Kangaroo care for your hospitalized babyKKangaroo care for your hospitalized babyKangaroo care for your hospitalized babyEnglishDevelopmentalNewborn (0-28 days)NANAProceduresAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2019-07-30T04:00:00ZLaura McLean, RN, IBCLC; Caroline Currie, RN; Glynnis Dubois, RN; Jaclyn Erasmi, RN; Samantha Sullivan, RN8.4000000000000065.4000000000000694.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Kangaroo care is skin-to-skin touch between a parent and baby. Read about the various ways you can provide kangaroo care and the many benefits of skin-to-skin contact with your baby.</p><h2>What is kangaroo care?</h2><p>Having skin-to-skin contact with your baby, also known as kangaroo care, provides many health benefits for both you and your baby. During kangaroo care, your baby will wear only a diaper, and they will be placed on your bare chest. Any parent can provide kangaroo care. If your baby’s health condition prevents you from holding them against your chest, there are modified forms of kangaroo care that you can do.</p><div class="asset-3-up"> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/KangarooCare_SkinToSkin_01.png" alt="An infant with a breathing mask receiving kangaroo care" /> </figure> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/KangarooCare_SkinToSkin_03.png" alt="An infant with a breathing tube receiving kangaroo care" /> </figure><figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/KangarooCare_SkinToSkin_02.png" alt="An infant receiving kangaroo care" /> </figure> <br></div><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Parents should have skin-to-skin contact with their baby as often and for as long as possible.</li><li>Having skin-to-skin contact with your baby provides many health benefits for both you and your baby.</li><li>Ask your health-care team when you can hold your baby skin-to-skin.</li></ul><h2>How to provide kangaroo care</h2><p>Before you begin kangaroo care with your baby, it is important you are prepared and your baby is ready. This will enable you to be skin-to-skin with your baby for as long as possible without any interruptions. Each session of kangaroo care should last for a minimum of 30 minutes but can last for several hours.</p><p>Supplies you may need for kangaroo care include a comfortable chair, a pillow and a blanket, and a wrap or clothes to wrap yourself and your baby in. If you need help gathering these supplies, your nurse will be able to help you.</p><p>You and your baby’s nurse can help to prepare your baby for kangaroo care by providing any other necessary care to them beforehand, such as changing their diaper.</p><p>Before beginning kangaroo care, you should use the washroom, eat and drink, and wash your hands. Make sure you are wearing a top that opens in the front, or a nurse can provide you with a gown so that there is as much skin-to-skin contact between you and your baby as possible. If you are expressing breast milk, it is ideal to pump before and right after kangaroo care.</p><p>Once you are seated comfortably, your nurse will help transfer your baby to you and teach you the best way to position and hold them. You may also be taught how to pick up your baby by yourself and transition to a seated position. During kangaroo care, your baby will be wearing only a diaper and, sometimes, a hat. They will be placed in an upright position on your bare chest (you may wear a bra if that is more comfortable for you). Use a blanket, wrap or clothes to keep you and your baby warm.</p><h2>Resources</h2><p>To watch a video on how to perform kangaroo care, please visit:<br> <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/breastfeeding-program/videos/index.html">http://www.sickkids.ca/breastfeeding-program/videos/index.html</a>.</p><p>For further resources on kangaroo care and breastfeeding, please visit:<br> <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/breastfeeding-program/index.html">www.sickkids.ca/breastfeeding-program/index.html</a>.<br></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/KangarooCare_SkinToSkin_02.png
Kawasaki diseaseKKawasaki diseaseKawasaki diseaseEnglishHaematologyBaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years)HeartArteriesConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2017-12-18T05:00:00ZFlorence Aeschlimann;Michelle Anderson, BScN, RN;Rae SM Yeung, MD, PhD, FRCPC;Shirley Tse, MD, FRCPC8.8000000000000054.10000000000001309.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Kawasaki disease causes swelling of the blood vessels and can affect the heart. Learn about Kawasaki disease including its cause, diagnosis and treatment. </p><figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Kawasaki disease</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IHD_kawasaki_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Coronary arteries in the heart" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">An inflammatory disease that, among other things, affects blood vessels in the body, particularly the coronary arteries.</figcaption> </figure> <h2>What is Kawasaki disease?</h2><p>Kawasaki disease causes inflammation or swelling of the blood vessels. Kawasaki disease can affect any medium-sized artery in the body but primarily affects the <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=heart">coronary arteries</a>. The coronary arteries are special blood vessels that carry blood and oxygen into the heart muscle. If there is a problem with the coronary arteries, the heart will not get enough blood and oxygen, making it unable to work properly.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Kawasaki disease causes swelling of the blood vessels. It can affect the heart.</li><li>Your child will be admitted to hospital for treatment. Treatment usually involves two medicines: intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) and ASA (Aspirin).</li><li>Most children with Kawasaki disease recover completely.<br></li></ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of Kawasaki disease</h2><p>Signs and symptoms of Kawasaki disease include:</p><ul><li>Five or more consecutive days of fever</li><li>Red or bloodshot eyes</li><li>Red lips, mouth or tongue </li><li>Puffy or red hands and feet</li><li>Rash</li><li>A swollen gland in the neck<br></li></ul><h2>Causes of Kawasaki disease</h2><p>The exact causes of Kawasaki disease are unknown. It is also not known why some children get the disease and others do not. It is possible that genetics play a role in the development of Kawasaki disease. </p><p>It is also possible a viral or bacterial infection may trigger the disease in children. Infections and Kawasaki disease often occur at the same time.</p><h3>Kawasaki disease is not contagious</h3><p>Kawasaki disease not spread from child to child, but infections can trigger Kawasaki disease.</p><p>It is rare for two children in the same family to get Kawasaki disease. When it occurs, it may be related to inherited genes that help to control the immune system.<br></p><h2>Diagnosis of Kawasaki disease</h2><p>The diagnosis of Kawasaki disease is made when a child has at least five consecutive days of fever and at least four out of the other five symptoms mentioned above. In some cases, a child will have fewer than four symptoms. Kawasaki disease often mimics other diseases such as common childhood infections. These factors make the diagnosis of Kawasaki disease more difficult.</p><p>Kawasaki disease is a rare illness. It usually affects children under the age of five, but older children can also be affected.</p><p>There is no specific test to diagnose Kawasaki disease. However, your child will have a blood test and a urine test, as well as an <a href="/article?contentid=1274&language=English">echocardiogram</a>. This is an ultrasound that takes pictures of your child's heart. It lets doctors see if there are any changes in the coronary arteries. If these arteries are affected, they may look widened or swollen.</p><h2>Treatment of Kawasaki disease</h2><p>A child with Kawasaki disease will need to stay in the hospital for several days. The health-care team will give your child medicine to try to prevent damage to the coronary arteries. These medicines are called <a href="/article?contentid=161&language=English">intravenous immune globulin (IVIG)</a> and <a href="/article?contentid=77&language=English">ASA (acetylsalicylic acid or Aspirin)​</a>.</p><p>After a child is treated, the fever usually goes away for good. Sometimes a child will need a second treatment with IVIG or other medicines.</p><h3>IVIG</h3><p>IVIG is given through an intravenous (IV) needle in your child's vein. It helps reduce the inflammation in the body. In turn, this can:</p><ul><li>reduce the fever and redness caused by the disease</li><li>help protect against heart problems.</li></ul><p>IVIG contains antibodies from donated blood. It is screened for viruses and bacteria before it is used as a treatment. Talk to your doctor if you have concerns about this treatment.</p><h3>ASA</h3><p>Low dose ASA is given by mouth once a day. During the first four to six weeks, children with Kawasaki disease may have high platelet counts in their blood. Platelets are involved in clot formation. Low dose ASA prevents your child’s platelets from sticking together. This helps prevent blood clots from forming in the blood vessels.</p><h3>Several different doctors look after children with Kawasaki disease</h3><p>Kawasaki disease may be diagnosed and managed by a paediatrician, an emergency doctor, or a family doctor.</p><p>Two types of paediatric specialists also help care for children with Kawasaki disease. These are rheumatologists and cardiologists.</p><ul><li>A rheumatologist is an inflammation specialist. They can help diagnose Kawasaki disease and decide on treatments with the medical team.</li><li>The cardiologist is a heart specialist. They will look at the echocardiogram. If the coronary arteries are swollen, the cardiologist will determine if the swelling is mild or severe. They will then decide on any further treatments and when they will need to repeat the echocardiogram.</li></ul><h2>Complications of Kawasaki disease </h2><p>Early and appropriate treatment of Kawasaki disease reduces the chances of injury or damage to the coronary arteries. Injury or damage to the arteries occurs in one in five untreated children. In most children, this damage is minor and does not last long. However, in some children the damage can last longer. In these children, the walls of the coronary arteries can become weak and form aneurysms.</p><p>An aneurysm is a localized, balloon-like bulge of the vessel wall. Aneurysms may be dangerous as they can cause problems with blood flow to the heart muscle. Medicine can help prevent further progression of the aneurysm or formation of clots.<br></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IHD_kawasaki_MED_ILL_EN.jpg
Keeping kids on the moveKKeeping kids on the moveKeeping kids on the moveEnglishPreventionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-07-16T04:00:00ZShaw​na Silver, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, PEng8.7000000000000060.70000000000001059.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out how active transportation and child-friendly communities can help children be more independent and physically active.</p><p>The growing popularity of cars in North America over the past 50 years has created suburbs and towns that require many people to drive every day. As a result, children are often travelling by car instead of walking, bicycling or using another form of transportation. This reliance on cars can have a major impact on children’s health and development and on the types of neighbourhoods in which they live.</p><h2>Key points<br></h2> <ul> <li>Heavy car use can make children less active, less connected from the environment and less independent.</li> <li>Active transportation involves travelling on foot or by bike for some journeys instead of relying on a car.</li> <li>Parents can encourage active transportation by taking part in car-free days, helping a child find the best walking and cycling routes nearby and getting involved in making a child’s school safer for those who walk or cycle there.</li> <li>Child-friendly communities can make active transportation more realistic because they are safe and accessible and integrate nature, local amenities and the needs of different age groups.<br></li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/keeping_kids_on_the_move_the_role_of_active_transportation.jpg
Keratosis pilarisKKeratosis pilarisKeratosis pilarisEnglishDermatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)SkinSkinConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2015-05-06T04:00:00ZBlanca Del Pozzo-Magana, MD;Irene Lara-Corrales, MSc, MD​​9.6000000000000053.8000000000000523.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Keratosis pilaris is a common rash that results in bumps on the skin. Learn what causes keratosis pilaris and how it is diagnosed and treated.</p><figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_keratosis_pilaris_EN.jpg" alt="Skin affected by keratosis pilaris" /> </figure> <h2>What is keratosis pilaris?</h2><p>Keratosis pilaris (KP) is a very common skin rash that affects at least one in five children around the world. The rash consists of many rough follicular papules (small bumps in the hair follicles) that look like “goose flesh”. Usually the bumps are skin colour, but they can sometimes have a blotchy appearance or a white top that make them look like “white heads”.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Keratosis pilaris is a very common and harmless skin condition that occurs when there is too much protein in the hair follicles.</li> <li>It is usually inherited from one or both parents.</li> <li>Keratosis pilaris causes the skin to appear blotchy and bumpy and can be itchy if it occurs with dry skin.</li> <li>Moisturizers and special creams may improve the appearance of keratosis pilaris and ease any discomfort, but they cannot cure it.</li> </ul><figure><span class="asset-image-title">Areas of the body affected by keratosis pilaris</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_keratosis_pilaris_sites_EN.jpg" alt="Girl with markings on cheeks, upper arms, buttocks and thighs" /> </figure> <h2>How does keratosis pilaris affect the body?</h2><p>Keratosis pilaris is harmless. It usually appears on the upper arms and thighs, but it sometimes affects other parts of the body such as the buttocks and cheeks.<br></p><p>Most people are not bothered by keratosis pilaris, but some might be bothered by the skin’s appearance. Most of the time, the skin only becomes irritated if it is very dry and becomes itchy or if your child picks at the bumps. Keratosis pilaris usually resolves with time or improves during summer, but, in some people, it remains the same for many years.</p><p>Very few children have keratosis pilaris as a sign of an underlying genetic disease or have severe keratosis pilaris across their body.</p><figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Keratosis pilaris</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_keratosis_pilaris_EN.jpg" alt="Cross section of skin affected by keratosis pilaris" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">An excess of keratin in the hair follicles forms a hard plug that feels like a bump.</figcaption> </figure> <h2>What causes keratosis pilaris?</h2><p>Keratin is a protein that makes up a big part of our skin. Keratosis pilaris occurs when there is too much keratin in the hair follicles. The excess keratin forms hard plugs, which in turn create the skin bumps.</p><p>Keratosis pilaris is a genetic condition. This means that it can be inherited from one or both parents.</p><h2>How is keratosis pilaris diagnosed?</h2> <p>A doctor can diagnose keratosis pilaris simply by looking at your child’s skin and asking about their medical history.</p><h2>How is keratosis pilaris treated?</h2> <p>Keratosis pilaris does not need to be treated unless it causes a lot of trouble. Unfortunately, no treatment can completely resolve keratosis pilaris, but moisturizers and special creams with urea and lactic acid may improve how it looks. These creams can sometimes irritate the skin, however, and are not recommended for small children.</p> <p>Laser treatment has been used lately to treat severe cases of keratosis pilaris, but its main success has been in reducing the redness of the skin, not the bumpiness.</p><h2>When to see a doctor for keratosis pilaris</h2> <p>See your child’s doctor if your child’s keratosis pilaris is itchy or if it affects many parts of their body (including their eyebrows, knees or elbows, for example).</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_keratosis_pilaris_EN.jpg
Ketogenic diet for epilepsyKKetogenic diet for epilepsyKetogenic diet for epilepsyEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+) EducatorsNA2010-02-04T05:00:00ZElizabeth J. Donner, MD, FRCPC9.9000000000000056.60000000000001457.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the benefits and limitations of the ketogenic diet for childhood epilepsy, how it is started, and how to use it at home.</p><p>The traditional or "classic" ketogenic diet usually involves a ratio of 3-4 g of fat to every 1 g of protein and carbohydrate (some children may need a slightly different ratio). This means that about 90 per cent of the calories in a child’s diet come from fat, requiring them to eat mostly fatty foods such as butter and cream. They cannot eat starchy foods such as bread and pasta.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>The traditional ketogenic diet usually involves providing 90 per cent of a child's calories from fat.</li> <li>The diet is shown to reduce seizures and may also improve mood, behaviour, attention and social functioning.</li> <li>Negative side effects of the diet range from dehydration, constipation and vomiting to loss of bone density and poor growth. Your child will be monitored closely to check for these side effects.</li> <li>The diet is very restrictive and needs to be followed carefully under the guidance of a dietitian and your child's doctor.</li></ul>
Kick countsKKick countsKick countsEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)BodyNANAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-11T04:00:00Z7.9000000000000066.1000000000000522.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>This page describes the importance of counting a baby's movements during pregnancy.</p><p>By the sixth month of pregnancy, you will be very aware of your baby's movements, and there may be patterns of vigorous activity followed by quiet times. Around this time, you should start monitoring your baby's kick counts, which is how often your baby kicks, swishes, rolls, and jabs in a given amount of time. </p> <p>Kick counts are recommended for high risk pregnancies but all pregnant women may benefit from counting their baby's movements. Kick counts are done every day, starting in the 28th week or sixth month of pregnancy. Being attentive to your baby's movements will help you notice any significant changes, identify potential problems, and prevent stillbirth. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Kick counts are done every day and at the same time each day, starting in the 28 th week or sixth month of pregnancy.</li> <li>Ideally, you should feel at least 10 movements in two hours.</li> <li>Call your health-care provider if you are concerned about the number of kicks you feel.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/kick_counts_pregnancy.jpg
Kidney and bladder problemsKKidney and bladder problemsKidney and bladder problemsEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)Body;Kidneys;BladderReproductive system;Renal system/Urinary systemConditions and diseasesPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-10T04:00:00ZNicolette Caccia, MEd, MD, FRCSCRory Windrim, MB, MSc, FRCSC Andrew James, MBChB, MBI, FRACP, FRCPC10.600000000000046.4000000000000433.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about the various abnormalities of the kidneys and bladder that can arise in a developing fetus during pregnancy.</p><p>Some babies are born with abnormalities in their kidneys or bladder, called congenital abnormalities or birth defects. They form as the result of something going wrong with the development of the baby’s urinary system during pregnancy. It is important to keep in mind that these abnormalities are rare, and may sometimes be treated with surgery. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Some kidney and bladder problems are genetically determined while others are caused by something going wrong in the development of the urinary system.</li> <li>These conditions are rare and may sometimes be treated with surgery.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/kidney_and_bladder_problems_babies.jpg
Kidney biopsy using image guidanceKKidney biopsy using image guidanceKidney biopsy using image guidanceEnglishOtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)KidneysKidneysProceduresCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2017-08-04T04:00:00ZMichelle Cote BScN RN;Dalia Bozic MN, RN(EC), NP-PHC;Joao Amaral, MD8.4000000000000061.20000000000001469.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn what a kidney biopsy is and why it is done. Also find information about what will happen to your child before, during and after the procedure.<br></p><h2>What are the kidneys?</h2><p>The kidneys filter waste products from the blood and create urine. They are a pair of organs that are usually located in your child's back, one on each side of the spine, near the bottom of the rib cage. </p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Kidney location</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/kidney_location_front_side_EN.png" alt="A front view and side view of a girl's rib cage, kidney and bladder" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Most people have two kidneys, one on each side of the spine. They are found just under the rib cage towards the back of the body.</figcaption></figure> <h2>What is a kidney biopsy?</h2><p>A kidney biopsy is a procedure where a doctor takes a tiny piece of kidney tissue using a special needle. The tissue is examined under a microscope in the laboratory. The biopsy is done using image guidance by an interventional radiologist.</p><h2>Why is a kidney biopsy done?</h2><p>A kidney biopsy can help your doctor determine your child’s cause of illness. It can also help doctors learn about how your child’s illness is changing.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A kidney biopsy is a procedure where an interventional radiologist takes a tiny piece of kidney tissue through a special needle, using ultrasound guidance, to be examined under a microscope.</li><li>Kidney biopsies are usually considered low-risk procedures.</li><li>If you see bright red bleeding in your child's urine, call your child's doctor right away.<br></li><li>If you live more than one hour away from the hospital, you will need to stay nearby overnight.</li></ul><h2>On the day of the kidney biopsy</h2><p>Arrive at the hospital two hours before the planned time of your child’s procedure. Once you are checked in, your child will be dressed in a hospital gown, weighed and assessed by a nurse. You will also be able to speak to the interventional radiologist who will be doing the kidney biopsy and the nurse or anaesthetist who will be giving your child medication to make them comfortable for the procedure.</p><p>During the kidney biopsy you will be asked to wait in the surgical waiting area.</p><h2>Your child will have medicine for pain</h2><p>It is important that your child is as comfortable as possible for the procedure. They may be given <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3001&language=English">local anaesthesia</a>, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1260&language=English">sedation</a> or <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1261&language=English">general anaesthesia</a>. The type of medicine that your child will have for the procedure will depend on your child’s condition.</p><h2>How a kidney biopsy is done</h2><p>Your child’s kidneys are located in their back area, usually one on either side. For the biopsy, your child will be lying on their stomach. The interventional radiologist uses ultrasound to view the kidneys. Local anaesthetic is then injected into the skin to numb the biopsy area. Then, while watching the kidney using the ultrasound, the interventional radiologist passes a special thin needle into one of the kidneys to get samples. Usually two or three samples are taken.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Kidney biopsy</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/kidney_biopsy_EN.jpg" alt="A view of the back of the rib cage and kidneys of a girl on her back with a biopsy needle inserted into her left kidney" /> </figure> <p>The samples are about 2 to 3 centimeters (1 inch) long, and look like a piece of thread. These kidney samples are then sent to the lab for examination.</p><p>You child will usually not need any stitches. A small bandage is placed over the biopsy site.</p><p>A kidney biopsy usually takes 45 minutes to one hour.</p><h2>If your child has had a kidney transplant</h2><p>If your child has had a kidney transplant they will lie on their back for the biopsy because the transplanted kidney is located closer to the front of the abdomen. The biopsy procedure is the same as described above.</p><p>A kidney biopsy from a transplanted kidney will usually take 45 minutes to one hour.</p><h2>After the kidney biopsy</h2><p>Once the kidney biopsy is complete, your child will be moved to the recovery area. The interventional radiologist will come and talk to you about the details of the procedure. As soon as your child starts to wake up, a nurse will come and get you.</p><h2>Recovery in hospital</h2><p>Your child will need to lie in bed for approximately eight hours after the biopsy. There will be a sandbag placed under your child’s back to apply pressure to the biopsy site. This helps to prevent the site from bleeding. If your child has had a kidney transplant, the sandbag will be placed on your child’s abdomen.</p> <p>If there is no blood in the urine and no bleeding from the biopsy site after two hours, the head of your child’s bed may be raised slightly.<br></p><h2>Going home</h2><p>Most children who have a kidney biopsy go home the same day. This is usually eight hours after the biopsy.</p><p>Your child will be observed closely for these eight hours before being discharged home. Your child will have a blood test about six hours after the biopsy to identify any changes in blood levels. If there are any concerns that there may be bleeding, an ultrasound may be ordered. Your child may have to stay on bed rest or be admitted overnight for further observation if your doctor feels it necessary.</p><p>If you live more than one hour away from the hospital, you will need to stay nearby overnight.</p><p>For more details on how to care for your child after a kidney biopsy, please see: <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1238&language=English">Kidney biopsy: Caring for your child at home after the procedure</a>.</p><h2>Visiting the clinic before the procedure</h2><p>Your child may have a clinic visit with the interventional radiologist before the procedure. During the visit you should expect:</p><ul><li>A health assessment to make sure your child is healthy and that it is safe to have <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3001&language=English">local anaesthesia</a>, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1260&language=English">sedation</a> or <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1261&language=English">general anaesthesia</a> and to go ahead with the procedure.</li><li>An overview of the procedure, and a review of the consent form with an interventional radiologist.</li><li>A quick ultrasound of the kidneys; the area where the biopsy will be taken will be marked with a semi-permanent marker.</li><li>Blood work.</li></ul><h2>Giving consent before the procedure</h2><p>Before the procedure, the interventional radiologist will go over how and why the procedure is done, as well as the potential benefits and risks. They will also discuss what will be done to reduce these risks, and will help you weigh any benefits against the risks. It is important that you understand all of the potential risks and benefits of the kidney biopsy and that all of your questions are answered. If you agree to the procedure, you can give consent for treatment by signing the consent form. A parent or legal guardian must sign the consent form for young children. The procedure will not be done unless you give your consent.</p><h2>How to prepare your child for the procedure</h2><p>Before any treatment, it is important to talk to your child about what will happen. When talking to your child, use words they can understand. Let your child know that medicines will be given to make them feel comfortable during the procedure.</p><p>Children feel less anxious and scared when they know what to expect. Children also feel less worried when they see their parents are calm and supportive. </p><h2>If your child becomes ill within two days before the procedure</h2><p>It is important that your child is healthy on the day of the procedure. If your child starts to feel unwell or has a fever within two days before the kidney biopsy, let your doctor know. Your child’s procedure may need to be rebooked.</p><h2>Food, drink and medicines before the procedure</h2><ul><li>Your child’s stomach must be empty before sedation or general anaesthetic.</li><li>If your child has special needs during fasting, talk to your doctor to make a plan.</li><li>Your child can take their regular morning medicine with a sip of water two hours before the procedure.</li><li>Medicines such as <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=77&language=English">acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)</a>, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=198&language=English">naproxen</a> or <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=153&language=English">ibuprofen</a>, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=265&language=English">warfarin</a> or <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=129&language=English">enoxaparin</a> may increase the risk of bleeding. Do not give these to your child before the procedure unless they have been cleared first by their doctor and the interventional radiologist.<br></li></ul><p>At SickKids, the interventional radiologists work in the <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/IGT/index.html">Department of Diagnositic Imaging – Division of Image Guided Therapy (IGT)</a>. You can call the IGT clinic at (416) 813-6054 and speak to the clinic nurse during working hours (8:00 to 15:00) or leave a message with the IGT clinic nurse.</p><p>For more information on fasting see <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/VisitingSickKids/Coming-for-surgery/Eating-guidelines/index.html">Eating and drinking before surgery</a>.</p><p>For more information on preparing your child for their procedure see <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/VisitingSickKids/Coming-for-surgery/index.html">Coming for surgery</a>.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/kidney_location_front_side_EN.png
Kidney biopsy: Caring for your child at home after the procedureKKidney biopsy: Caring for your child at home after the procedureKidney biopsy: Caring for your child at home after the procedureEnglishOtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)KidneysKidneysNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2013-03-27T04:00:00ZJoao Amaral, MD;Candice Sockett, RN(EC), MN:APN8.7000000000000062.0000000000000489.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>This brochure is a guide on how to care for your child at home after a kidney biopsy.<br></p><p>Your child has had a <a href="/Article?contentid=35&language=English">kidney biopsy</a> (say: BI-op-see). This brochure explains how to care for your child at home after the procedure, and when to call for help. </p><h2>Key points </h2><ul><li>Leave dressing intact for 24 hours.</li><li>You may give your child acetaminophen for pain. </li><li>Avoid physical activity for two weeks. </li><li>Go to the nearest Emergency Department if your child has any of the following: bleeding at the biopsy site, blood in the urine, pale skin, or severe abdominal pain.</li></ul><h2>When to see a doctor</h2> <p>Go to the nearest Emergency Department right away if your child has any of the following: </p> <ul> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a> greater than 38°C (100.4°F)</li> <li>throwing up (<a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a>) that does not stop </li> <li>severe <a href="/pain">pain</a> </li> <li>bleeding or swelling around the biopsy site </li> <li>bright red blood in the urine </li> <li>dizziness and pale colour </li> <li>swelling in the tummy </li> <li>general weakness </li> </ul><h2>At SickKids</h2> <p>If you have any concerns in the first 48 hours, call the IGT clinic during working hours at (416) 813-6054 and ask to speak to an IGT nurse. After 48 hours, please call your referring doctor. If you have concerns and it is after working hours, see your family doctor or go to the nearest Emergency Department or call the Hospital for Sick Children switchboard at (416) 813-1500 and ask them to page the interventional radiologist on call. </p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/kidney_biopsy_caring_for_child_at_home.jpg
Kidney disease and diabetesKKidney disease and diabetesKidney disease and diabetesEnglishEndocrinologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Pancreas;KidneysEndocrine system;Renal system/Urinary systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2017-11-20T05:00:00ZCatherine Pastor, RN, MN, HonBScVanita Pais, RD, CDEAndrea Ens, MD, FRCPCJennifer Harrington, MBBS, PhD9.3000000000000049.7000000000000387.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Kidney disease may occur later in life as a result of diabetes. Learn about diabetic nephropathy, diagnosis and treatment.</p><p>The <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=kidney-child">kidneys</a> are the body’s filtering system. Blood flows through the blood vessels of the kidneys, where toxins and waste go from the blood to the urine. People with <a href="/Article?contentid=1717&language=English">diabetes</a> are at a higher risk for kidney disease as high blood glucose (sugar) levels and high blood pressure can damage the kidneys over time. This damage results in the kidneys being unable to properly filter the blood. Kidney damage due to diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>High blood pressure and high blood glucose (sugar) can cause damage to the kidneys, which results in them being unable to properly filter the blood.</li> <li>Nephropathy is diagnosed through a urine test.</li> <li>Excellent blood-sugar control, medication and good blood pressure control can help prevent kidney damage or slow progression.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/kidney_location_front_side_EN.png
Kidney failure and treatmentKKidney failure and treatmentKidney failure and treatmentEnglishNephrologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)KidneysKidneysConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-07-30T04:00:00ZElizabeth Piva, RN;Susan Ackerman, RN;SickKids Home Dialysis Program7.3000000000000066.0000000000000943.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Find out what happens to the body and what treatments are available when kidneys fail.</p><figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Kidney location</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Kidneys_location_male_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Location of the ribcage, kidney and spine in a child" /> </figure> <p>The <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=kidney-child">kidneys</a> are important organs in our bodies. They help to keep us healthy in many ways.</p><ul><li>They take waste products, such as urea and creatinine, away from the body.</li><li>They control the water balance in the body.<br></li><li>They control the balance of other substances in the body, such as sodium and potassium.</li><li>They help make red blood cells.</li><li>They help bones grow.</li></ul><p>Most people have two kidneys, one on each side of the spine, just under the rib cage. They are red-brown in colour and about the size of your child's fist.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>When kidneys are not working properly this can lead to a build-up of urea in the blood; build-up of other chemicals such as sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphorus in the blood; puffiness in the feet, hands and eyes; pale skin; and headache and irritability.</li> <li>Treatment for kidney failure can include kidney transplant and dialysis (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis).</li> </ul><h2>Treatments for kidney failure</h2> <p>Kidney failure cannot be cured, but it can be treated. Treatment options include:</p> <ul> <li>transplant</li> <li>dialysis.</li> </ul> <h3>Kidney transplant</h3> <ul> <li>This involves surgery (an operation) to place a healthy kidney from a donor into your child's body.</li> <li>A kidney can come from a living donor or a deceased donor who is a match for your child. If a child is waiting for a kidney from a deceased donor, they go on a transplant waiting list.</li> <li>When your child receives a new kidney, they will need to take medications every day to suppress, or weaken, their immune system so that they do not reject it.</li> </ul> <h3>Dialysis</h3> <p>Patients and families can choose between two types of dialysis:</p> <ul> <li>hemodialysis</li> <li>peritoneal dialysis.</li> </ul> <p>It is important to learn the facts about each type of dialysis before choosing one. You will also need to consider if you want to do the dialysis at the hospital or in the comfort of your own home. Keep in mind that your child may need to change from one kind of dialysis to another, depending on their health.</p> <p><em>Hemodialysis</em></p> <p>There are two types of hemodialysis: <a href="/article?contentid=41&language=English">home hemodialysis (HHD</a>) and <a href="/article?contentid=43&language=English">in-hospital hemodialysis</a>.</p> <p>Home hemodialysis:</p> <ul> <li>uses a vascular access (a thin tube inserted in a vein) to clean your child's blood</li> <li>is a slow, gentle treatment that improves your child's appetite and energy levels</li> <li>requires your child to take fewer medications (compared with in-hospital dialysis)</li> <li>allows your child to have a wider range of foods and drinks.</li> </ul> <p>In-hospital hemodialysis:</p> <ul> <li>is offered and monitored by qualified health-care professionals</li> <li>is done in a clean, friendly and supportive environment</li> <li>gives your child the chance to meet other patients.</li> </ul> <p><em>Peritoneal dialysis</em></p> <ul> <li>Peritoneal dialysis (PD) uses a thin tube called a catheter and the inner membrane (lining) of the abdomen to clean the blood.</li> <li>PD offers flexible, easy treatments at home, where you or your child can manage the care.</li> <li>PD may help preserve remaining kidney function.</li> </ul><h2>Finding out more about treatment options</h2> <p>You can find out more about the different treatment options on the following pages.</p> <ul> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=44&language=English">Hemodialysis</a></li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=41&language=English">Home hemodialysis</a></li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=43&language=English">In-hospital hemodialysis</a></li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=42&language=English">Peritoneal dialysis</a></li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=1109&language=English">Dialysis options: How they compare​ ​</a></li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Kidneys_location_male_MED_ILL_EN.jpg

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