Katie's storyKKatie's storyKatie's storyEnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Vertebrae;SpineMuscular system;Skeletal systemConditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2008-06-01T04:00:00Z8.0000000000000067.0000000000000670.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about the experiences of teenagers who have had scoliosis surgery and their first hand accounts of their fears, relationships, and recovery.</p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/rOblwcNOfs0?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> <br></div><p>Well, I was glad to know that I had some of the best professionals in the world working on my situation. Knowing that, it lifted a great deal of weight off my shoulders. I had enough knowledge about scoliosis to be comfortable with what was happening to me. The doctors, specialists, and nurses were all a huge help throughout this event.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>"I was glad to know that I had some of the best professionals in the world working on my situation. Knowing that, it lifted a great deal of weight off my shoulders."</li><li>"I was able to remain positive throughout the whole experience. Having a positive attitude is the key to having a successful recovery. You need to remain calm and try to keep as comfortable as you can."</li></ul>Teens
Kawasaki diseaseKKawasaki diseaseKawasaki diseaseEnglishHaematologyBaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years)HeartArteriesConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2020-05-07T04:00:00Z8.8000000000000054.10000000000001309.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Kawasaki disease is a condition that causes swelling of the blood vessels and can affect the heart. Learn more about Kawasaki disease including its cause, diagnosis and treatment. </p><figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Kawasaki disease</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IHD_kawasaki_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Coronary arteries in the heart" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">An inflammatory disease that, among other things, affects blood vessels in the body, particularly the coronary arteries.</figcaption></figure> <h2>What is Kawasaki disease?</h2><p>Kawasaki disease causes inflammation or swelling of the blood vessels. Kawasaki disease can affect any medium-sized artery in the body but primarily affects the <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=heart">coronary arteries</a>. The coronary arteries are blood vessels that carry blood and oxygen into the heart muscle. If there is a problem with the coronary arteries, the heart will not receive enough blood and oxygen, making it unable to work properly.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Kawasaki disease causes swelling of the blood vessels and can affect the heart.</li><li>Your child will be admitted to hospital for treatment. Treatment usually involves intravenous immune globulin (IVIG), steroids and ASA (Aspirin).</li><li>Most children with Kawasaki disease recover completely.</li><li>Kawasaki disease may return after your child has recovered. Seek medical attention immediately if your child develops a fever that lasts for longer than 4 hours.</li></ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of Kawasaki disease</h2><p>Signs and symptoms of Kawasaki disease include:</p><ul><li>Five or more consecutive days of fever</li><li>Red or bloodshot eyes</li><li>Red lips, mouth or tongue </li><li>Puffy or red hands and feet</li><li>Rash</li><li>A swollen gland in the neck<br></li></ul><h2>Causes of Kawasaki disease</h2><p>The exact causes of Kawasaki disease are unknown. It is also not known why some children get the disease and others do not. It is possible that genetics play a role in the development of Kawasaki disease. </p><p>It is also possible a viral or bacterial infection may trigger the disease in children. Infections and Kawasaki disease often occur at the same time.</p><h3>Kawasaki disease is not contagious</h3><p>Kawasaki disease not spread from child to child, but infections can trigger Kawasaki disease.</p><p>It is rare for two children in the same family to get Kawasaki disease. When this occurs, it may be related to inherited genes that help to control the immune system.<br></p><h2>Diagnosis of Kawasaki disease</h2><p>The diagnosis of Kawasaki disease is made when a child has at least five consecutive days of fever and at least four out of the other five symptoms mentioned above. In some cases, a child will have fewer than four symptoms. Kawasaki disease often mimics other diseases, such as common childhood infections. These factors make the diagnosis of Kawasaki disease more difficult.</p><p>Kawasaki disease is a rare illness. It usually affects children under the age of five, but older children can also be affected.</p><p>There is no specific test to diagnose Kawasaki disease. However, your child will have a blood test and a urine test, as well as an <a href="/article?contentid=1274&language=English">echocardiogram</a>. This is an ultrasound that takes pictures of your child's heart. It lets doctors see if there are any changes in the coronary arteries. If these arteries are affected, they may look widened or swollen.</p><h2>Treatment of Kawasaki disease</h2><p>A child with Kawasaki disease will need to stay in the hospital for several days. The health-care team will give your child medicine to decrease the inflammation in the blood vessels and try to prevent damage to the coronary arteries. These medicines are called <a href="/article?contentid=161&language=English">intravenous immune globulin (IVIG)</a>, <a href="/article?contentid=221&language=english">steroids (prednisone)</a> and <a href="/article?contentid=77&language=English">ASA (acetylsalicylic acid or Aspirin)​</a>.</p><p>After a child is treated, the fever usually goes away for good. Sometimes a child will need a second treatment with IVIG or other medicines.</p><h3>IVIG</h3><p>IVIG is given through an intravenous (IV) needle in your child's vein. It helps reduce the inflammation in the body. In turn, this can:</p><ul><li>reduce the fever and redness caused by the disease</li><li>help protect against heart problems</li></ul><p>IVIG contains antibodies from donated blood. It is screened for viruses and bacteria before it is used as a treatment. Talk to your doctor if you have concerns about this treatment.</p><h3>Steroids</h3><p>Steroids, such as prednisone, can help to reduce the inflammation in the body and are needed in some children with Kawasaki disease. Steroids can:</p><ul><li>reduce the fever and redness caused by the disease</li><li>help protect against heart problems</li></ul><h3>ASA</h3><p>Low dose ASA is given by mouth once a day. During the first four to six weeks, children with Kawasaki disease may have high platelet counts in their blood. Platelets are involved in clot formation. Low dose ASA prevents your child’s platelets from sticking together. This helps prevent blood clots from forming in the blood vessels.</p><h3>Several different doctors look after children with Kawasaki disease</h3><p>Kawasaki disease may be diagnosed and managed by a paediatrician, an emergency doctor, or a family doctor.</p><p>Two types of paediatric specialists also help care for children with Kawasaki disease. These are rheumatologists and cardiologists.</p><ul><li>A rheumatologist is an inflammation specialist. They can help diagnose Kawasaki disease and decide on treatments with the medical team.</li><li>The cardiologist is a heart specialist. They will look at the echocardiogram. If the coronary arteries are swollen, the cardiologist will determine if the swelling is mild or severe. They will then decide on any further treatments and when they will need to repeat the echocardiogram.</li></ul><h2>Complications of Kawasaki disease </h2><p>Early and appropriate treatment of Kawasaki disease reduces the chances of injury or damage to the coronary arteries. Injury or damage to the arteries occurs in one in five untreated children. In most children, this damage is minor and does not last long. However, in some children the damage can last longer. In these children, the walls of the coronary arteries can become weak and form aneurysms.</p><p>An aneurysm is a localized, balloon-like bulge of the vessel wall. Aneurysms may be dangerous as they can cause problems with blood flow to the heart muscle. Medicine can help prevent further progression of the aneurysm or formation of clots.</p><h2>When should you bring your child back to the hospital?</h2><p>Rarely, Kawasaki disease can return even after your child receives the appropriate treatment. The presence of a fever is the best way to know if Kawasaki disease has returned. It is important to check your child’s temperature every day for about 1 week. Contact your child’s doctor or seek medical attention immediately if your child’s temperature is above 38°C (100.4°F) for at least 4 hours. </p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IHD_kawasaki_MED_ILL_EN.jpgMain
Keeping kids on the moveKKeeping kids on the moveKeeping kids on the moveEnglishPreventionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-07-16T04:00:00Z8.7000000000000060.70000000000001059.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out how active transportation and child-friendly communities can help children be more independent and physically active.</p><p>The growing popularity of cars in North America over the past 50 years has created suburbs and towns that require many people to drive every day. As a result, children are often travelling by car instead of walking, bicycling or using another form of transportation. This reliance on cars can have a major impact on children’s health and development and on the types of neighbourhoods in which they live.</p><h2>Key points<br></h2> <ul> <li>Heavy car use can make children less active, less connected from the environment and less independent.</li> <li>Active transportation involves travelling on foot or by bike for some journeys instead of relying on a car.</li> <li>Parents can encourage active transportation by taking part in car-free days, helping a child find the best walking and cycling routes nearby and getting involved in making a child’s school safer for those who walk or cycle there.</li> <li>Child-friendly communities can make active transportation more realistic because they are safe and accessible and integrate nature, local amenities and the needs of different age groups.<br></li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/keeping_kids_on_the_move_the_role_of_active_transportation.jpgMain
Keeping your child active during the COVID-19 pandemicKKeeping your child active during the COVID-19 pandemicKeeping your child active during the COVID-19 pandemicEnglishInfectious DiseasesSchool age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2021-11-15T05:00:00Z9.9000000000000051.40000000000001223.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to help your child stay active and provide them with the support they need to stay motivated.</p><p>The COVID-19 pandemic has made it difficult for people to manage many aspects of their lives, especially physical activity levels. Many children have become more inactive because of changes to their school routine and the inability to participate in community sports and be with their friends and peers. These changes in activity levels can be a risk to your child’s health and can also have a negative impact their sleep and mental health. It is important that your child stays active during their free time. Physical activity is an important part of growth and has many health-related benefits.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Find an activity that your child enjoys. This is the best source of motivation!</li><li>Get the family involved. If it is an activity that the family can do (e.g. going for walks), everyone can keep each other motivated.</li><li>Plan ahead to make sure your child knows the daily physical activities. Create a weekly plan to allot time to the activities.</li></ul> <p>The Exercise Medicine Program at The Hospital for Sick Children provides support to patients and their families by promoting a healthy active lifestyle looking at four domains: Physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleeping hygiene and nutrition. This program utilizes the FITT principle to prescribe physical activity plans to children by giving suitable recommendations for optimizing their health.</p> <h2>Resources for children</h2><h3>Website</h3><p><strong>AboutKidsHealth for teens</strong><br> <a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3778&language=English&hub=mentalhealthAZ#mentalhealth">https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3778&language=English&hub=mentalhealthAZ#mentalhealth</a></p><h3>Apps</h3><p><strong>MyLife Meditation: Mindfulnes‪s‬</strong><br> Learn to meditate and be more mindful with MyLife Meditation. MyLife Meditation is a meditation and mindfulness app personalized to how you feel. It will help you develop simple habits and learn to maintain perspective.</p>‬‬‬ <p><strong>Breathe, Think, Do with Sesame</strong><br> Share this app with your child to help teach skills such as problem solving, self-control, planning and task persistence using a breathe, think, do strategy. It is available in English and Spanish.</p><p><strong>Smiling Mind</strong><br> Smiling Mind is a unique web and app-based program developed by psychologists and educators to help bring balance to people’s lives.</p><h2>Resources for adolescents</h2><h3>Website</h3><p><strong>Mindfulness for Teens</strong><br> <a href="https://mindfulnessforteens.com/">https://mindfulnessforteens.com/</a></p><h3>Apps</h3><p><strong>MindShift CBT</strong><br> This is an app designed to help teens and young adults cope with anxiety. It can help you change how you think about anxiety. Instead of trying to avoid anxiety, you can decide to face it. It is available in English and French.</p><p><strong>Virtual Hope box</strong><br> This app provides simple tools to help people with coping, relaxation, distraction and positive thinking. Personalized content such as photos, videos, recorded messages, inspirational quotes, poetry, music you find soothing, positive life experiences and future aspirations can be stored in the app to use when you need it.</p><p><strong>Smiling Mind</strong><br> Smiling Mind is a unique web and app-based program developed by psychologists and educators to help bring balance to people’s lives.</p> <p>Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology. Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth (ages 5-17 years): An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour and Sleep. Retrieved from <a href="https://csepguidelines.ca/children-and-youth-5-17/">https://csepguidelines.ca/children-and-youth-5-17/</a></p><p>Participaction. Benefits & Guidelines: Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: Ages 5-17. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.participaction.com/en-ca/benefits-and-guidelines/children-and-youth-age-5-to-17">https://www.participaction.com/en-ca/benefits-and-guidelines/children-and-youth-age-5-to-17</a></p> https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-1080443848.jpgMain
Keratosis pilarisKKeratosis pilarisKeratosis pilarisEnglishDermatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)SkinSkinConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2015-05-06T04:00:00Z9.6000000000000053.8000000000000523.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Keratosis pilaris is a common rash that results in bumps on the skin. Learn what causes keratosis pilaris and how it is diagnosed and treated.</p><figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_keratosis_pilaris_EN.jpg" alt="Skin affected by keratosis pilaris" /> </figure> <h2>What is keratosis pilaris?</h2><p>Keratosis pilaris (KP) is a very common skin rash that affects at least one in five children around the world. The rash consists of many rough follicular papules (small bumps in the hair follicles) that look like “goose flesh”. Usually the bumps are skin colour, but they can sometimes have a blotchy appearance or a white top that make them look like “white heads”.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Keratosis pilaris is a very common and harmless skin condition that occurs when there is too much protein in the hair follicles.</li> <li>It is usually inherited from one or both parents.</li> <li>Keratosis pilaris causes the skin to appear blotchy and bumpy and can be itchy if it occurs with dry skin.</li> <li>Moisturizers and special creams may improve the appearance of keratosis pilaris and ease any discomfort, but they cannot cure it.</li> </ul><figure><span class="asset-image-title">Areas of the body affected by keratosis pilaris</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_keratosis_pilaris_sites_EN.jpg" alt="Girl with markings on cheeks, upper arms, buttocks and thighs" /> </figure> <h2>How does keratosis pilaris affect the body?</h2><p>Keratosis pilaris is harmless. It usually appears on the upper arms and thighs, but it sometimes affects other parts of the body such as the buttocks and cheeks.<br></p><p>Most people are not bothered by keratosis pilaris, but some might be bothered by the skin’s appearance. Most of the time, the skin only becomes irritated if it is very dry and becomes itchy or if your child picks at the bumps. Keratosis pilaris usually resolves with time or improves during summer, but, in some people, it remains the same for many years.</p><p>Very few children have keratosis pilaris as a sign of an underlying genetic disease or have severe keratosis pilaris across their body.</p><figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Keratosis pilaris</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_keratosis_pilaris_EN.jpg" alt="Cross section of skin affected by keratosis pilaris" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">An excess of keratin in the hair follicles forms a hard plug that feels like a bump.</figcaption> </figure> <h2>What causes keratosis pilaris?</h2><p>Keratin is a protein that makes up a big part of our skin. Keratosis pilaris occurs when there is too much keratin in the hair follicles. The excess keratin forms hard plugs, which in turn create the skin bumps.</p><p>Keratosis pilaris is a genetic condition. This means that it can be inherited from one or both parents.</p><h2>How is keratosis pilaris diagnosed?</h2> <p>A doctor can diagnose keratosis pilaris simply by looking at your child’s skin and asking about their medical history.</p><h2>How is keratosis pilaris treated?</h2> <p>Keratosis pilaris does not need to be treated unless it causes a lot of trouble. Unfortunately, no treatment can completely resolve keratosis pilaris, but moisturizers and special creams with urea and lactic acid may improve how it looks. These creams can sometimes irritate the skin, however, and are not recommended for small children.</p> <p>Laser treatment has been used lately to treat severe cases of keratosis pilaris, but its main success has been in reducing the redness of the skin, not the bumpiness.</p><h2>When to see a doctor for keratosis pilaris</h2> <p>See your child’s doctor if your child’s keratosis pilaris is itchy or if it affects many parts of their body (including their eyebrows, knees or elbows, for example).</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_keratosis_pilaris_EN.jpgMain
Kick countsKKick countsKick countsEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)BodyNANAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-11T04:00:00Z7.9000000000000066.1000000000000522.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>This page describes the importance of counting a baby's movements during pregnancy.</p><p>By the sixth month of pregnancy, you will be very aware of your baby's movements, and there may be patterns of vigorous activity followed by quiet times. Around this time, you should start monitoring your baby's kick counts, which is how often your baby kicks, swishes, rolls, and jabs in a given amount of time. </p> <p>Kick counts are recommended for high risk pregnancies but all pregnant women may benefit from counting their baby's movements. Kick counts are done every day, starting in the 28th week or sixth month of pregnancy. Being attentive to your baby's movements will help you notice any significant changes, identify potential problems, and prevent stillbirth. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Kick counts are done every day and at the same time each day, starting in the 28 th week or sixth month of pregnancy.</li> <li>Ideally, you should feel at least 10 movements in two hours.</li> <li>Call your health-care provider if you are concerned about the number of kicks you feel.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/kick_counts_pregnancy.jpgMain
Kidney and bladder problemsKKidney and bladder problemsKidney and bladder problemsEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)Body;Kidneys;BladderReproductive system;Renal system/Urinary systemConditions and diseasesPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-10T04:00:00Z10.600000000000046.4000000000000433.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about the various abnormalities of the kidneys and bladder that can arise in a developing fetus during pregnancy.</p><p>Some babies are born with abnormalities in their kidneys or bladder, called congenital abnormalities or birth defects. They form as the result of something going wrong with the development of the baby’s urinary system during pregnancy. It is important to keep in mind that these abnormalities are rare, and may sometimes be treated with surgery. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Some kidney and bladder problems are genetically determined while others are caused by something going wrong in the development of the urinary system.</li> <li>These conditions are rare and may sometimes be treated with surgery.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/kidney_and_bladder_problems_babies.jpgMain
Kidney biopsy using image guidanceKKidney biopsy using image guidanceKidney biopsy using image guidanceEnglishOtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)KidneysKidneysProceduresCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2017-08-04T04:00:00Z8.4000000000000061.20000000000001469.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn what a kidney biopsy is and why it is done. Also find information about what will happen to your child before, during and after the procedure.<br></p><h2>What are the kidneys?</h2><p>The kidneys filter waste products from the blood and create urine. They are a pair of organs that are usually located in your child's back, one on each side of the spine, near the bottom of the rib cage. </p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Kidney location</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/kidney_location_front_side_EN.png" alt="A front view and side view of a girl's rib cage, kidney and bladder" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Most people have two kidneys, one on each side of the spine. They are found just under the rib cage towards the back of the body.</figcaption></figure> <h2>What is a kidney biopsy?</h2><p>A kidney biopsy is a procedure where a doctor takes a tiny piece of kidney tissue using a special needle. The tissue is examined under a microscope in the laboratory. The biopsy is done using image guidance by an interventional radiologist.</p><h2>Why is a kidney biopsy done?</h2><p>A kidney biopsy can help your doctor determine your child’s cause of illness. It can also help doctors learn about how your child’s illness is changing.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A kidney biopsy is a procedure where an interventional radiologist takes a tiny piece of kidney tissue through a special needle, using ultrasound guidance, to be examined under a microscope.</li><li>Kidney biopsies are usually considered low-risk procedures.</li><li>If you see bright red bleeding in your child's urine, call your child's doctor right away.<br></li><li>If you live more than one hour away from the hospital, you will need to stay nearby overnight.</li></ul><h2>On the day of the kidney biopsy</h2><p>Arrive at the hospital two hours before the planned time of your child’s procedure. Once you are checked in, your child will be dressed in a hospital gown, weighed and assessed by a nurse. You will also be able to speak to the interventional radiologist who will be doing the kidney biopsy and the nurse or anaesthetist who will be giving your child medication to make them comfortable for the procedure.</p><p>During the kidney biopsy you will be asked to wait in the surgical waiting area.</p><h2>Your child will have medicine for pain</h2><p>It is important that your child is as comfortable as possible for the procedure. They may be given <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3001&language=English">local anaesthesia</a>, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1260&language=English">sedation</a> or <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1261&language=English">general anaesthesia</a>. The type of medicine that your child will have for the procedure will depend on your child’s condition.</p><h2>How a kidney biopsy is done</h2><p>Your child’s kidneys are located in their back area, usually one on either side. For the biopsy, your child will be lying on their stomach. The interventional radiologist uses ultrasound to view the kidneys. Local anaesthetic is then injected into the skin to numb the biopsy area. Then, while watching the kidney using the ultrasound, the interventional radiologist passes a special thin needle into one of the kidneys to get samples. Usually two or three samples are taken.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Kidney biopsy</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/kidney_biopsy_EN.jpg" alt="A view of the back of the rib cage and kidneys of a girl on her back with a biopsy needle inserted into her left kidney" /> </figure> <p>The samples are about 2 to 3 centimeters (1 inch) long, and look like a piece of thread. These kidney samples are then sent to the lab for examination.</p><p>You child will usually not need any stitches. A small bandage is placed over the biopsy site.</p><p>A kidney biopsy usually takes 45 minutes to one hour.</p><h2>If your child has had a kidney transplant</h2><p>If your child has had a kidney transplant they will lie on their back for the biopsy because the transplanted kidney is located closer to the front of the abdomen. The biopsy procedure is the same as described above.</p><p>A kidney biopsy from a transplanted kidney will usually take 45 minutes to one hour.</p><h2>After the kidney biopsy</h2><p>Once the kidney biopsy is complete, your child will be moved to the recovery area. The interventional radiologist will come and talk to you about the details of the procedure. As soon as your child starts to wake up, a nurse will come and get you.</p><h2>Recovery in hospital</h2><p>Your child will need to lie in bed for approximately eight hours after the biopsy. There will be a sandbag placed under your child’s back to apply pressure to the biopsy site. This helps to prevent the site from bleeding. If your child has had a kidney transplant, the sandbag will be placed on your child’s abdomen.</p> <p>If there is no blood in the urine and no bleeding from the biopsy site after two hours, the head of your child’s bed may be raised slightly.<br></p><h2>Going home</h2><p>Most children who have a kidney biopsy go home the same day. This is usually eight hours after the biopsy.</p><p>Your child will be observed closely for these eight hours before being discharged home. Your child will have a blood test about six hours after the biopsy to identify any changes in blood levels. If there are any concerns that there may be bleeding, an ultrasound may be ordered. Your child may have to stay on bed rest or be admitted overnight for further observation if your doctor feels it necessary.</p><p>If you live more than one hour away from the hospital, you will need to stay nearby overnight.</p><p>For more details on how to care for your child after a kidney biopsy, please see: <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1238&language=English">Kidney biopsy: Caring for your child at home after the procedure</a>.</p><h2>Visiting the clinic before the procedure</h2><p>Your child may have a clinic visit with the interventional radiologist before the procedure. During the visit you should expect:</p><ul><li>A health assessment to make sure your child is healthy and that it is safe to have <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3001&language=English">local anaesthesia</a>, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1260&language=English">sedation</a> or <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1261&language=English">general anaesthesia</a> and to go ahead with the procedure.</li><li>An overview of the procedure, and a review of the consent form with an interventional radiologist.</li><li>A quick ultrasound of the kidneys; the area where the biopsy will be taken will be marked with a semi-permanent marker.</li><li>Blood work.</li></ul><h2>Giving consent before the procedure</h2><p>Before the procedure, the interventional radiologist will go over how and why the procedure is done, as well as the potential benefits and risks. They will also discuss what will be done to reduce these risks, and will help you weigh any benefits against the risks. It is important that you understand all of the potential risks and benefits of the kidney biopsy and that all of your questions are answered. If you agree to the procedure, you can give consent for treatment by signing the consent form. A parent or legal guardian must sign the consent form for young children. The procedure will not be done unless you give your consent.</p><h2>How to prepare your child for the procedure</h2><p>Before any treatment, it is important to talk to your child about what will happen. When talking to your child, use words they can understand. Let your child know that medicines will be given to make them feel comfortable during the procedure.</p><p>Children feel less anxious and scared when they know what to expect. Children also feel less worried when they see their parents are calm and supportive. </p><h2>If your child becomes ill within two days before the procedure</h2><p>It is important that your child is healthy on the day of the procedure. If your child starts to feel unwell or has a fever within two days before the kidney biopsy, let your doctor know. Your child’s procedure may need to be rebooked.</p><h2>Food, drink and medicines before the procedure</h2><ul><li>Your child’s stomach must be empty before sedation or general anaesthetic.</li><li>If your child has special needs during fasting, talk to your doctor to make a plan.</li><li>Your child can take their regular morning medicine with a sip of water two hours before the procedure.</li><li>Medicines such as <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=77&language=English">acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)</a>, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=198&language=English">naproxen</a> or <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=153&language=English">ibuprofen</a>, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=265&language=English">warfarin</a> or <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=129&language=English">enoxaparin</a> may increase the risk of bleeding. Do not give these to your child before the procedure unless they have been cleared first by their doctor and the interventional radiologist.<br></li></ul><p>At SickKids, the interventional radiologists work in the <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/IGT/index.html">Department of Diagnositic Imaging – Division of Image Guided Therapy (IGT)</a>. You can call the IGT clinic at (416) 813-6054 and speak to the clinic nurse during working hours (8:00 to 15:00) or leave a message with the IGT clinic nurse.</p><p>For more information on fasting see <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/VisitingSickKids/Coming-for-surgery/Eating-guidelines/index.html">Eating and drinking before surgery</a>.</p><p>For more information on preparing your child for their procedure see <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/VisitingSickKids/Coming-for-surgery/index.html">Coming for surgery</a>.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/kidney_location_front_side_EN.pngMain
Kidney biopsy: Caring for your child at home after the procedureKKidney biopsy: Caring for your child at home after the procedureKidney biopsy: Caring for your child at home after the procedureEnglishOtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)KidneysKidneysNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2020-04-06T04:00:00Z8.8000000000000060.3000000000000686.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to care for your child at home after a kidney biopsy.</p><h2>What is a kidney biopsy?</h2><p>A <a href="/Article?contentid=35&language=English">kidney biopsy</a> is a procedure done to obtain a small sample of the kidney so it can be examined under a microscope. A kidney biopsy can help your child’s doctor identify problems in the kidney and find the cause of kidney disease.</p><h2>Key points </h2><ul><li>Leave the dressing on for 24 hours.</li><li>You may give your child <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=62&language=English">acetaminophen</a> for pain.</li><li>Avoid major physical activities for two weeks.</li><li>Go to the nearest Emergency Department if your child develops bleeding at the biopsy site, has blood in the urine, is pale, has fever or has severe abdominal pain.</li></ul><h2>When to see a doctor</h2><p>Go to the nearest Emergency Department right away if your child has any of the following:</p><ul><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">Fever</a> greater than 38°C (100.4°F)</li><li>Throwing up (<a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a>) that does not stop</li><li>Severe <a href="/pain">pain</a></li><li>Bleeding or swelling around the biopsy site </li><li>Bright red blood in the urine </li><li>Dizziness and pale colour</li><li>Swelling in the tummy</li><li>General weakness</li></ul><h2>Discharge from the hospital</h2><p>Most children who have a kidney biopsy go home the same day. This is usually about eight hours after the biopsy.</p><p>Your child will be observed closely for these eight hours before being discharged home. They will be given a blood test approximately six hours after the biopsy to check for bleeding. If there are any concerns of bleeding, an ultrasound may be ordered. Your child may have to be admitted overnight for further observation if their doctor feels it necessary.</p><p>If you live more than one hour away from the hospital, it is suggested that you stay nearby to the hospital overnight on the night after the procedure.</p><h2>At SickKids</h2><p>If you have any concerns in the first 48 hours, call the <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/IGT/index.html">Image Guided Therapy (IGT) clinic</a> at (416) 813-7654 ext. 201804. Speak to the IGT clinic nurse during working hours or leave a non-urgent message.</p><p>If you have concerns and it is after working hours, see your primary care provider or go to the nearest Emergency Department. You can also call the Hospital for Sick Children switchboard at (416) 813-7500 and ask them to page a member of your child’s health-care team or the interventional radiology fellow on call. </p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/kidney_biopsy_caring_for_child_at_home.jpgMain
Kidney disease and diabetesKKidney disease and diabetesKidney disease and diabetesEnglishEndocrinologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Pancreas;KidneysEndocrine system;Renal system/Urinary systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2017-11-20T05:00:00Z9.3000000000000049.7000000000000387.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Kidney disease may occur later in life as a result of diabetes. Learn about diabetic nephropathy, diagnosis and treatment.</p><p>The <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=kidney-child">kidneys</a> are the body’s filtering system. Blood flows through the blood vessels of the kidneys, where toxins and waste go from the blood to the urine. People with <a href="/Article?contentid=1717&language=English">diabetes</a> are at a higher risk for kidney disease as high blood glucose (sugar) levels and high blood pressure can damage the kidneys over time. This damage results in the kidneys being unable to properly filter the blood. Kidney damage due to diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>High blood pressure and high blood glucose (sugar) can cause damage to the kidneys, which results in them being unable to properly filter the blood.</li> <li>Nephropathy is diagnosed through a urine test.</li> <li>Excellent blood-sugar control, medication and good blood pressure control can help prevent kidney damage or slow progression.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/kidney_location_front_side_EN.pngMain
Kidney failure and treatmentKKidney failure and treatmentKidney failure and treatmentEnglishNephrologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)KidneysKidneysConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-07-30T04:00:00Z7.3000000000000066.0000000000000943.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Find out what happens to the body and what treatments are available when kidneys fail.</p><figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Kidney location</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Kidneys_location_male_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Location of the ribcage, kidney and spine in a child" /> </figure> <p>The <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=kidney-child">kidneys</a> are important organs in our bodies. They help to keep us healthy in many ways.</p><ul><li>They take waste products, such as urea and creatinine, away from the body.</li><li>They control the water balance in the body.<br></li><li>They control the balance of other substances in the body, such as sodium and potassium.</li><li>They help make red blood cells.</li><li>They help bones grow.</li></ul><p>Most people have two kidneys, one on each side of the spine, just under the rib cage. They are red-brown in colour and about the size of your child's fist.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>When kidneys are not working properly this can lead to a build-up of urea in the blood; build-up of other chemicals such as sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphorus in the blood; puffiness in the feet, hands and eyes; pale skin; and headache and irritability.</li> <li>Treatment for kidney failure can include kidney transplant and dialysis (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis).</li> </ul><h2>Treatments for kidney failure</h2> <p>Kidney failure cannot be cured, but it can be treated. Treatment options include:</p> <ul> <li>transplant</li> <li>dialysis.</li> </ul> <h3>Kidney transplant</h3> <ul> <li>This involves surgery (an operation) to place a healthy kidney from a donor into your child's body.</li> <li>A kidney can come from a living donor or a deceased donor who is a match for your child. If a child is waiting for a kidney from a deceased donor, they go on a transplant waiting list.</li> <li>When your child receives a new kidney, they will need to take medications every day to suppress, or weaken, their immune system so that they do not reject it.</li> </ul> <h3>Dialysis</h3> <p>Patients and families can choose between two types of dialysis:</p> <ul> <li>hemodialysis</li> <li>peritoneal dialysis.</li> </ul> <p>It is important to learn the facts about each type of dialysis before choosing one. You will also need to consider if you want to do the dialysis at the hospital or in the comfort of your own home. Keep in mind that your child may need to change from one kind of dialysis to another, depending on their health.</p> <p><em>Hemodialysis</em></p> <p>There are two types of hemodialysis: <a href="/article?contentid=41&language=English">home hemodialysis (HHD</a>) and <a href="/article?contentid=43&language=English">in-hospital hemodialysis</a>.</p> <p>Home hemodialysis:</p> <ul> <li>uses a vascular access (a thin tube inserted in a vein) to clean your child's blood</li> <li>is a slow, gentle treatment that improves your child's appetite and energy levels</li> <li>requires your child to take fewer medications (compared with in-hospital dialysis)</li> <li>allows your child to have a wider range of foods and drinks.</li> </ul> <p>In-hospital hemodialysis:</p> <ul> <li>is offered and monitored by qualified health-care professionals</li> <li>is done in a clean, friendly and supportive environment</li> <li>gives your child the chance to meet other patients.</li> </ul> <p><em>Peritoneal dialysis</em></p> <ul> <li>Peritoneal dialysis (PD) uses a thin tube called a catheter and the inner membrane (lining) of the abdomen to clean the blood.</li> <li>PD offers flexible, easy treatments at home, where you or your child can manage the care.</li> <li>PD may help preserve remaining kidney function.</li> </ul><h2>Finding out more about treatment options</h2> <p>You can find out more about the different treatment options on the following pages.</p> <ul> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=44&language=English">Hemodialysis</a></li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=41&language=English">Home hemodialysis</a></li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=43&language=English">In-hospital hemodialysis</a></li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=42&language=English">Peritoneal dialysis</a></li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=1109&language=English">Dialysis options: How they compare​ ​</a></li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Kidneys_location_male_MED_ILL_EN.jpgMain
Kidney transplantKKidney transplantKidney transplantkidneytransplantEnglishNephrology;TransplantTeen (13-18 years)KidneysRenal system/Urinary systemConditions and diseases;Non-drug treatmentTeen (13-18 years)NALanding Page (Overview)Learning Hub<p>​This hub offers information and advice for teens before, during and after kidney transplant surgery.<br></p><p>This hub offers information and tools to help teens understand what to expect before, during and after kidney transplant surgery. You will learn how you will be assessed for surgery and what to do while waiting for your transplant. You will also learn about adjusting to life with your new kidney, for example how to manage your medications, make healthy lifestyle choices, handle stress and make decisions that set you up for long-term success.<br></p>kidneytransplanthttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-911030818.jpgTeens
Kidney transplant from a deceased donorKKidney transplant from a deceased donorKidney transplant from a deceased donorEnglishTransplant;NephrologyTeen (13-18 years)KidneysRenal system/Urinary systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-ZTeens
Kidney transplant from a living donorKKidney transplant from a living donorKidney transplant from a living donorEnglishTransplant;NephrologyTeen (13-18 years)KidneysRenal system/Urinary systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-ZTeens
Kidney transplant: Self-monitoring and potential complicationsKKidney transplant: Self-monitoring and potential complicationsKidney transplant: Self-monitoring and potential complicationsEnglishTransplant;NephrologyTeen (13-18 years)KidneysRenal system/Urinary systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-ZTeens
Kidney transplant: Surgical and post-operative complicationsKKidney transplant: Surgical and post-operative complicationsKidney transplant: Surgical and post-operative complicationsEnglishTransplant;NephrologyTeen (13-18 years)KidneysRenal system/Urinary systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-ZTeens
Kidney transplant: Talking with healthcare providers on your ownKKidney transplant: Talking with healthcare providers on your ownKidney transplant: Talking with healthcare providers on your ownEnglishTransplant;NephrologyTeen (13-18 years)KidneysRenal system/Urinary systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<h2>Resources</h2><h3>Kids Help Phone – <a href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/">kidshelpphone.ca</a></h3><p>Kids Help Phone is a 24/7 e-mental health service offering free, confidential support to young people.</p><p> <a href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/get-info/12-tips-navigating-conversations-doctors/">12 tips for navigating conversations with doctors</a></p>Teens
Kidney transplant: Your stay in hospital after surgeryKKidney transplant: Your stay in hospital after surgeryKidney transplant: Your stay in hospital after surgeryEnglishTransplant;NephrologyTeen (13-18 years)KidneysRenal system/Urinary systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Most kidney transplant patients stay in the hospital for about two weeks after their surgery. However, you may need to stay longer if any problems come up while you recover.<br></p>Teens
Kidneys: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) testKKidneys: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) testKidneys: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) testEnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)Body;KidneysRenal system/Urinary systemTestsPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z5.1000000000000082.3000000000000230.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>A GFR test measures how well your kidneys are working. Find out why this test is done and what to expect during the test.</p><h2>What is a GFR test?</h2><p>The glomerular (say: glom-er-yoo-lar) filtration rate (GFR) test measures how well your kidneys are working to filter and clean your blood. </p><p>Your kidneys filter your blood to keep it clean. The glomerulus is the part of your kidney that does this work. The waste that your kidneys remove leaves your body when you pee. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A glomular filtration rate test measures how well your kidneys are working.</li><li>The glomerulus is the part of the kidney that filters blood to keep it clean.</li><li>GFR tests are done to see if certain medicines are affecting how your kidneys work.</li><li>A GFR test involves having 3 blood tests as well as a scan.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Kidneys-Glomerula_filtration_rate_(GFR)_test.jpgTeens
Kimberly's storyKKimberly's storyKimberly's storyEnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Vertebrae;SpineMuscular system;Skeletal systemConditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2008-06-01T04:00:00Z7.0000000000000074.0000000000000687.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about the experiences of teenagers who have had scoliosis surgery and their first hand accounts of their fears, relationships, and recovery.</p><p>Life with scoliosis started with a visit to a walk-in clinic. The doctor spotted a curve in my spine and suggested that my mom have my paediatrician look at it. Upon consulting another doctor, he diagnosed me with scoliosis and referred me to see an orthopaedic surgeon at the hospital. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>"The surgeon told me I would need surgery. I was terrified. I knew the decision was still up to me and I was only 12 years old. I had never thought I would be making a decision like this. But I accepted the fact that surgery was needed and told the surgeon I would have the operation."</li><li>"Overall, I am glad that I decided to go ahead with the surgery and remove the rods."</li></ul>Teens
Knowing your rights in a health-care settingKKnowing your rights in a health-care settingKnowing your rights in a health-care settingEnglishAdolescentTeen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionTeen (13-18 years)NA2021-11-10T05:00:00Z10.700000000000055.1000000000000654.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about your rights when it comes to making your own health-care decisions and your right to privacy.</p><h2>Your rights and your health care</h2><p>Every person who receives health care in the province of Ontario has certain rights under the law. Even babies, who are not yet capable of making their own decisions have rights. Their parents or caregivers and their health-care providers must ensure that a baby’s rights are protected.</p><p>As a teenager who is becoming more mature and more capable of making your own decisions, you, your parents or caregivers and your health-care providers can work together to ensure that your rights are protected. This article will explain your rights related to making your own decisions about your health and your right to privacy.</p><div class="callout2"><h2>We want to hear from you!</h2><p>AboutKidsHealth is trying to improve the information and education we provide young people (aged 12-18) and families through our website. After reading this article, please take 5 minutes to complete our Adolsecent Health Learning Hub survey.</p> <button><a class="redcap-survey" href="https://surveys.sickkids.ca/surveys/?s=XHD3EK3XD4">click here</a></button> </div><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>There is no legal age of consent for health care which means that you have the right to make your own decisions about your health as long as you are capable.</li><li>You have the right to be informed about the treatments you are receiving, to freely make health-care decisions on your own, and to refuse treatment if you wish.</li><li>You have the right to confidentiality: your private health information cannot be shared with others and you have the right to speak privately with your health-care providers.</li></ul><h2>Resources</h2><p>Relevant laws for Ontario can be found at <a href="http://www.ontario.ca/">www.ontario.ca</a>:</p><ul><li> <a href="https://www.ontario.ca/laws/statute/96h02">Health Care Consent Act (1996)</a></li><li> <a href="https://www.ontario.ca/laws/statute/90m07">Mental Health Act (1990)</a></li><li> <a href="https://www.ontario.ca/laws/statute/04p03">Personal Health Information Protection Act (2004)</a></li><li> <a href="https://www.ontario.ca/laws/statute/92s30">Substitute Decisions Act (1992)</a></li><li> <a href="https://www.ontario.ca/laws/statute/90h08">Highway Traffic Act (1990)</a></li><li> <a href="https://www.ontario.ca/laws/statute/17c14">Child, Youth, Family Services Act (2017)</a></li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Knowing_your_rights_in_a_health-care_setting.jpgTeens

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