> <li>more risk of getting infections </li> <li>more risk of bleeding </li> <li>upset stomach and vomiting (throwing up) </li> </ul> <p>A very large dose of cyclophosphamide can make it hard for girls or boys to have children later on. We will watch your child's treatment to make sure they do not reach this dose.</p> <h2>Azathioprine (Imuran)</h2> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=80&language=English">Azathioprine</a> also suppresses the immune system. It stops immune system cells from dividing.</p> <p>Common side effects include:</p> <ul> <li>stomach upset </li> <li>diarrhea </li> <li>allergic reactions </li> <li>a flu-like illness </li> <li>liver irritation </li> </ul> <p>To watch for problems, your child will need a blood test every month.</p> <p>Some people cannot remove azathioprine from their bodies. Before your child starts taking this medicine, they will need a blood test to find out if they can take it safely. </p> <h2>Mycophenolate mofetil (Cellcept)</h2> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=195&language=English">Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)</a> also suppresses the immune system. It stops immune system cells from getting overactive.</p> <p>The most common side effect is stomach upset. To prevent this, your child should take the medicine with food.</p> <p>A more serious side effect is when MMF stops the body from making white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets. To watch the levels of these blood cells, your child will need regular blood tests. </p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/CNS_vasculitis_treatment.jpgMain
COVID-19CCOVID-19COVID-19EnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NAImmune systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2020-03-26T04:00:00Z000Landing PageLearning Hub<p>Learn about COVID-19 and how to talk to and support your family. Also find resources such as videos and audio meditations to help you cope.</p><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4054&language=English&hub=COVID-19"><figure class="asset-small"><img alt="Read COVID-19 vaccine information for children under five years of age" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/COVID_Vaccine_info_under_five_thumbnail.jpg" /> </figure> </a> <p>This learning hub includes resources on COVID-19 and how to help you and your child cope. Find general information on COVID-19 and articles and resources about vaccines and testing. Read the article to find more information about COVID-19 vaccines for children under five years of age.<br></p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/videoseries?list=PLfAK35c0XomtY0ixQrG3EjdwiCw8vOCUw"></iframe> </div>COVID-19,COVID19https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-1157093074.jpgMain
COVID-19 and chronic pain in children and teensCCOVID-19 and chronic pain in children and teensCOVID-19 and chronic pain in children and teensEnglishInfectious Diseases;Pain/AnaesthesiaChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2020-05-26T04:00:00Z9.4000000000000053.20000000000001219.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Children and teens with chronic pain may find their pain symptoms are getting worse during the COVID-19 pandemic. This may be due to increased amounts of stress and the decreased levels of physical activity.</p><p><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3872&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19</a> is an infection caused by the coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2. It is a respiratory virus which spreads mainly through close contact with an infected person.</p><p>Symptoms of COVID-19 may include <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a>, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=774&language=English">cough</a>, fatigue, body aches, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=29&language=English">headache</a>, nausea, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a>, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a> as well as loss of taste or smell. Children and teens with chronic pain who have COVID-19 may find their pain symptoms get worse.</p><p>Treatment for COVID-19 should involve treating the symptoms of the infection and the chronic pain.</p><h2>Chronic pain, stress and COVID-19</h2><p><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3867&language=English&hub=COVID-19">Stress</a> can change how your child or teen experiences painful sensations. COVID-19 can be stressful due to things such as being separated from family and friends, being out of a regular routine and worrying about oneself or loved ones. Many children and teens are feeling stressed or worried about COVID-19. This can increase their sensitivity to pain experiences, especially for those with <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=2983&language=English&hub=chronicpain#pain">chronic pain</a>. Children and teens are also getting less physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic and this can increase their sensitivity to pain experiences. Although it may be challenging to reduce the amount of stress and worry, while at the same time increasing levels of physical activity, it is more important than ever to do this. Your child or teen can use various strategies for managing pain, such as:</p><ul><li>mind-body strategies</li><li>physical strategies</li><li>medications</li> </ul><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>For children and teens with chronic pain, the increase in stress and a decrease in physical activity, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, can cause their pain symptoms to be worse.</li><li>For children and teens with COVID-19 and chronic pain, treatment should involve treating the symptoms of both the infection and the chronic pain.</li><li>Strategies to manage pain include mind-body strategies, physical strategies and medications.</li><li>There are different types of pain (nociceptive, neuropathic and nociplastic) and they are treated with different types of medications.</li></ul> <h2>Clinical visits during COVID-19</h2><p>To decrease the risk of spreading the COVID-19 infection, the SickKids Chronic Pain clinic is offering virtual clinic appointments for new and follow-up patients. These appointments can be done either by video conferencing or telephone.</p> <h2>Informational Videos</h2><ul><li><a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I7wfDenj6CQ">How does your brain respond to pain</a></li><li><a href="http://www.aci.health.nsw.gov.au/chronic-pain/painbytes">Seven video mini-series on chronic pain and its management for youth (Pain Bytes)</a></li><li><a href="https://www.mycarepath.ca/understanding-pain/brain-and-nervous-system-change">Video explaining the power of the brain and chronic pain</a></li><li><a href="https://www.mycarepath.ca/managing-pain/paced-practiced-and-increasing-activities">Video describing pacing</a></li></ul><h2>Mind-Body Apps and Resources</h2><ul><li><a href="https://www.seattlechildrens.org/globalassets/documents/research/cchbd/webmap_mobile_app_flyer.pdf">WebMAP</a></li><li><a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QTsUEOUaWpY">Everyday Mindfulness</a></li><li><a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jaNAwy3XsfI&t=14s">Being with all of your experiences</a></li><li><a href="https://www.anxietycanada.com/general/how-to-chill/?_ga=2.19846392.1512373918.1588607938-1627176544.1588607938">Anxiety Canada – How to Chill</a></li></ul> <h2>Resources for pediatric pain management</h2><ul><li><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3653&language=English&hub=chronicpain#pain">How to treat and manage chronic pain</a></li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/COVID-19_and_chronic_pain_in_children_and_teens.jpgMain
COVID-19 vaccination for ages under fiveCCOVID-19 vaccination for ages under fiveCOVID-19 vaccination for ages under fiveEnglishInfectious DiseasesBaby (1-12 months);Preschooler (2-4 years)NANADrug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2022-08-11T04:00:00ZFlat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the status of the COVID-19 vaccine for children under five years of age and the benefits of getting the vaccine for this age group.</p><h2>Is there a COVID-19 vaccine available for children under five years of age?</h2><p>Yes. On July 14, 2022, Health Canada authorized Moderna’s Spikevax for use as a two-dose primary series in children six months to five years of age, and a three-dose primary vaccine series in those who are moderately to severely immunocompromised. “Primary vaccine series” refers to the initial number of doses of a particular vaccine that a person needs. It does not include booster dose(s).</p><p>This is the first COVID-19 vaccine authorized in Canada for use in children under the age of five years.</p><p>Looking for general information on COVID-19 vaccines. Visit the page on <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3937&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19 vaccines general information</a>.</p><p>Looking for information specific to children aged five to 11? Visit the page on <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4001&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19 vaccine information for children (ages five to 11)</a>.</p><p>Looking for information specific to youth age 12+? Visit the page on <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4000&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19 vaccine information for youth (ages 12+)</a>.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Health Canada has authorized Moderna’s Spikevax for use as a two-dose primary series in children six months to five years of age, and a three-dose primary vaccine series in those who are moderately to severely immunocompromised.</li><li>Vaccination is recommended ahead of the start of the school year and upcoming respiratory virus season.</li><li>Neonates are more at risk of hospital admission because they have an immature immune system that has difficulty combatting disease.</li><li>Infants under six months of age can receive protection through immunization of the parent during pregnancy and subsequently through breastfeeding (more information for this age group is available later in the article).</li> </ul> https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-1155773108.jpgMain
COVID-19 vaccine information for children (ages five to 11)CCOVID-19 vaccine information for children (ages five to 11)COVID-19 vaccine information for children (ages five to 11)EnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years)NANADrug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2022-07-28T04:00:00ZFlat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the status of the COVID-19 vaccine for children five to 11 years of age and the benefits of getting the vaccine for children.</p><h2>What is the status of COVID-19 vaccines for children in Canada?</h2><p>In November 2021, Health Canada approved the use of the Pfizer vaccine for children five to 11 years of age.</p><p>In March 2022, Health Canada approved the use of the Moderna vaccine in children six to 11 years of age.</p><p>In July 2022, Health Canada approved the use of the Moderna vaccine in children under age five.</p><p>Looking for general information on COVID-19 vaccines. Visit the page on <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3937&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19 vaccines general information</a>.</p> <p>Looking for information specific to children under five years of age? Visit the page on <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4054&language=English">COVID-19 vaccination for ages under five</a>.</p> <p>Looking for information specific to youth age 12+? Visit the page on <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4000&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19 vaccine information for youth (ages 12+)</a>.</p> <br> <h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Vaccines against COVID-19 have been shown to be safe and effective.</li><li>The Pfizer vaccine was approved for use in children five to 11 years of age in November 2021 and the Moderna vaccine was approved for children six to 11 years of age in March 2021.</li><li>Canada’s National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) advises that the Pfizer vaccine is preferred for this age group and that the Moderna vaccine may be offered as an alternative.</li><li>Children get a smaller dose of the vaccine. They will still need to get two doses.</li><li>Side effects in younger children are similar to those seen in adults and older children.</li></ul><h2>References</h2><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, February 26). COVID-19 Vaccination. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/index.html">https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/index.html</a></p><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, March 8). Science Brief: Background Rationale and Evidence for Public Health Recommendations for Fully Vaccinated People. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/more/fully-vaccinated-people.html">https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/more/fully-vaccinated-people.html</a></p><p>Government of Ontario – Ministry of Health. (2020, March 31). COVID-19 vaccines for Ontario. Retrieved from <a href="https://covid-19.ontario.ca/covid-19-vaccines-ontario">https://covid-19.ontario.ca/covid-19-vaccines-ontario</a></p><p>Health Canada. (2021, October 18). Health Canada receives submission from Pfizer-BioNTech to authorize the use of Comirnaty COVID-19 vaccine in children 5 to 11 years of age. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/news/2021/10/health-canada-receives-submission-from-pfizer-biontech-to-authorize-the-use-of-comirnaty-covid-19-vaccine-in-children-5-to-11-years-of-age.html">https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/news/2021/10/health-canada-receives-submission-from-pfizer-biontech-to-authorize-the-use-of-comirnaty-covid-19-vaccine-in-children-5-to-11-years-of-age.html</a></p><p>ImmunizeBC. (2021, March 12). COVID-19 Vaccine Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved from <a href="https://immunizebc.ca/covid-19-vaccine-frequently-asked-questions">https://immunizebc.ca/covid-19-vaccine-frequently-asked-questions</a></p><p>ImmunizeCanada. (2021, February 18). COVID-19 Info. Retrieved from <a href="https://immunize.ca/covid-19-info">https://immunize.ca/covid-19-info</a></p><p>National Advisory Committee on Immunization. (2021, May 5). Recommendations on the use of COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf">https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf</a></p><p>Pfizer. (2021, September 20). Pfizer and BioNTech Announce Positive Topline Results from Pivotal Trial of COVID-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to 11 Years. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-announce-positive-topline-results">https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-announce-positive-topline-results</a></p><p>Pfizer. (2021, September 28). Pfizer and BioNTech Submit Initial Data to U.S. FDA From Pivotal Trial of COVID-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to <12 Years of Age. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-submit-initial-data-us-fda-pivota">https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-submit-initial-data-us-fda-pivota</a>l</p><p>Public Health Agency of Canada. (2021, September 28). Advisory Committee Statement (ACS) National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI): Recommendations on the use of COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf">https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf</a></p><p>Walter, E.B., Talaat, K.R., Sabharwal, C., Gurtman, A., Lockhart, S., Paulsen, G.C.,…Gruber, W.C., for the C4591007 Clinical Trial Group. (2021). Evaluation of the BNT162b2 Covid-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to 11 Years of Age. <em>New England Journal of Medicine</em>. <a href="https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2116298">https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2116298</a></p><p>World Health Organization. (2021, February 19). COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/covid-19-vaccines">https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/covid-19-vaccines</a><br></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-1278968456.jpghttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-1278968456.jpgMain
COVID-19 vaccine information for youth (ages 12+)CCOVID-19 vaccine information for youth (ages 12+)COVID-19 vaccine information for youth (ages 12+)EnglishInfectious DiseasesTeen (13-18 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years)NANADrug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2022-07-28T04:00:00ZFlat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the status of COVID-19 vaccines for youth 12 to 17 years of age and the benefits of getting the vaccine for youth.<br></p><h2>What is the status of COVID-19 vaccines for youth in Canada?</h2><p>In May 2021, Health Canada approved the use of the Pfizer vaccine for all individuals older than 12 years of age.</p><p>Here are a few helpful resources about COVID-19 vaccines and youth.</p><ul><li> <a href="https://kidshealthfirst.ca/">COVID-19 Vaccines for Ontario Youth</a></li><li> <a href="https://www.toronto.ca/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/97d6-COVID-19-Vaccine-Fact-Sheet-Youth.pdf">COVID-19 Vaccine Fact Sheet for Youth Age 12 to 17</a></li><li> <a href="https://www.toronto.ca/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/908c-CovidTeenVaxConsentInfographF.pdf">Does my 12+ Child Require Informed Consent to Receive Their Vaccine?</a></li></ul><p>Looking for general information on COVID-19 vaccines. Visit the page on <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3937&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19 vaccines general information</a>.</p><p>Looking for information specific to children under five years of age? Visit the page on <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4054&language=English">COVID-19 vaccination for ages under five</a>.</p> <p>Looking for information specific to children aged five to 11? Visit the page on <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4001&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19 vaccine information for children (ages five to 11)</a>.</p> <br> <h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Vaccines against COVID-19 have been shown to be safe and effective against the disease.</li><li>Two of the vaccines, Pfizer and Moderna, are approved for people 12 years of age and older.</li><li>The vaccine has been shown to prevent severe illness and hospitalization in youth aged 12 to 17.</li><li>Vaccinating youth aged 12 to 17 will help to prevent the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.</li></ul><h2>References</h2><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, February 26). COVID-19 Vaccination. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/index.html">https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/index.html</a></p><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, March 8). Science Brief: Background Rationale and Evidence for Public Health Recommendations for Fully Vaccinated People. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/more/fully-vaccinated-people.html">https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/more/fully-vaccinated-people.html</a></p><p>Government of Ontario – Ministry of Health. (2020, March 31). COVID-19 vaccines for Ontario. Retrieved from <a href="https://covid-19.ontario.ca/covid-19-vaccines-ontario">https://covid-19.ontario.ca/covid-19-vaccines-ontario</a></p><p>Health Canada. (2021, October 18). Health Canada receives submission from Pfizer-BioNTech to authorize the use of Comirnaty COVID-19 vaccine in children 5 to 11 years of age. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/news/2021/10/health-canada-receives-submission-from-pfizer-biontech-to-authorize-the-use-of-comirnaty-covid-19-vaccine-in-children-5-to-11-years-of-age.html">https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/news/2021/10/health-canada-receives-submission-from-pfizer-biontech-to-authorize-the-use-of-comirnaty-covid-19-vaccine-in-children-5-to-11-years-of-age.html</a></p><p>ImmunizeBC. (2021, March 12). COVID-19 Vaccine Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved from <a href="https://immunizebc.ca/covid-19-vaccine-frequently-asked-questions">https://immunizebc.ca/covid-19-vaccine-frequently-asked-questions</a></p><p>ImmunizeCanada. (2021, February 18). COVID-19 Info. Retrieved from <a href="https://immunize.ca/covid-19-info">https://immunize.ca/covid-19-info</a></p><p>National Advisory Committee on Immunization. (2021, May 5). Recommendations on the use of COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf">https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf</a></p><p>Pfizer. (2021, September 20). Pfizer and BioNTech Announce Positive Topline Results from Pivotal Trial of COVID-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to 11 Years. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-announce-positive-topline-results">https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-announce-positive-topline-results</a></p><p>Pfizer. (2021, September 28). Pfizer and BioNTech Submit Initial Data to U.S. FDA From Pivotal Trial of COVID-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to <12 Years of Age. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-submit-initial-data-us-fda-pivota">https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-submit-initial-data-us-fda-pivota</a>l</p><p>Public Health Agency of Canada. (2021, September 28). Advisory Committee Statement (ACS) National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI): Recommendations on the use of COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf">https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf</a></p><p>Walter, E.B., Talaat, K.R., Sabharwal, C., Gurtman, A., Lockhart, S., Paulsen, G.C.,…Gruber, W.C., for the C4591007 Clinical Trial Group. (2021). Evaluation of the BNT162b2 Covid-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to 11 Years of Age. <em>New England Journal of Medicine</em>. <a href="https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2116298">https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2116298</a></p><p>World Health Organization. (2021, February 19). COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/covid-19-vaccines">https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/covid-19-vaccines</a></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-1302135365.jpghttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-1302135365.jpgMain
COVID-19 vaccines general informationCCOVID-19 vaccines general informationCOVID-19 vaccines general informationEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANADrug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2022-07-28T04:00:00Z10.900000000000049.10000000000001996.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn which COVID-19 vaccines are available in Canada, and find information about vaccine development, and vaccine safety and effectiveness.</p><h2>COVID-19 vaccines approved for use in Canada</h2><p>As of March 2022, six vaccines against COVID-19 are approved for clinical use by Health Canada.</p><p>Two mRNA vaccines:</p><ul><li> <strong>Pfizer-BioNTech</strong> Comirnaty</li><li> <strong>Moderna</strong> Spikevax</li></ul><p>Two adenoviral vector vaccines:</p><ul><li> <strong>AstraZeneca</strong> Vaxzevria</li><li> <strong>Janssen</strong> (Johnson and Johnson)</li></ul><p>One protein-based vaccine:</p><ul><li><strong>Novavax</strong> Nuvaxovid</li></ul><p>One plant-based virus like particle:</p><ul><li><strong>Medicago</strong> Covifenz</li></ul><p>Looking for information specific to children under five years of age? Visit the page on <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4054&language=English">COVID-19 vaccination for ages under five</a>.</p><p>Looking for information specific to children aged five to 11? Visit the page on <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4001&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19 vaccine information for children (ages five to 11)</a>.</p><p>Looking for information specific to youth age 12+? Visit the page on <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4000&language=English&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19 vaccine information for youth (ages 12+)</a>.</p> <br> <h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Vaccines against COVID-19 have been shown to be safe and effective against the disease.</li><li>Six COVID-19 vaccines are approved for use by Health Canada.</li><li>Vaccines are approved for age groups six months and older.</li><li>Two of the vaccines, Pfizer and Moderna, are approved for people 12 years of age and older.</li><li>The Pfizer vaccine has been approved for use in children five to 11 years of age and the Moderna vaccine has been approved for use in children six to 11 years of age. Note: Pfizer is preferred for this age group by Canada’s National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI).</li><li>The Moderna vaccine is approved for children aged six months to five years.</li><li>Parents who are vaccinated against COVID-19 may help protect their children and others against the disease.</li></ul><h2>References</h2><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, February 26). COVID-19 Vaccination. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/index.html">https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/index.html</a></p><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, March 8). Science Brief: Background Rationale and Evidence for Public Health Recommendations for Fully Vaccinated People. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/more/fully-vaccinated-people.html">https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/more/fully-vaccinated-people.html</a></p><p>Government of Ontario – Ministry of Health. (2020, March 31). COVID-19 vaccines for Ontario. Retrieved from <a href="https://covid-19.ontario.ca/covid-19-vaccines-ontario">https://covid-19.ontario.ca/covid-19-vaccines-ontario</a></p><p>Health Canada. (2021, October 18). Health Canada receives submission from Pfizer-BioNTech to authorize the use of Comirnaty COVID-19 vaccine in children 5 to 11 years of age. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/news/2021/10/health-canada-receives-submission-from-pfizer-biontech-to-authorize-the-use-of-comirnaty-covid-19-vaccine-in-children-5-to-11-years-of-age.html">https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/news/2021/10/health-canada-receives-submission-from-pfizer-biontech-to-authorize-the-use-of-comirnaty-covid-19-vaccine-in-children-5-to-11-years-of-age.html</a></p><p>ImmunizeBC. (2021, March 12). COVID-19 Vaccine Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved from <a href="https://immunizebc.ca/covid-19-vaccine-frequently-asked-questions">https://immunizebc.ca/covid-19-vaccine-frequently-asked-questions</a></p><p>ImmunizeCanada. (2021, February 18). COVID-19 Info. Retrieved from <a href="https://immunize.ca/covid-19-info">https://immunize.ca/covid-19-info</a></p><p>National Advisory Committee on Immunization. (2021, May 5). Recommendations on the use of COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf">https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf</a></p><p>Pfizer. (2021, September 20). Pfizer and BioNTech Announce Positive Topline Results from Pivotal Trial of COVID-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to 11 Years. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-announce-positive-topline-results">https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-announce-positive-topline-results</a></p><p>Pfizer. (2021, September 28). Pfizer and BioNTech Submit Initial Data to U.S. FDA From Pivotal Trial of COVID-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to <12 Years of Age. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-submit-initial-data-us-fda-pivota">https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-submit-initial-data-us-fda-pivota</a>l</p><p>Public Health Agency of Canada. (2021, September 28). Advisory Committee Statement (ACS) National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI): Recommendations on the use of COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf">https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/services/immunization/national-advisory-committee-on-immunization-naci/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines/recommendations-use-covid-19-vaccines-en.pdf</a></p><p>Walter, E.B., Talaat, K.R., Sabharwal, C., Gurtman, A., Lockhart, S., Paulsen, G.C.,…Gruber, W.C., for the C4591007 Clinical Trial Group. (2021). Evaluation of the BNT162b2 Covid-19 Vaccine in Children 5 to 11 Years of Age. <em>New England Journal of Medicine</em>. <a href="https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2116298">https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2116298</a></p><p>World Health Organization. (2021, February 19). COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/covid-19-vaccines">https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/covid-19-vaccines</a></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/COVID-19_Vaccine.jpghttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/COVID-19_Vaccine.jpgMain
COVID-19: Frequently asked questionsCCOVID-19: Frequently asked questionsCOVID-19: Frequently asked questionsEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2020-07-06T04:00:00Z7.7000000000000065.20000000000002298.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>The COVID-19 pandemic and social distancing restrictions are impacting the well-being of caregivers and their children. Here are some of the common questions and concerns that caregivers have and some suggestions on how to cope with them.</p><p>The COVID-19 pandemic and social distancing restrictions are impacting the well-being of caregivers and their children. Different types of mental health support may be needed as we navigate the new realities imposed by COVID-19. Below are listed a collection of frequently asked COVID-19 mental health and well-being questions and answers. For some children and families, this guide along with our list of <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3883&language=English">online resources</a> may be enough. However, many families may need additional supports and are encouraged to reach out to their local mental health facilities and health-care providers before symptoms get worse.</p> <h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>The mental health and well-being of children and their caregivers are being negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.</li><li>Many families are struggling with similar issues. As a caregiver there are things you can do to help yourself and your children cope.</li><li>As a caregiver remember to take care of yourself and try taking just one day at a time.</li></ul> <p>For parents and caregivers at SickKids there are additional resources available such as workshops on emotion regulation and resiliency, and a virtual brief therapy clinic. To find out more about these resources visit the <a href="https://www.sickkids.ca/coronavirus">SickKids Coronavirus (COVID-19) Information</a> page.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/COVID-19--Frequently-asked_questions.jpgMain
COVID-19: Information for parents of children with congenital heart diseaseCCOVID-19: Information for parents of children with congenital heart diseaseCOVID-19: Information for parents of children with congenital heart diseaseEnglishCardiology;Infectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartImmune system;Cardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversFever;Cough;Runny nose2022-01-14T05:00:00Z10.100000000000052.90000000000001531.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find information and answers to common questions about COVID-19, for parents and caregivers of children with congenital heart disease. </p><p>Children with congenital heart disease (CHD) are not at an increased risk of contracting <a href="/article?contentid=3872&language=english&hub=COVID-19">COVID-19</a> and there is no clear evidence indicating that children with CHD who become infected with COVID-19 are at higher risk of complications. The following questions and answers may help you during this outbreak. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>SickKids is safe for you and your child to come to for assessment, as directed by your primary care team. </li><li>Having congenital heart disease should not increase your child’s chance of becoming infected with COVID-19. </li><li>Washing your hands frequently using soap and water for 20 seconds or by using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer, will help to prevent your child from getting COVID-19. </li><li>Your child’s upcoming cardiac clinic appointment may be rescheduled or moved to virtual care, if possible. Medically necessary appointments and testing will continue to take place. <br></li></ul><h2>Additional resources </h2><p>SickKids is now offering a Vaccine Consult Service to support families with questions about COVID vaccination. Families can find additional information and self-refer via the following link: <a href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/care-services/support-services/covid-19-vaccine-consult/">SickKids Vaccine Consult Service</a></p>Main
COVID-19: Information for parents of immunocompromised children and children with chronic medical conditionsCCOVID-19: Information for parents of immunocompromised children and children with chronic medical conditionsCOVID-19: Information for parents of immunocompromised children and children with chronic medical conditionsEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NAImmune systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversFever;Cough;Runny nose2022-01-15T05:00:00Z10.000000000000051.1000000000000798.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Children who are immunocompromised and children with chronic medical conditions may be at higher risk of serious illness with COVID-19.</p><p>Children who are immunocompromised and children with chronic medical conditions may be at higher risk of serious illness with COVID-19. The following questions and answers may help you during this outbreak.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>SickKids is safe for you and your child to come to for assessment as directed by your primary care team.</li><li>Children with chronic medical conditions may be at higher risk of developing serious illness if they do get COVID-19.</li><li>Washing your hands frequently using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer, or by using soap and water for 20 seconds will help to prevent you from getting COVID-19.</li><li>Your child should continue to take their regular medications as prescribed by their primary care team unless specifically instructed otherwise.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/COVID-19--Information_for_parents.jpgMain
COVID-19: Well-being and mental health resourcesCCOVID-19: Well-being and mental health resourcesCOVID-19: Well-being and mental health resourcesEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2020-07-06T04:00:00Z11.500000000000035.8000000000000448.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>The COVID-19 pandemic and social distancing restrictions are impacting the well-being of caregivers and their children. Below are some suggested online resources to provide information and to help parents and caregivers cope.</p><p>The COVID-19 pandemic and social distancing restrictions are impacting the well-being of caregivers and their children. Different types of mental health support may be needed as we navigate the new realities imposed by COVID-19. Below are listed a series of online resources to help parents and caregivers cope.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>The mental health and well-being of children and their caregivers are being negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.</li><li>Find a list of online information and resources to help parents and caregivers cope.</li></ul> https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/COVID-19--Well-being_and_mental_health_resources.jpgMain
CPR in a baby (0 to 12 months): First aidCCPR in a baby (0 to 12 months): First aidCPR in a baby (0 to 12 months): First aidEnglishNANewborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)Heart;LungsHeartNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2016-10-17T04:00:00Z8.1000000000000062.8000000000000771.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>CPR is a life-saving technique that combines chest compressions and rescue breaths (mouth-to-mouth resuscitation). Along with hands-on CPR training, this information can help save your baby's life.</p><h2>What is CPR?</h2> <p>CPR stands for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. CPR is an emergency procedure that involves chest compressions (pushing hard down on the chest) and rescue breaths (mouth-to-mouth resuscitation). When given properly, CPR can help deliver oxygen to the brain and other organs until help arrives or until your baby recovers. Causes of cardiac arrest in babies are usually a result of a major injury or illness and rarely from underlying heart disease.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Take an official course to learn real, hands-on CPR. </li> <li>CPR involves both chest compressions and rescue breathing (mouth-to-mouth resuscitation). Give 30 compressions and two rescue breaths; repeat this cycle until help arrives or your child recovers.</li> <li>If your baby is unresponsive and not breathing or only gasping despite stimulation, start CPR right away and have someone else call 911 and get an AED.</li> <li>Once your baby starts breathing, put them in the recovery position. This will keep their airway open.</li> </ul><h2>Giving CPR to your baby</h2><p>Check to see if your baby is unresponsive and not breathing or only gasping. You will need to begin CPR if your baby does not:</p><ul><li>breathe (or only gasps)</li><li>respond to your touch</li><li>move </li><li>wake up </li><li>become alert</li></ul><p>If you are not alone, have someone else call 911 and get an AED (automated external defibrillator) right away, if available, while you are doing CPR. </p><p>If you are alone and have a cell phone, start CPR while calling 911 from your cell phone on speaker. After two minutes of CPR (five cycles), go get an AED if available.</p><p>If you are alone and have no cell phone, start CPR for two minutes (five cycles) and then call 911 from a landline and get an AED if available.</p><ol class="akh-steps"><li> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_CPR_infant_chest_compressions_EN.jpg" alt="Positioning baby for CPR chest compressions" /> </figure> <h2>Chest compressions: Push hard, push fast</h2><p>Begin CPR by laying your baby down on a firm, flat surface. Do not spend time trying to find a pulse. Place your two fingers on the breastbone, just below the nipple line. Give your baby 30 quick chest compressions (push fast), pressing hard enough so their chest moves approximately 4 cm (1.5 inches) down (push hard).</p><p>Count out loud. You should deliver about 100-120 compressions a minute. Wait for the chest to come all the way back to its initial position between compressions. This will get the blood flowing to your baby's brain and other vital organs. </p></li><li> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_CPR_infant_open_airway_EN.jpg" alt="Opening baby’s airways for rescue breaths" /> </figure> <h2>Rescue breaths: Open the airway </h2><p>After the first 30 chest compressions, place the palm of your hand on your baby’s forehead. Place two fingers on the hard, bony tip of their chin and gently tilt their head back. This will open the airway.</p></li><li> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_CPR_infant_breathe_airway_EN.jpg" alt="Giving baby CPR rescue breaths" /> </figure> <h2>Two rescue breaths</h2><p>Place your mouth over your baby's nose and mouth, forming a tight seal, and give two breaths. Each breath should be just enough to make your baby’s chest rise and should be no more than one second in length. If your baby’s chest does not rise, reposition their head, form a tighter seal, and try again.</p></li><li> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_CPR_infant_chest_compressions_EN.jpg" alt="Repeating CPR chest compressions on baby" /> </figure> <h2>Repeat </h2><p>Give cycles of 30 chest compressions and two breaths during two minutes and repeat until the ambulance arrives or your baby starts breathing again. Two minutes usually allow for five cycles of 30 chest compressions and two breaths. A two-minute CPR cycle is usually tiring. If you are not alone, switch who is giving CPR every two minutes.</p></li><li> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_CPR_infant_recovery_position_EN.jpg" alt="Placing baby in recovery position" /> </figure> <h2>Recovery position</h2><p>Once your baby has recovered and started breathing again on their own, your baby may vomit and find it difficult to breathe. Simply put your baby in the <a href="/Article?contentid=1037&language=English">recovery position</a>: Their chin should point slightly away from the chest and their face should rest on the surface on which the baby is laying. Make sure nothing is blocking or covering your baby's mouth and nose. The recovery position will help keep your baby’s airway open.</p></li></ol>​​<h2>​At SickKids:</h2> <p>The <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/" target="_blank">Hospital for Sick Children​</a> offers the Heart and Stroke Foundation’s <a href="http://www.cvent.com/events/hospital-for-sick-children-standard-first-aid-heart-stroke-foundation-/event-summary-d989cebc9ab14e1281c6db68ab161d7c.aspx" target="_blank">First Aid program​</a>. It provides CPR and resuscitation training for patients, families and the general public.​</p> ​https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_CPR_infant_breathe_airway_EN.jpgMain
CPR in a child (from age 1 to puberty)CCPR in a child (from age 1 to puberty)CPR in a child (from age 1 to puberty): First aidEnglishNAToddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years)Heart;LungsHeartNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2016-10-17T04:00:00Z7.6000000000000065.8000000000000770.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>CPR is a life-saving technique that combines chest compressions and rescue breaths (mouth-to-mouth resuscitation).<br></p><h2>What is CPR?</h2> <p>CPR stands for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. CPR is an emergency procedure that involves chest compressions (pushing hard down on the chest) and rescue breaths (mouth-to-mouth resuscitation). When given properly, CPR can help deliver oxygen to the brain and other organs until help arrives or until your child recovers.</p> <p>The method described on this page applies to children between one year of age and puberty. Once puberty has begun, children should receive CPR as adults.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Take an official course to learn real, hands-on CPR. </li> <li>CPR involves both chest compressions and rescue breathing (mouth-to-mouth resuscitation). Give 30 compressions and two rescue breaths; repeat this cycle until help arrives or your child recovers.</li> <li>If your child is unresponsive and not breathing or only gasping despite stimulation, start CPR right away and have someone else call 911.</li> <li>Once your child starts breathing, put them in the recovery position. This will keep their airway open.</li> </ul><h2>Giving CPR to your child</h2><p>Check to see if your child is responsive by tapping them on the shoulder and asking loudly, “Are you OK?”. If your child does not answer, follow these instructions depending on your situation:<br></p><ul><li>If you are not alone, have someone else call 911 and get an AED (automated external defibrillator) right away, if available, while you are doing CPR. </li><li>If you are alone and have a cell phone, start CPR while calling 911 from your cell phone on speaker. After two minutes of CPR (five cycles), go get an AED if available.</li><li>If you are alone and have no cell phone, start CPR for two minutes (five cycles) and then call 911 from a landline and get an AED if available.</li></ul><ol class="akh-steps"><li> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_CPR_child_chest_compressions_EN.jpg" alt="Positioning child for CPR chest compressions" /> </figure> <h2>Chest compressions: Push hard, push fast</h2><p>Begin CPR by laying your child down on a firm, flat surface. Do not spend time trying to find a pulse. Place the heel of one or two hands over the lower third of your child's breastbone and give them 30 quick chest compressions (push fast). Be sure to push hard enough so their chest moves approximately 5 cm (2 inches) down (push hard). </p><p>Count out loud. You should deliver about 100-120 compressions a minute. Wait for the chest to come all the way back to its initial position between compressions. This will get the blood flowing to your child's brain and other vital organs.</p></li><li> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_CPR_child_open_airway_EN.jpg" alt="Opening child's airway for rescue breaths" /> </figure> <h2>Rescue breaths: Open the airway</h2><p>After the first 30 chest compressions, place the palm of your hand on your child’s forehead. Place two fingers on the hard, bony tip of their chin and gently tilt their neck back. This will open your child's airway. </p></li><li> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_CPR_child_breathe_airway_EN.jpg" alt="Giving child CPR rescue breaths" /> </figure> <h2>Two rescue breaths </h2><p>Pinch your child's nose and place your mouth over their mouth and give two breaths. Each breath should be just enough to make your child’s chest rise and should be no more than one second in length. Make sure you see your child's chest rise with each breath. </p></li><li> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_CPR_child_chest_compressions_EN.jpg" alt="Repeating CPR chest compressions" /> </figure> <h2>Repeat </h2><p>Give cycles of 30 chest compressions and two breaths during two minutes and repeat until the ambulance arrives or your child starts breathing again. Two minutes usually allow for five cycles of 30 chest compressions and two breaths.</p><p>A two-minute CPR cycle is usually tiring. If you are not alone, switch who is giving CPR every two minutes.</p></li><li> <figure class="”asset-c-100”"> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_CPR_child_recovery_position_EN.jpg" alt="Putting child in recovery position" /> </figure> <h2>Recovery position</h2><p>Once your child has recovered and started breathing again on their own, put them in the <a href="/Article?contentid=1037&language=English">recovery position</a> until help arrives. The recovery position will help keep your child’s airway open and prevent them from choking on their own vomit. If your child vomits, wipe it away. Make sure nothing is blocking or covering their mouth and nose. </p></li></ol><br>​​​​<p>The <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/" target="_blank">Hospital for Sick Children​</a> offers the Heart and Stroke Foundation’s <a href="http://www.cvent.com/events/hospital-for-sick-children-standard-first-aid-heart-stroke-foundation-/event-summary-d989cebc9ab14e1281c6db68ab161d7c.aspx" target="_blank">First Aid program​</a>. It provides CPR and resuscitation training for patients, families and the general public.​</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_CPR_child_chest_compressions_EN.jpgMain
CT scanCCT scanCT scanEnglishOtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyNATestsCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2015-06-04T04:00:00Z5.8000000000000079.90000000000001885.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>A CT scan uses X-rays to produce images of the body. Learn about how CT scans work, when they are used, and what to expect during the procedure. </p><h2>What is a CT scan?</h2><p>A CT scan is used to take a picture of your child's body. A computer uses X-rays to make “slice-like” pictures of body parts and internal organs.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>A CT scan uses X-rays and a computer to take “slice-like” pictures of body parts and internal organs.</li> <li>If your child is having sleep medicine for the CT scan, you must follow the rules about what your child can eat and drink before the test. </li> <li>The scan will not hurt. Nothing touches your child. When the scan starts, your child will hear a funny sound. </li> </ul><h2>Information about the CT scan</h2> <p>Only one parent is allowed into the CT scan room during the test. You will be given a lead coat to wear. You will be able to hold your child's hand.</p> <p>If you are going to have a baby or think you might be pregnant, let the staff know before you go into the CT scan room.</p> <p>Your child will lie on a narrow bed. The technologist will make sure that your child is lying on the table in the correct position for the CT scan. Your child will be held with a safety strap. If your child is having a CT scan of the head, the technologist may place little pillows beside your child's ears and a headband over their forehead to keep their head still. </p> <p>The bed moves up and into the CT machine, which looks like a big donut. The camera moves around inside the machine and takes many pictures. The camera makes some noise when it takes a picture, but the camera will not touch your child. </p> <p>Your child needs to stay very still while the camera is taking pictures. Your child can sleep (or pretend to sleep), or you can read a story to help the time go faster. </p> <p>The technologist will be able to hear, see and speak to your child during the CT scan.</p> <p>Depending on the body part we are scanning, the scan can take anywhere from 10 minutes to 30 minutes from start to finish. When the scan is finished, the technologist or nurse will help your child off the table. </p> <p>If your child was given sleep medicine, usually they will sleep for up to one hour in the wake-up room after the CT scan. </p> <p>We will write down the kind and the amount of sleep medicine and explain how to take care of your child at home. </p><h2>Helping your child to lie still during the CT scan</h2> <p>To get clear pictures, your child cannot move during the scan. Movement during the scan creates blurry pictures, meaning the doctor cannot see the information they need. Most young children find it hard to stay still, so we try to take the pictures when they are asleep. </p> <h3>Babies under two months old</h3> <p>Keep your baby awake and do not feed them for three hours before your test time. Bring a bottle (unless you are breastfeeding), a favourite blanket or a soother if your child uses one. </p> <p>If your baby is tired and feeds just before the test, they will usually fall asleep for the test.</p> <h3>Children four months to five years old</h3> <p>If your child is less than five years old, they may find it very hard to hold still for a long time. We will give your child'sleep medicine for the CT scan.</p> <h3>Children five years and older</h3> <p>If your child is older than five years of age but you don’t think they will be able to stay still for at least 20 minutes during the test, please tell us before the test.</p> <h2>If your child is having X-ray dye</h2> <p>To get more information on certain parts of the body, we may give your child a special kind of medicine called contrast, also called X-ray dye. </p> <p>This dye outlines certain parts of the body so that they show up more clearly. The dye goes into the body through a needle into a vein. For some body parts, it can also be mixed into a drink for your child. </p> <p>We will give your child the dye before or during the test. This will depend on what body part we are taking pictures of.</p> <p>Sometimes the X-ray dye gives a feeling of being warm. It may also have a funny taste or smell. Most children say that it tastes like bananas. This taste goes away quickly.</p> <p>A few children do react to the dye. Tell the staff if your child has had any allergies or other reactions to X-ray dye in the past. </p> <p>You may notice a rash or hives up to 48 hours after the dye injection. Please call the nurse in the CT department to document this mild reaction on your chart.</p> <h2>If your child is having a needle</h2> <p>The CT scan does not hurt because nothing touches your child. However, your child may need to have a needle or a tube (also called an IV) for the X-ray dye. </p> <p>If your child is having sleep medicine for the test, this may also be given through a needle or an IV. The poke from the needle may hurt a little when it goes into the vein.</p> <p>EMLA and Maxilene are names for topical local anaesthetic creams or “magic creams” that freeze the skin if your child needs an IV so that your child does not feel any pain. If you want us to use this cream on your child, you must arrive at least one hour before your appointment (but no earlier than 8:00 in the morning). When you arrive for your appointment, please tell the receptionist you came early so that your child can have the EMLA cream.</p><h2>How to get ready for the CT scan</h2> <p>Usually you do not need to do anything special to prepare for the CT scan. However, some children need medicine to help them sleep (sedation or general anaesthetic) so that they can lie still for the scan. If your child is having sleep medicine, they will need to stop eating and drinking several hours before the CT scan. </p> <h3>What your child should wear for the CT scan</h3> <p>Children having a CT scan of the head can wear their own clothes. Remove all metal from your child, including accessories and on clothing, before the test. Your child cannot wear earrings, hair clips, hair bands or necklaces.</p> <p>If the scan is of the chest, back or belly, dress your child in clothing with no metal snaps or zippers.</p> <h3>What to do if your child is not feeling well</h3> <p>Please call the CT Scan Department one business day before the scan (or earlier) if your child has a high temperature, runny nose, cough or cold. </p> <h3>What to do if your child is taking medication</h3> <p>If your child is taking any medication, please tell the nurse before you come in for the test. On the day of the test, please call and speak with a CT scan nurse before you give your child any medication.</p> <h3>Other information we should know before the CT scan</h3> <ul> <li>Please tell us if your child has any special needs.</li> <li>Please tell us if your child has diabetes, a heart condition, breathing problems or any other chronic medical problems.</li> <li>Please tell us if your child is older than five years of age but you do not think they will be able to stay still for at least 20 minutes during the test.</li> </ul> <h2>How to help your child get ready for the CT scan</h2> <p>The CT department has a friendly and colourful environment to help your child feel less scared. There are video games, books, and movies in the waiting room. </p> <p>The size of the CT scan machine can scare some children. Be honest and talk openly with your child about what to expect. Explain what will happen. </p> <p>Show your child the picture of the scanner at the beginning of this brochure. You can describe it as a big camera that takes pictures of the inside of the body. It looks like a very big donut. </p> <p>Explain to your child that they will need to stay still for the camera, just like you need to hold still to have a picture taken with an ordinary camera. The difference is that this camera takes much longer to take a picture. </p> <p>Your child can practice lying very still while you read to them. Make a game out of being so still, just like a statue. Tell your child that you will read to them as the scanner takes the pictures. </p> <p>The scan does not hurt because nothing touches your child. When the scan starts, your child will hear a funny sound. Most children say it sounds like a washing machine. </p> <h2>If your child is having sleep medicine for the CT scan</h2> <p>To make the sleep medicine safe, your child must have an empty stomach. The nurse will call you to explain what your child can eat and drink before the sleep medicine. The table below also tells you when your child must stop eating or drinking. </p> <h3>What your child can eat and drink before the sleep medicine (sedation or general anaesthetic)</h3> <p>If your child does not follow these instructions, your child's CT scan will be cancelled.</p> <table class="akh-table"> <thead> <tr><th>Time before procedure</th><th>What you need to know</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td>Midnight before the procedure</td> <td><p>No more solid food. This also means no gum or candy.</p><p>Your child can still drink liquids such as milk, orange juice and clear liquids. Clear liquids are anything you can see through, such as apple juice, ginger ale or water.</p><p>Your child can also eat Jell-O or popsicles.</p></td> </tr> <tr> <td>6 hours</td> <td>No more milk, formula or liquids you cannot see through, such as milk, orange juice and cola.</td> </tr> <tr> <td>4 hours</td> <td>Stop breastfeeding your baby.</td> </tr> <tr> <td>2 hours</td> <td>No food or drink at all.</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2">If you were given more instructions about eating and drinking, write them down here:<br></td> </tr> </tbody> </table><h2>At SickKids</h2> <p>On the day of the test, call the CT scan department:</p> <ul> <li>416-813-6070 from 7:30 in the morning to 3:00 in the afternoon (booking clerk)</li> <li>416-813-7654 EXT: 201499 from 8:00 in the morning to 6:30 in the evening</li> </ul> <h2>Other important information</h2> <ul> <li>The hospital is a busy place. There is pay parking underground but it can be hard to find a space. Please allow for extra time to get to your appointment. </li> <li>When coming for your CT scan appointment you must register first at the Diagnostic Imaging/CT Scan registration area, which is on the 2nd floor near the Burton Wing elevators. You may have to wait before someone can register you. Please allow for extra time. </li> <li>For more information about SickKids, including parking and directions, please read the brochure, "Welcome to our Clinics." </li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/NEURO_CT_EQUIP-PHO_EN.jpgMain
CT scan and cancer diagnosisCCT scan and cancer diagnosisCT scan and cancer diagnosisEnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)BodyNATestsPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z7.1000000000000073.4000000000000451.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>CT scans take a series of images that help the health-care team diagnose the type of cancer you may have. Find out how CT scans are done, what you need to do to prepare and what to expect when you get your results.</p><p>CT stands for computed tomography. CT scans take a series of X-ray pictures as the scanner moves down your body. Then a computer puts all the X-ray pictures together and the doctors can see different representing "slices" through your body.</p><p>A CT scan can take a picture of any body part. The pictures are clearer than regular X-rays and it is easier to see all the different little parts inside the body. </p><p>CT scans are used often and are considered safe. Some people worry about radiation from the X-ray camera in a CT scan. If you or your family have questions or are concerned about radiation, talk to your doctor or nurse.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>CT scans take a series of pictures that are then put together so the doctors can see different "slices" through your body.</li><li>You will need to remove any metal before a CT scan, change into a hospital gown and lie completely still during the scan.</li><li>A CT scan usually takes about 30 minutes.</li><li>You may need to drink or have an injection of contrast dye that will make the CT pictures clearer.</li><li>It may take up to a week before your get the results of the scan.</li></ul>Teens
CVL/PICC cap changeCCVL/PICC cap changeCVL/PICC cap changeEnglishOther;Other(diagnostic imaging, bloodwork, picc line, procedures�.)Child (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyVeinsProceduresAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2021-07-29T04:00:00ZHealth (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>If your child has a CVL/PICC, you will be taught how to change the cap before your child is discharged from hosptial. Learn the steps you need to follow for a CVL/PICC cap change. </p><p>A central line or central vascular access device (CVAD) is a tube that goes through one of your child’s large veins that leads to the heart, to deliver medications or fluids. Types of CVADs include <a href="/article?contentid=52&language=english">central venous lines (CVLs)</a> and <a href="/article?contentid=1012&language=english">peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs)</a>.</p><p>Cap changes are done to reduce the risk of infection and leakage. Residue may build up in the cap or the cap may break down. Cap changes are done once a week or if you see residue or blood inside or around the cap. Only perform this procedure if you have been instructed to do so by your child’s health-care provider.</p><p>This procedure uses aseptic non touch technique (ANTT). To learn more about ANTT, please see the page <a href="/article?contentid=3391&language=english">Aseptic non-touch technique</a>. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>To avoid residue build up and to reduce the risk of infection and leakage, cap changes for CVL/PICC should be done once a week or as needed.</li><li>During a cap change procedure, everyone in the room must wear a mask, including your child.</li><li>This procedure uses aseptic non-touch technique to minimize the risk of infection.</li></ul><h2>Performing the procedure</h2><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/rZW9ezjTGSI?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> </div><p>Follow these steps outlined in the video above to perform the cap change: </p><ol><li>Your support person can help keep your child as calm and still as possible, if needed.  If they need to hold your child still, they can dedicate one hand for holding, and keep the other hand clean to help hold the central line during the procedure. The support person may find it helpful to hold that hand up.</li><li>Carefully open the alcohol swabs. Unfold the swabs to increase their surface area.  </li><li>Carefully pick up the cap and line maintaining ANTT. Scrub vigorously using friction for at least 15 seconds, moving down the line and paying special attention to the connection.</li><ul><li>It takes at least 15 seconds of vigorous scrubbing to effectively remove bacteria that may have built up on the surface of the CVAD/ cap. The second person should look at the clock or use a timer and tell you when the time is up.</li></ul><li>Ask the second person to hold the line upward to make sure it does not touch any surface or the child’s skin. They must hold the line as far away from the cap as possible.  </li><li>If your child’s CVAD has more than one lumen, repeat the above steps to clean the second lumen using two new alcohol swabs.  </li><li>Allow the caps to dry for 30 seconds.</li><li>While the cap(s) are drying, remove your gloves, and wash your hands. </li></ol><p>The next steps of the procedure are considered critical steps because the key parts are exposed. This means they need to be free from any contamination. Take care as you perform each step. </p><ol start="8"><li>Take your sterile gloves out of the package and open carefully. Open the new caps onto your sterile gloves package without touching them. There is no need to prime the new cap unless you have been told to or taught to do so by your clinical team. </li><li>Wash your hands. Put on the sterile gloves using the appropriate technique. For instructions on how to properly put on sterile gloves, please watch the video <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JZJmshDfb8Y">Sterile Gloving Procedure</a>.  </li><li>Carefully pick up the new cap. Remove the old cap and apply the new one securely. Ensure the cap is on tightly. Be careful not to touch anything else. Throw the old cap in the garbage.</li><li>Repeat step 10 on the second lumen if you child has one.</li><li>Remove your gloves, wash your hands, and then remove your mask. Wash your hands again. Clean your general aseptic field (work surface).</li><li>You will now need to Heparin lock the line or attach new, clean IV tubing to the cap.</li><li>Once you have completed all the procedures, discard the used supplies into the garbage. </li></ol><h2>Setting up your environment</h2> <div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/K4Zxvb1wdIY?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> </div> <p>Before you begin the cap change procedure, you will need to set up your environment for the procedure. A central line dressing change requires two caregivers: a main person and a support person. Before beginning the procedure, decide who will take the main and supporting role, and plan where you will perform the procedure.</p><p>Follow these steps outlined in the video above to set up your environment:</p><ol><li>Locate an area to perform the procedure. Find a quiet space and remove any pets or other children. You can limit air drafts by closing windows and doors and turning off fans. Remove any clutter. Do not use your child’s bed as a work surface. Do not use a changing table as this is not a clean area.</li><li> Find a stable, wipeable work surface, within arm’s reach, to place your supplies. You can set aside an item like an unused, dedicated cookie sheet for this purpose since it will be easy to sanitize. This is your general aseptic field. Clean the surface with a disinfectant wipe before each use and allow it to dry.  </li><li>Place a garbage bin and hand sanitizer within reach. You will also need a clock or cell phone to use as a timer. Make sure to remove any jewelry and tie back long hair before starting the procedure. </li><li>Wash your hands thoroughly using soap and water. You may use hand sanitizer if your hands are not visibly soiled.</li><li>Gather your supplies and place all materials within reach on your clean work surface. You will need:</li><ul><li>Antiseptic wipes containing alcohol</li><li>2 pairs clean (non-sterile) gloves</li><li>1 pair sterile gloves </li><li>2 alcohol swabs per lumen</li><li>1 or 2 caps depending on the number of lumens</li><li>Masks for everyone in the room including the child </li></ul><li>Wash your hands and put on a mask to prevent the spread of germs from your mouth and nose. Wash your hands again after touching your face. Have your child wear a mask if they are able or have the second person support your child in turning their head away from the CVAD, or place a barrier between their mouth/nose and the procedure.</li><li>Clamp the line of the CVAD and remove and discard the old tubing if currently connected. </li><li>Perform hand hygiene and put on clean gloves. The second person also needs to wash their hands and put on clean gloves. </li></ol>Main
CVL/PICC dressing change procedureCCVL/PICC dressing change procedureCVL/PICC dressing change procedureEnglishOther;Other(diagnostic imaging, bloodwork, picc line, procedures�.)Child (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyVeinsProceduresAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2021-07-29T04:00:00ZHealth (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>If your child has a CVL or PICC, the dressing must be changed regularly to prevent infection. Learn how to change your child's CVL or PICC dressing using antiseptic non-touch technique.</p><p>A central line or central vascular access device (CVAD) is a tube that goes through one of your child’s large veins that leads to the heart, to deliver medications or fluids. Types of CVADs include<a href="/article?contentid=52&language=english"> central venous lines (CVLs)</a> and <a href="/article?contentid=1012&language=english">peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs)</a>.</p><p>The place where the CVL/PICC leaves the skin is called the exit site. It is covered with a sterile dressing, which protects it from germs. Once per week (every seven days), you must clean the exit site and the area under the sterile dressing with antiseptic solutions and apply a new sterile dressing. You will need to look through the clear dressing daily to examine the area for any drainage, puffiness or redness. Report any changes to your child’s health-care team. </p><p>If your child has a chest CVL you will also look at the entry site in the neck as part of your daily routine when first inserted, checking for anything that does not appear as perfectly healed skin. </p><p>Dressing changes are done regularly to keep the exit site clean and prevent infection. Unless given specific instructions from the health-care team, you will need to change the dressing every seven days for a clear dressing and every two days for a gauze dressing. Change the dressing when it becomes wet or loosened. Only perform this procedure if you have been instructed to do so by your child’s health-care provider.</p><p>You may be instructed to start using a gauze dressing instead of a clear dressing on your child’s CVL or PICC. This dressing will be shown and described to you. A gauze dressing is changed much more frequently than a clear dressing. Your child’s health-care team will give you instructions on how to care for a gauze dressing.</p><p>Whenever the dressing becomes wet, dirty or no longer sticks to the skin, you need to change it.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>The dressing will need to be changed every seven days for a clear dressing and every two days for a gauze dressing, unless otherwise specified.</li><li>It is important to follow the instructions exactly as they are given to you in order to keep the site clean and prevent infection.</li><li>The dressing change procedure uses aseptic non-touch technique to minimize the risk of infection.</li></ul><h2>What to look for while changing the dressing</h2><h3>Signs of infection</h3><p>Check your child’s exit site and surrounding skin daily, including when you change the dressing, for signs of infection. Start at the exit site and follow the path of the CVL/PICC all the way to the neck (including the vein insertion site on a chest line). </p><p>Examine the exit site and area under the dressing closely for: </p><ul><li>swelling</li><li>redness</li><li>irritation</li><li>drainage or discharge</li><li>bad smell</li></ul><p>If you see any drainage or discharge, crust or redness at or around the exit site or the insertion site, tell your child’s health-care team right away. Let them know the amount, size, colour and smell. You can also take a picture to show your child’s health-care team. Take your child’s temperature to find out if it is higher than normal. </p><h3>Skin reaction</h3><p>A skin rash or irritation may develop from the tape or the antiseptic solution. Chlorohexidine may cause some redness if a dressing is placed on the skin before it has completely dried. Changing to a different type of dressing or cleaning solution may help this problem. If you see redness, contact the health-care team for suggestions.</p><h3>Loose dressing</h3><p>The dressing may not stick well in warm weather, or if the antiseptic solution has not completely dried before putting the dressing on. If the dressing tape becomes loose or falls off, you will need to do another complete dressing change to keep germs away from the exit site.</p><h2>Performing the procedure</h2><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/oozvH61j0q0?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> </div><p>Follow these steps outlined in the video above to perform the dressing change:</p><ol><li>Your support person can help keep your child as calm and still as possible, if needed.  If they need to hold your child still, they can dedicate one hand for holding, and keep the other hand clean to help hold the central line during the procedure. The support person may find it helpful to hold that hand up.</li><li>Loosen the old dressing starting at the outer edges. From the outside of the dressing, make sure you are gently but firmly holding the PICC or CVL at the exit site to reduce any possible tugging on the line while removing the old dressing. If possible, keep the securement device in place until after the dressing has been changed.</li><li>Remove the old dressing.</li><li>Look for signs of infection such as redness, swelling or drainage at the exit site, tunnel site, surrounding skin and insertion site (neck area for chest CVL). If you notice any problems, finish the dressing and inform your child’s health-care team.</li><li>Do not touch the exit site or skin under the dressing with your non-sterile gloves. Protecting the area under the dressing helps reduce the risk of infection.</li><li>Remove the clean gloves, wash your hands and put on a new pair of clean gloves. You need to wash your hands because the old dressing you just removed is dirty. </li><li>Use the CHG sponge or swabstick to cleanse the area. if you are using the sponge, open it up and while pointing the sponge downwards, crack the sponge so it fills with the liquid. If you are using the swabstick, carefully take it out of the packaging.</li><ul><li>If the line is out of the securement device, the second person can lift the CVAD off skin to keep it elevated. Remember not to touch the key site with your hands.</li></ul><li>Scrub the skin using friction around the CVAD from the exit site to approximately 5 cm beyond the dressing borders in a back-and-forth motion in two directions for 30 seconds. For example, up and down and side to side, for 30 seconds. Vigorous scrubbing will allow the solution to effectively clean the skin.  Make sure the area that will be under the dressing has been cleaned. Then throw the sponge or swabstick into the garbage. </li><li>Open two additional chlorhexidine sponges or swabsticks. Use the two swabsticks to clean both sides of the central line, starting closest to the child and moving up the catheter for an additional 30 seconds. If the CVAD is looped when placed against your child's skin, a longer portion of the CVAD must be cleaned. Make sure not to tug the CVL/PICC at the exit site. Cleaning from the exit site and moving up the line helps to decrease the risk of infection.</li><li>Allow the area to dry completely for at least 2 minutes. Do not fan or blow on the newly cleaned area as this may introduce new germs to the area. Allowing the area to dry will ensure germs have been killed and the dressing will adhere to the skin. Leaving skin damp may cause redness and irritation.</li><li>Remove your gloves and throw them away. Wash your hands.</li></ol><p>The next steps of the procedure are considered critical steps because the key site (the entry site) is exposed. This means they need to be free from any contamination. Take care as you perform each step. </p><ol start="12"><li>Open sterile dressing package making sure not to touch the dressing inside. Wash hands again. You can choose to leave the sterile dressing inside the sterile packaging or open sterile glove package and carefully drop sterile dressing into the sterile glove field using aseptic non-touch technique. Wash your hands again.</li><li>Put on your sterile gloves. For instructions on how to properly put on sterile gloves, please watch the video <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JZJmshDfb8Y">Sterile Gloving Procedure</a>.  Make sure you do not contaminate your sterile gloves.</li><li>Loop the CVL/PICC if possible. Keeping a loop allows for extra slack if the line is accidentally pulled. </li><li>Peel off the paper backing of the dressing.  Apply the dressing using ANTT, making sure the site and catheter loop are covered. It is important to position the CVAD so that the key site is visible through the window of the dressing. Pay careful attention not to stretch the dressing when applying it, and make sure the dressing is well adhered to the skin. </li><li>Place your hand over the entire dressing for 15-30 seconds to help it stick to the skin. The heat from your hands help the adhesive tape stick to the skin.</li><li>Remove the CVAD from the securement device. Use additional pieces of the dressing, or another adhesive tape, to cover any openings around the catheter by placing one strip under the line, and another over the line.  </li><li>Remove the securement device from the skin and apply a new one. If using a securement device, it can be helpful to secure the line in the new device first, and then stick it to the skin.</li><li>Remove your gloves, perform hand hygiene, and then remove your mask. Wash your hands again.</li><li>Discard the used supplies into the garbage and clean your general aseptic field.</li></ol><h2>Setting up your environment</h2><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/K4Zxvb1wdIY?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> </div><p>Before you begin the dressing change procedure, you will need to set up your environment for the procedure. A central line dressing change requires two caregivers: a main person and a support person. Before beginning the procedure, decide who will take the main and supporting role, and plan where you will perform the procedure.</p><p>Follow these steps outlined in the video above to set up your environment:</p><ol><li>Locate an area to perform the procedure. Find a quiet space and remove any pets or other children. You can limit air drafts by closing windows and doors and turning off fans. Remove any clutter. Do not use your child’s bed as a work surface. Do not use a changing table as this is not a clean area.</li><li> Find a stable, wipeable work surface, within arm’s reach, to place your supplies. You can set aside an item like an unused, dedicated cookie sheet for this purpose since it will be easy to sanitize. This is your general aseptic field. Clean the surface with a disinfectant wipe before each use and allow it to dry.  </li><li>Place a garbage bin and hand sanitizer within reach. You will also need a clock or cell phone to use as a timer. Make sure to remove any jewelry and tie back long hair before starting the procedure. </li><li>Wash your hands thoroughly using soap and water. You may use hand sanitizer if your hands are not visibly soiled.</li><li>Gather your supplies and place all materials within reach on your clean work surface. You will need:</li><ul><li>Antiseptic wipes containing alcohol</li><li>2 pairs clean (non-sterile) gloves</li><li>1 pair sterile gloves </li><li>3 chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) 2% swabsticks or 3 ChloraPrep</li><li>Sterile transparent (clear) dressing (e.g. Tegaderm™, IV 3000)</li><li>An appropriate securement device (e.g. Statlock)</li><li>Masks for everyone in the room including the child </li><li>Sterile drape (optional)</li></ul><li>Keep all supplies in their packages until you are ready to use them. This is known as the micro critical aseptic field.</li><li>Wash your hands and put on a mask to prevent the spread of germs from your mouth and nose. Wash your hands again after touching your face. Have your child wear a mask if they are able or have the second person support your child in turning their head away from the CVAD or place a barrier between their mouth/nose and the procedure.</li><li>Wash your hands again and put on clean gloves to reduce the possibility of adding more germs from your hands to the skin under the dressing. The second person also needs to wash their hands and put on clean gloves, in case they need to hold the line during the procedure.</li></ol>Main
Caesarean sectionCCaesarean sectionCaesarean sectionEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)Body;UterusReproductive systemNAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-11T04:00:00Z11.500000000000046.70000000000001464.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Important information regarding Caesarean sections: why it may be required, how it is done, what the complications are, and potential effects.</p><p>Caesarean section, sometimes referred to as C-section, is the surgical delivery of a baby through incisions in the abdomen and uterus. Sometimes caesarean section is done after a long labour that has not progressed properly. Caesarean section may also be performed in emergency situations where the mother or baby’s life is in jeopardy. Other times, a caesarean section may be planned because the mother had a previous caesarean section or has a condition that makes labour dangerous.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Caesarean section is major abdominal surgery where the incision is made through the skin, the underlying fat, and into the abdomen and uterus.</li> <li>Complications of caesarean section include hemorrhaging, pain, infection, blood clots or damage to the uterus.<br></li> <li>Caesarean section is generally a safe procedure for the baby however they are at a slightly higher risk for breathing problems, and trauma due to surgical cuts.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/caesarean_section.jpgMain
Caffeine and energy drinksCCaffeine and energy drinksCaffeine and energy drinksEnglishNutritionTeen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionTeen (13-18 years)NA2022-05-02T04:00:00Z8.8000000000000058.90000000000001280.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Caffeine is a stimulant drug found in many drinks, treats and some medicines. Find out its effects on your body and how much of it is okay to consume per day.</p><h2>What is caffeine?</h2><p>Caffeine is a stimulant drug, which is a drug that can make you feel more awake, alert, confident or energetic. It can be found in coffee, tea, cola drinks, energy drinks, chocolate and certain medicine. You may find yourself reaching for foods and drinks that contain caffeine to help you study, prepare for a big game, or have fun during a party. While it's true that caffeine can give you an energy boost or help you focus, drinking too much can have a negative effect on your health. Caffeine can help you feel more alert and less tired; but for some people, too much caffeine can affect their sleep and cause vomiting, heart palpitations, diarrhea, agitation, and other types of unwanted effects. Instead of having large amounts of caffeine, consider healthy nutrition, quality sleep, and regular exercise to keep you energized all day.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Caffeine is a drug that can be found in coffee, tea, cola drinks, energy drinks, chocolate and some medicines.</li><li>Caffeine is a stimulant, which is a drug that can make you feel more awake, alert, confident or energetic.</li><li>It is not recommended to have more than 2.5 mg of caffeine per kilogram (kg) of body weight per day if you are a teen 13 years of age or older.</li><li>The effects of caffeine on your body depend on the amount you consume, but everyone’s reaction is different. You should limit how much caffeine you have when possible, as it can cause dehydration and affect your sleep and heart rate.</li></ul><h2>Resources</h2><p><a href="https://www.verywellhealth.com/effects-of-caffeine-on-teenagers-4126761">The Effects of Caffeine on Teenagers</a></p><h2>References</h2><p>Hammond D, Reid JL, Zukowski S. Adverse effects of caffeinated energy drinks among youth and young adults in Canada: a Web-based survey. <em>CMAJ Open</em>. 2018 Jan 9;6(1):E19-E25. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5912944/">https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5912944/</a>.</p><p>Pound CM, Blair B; Canadian Paediatric Society, Nutrition and Gastroenterology Committee. Energy and sports drinks in children and adolescents. <em>Paediatr Child Health</em>, 2017; 22(7):406–410. Retrieved from <a href="https://cps.ca/documents/position/energy-and-sports-drinks">https://cps.ca/documents/position/energy-and-sports-drinks</a>.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Teen%20site%20caffeine.jpgTeens
Café-au-lait macules (CALMs)CCafé-au-lait macules (CALMs)Café-au-lait macules (CALMs)EnglishDermatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)SkinSkinConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2015-05-06T04:00:00Z7.6000000000000062.2000000000000552.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Café-au-lait macules are flat marks on the skin. Find out how CALMs are diagnosed, how they affect the body and how they are treated.<br></p><h2>What are café-au-lait macules?</h2> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_CALM_light_brown_EN.jpg" alt="Café au lait macules on light skin" /> </figure> <p>Café-au-lait macules (CALMs), or café-au-lait spots, are flat, oval lesions (marks) on the skin. Café-au-lait means "coffee with milk" in French. The name refers to the colour of the spots, as they are at least a shade darker than your child’s skin tone.<br></p><p>Café-au-lait macules commonly appear at birth but may develop later, during the first year of life. Their colour varies from light brown to dark brown.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Café-au-lait macules are harmless light to dark brown, oval, well-defined spots.</li> <li>They are normally present from birth and can increase in number and size over time.</li> <li>Multiple café-au-lait macules are associated with different genetic disorders.</li> <li>See a doctor if your child has undefined hyperpigmented lesions, more than six CALMs or has CALMs with lumps and bumps on the skin.</li> </ul><h2>How do CALMs affect the body?</h2> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_CALM_dark_brown_EN.jpg" alt="Café au lait macules on darker skin" /> </figure> <p>CALMs are benign (harmless). They do not hurt or itch and never progress to anything serious such as skin cancer. The spots can become darker throughout childhood or with sun exposure, but this is not a cause for concern.</p><h2>How common are CALMs?</h2> <p>The size and number of café-au-lait macules vary from child to child. About one in five healthy children have one or two CALMs. Up to one in 100 children have three CALMs.</p><h2>How are CALMs diagnosed?</h2> <p>CALMs are easily diagnosed by a skin examination. "Typical" CALMs range from light to dark brown and are well defined, even coloured and often round or oval. They vary in size and can appear anywhere on the skin, although they rarely appear on the face.</p><h2>How are CALMs treated?</h2> <p>No therapy is needed for CALMs. If your child is concerned about how their CALMs look, you can consider covering the CALMs with camouflage make-up to make them less noticeable. Some people consider laser treatment to reduce the colour, but this is painful and expensive. It also carries side effects and may not be very effective in reducing the colour of the CALMs. </p><h2>Are CALMs ever a feature of another condition?</h2> <p>CALMs can sometimes indicate an underlying genetic disorder. See your child’s doctor if your child has:</p> <ul> <li>six or more CALMs measuring more than 5 mm before puberty</li> <li>six or more CALMs measuring more than 15 mm during puberty</li> </ul> <p>If a genetic disorder is present, tiny CALMs, which look like freckles, may be visible under the arms or around the groin.</p> <p>The most common genetic disorder linked with multiple CALMs is <a href="/Article?contentid=864&language=English">neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1)</a>. Other conditions with CALMs as a symptom include McCune-Albright syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, Noonan syndrome, Legious syndrome and Fanconi anaemia.</p><h2>When to see a doctor for CALMs</h2> <p>See your child’s doctor or dermatologist if your child has:</p> <ul> <li>an undiagnosed pigmented lesion</li> <li>more than six café-au-lait macules measuring more than 5mm before puberty or more than 15 mm after puberty<br></li> <li>freckling around the armpit or groin</li> <li>CALMs with lumps and bumps on the skin</li> <li>other family members with multiple CALMs or a diagnosis of NF-1</li> <li>many CALMs with any learning problems or speech, language or other developmental delays<br></li> </ul><h2>​Further information</h2><p> <a href="https://www.ctf.org/" target="_blank">Children's Tumor Foundation</a></p><p> <a href="https://www.dermnetnz.org/" target="_blank">Dermnet New Zealand Trust: Facts about the skin</a></p><p> <a href="http://www.nfon.ca/" target="_blank">Neurofibromatosis Society of Ontario</a></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_CALM_light_brown_EN.jpgMain
CalciumCCalciumCalciumEnglishNutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NADigestive systemHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+) Educators Hospital healthcare providers Community healthcare providers Remote populations First nationsNA2022-03-29T04:00:00Z8.5000000000000061.5000000000000508.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Discover the role of calcium in the body and how to get enough.</p><h2>What is calcium and what does it do?</h2><p>Calcium is the main building block of our bones and teeth. If we do not get enough calcium in the diet, the body draws on the calcium reserves in the bones, making them weaker.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Calcium works with <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1447&language=English">vitamin D</a> to strengthen bones and teeth.</li><li>It is mostly found in green leafy vegetables, sardines, almonds, milk, cheese and yogurt.</li><li>Calcium supplements are usually not needed, but a doctor may recommend them if a child has osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, an eating disorder or celiac disease.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/INM_NRC_track1-8-3_illustration_food_calcium.jpgMain
Calcium and vitamin D-rich dietCCalcium and vitamin D-rich dietCalcium and vitamin D-rich diet for transplantEnglishTransplant;NephrologyTeen (13-18 years)KidneysRenal system/Urinary systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-ZTeens
Calorimetry testingCCalorimetry testingCalorimetry testingEnglishMetabolicChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyNATestsCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-06T05:00:00Z5.6000000000000079.1000000000000557.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>A calorimetry test measures a child's resting metabolic rate. Learn about what happens during a calorimetry test as well as how to prepare your child. </p><h2>What is a calorimetry test?</h2> <p>A calorimetry test measures your child's resting metabolic rate. A resting metabolic rate shows how much energy (calories) the body burns when at rest. The body must burn energy at rest to keep up normal functions such as breathing and heart rate. This metabolic rate can be measured by looking at your child's breathing. With this information, health-care professionals can plan what your child can eat and drink. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>A calorimetry test measures how much energy the body burns while at rest. </li> <li>Your child must be able to lie still for about 12 to 30 minutes to have the test. </li> <li>Results of the test can be used to find the right diet for your child. </li> </ul><h2>During a calorimetry test</h2> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Calorimetry_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Person lying on back with plastic hood over the head that is attached to a machine by a tube" /> </figure> <p>During the test, your child will spend about 12 to 30 minutes lying quietly on a bed or sitting in a large chair.</p><p>Your child will need to lie quietly under the plastic hood. The hood is open to room air.</p><p>A machine called a calorimeter will take a sample of air from the hood and analyze it. If your child is calm and comfortable, the test will take less time. Your child needs to lie still for at least 12 minutes under the hood to be able to get a sample of the air. If your child is moving around or upset, the test will take longer.</p><p>Your child can watch TV or a video to help them lie quietly. They should not read, sleep, talk, laugh or move around during the test.</p><p>If your child has a favourite video or DVD, you can bring it along to help them relax and be more comfortable.</p><p>If your child is calm and comfortable, the test will take less time than if your child is moving around.</p><h2>Before a calorimetry test</h2> <p>Tell your child not to worry about the test. It will not hurt and there are no needles. Your child will have to have a clear plastic hood put over their head. The hood is open to room air. It may be a good idea to let your child know about the hood before the test. Parents often encourage their children to imagine themselves as an astronaut while they are under the hood. This may help your child relax and stay calm for the test. </p> <p>Your child needs to have an empty stomach.</p> <ul> <li>If your child is less than two years old, they cannot have anything to eat or drink two hours before the test. </li> <li>If your child is more than two years old, they cannot eat or drink for at least four hours before the test. It is best if your child does not eat anything the day of the test.</li> <li>Your child can still drink plain water. </li> </ul><h2>At SickKids</h2> <p>The Calorimetry Unit is on the fifth floor Atrium in Room 5D12. On the fifth floor, follow the signs to 5D. When you reach the round reception desk, please turn down the hall to your right for room 5D12. If you are not sure, ask at 5D reception.</p> <p>If you have questions or need to cancel or reschedule your child's test, please call 416-813-6151.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Calorimetry_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpgMain
Campomelic dysplasia (CD)CCampomelic dysplasia (CD)Campomelic dysplasia (CD)EnglishGeneticsChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyNAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2012-08-19T04:00:00Z8.8000000000000057.10000000000001542.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Information about campomelic dysplasia, a genetic condition that affects the development of the skeleton and reproductive system.</p><h2>What is campomelic dysplasia (CD)? </h2> <p>Campomelic dysplasia (say: cam-po-MELL-ick diss-PLAY-zee-ah) is a genetic condition that affects: </p> <ul> <li>the development of the skeleton </li> <li>the development of the reproductive system </li> </ul> <p>It is characterized by: </p> <ul> <li>distinctive facial appearance </li> <li>Pierre Robin sequence with cleft palate (see below) </li> <li>bowing and shortening of long bones </li> <li>club feet </li> </ul> <p>Many babies are born with genitalia that are not clearly male or female (ambiguous genitalia). </p> <p>CD is often life-threatening in the first few weeks of life due to a problem with the airway called laryngotracheomalacia. </p> <p>Other names you may hear for the condition are camptomelic dysplasia, campomelic dwarfism, campomelic syndrome or camptomelic dwarfism. </p> <p>It is not known how many babies are born with CD. It is thought that perhaps one in every 40,000 to 80,000 babies is born with CD.</p><h2>Key points </h2> <ul> <li>CD is a genetic condition that results in distinctive facial appearance, Pierre Robin sequence with cleft palate, shortening and bowing of long bones and club feet. </li> <li>Many babies do not survive because of breathing problems at birth.</li> <li>Children with CD need to be followed carefully by a health care team due to the possible complications.</li> <li>Genetic counselling can help families understand CD, the options for managing it, and the chances that other children will also be affected.</li> </ul><h2>How campomelic dysplasia affects the body </h2><h3>Facial appearance </h3><p>People with CD have a relatively large head with a flat face. They have prominent eyes, a flat nasal bridge (the area at the top of the nose between both eyes) and a small chin. </p><h3>Pierre Robin sequence </h3><p>This is the name given to the following birth defects if they appear together: </p><ul><li>small lower jaw </li><li>tongue that is pushed up and back towards the roof of the mouth (palate) and throat; this prevents the proper closure of the palate </li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=380&language=English">cleft palate</a></li></ul><p>Many infants with CD are born with Pierre Robin sequence. This can lead to difficulties with feeding and you may need to speak to a feeding consultant. </p><h3>Height and body shape </h3><p>Children with CD have shorter arms and legs than normal. Some babies have bowed bones during the prenatal period and may be short from birth, whereas others are born with a normal length. In general, people with CD may also have bowing of the long bones of the arms and legs. This is usually seen more in the legs than the arms. The hip joints are unstable and easy to dislocate. <a href="/Article?contentid=1192&language=English">Club feet</a> are quite common in babies with CD. </p><p>During childhood, the long bones of the arms and legs grow at a slower pace than usual. This leads to short stature (height) as well as relatively shorter limbs. </p><p>The ribs are also affected. People with CD usually have 11 pairs of ribs, instead of the usual 12 pairs. Scoliosis (curvature of the back) is also seen in people with CD. </p><h3>Abnormal development of sex organs </h3><p>People with CD often have ambiguous genitalia (not clearly male or female). Often a person who has male chromosomes (46,XY) will have complete female genitalia to ambiguous genitalia. On the inside, they can have both male internal genitalia (testes) and female internal genitalia (ovaries). Both boys and girls can have CD. </p><h3>Laryngotracheomalacia </h3><p>Laryngotracheomalacia (say: la-RING-go-TRAY-kee-oh-ma-LAY-sha) is a condition where the larynx (voice box) and trachea (wind pipe) are softer than expected. This leads to airway obstruction and difficulty breathing. Many babies die as a result of this complication.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Laryngotracheomalacia</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Campomelic_dysplasia_Laryngotracheomalaica_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="A normal larynx and constricted larynx and a normal trachea and collapsed trachea in a baby" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Laryngotracheomalacia is a condition where the tissues of the larynx (voice box) and trachea (wind pipe) collapse inward. This causes airway obstruction and difficulty breathing.</figcaption> </figure> <h3>Deformities of the spine </h3><p>Instability of the back bone at the level of the neck (cervical spine) is quite common. Progressive <a href="/scoliosis">scoliosis</a> (curvature of the spine) is also a feature. </p><h3>Hearing loss </h3><p>People with CD have a higher chance of hearing loss. </p><h3>Intellectual development </h3><p>Children with CD have normal intelligence. </p><h2>Campomelic dysplasia is a genetic disorder </h2><p>Genetic means related to genes. Each of us inherits our genes from our parents. They provide our body with instructions that influence our health, looks and behaviour. In general, each person has two copies of every gene. One copy is inherited from the mother and the other from the father. </p><p>CD occurs due to a mutation (change) in one copy of the gene known as SOX9. Most cases are new in a family and not passed on by a parent. This is the result of a new mutation that happens by chance in the egg or the sperm cell that created the child. </p><p>CD is inherited as an <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=genetics/simplesinglegeneinheritance/autosomaldominantinheritance/pages/default.aspx">autosomal dominant</a> condition. This means that: </p><ul><li>Only one copy of the SOX9 gene needs to have a mutation for a person to have CD. The other copy of the gene works normally but is not enough to prevent a person from having CD. </li><li>A person with CD has a 50% chance during each pregnancy of passing this genetic condition on to the child. </li><li>The risk to the sibling (brother or sister) of a person with CD depends on whether the parent has CD or not.</li></ul> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Inheritance of CD</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Campomelic_dysplasia_Inheritance_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Chromosome distribution from an affected parent with CD and an unaffected parent" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">CD is caused by a mutation in the SOX9 gene. Every person has two copies of this gene. A person will have CD if one copy of the gene has a mutation. In this example, the parent with CD has one copy of one of the genes with a mutation and the other has none. If the baby does not inherit the mutation then the baby will not have CD. If the baby inherits the copy of the gene with a mutation, then the baby will have CD.</figcaption> </figure><h2>Campomelic dysplasia can be diagnosed before or after birth </h2> <p>Before birth, CD can be diagnosed by testing DNA taken from the fetus. This can be obtained in one of the following ways: </p> <ul> <li>by amniocentesis after the 15th week of pregnancy </li> <li>by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) between the 11th and 14th week of pregnancy</li> </ul> <p>These methods are used for high-risk pregnancies, for instance if the parents have another child diagnosed with CD or one of the parents has CD. </p> <p>To be eligible for this testing, the mutation in the SOX9 gene responsible for causing CD in the family must be known. This means genetic testing (a blood test) must be done on the person in the family with CD. </p> <p>CD can sometimes be diagnosed by ultrasound in pregnancy. However, a normal ultrasound does not guarantee that a baby will not have CD. </p> <p>After birth, the diagnosis of CD is based on X-ray findings and physical examination. A diagnosis of CD can sometimes be confirmed by DNA testing of the SOX9 gene (a blood test). </p><h2>Treatment of campomelic dysplasia</h2> <p>Children with CD can lead fulfilling lives if they receive attentive, informed care from their parents and health-care providers. They should be carefully followed because of the risk of complications. </p> <p>The goals of treatment are: </p> <ul> <li>to help children with CD adapt socially and physically </li> <li>to treat any complications </li> </ul> <p>Various specialists work together as a team to help children with CD.</p> <h3>Treatment of cleft palate </h3> <p>A team of specialists called the craniofacial team takes care of children with cleft palate (opening in the roof of mouth). <a href="/Article?contentid=34&language=English">Cleft palate is usually treated with an operation to close the opening</a>. </p> <h3>Treatment of bone and joint problems </h3> <p>Club feet and hip dislocations are managed by orthopaedic surgeons. These often require use of splints, casts and sometimes surgery. </p> <h3>Treatment of spine deformities </h3> <p>Spine deformities like instability of the cervical (upper) spine and progressive scoliosis must be monitored. In some cases, an operation may be considered. </p> <h3>Management of patients with ambiguous genitalia </h3> <p>When the internal genitalia do not match the chromosomes' makeup, the gonads (testes or ovaries) are sometimes removed. This is because there is an increased risk of development of cancer (called gonadoblastoma) later in life. </p> <h3>Treatment of hearing loss </h3> <p>Children with CD require periodic hearing assessments to monitor any worsening of hearing. Some children may benefit from wearing hearing aids.</p><h2>Resources and support </h2><p>The following organizations and sites can offer more information, support and contact with other affected individuals and their families. </p><ul><li>The Human Growth Foundation: <a href="http://hgfound.org/" target="_blank">www.hgfound.org</a> </li><li>Little People of Canada: <a href="https://comdir.bfree.on.ca/lpc/" target="_blank">comdir.bfree.on.ca/lpc/</a> </li><li>Little People of Ontario: <a href="https://www.littlepeopleofontario.com/" target="_blank">www.littlepeopleofontario.com/</a> </li><li>Little People of America: <a href="https://www.lpaonline.org/" target="_blank">www.lpaonline.org</a></li><li>The Magic Foundation: <a href="https://www.magicfoundation.org/" target="_blank">www.magicfoundation.org</a> </li><li>MUMS (Mothers United for Moral Support) National Parent-to-Parent Network: <a href="http://www.mums-network.org/" target="_blank">www.mums-network.org</a> </li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Campomelic_dysplasia_Inheritance_MED_ILL_EN.jpgMain
Camps and outdoor educationCCamps and outdoor educationCamps and outdoor educationEnglishNASchool age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2021-01-06T05:00:00ZLanding PageLearning Hub<p>Camp is a fun environment where children can try new activities, make new friends and develop new skills. Read about keeping your child safe and healthy at camp, including outdoor safety tips, how to treat common injuries and more.</p><p>Camp is a fun environment where children can try new activities, make new friends and develop new skills. Camp also provides the opportunity to build character and foster your child’s independence and self-esteem. Read about keeping your child safe and healthy at camp, including outdoor safety tips, supporting your child’s physical and mental health, how to treat common injuries and health issues, and managing your child’s allergies and complex care needs.</p>camps, camphttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Camps_and_Outdoor_Education.jpgMain
Canada's Food GuideCCanada's Food GuideCanada's Food GuideEnglishNutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NADigestive systemHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+) Educators Hospital healthcare providers Community healthcare providers Remote populations First nationsNA2021-05-13T04:00:00Z7.3000000000000065.0000000000000610.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Discover the foundation for healthy eating with Canada's Food Guide. Learn about Canada’s Food Guide recommendations and how to apply them to your family’s diet.</p><p><a href="https://food-guide.canada.ca/en/">Canada's Food Guide</a> promotes healthy eating habits for all Canadians of all cultures and is a general guide to nutrition for people aged two and older.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Canada's Food Guide offers guidelines on nutrition for people aged two and older.</li><li>Recommendations and guidelines for healthy eating include eating a variety of vegetables and fruits, protein foods and whole grains.</li><li>Canada’s Food Guide promotes healthy eating habits for all Canadians of all cultures.</li><li>It is important to eat a variety of healthy foods each day and adapt the guidelines to individual nutritional needs.</li></ul>Main
CancerCCancerCancerEnglishOncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANANAAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2019-09-03T04:00:00ZLanding PageLearning Hub<p>A child's cancer diagnosis and treatment impacts the entire family. This learning hub will help you learn strategies to support your child, yourself and your family; how to support your teen to learn to manage their own health care; and how to manage cancer-related pain in younger children.</p><p>A child's cancer diagnosis and treatment impacts the entire family. This learning hub will help you learn strategies to support your child, yourself and your family; how to support your teen to learn to manage their own health care; and how to manage cancer-related pain in younger children.</p>managingcancerhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Coping_with_cancer_diagnosis.jpgMain
CancerCCancerCancerEnglishOncologyTeen (13-18 years)NANANATeen (13-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00ZLanding PageLearning Hub<p>This learning hub will help you prepare for what to expect during cancer diagnosis and treatment. You will also learn about some of the challenges you might face during treatment, and what you can expect when treatment is complete.</p><p>This learning hub will help you prepare for what to expect during cancer diagnosis and treatment. You will also learn about some of the challenges you might face during treatment, and what you can expect when treatment is complete.</p>cancerhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Teen_cancer_landing_page.jpgTeens
Cancer and depressionCCancer and depressionCancer and depressionEnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z7.4000000000000064.2000000000000532.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Feeling sad sometimes is normal, especially during cancer treatment. Learn about the differences between feeling sad and depression and treatment options available.</p><h2>Is it normal to feel sad sometimes?</h2><p>Sadness and grief are normal feelings when you have cancer or have survived cancer. Because these feelings are common, it’s important to understand the difference between normal sadness and depression. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Depression is more than a feeling of sadness or grief; it can last for longer and affect your thoughts, feelings, behaviour and overall health.</li><li>Signs and symptoms of depression include feelings of sadness that do not go away, not feeling up to participating in your regular activities, low self-esteem, difficulty concentrating and feeling negative or empty.</li><li>If you ever have feelings of harming yourself, tell someone who can help right away.</li><li>For people with depression, it is important to talk about your symptoms and how you are feeling, try to be physically active and get enough sleep, and avoid alcohol and drugs. Depression can also be treated with medication, therapy or a combination. </li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Cancer_and_depression.jpgTeens
Cancer and emotionsCCancer and emotionsCancer and emotionsEnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANANAPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z6.6000000000000074.6000000000000530.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>You may experience a range of emotions when diagnosed with cancer. Learn about some of the emotions you may feel and how you can deal with them.</p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe width="560" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/CrrrTRsbCHE?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> <br></div><p>For more videos regarding teens and cancer, please visit the <a href="https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PLjJtOP3StIuVPUkVxvdZfVGhAY_Dj-Vb7">Teens Taking Charge Cancer playlist.</a> </p><h2>How does cancer affect emotions?</h2><p>When you’re facing cancer it’s normal to feel a whole range of emotions. Like other teens, you may find that your emotions change frequently. You might feel hopeful, happy and silly one day and then scared, angry and sad the next. It can feel a bit like being on an emotional roller coaster. </p><p>Emotions can also affect how your body feels. For example, you may have an upset stomach when you are worried or sad. When you are really happy, you may find that your body feels stronger or you have more energy. Handling the emotions that come with cancer can be challenging, but your health-care team is there to support you.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Emotions can affect how your body feels, causing an upset stomach when you are worried, or making you feel stronger when you are happy. </li><li>It is normal to feel grief, whether you are grieving the loss of a part of your body, or something like your future plans, or something else.</li><li>If you think you may be feeling depressed, talk to your health-care team so they can get you treatment to help you feel better.</li><li>Everyone deals with emotions differently, but it is important to remember that sharing your feelings with others can help.</li></ul>Teens
Cancer and pregnancyCCancer and pregnancyCancer and pregnancyEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)BodyReproductive systemConditions and diseasesPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-11T04:00:00Z11.100000000000046.5000000000000431.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the two types of cancer in pregnancy: cervical cancer and breast cancer. Treatment of cancer during pregnancy is discussed.</p><p>Cancer is a disease where cells grow out of control, forming a tumour that can spread to other parts of the body. There are more than 250 different types of cancer. Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women of reproductive age, and cervical cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in pregnancy. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Symptoms of cervical cancer include abnormal vaginal discharge and vaginal bleeding.</li> <li>About 1% to 3% of women with cervical cancer are diagnosed during pregnancy.</li> <li>Pregnant women should have their breasts examined as part of routine care during pregnancy and any suspicious lumps should be promptly investigated.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/cancer_and_pregnancy.jpgMain
Cancer and treatment: Resources and support groupsCCancer and treatment: Resources and support groupsCancer and treatment: Resources and support groupsEnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANASupport, services and resourcesPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z6.8000000000000070.0000000000000732.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Discover online and community resources and support groups that can help you adjust to life after treatment and cope with any changes you feel or experience.</p><p>Cancer treatment, and adjusting to life after cancer treatment, can be tough. It can really help to have some support during this time. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Get the most from your support system by recognizing what kind of support you need, looking at what supports are available, and asking for support when you need it.</li><li>There are multiple support groups and resources available to you both online and in the community; ask your health-care team to recommend support groups that may benefit you.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Resources_and_support_groups_TTC_Cancer.jpgTeens
Cancer and your lifestyleCCancer and your lifestyleCancer and your lifestyleEnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z5.2000000000000079.2000000000000412.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Listen to what other teens have to say about the impact of cancer on lifestyle and making healthy choices now and in the future.</p><p>"I would do anything to just be healthy!" Sound familiar? You know what it's like to be sick and now you are feeling much better. Like many other teens who have experienced cancer, you want to learn new strategies to take control of your health.</p><p>It’s hard to have complete control of your health. Sometimes getting sick (in this case, getting cancer) is completely out of your control. It’s important to find a balance so you have control over some things and can accept the things you can’t change. </p><p>This section is all about finding that balance. You couldn't control getting cancer or the effects of your treatment. What you can control is the lifestyle you choose to lead to stay as healthy as possible during and after treatment.<br></p><div class="asset-video"><iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/iF_4F01jGY0"></iframe> </div> For more videos regarding teens and cancer, please visit the <a href="https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PLjJtOP3StIuVPUkVxvdZfVGhAY_Dj-Vb7">Teens Taking Charge cancer playlist</a>.<br><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>It is difficult to have full control over your health, but you can learn strategies and make choices to take control of some things.</li><li>Making healthy lifestyle choices includes asking questions about the foods you will eat, how to be physically active, caring for your mental health and attending follow-up appointments.</li></ul>Teens
Cancer researchCCancer researchCancer researchEnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANASupport, services and resourcesPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z9.9000000000000055.8000000000000993.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out how cancer research works, what clinical trials are and what role you play in research.</p><p>You may have been asked or you may already be involved in cancer research. Cancer research is an important part of improving the care that is available to teens with cancer. There are studies that focus on children and teenagers who have survived cancer, so you may also be approached in the future to participate. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Clinical trials are research studies that are done to improve treatment for a certain condition or disease.</li><li>In a clinical trial, new treatments are compared to the existing approved best treatment for a condition, known as standard therapy.</li><li>New treatments will go through three phases of testing to make sure that the treatment works the way it is supposed to and that it is safe to use.</li><li>You will never be enrolled in a trial without your consent and if you choose not to participate, your treatment and relationships with your health-care team will not be affected.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Cancer_research.jpgTeens
Cancer research and your teenagerCCancer research and your teenagerCancer research and your teenagerEnglishAdolescent;OncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANANAAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z10.900000000000052.80000000000001255.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about ongoing cancer research and your teenager's role in research and clinical trials.</p><p>Just as your teen should have a say in their care, they should also be given the opportunity to know more about and discuss any research study they are taking part in. Your teenager will learn about <a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3589&language=English">research</a> in the teen program.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Clinical trials are research studies that your teenager may enroll in during their treatment.</li><li>New treatments typically go through three trial phases before they are approved. Teenagers are most commonly enrolled in Phase 3 trials.</li><li>Always understand your teenagers role in research and the risks and benefits of the research study they are being asked to enroll in.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Cancer_research_and_your_teenager.jpgMain
Cancer resourcesCCancer resourcesCancer resourcesEnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANASupport, services and resourcesPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z7.7000000000000061.3000000000000253.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Discover multimedia resources that can offer you information and support throughout cancer treatment and beyond.</p><p>Multiple resources exist to support teenagers with cancer. They come in the form of books, articles, videos, websites, support groups and more.</p><p>Here is a list of online resources you may find useful. You can also find different resources by doing a little research, asking your health-care team, or talking with friends and family. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Resources available include books, articles, videos, websites, support groups and more.</li><li>Remember to use the acronym SCREEN when searching for information online to help you determine the quality of the website: Source, Conflict of interest or bias, editorial Review process, Evidence-based, Extreme claims, Not related.</li></ul>Teens
Cancer tests and anaestheticCCancer tests and anaestheticCancer tests and anaestheticEnglishOncologyTeen (13-18 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years)NANAProcedures;TestsPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z7.9000000000000063.7000000000000410.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Anaesthetic is used to reduce or take away pain. Learn more about anaesthetics, how they are given and why you might need an anaestetic during a procedure.</p><p>For some tests, you will be given a type of medicine called an anaesthetic (say: AN-us-theh-tic). Anaesthetics are used to reduce or take away pain. They can be either local or general.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Anaesthetics are used to help manage pain.</li><li>A local anaesthetic numbs a specific part of your body, while a general anaesthetic usually works on your whole body and puts you to sleep.</li><li>If you are having a general anaesthetic, you will need to stop eating 8 to 12 hours before your procedure.</li><li>Once the anaesthetic starts working and you are asleep, the health-care team will start the procedure.</li><li>After a general anaesthetic, you will wake up in a recovery room attached to monitors. You may feel sleepy, grumpy or unsteady for a few hours after the procedure.</li></ul>Teens
Cancer treatments and support therapiesCCancer treatments and support therapiesCancer treatments and support therapiesEnglishOncologyTeen (13-18 years)BodyNADrug treatment;Non-drug treatmentTeen (13-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00ZFlat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Chemotherapy isn't the only treatment available for cancer. Learn about the different types of treatments for cancer including radiation and surgery, and how other teens have coped with their treatments.</p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe width="560" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/wy1bh8FOPpE?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe>  <p>For more videos regarding teens and cancer, please visit the <a href="https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PLjJtOP3StIuVPUkVxvdZfVGhAY_Dj-Vb7">Teens Taking Charge Cancer playlist.</a><br></p></div><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>It is important for you and your parents to understand your cancer treatment and why you are receiving it.</li><li>The treatment you receive will depend on the type of cancer you have.</li></ul>Teens
Cancer-related fatigueCCancer-related fatigueCancer-related fatigueEnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANASymptomsPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-18 years)Fatigue2019-09-03T04:00:00Z6.5000000000000070.4000000000000368.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Cancer, treatments, stress and other factors can cause fatigue. Learn about the symptoms of cancer-related fatigue and how to manage it.</p><p>Fatigue is the feeling of physical or emotional exhaustion. It usually happens when you over-exert or "push" yourself too hard. Fatigue can be triggered by a lot of different things such as stress, medication, working too hard, illness and disease.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Cancer-related fatigue can be physical, emotional or a combination of both, and may be caused by the disease, treatments, stress or other cancer-related symptoms.</li><li>Symptoms of cancer related-fatigue include tired eyes or legs; low energy; poor concentration; boredom; and irritability, among other things.</li><li>You can manage fatigue by learning to save energy when you're feeling fatigued, and keeping a diary to track the times you feel fatigued and what made you feel better or worse.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Cancer-related_fatigue.jpgTeens
Cancer-related pain in childrenCCancer-related pain in childrenCancer-related pain in childrenEnglishOncology;Pain/AnaesthesiaChild (0-12 years)BodyNAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Pain2019-09-03T04:00:00Z8.7000000000000062.3000000000000935.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the different types of pain a child with cancer may experience, what causes pain and how long these types of pain last.</p><h2>What is pain?</h2><p>Pain is felt when special nerve fibres in the body sense something unpleasant, such as a pin prick or extreme pressure, and send a message to the brain, which reads it as pain. Although pain is unpleasant, can be a useful warning sign from our bodies telling us that something is wrong. </p><p>Patients and their caregivers are often very concerned and scared about the pain associated with cancer. They may think that if someone has cancer, they are bound to have pain and that nothing can be done to relieve it. But this isn’t true. </p><p>Cancer-related pain can be managed. With the help of your child’s health-care team, cancer-related pain can be prevented or reduced so that your child can do the activities that are important to them. Never think that it is “weak” or a burden when asking for help with your child’s pain. Nobody will think you are just complaining. The sooner you speak up about your child’s pain, the easier it is to treat! There are also specialized pain services available to help if needed.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Pain is felt when the body's tissues are damaged from injuries, infections or painful procedures.</li><li>Your child might experience pain from the tumour, painful procedures, side effects of treatment, mucositis, or nerve damage.</li><li>Acute pain is a temporary pain that your child might feel from a needle poke or an inflamed joint, while chronic pain typically lasts longer than three months, even after an injury or illness have passed .</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Cancer-related_pain_in_children.jpgMain

Thank you to our sponsors

AboutKidsHealth is proud to partner with the following sponsors as they support our mission to improve the health and wellbeing of children in Canada and around the world by making accessible health care information available via the internet.

Our Sponsors