Ulcerative colitisUUlcerative colitisUlcerative colitisEnglishGastrointestinalPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Large Intestine/ColonDigestive systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2013-11-08T05:00:00Z​Meaghan Wright, BA;Karen Frost, BScN, RN, MN, NP-Peds8.5000000000000057.10000000000001041.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>​​Information for parents and children with the inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis.</p><h2>What is ulcerative colitis?</h2><p>Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). UC is a condition that causes inflammation in the bowel (also called the large intestine or colon) of your gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Inflammation is when part of your body gets red, swollen and painful.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Large intestine</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Large_intestine_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Appendix, cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The large intestine is the last part of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It is commonly referred to as the colon. It is made up of many different sections.</figcaption> </figure> <p>It is important that both words, "ulcerative" and "colitis" be used, when speaking to a health care provider. The term ulcerative is used because there are small breaks, called ulcers, in the lining of the colon when the disease is active. Colitis refers to inflammation of the colon. When a child has active UC, symptoms like diarrhea, rectal bleeding and abdominal pain can result.<br></p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Ulcerative colitis</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Ulcerative_colitis_MED_ILL_EN.png" alt="Close-up of normal colon and close-up of colon with ulcerative colitis" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Ulcerative colitis causes inflammation and ulceration in the large intestine. It will appear red and spotty, with small patches of surviving normal surface.</figcaption> </figure> <p>The other main type of IBD is called Crohn's Disease (CD). CD and UC are very similar, but are not exactly the same. In CD, inflammation can happen anywhere along the GI tract, from the mouth to the anus. Symptoms depend on which part of the GI tract is inflamed. Your doctor will ask you questions and perform certain tests in order to tell the difference between CD and UC, and will suggest treatments based on which form of IBD you have. You can get either type of IBD at any age.</p><p>There are over 5,900 children under 18 years old in Canada with IBD right now. When it is too difficult to tell whether a patient has CD or UC, their IBD is classified as IBD-U. The "U" stands for unclassified; IBD-U may also be called indeterminate colitis.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease that can cause inflammation in the bowel of the gastrointestinal tract.</li><li>Symptoms may include stomach pain, diarrhea, blood passed from the anus, urgency to go to the bathroom and decreased appetite.</li> <li>There is no cure for ulcerative colitis but there are five types of medications that can help treat the symptoms: 5-ASA, immunomodulators, steroids, antibiotics and biologics.</li></ul><h2>What does ulcerative colitis feel like?</h2> <p>Someone with UC can have many different symptoms, like stomach pain, diarrhea, blood passed from the anus, urgency to go to the bathroom, weight loss, fatigue and decreased appetite. They can less commonly have fevers, joint pain, certain skin rashes and redness of the eyes. Some people may have just a few of these symptoms while others may experience them all.</p> <p>UC is a chronic condition; this means that it is for life. Although there is currently no cure, there are a lot of treatment options. When you find one that helps to keep your UC under control, you can be in remission (that means symptom-free) for a long time.</p><h2>What causes ulcerative colitis?</h2> <p>Even though there have been many scientific studies, researchers do not yet know what causes UC. They do know that it can run in families. You are more likely to get UC if one of your first-degree relatives, like a brother or sister, has it. You are even more likely to get it if that brother or sister is your identical twin. Anyone can get UC at any age. In children, it occurs slightly more often in boys. In teens, it occurs more often in girls.</p> <p>Researchers think UC is caused by a combination of three things:</p> <ul> <li>Genetics: Some people may have genes in their body that increase their chances of getting UC. Studies have shown that there are over 30 genes that may be linked with IBD.</li> <li>Environment: Our environment includes anything our body comes in contact with. Infections and food are the most common types of environmental "triggers" that may contribute to disease, but there may be others.</li> <li>Immune system: Our immune system protects us from harmful bacteria and viruses, but in some people, it can cause inflammation in the body (like in the GI tract).</li> </ul><h2>What kinds of treatments are there?</h2> <p>There are five classes of medicines used to treat the symptoms of UC (see below). These medicines can come in the form of pills, liquids, intravenous, and suppository or enema. Check with your child's health care provider to learn more about their medications. Some people might also consider UC surgery.</p> <p>The different types of medication used to treat UC are:</p> <ul> <li>5-aminosalicylic Acid (5-ASA): Used for milder forms of UC, 5-ASA decreases inflammation in the intestinal tract. It can be taken orally (by mouth) or rectally.</li> <li>Immunomodulators: Used for long-term treatment, these drugs work by suppressing the immune system to help reduce inflammation. Immunomodulators may also help patients stay in remission. They are not intended for acute flare-ups. Immunomodulators are given orally.</li> <li>Steroids: These drugs are used for moderate-to-severe UC for a short period of time to help decrease the amount of inflammation in the body. They can be taken orally, intravenously or rectally.</li> <li>Antibiotics: Antibiotics are generally effective for UC patients with an abscess, a fistula or an infection. They can be given orally or intravenously.</li> <li>Biologics: These drugs inhibit specific substances in the body to reduce inflammation. They are often administered intravenously. Anti-TNFs are a type of biologic drug.</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/ulcerative_colitis.jpg
Ultrasound scanUUltrasound scanUltrasound scanEnglishOtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyNATestsCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-10T05:00:00ZLuc Trottier, RDMS;Alan Daneman, MBBCH, FRCPC, FRANZCR6.8000000000000070.5000000000000950.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>An ultrasound is a diagnostic imaging technique that uses sound waves. Find out about what happens during an ultrasound scan and how it works. </p><h2>What is an ultrasound scan?</h2><p>An ultrasound uses sound waves to take pictures of the inside of your child's body. These pictures give your child's doctor information about the size, shape and texture of the body part being scanned. </p><p>A sonographer and a radiologist will be involved in your child's scan and in caring for your child during the test. A sonographer is an expert in the use of ultrasound machines. A radiologist is a doctor who specializes in tests that give pictures of the inside of the body, such as ultrasound. The sonographer and the radiologist will give a report of the scan to your child's doctor. </p><p>Many doctors' offices have ultrasounds. Depending on your child's condition, the test may be done in a hospital.</p><p>An ultrasound scan usually takes about 45 minutes, but it can take a little longer.</p> <br><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>An ultrasound machine uses sound waves to take pictures of the inside of the body. </li> <li>Let your child know what will happen during the test. Tell your child you will be with them the whole time. </li> <li>Ask the staff at the ultrasound clinic if your child should not eat or drink before the test. </li> <li>Ultrasounds do not hurt. They have no side effects. </li> </ul><h2>During an ultrasound</h2> <p>After your child has checked in, the sonographer will take them to the scanning room. The scanning room has a bed, an ultrasound machine and a screen that shows the pictures from the ultrasound. The lights in the room will be turned down so the sonographer can see the screen easily. </p> <p>Your child will need to loosen or take off their clothes around the area to be scanned, or your child may need to change into a hospital gown before the scan begins. Then your child will lie down on the bed. </p> <p>The sonographer will use a small hand-held camera called a probe to take pictures of the body. The sonographer will put warm gel on the probe. The gel feels like warm soft cream and does not hurt. The probe is gently placed on your child's skin over the area to be scanned. </p> <p>As the probe moves over your child's body, a moving picture will appear on the ultrasound screen. The sonographer may ask your child to hold their breath while a still picture is taken. Many pictures will be taken during the test. </p> <p>After the sonographer has taken the pictures, they will show them to the radiologist. You may be asked to stay in the scanning room while the radiologist is reviewing the pictures. Sometimes the radiologist will come in to meet you, or more pictures may be needed. After the radiologist has looked at all the pictures, the sonographer will let you go.</p> <p>There are no side effects or after-effects from an ultrasound test.</p><h2>Preparing for an ultrasound scan</h2> <p>Depending on the body part being scanned, your child may need to drink some water or clear fluids before the test. However, sometimes an empty stomach makes the test results easier to read. If this is the case, your child may be asked to not eat or drink anything for a few hours before the exam. </p> <p>If your child has diabetes or another metabolic problem, they do not need to fast before the scan. If you are not sure how to prepare for your child's test, ask your doctor or the technologist who will be performing the ultrasound. </p> <p>Here are some general guidelines:</p> <h3>Abdominal ultrasound</h3> <p>If your child is having an ultrasound of the abdominal (belly) area, they should fast before the scan. This means they should not eat or drink anything except water or apple juice. How long your child should fast depends on the age of your child. </p> <table class="akh-table"> <thead> <tr><th>Age (years)</th><th>Fasting period</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td>0 to 2</td> <td>2 hours</td> </tr> <tr> <td>3 to 4</td> <td>3 hours</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Over 4</td> <td>4 hours</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <h3>Pelvic ultrasound</h3> <p>For examinations that involve the pelvic organs, such as the bladder, uterus and ovaries, we ask that patients try to have a moderately full bladder. An hour to 90 minutes before the time of your appointment, your child should try to drink two to three glasses of water or apple juice. </p> <h2>Getting your child ready for the test</h2> <p>Sometimes, children get nervous about new experiences. Take the time to read this information carefully. Explain it to your child using words they will understand. Children who know what to expect are usually less nervous. The ultrasound scan is easier and faster when your child cooperates. Explain that you will stay with your child the whole time. </p> <p>There is nothing dangerous about an ultrasound scan. It does not hurt.</p><h2>At SickKids</h2> <p>Outpatients must first register at the Diagnostic Imaging Registration Desk on the second floor in the Elm Wing. After you register, the receptionist will direct you to the ultrasound department on the second floor of the Black Wing.</p> <p>Inpatients who need an ultrasound will be taken from their room to the ultrasound area by a transportation aide.</p> <p>If you need to cancel your child's ultrasound test, please call 416-813-6082. We will give the appointment time to another patient. Many people are waiting for an ultrasound appointment. If you are late, your child's appointment may be delayed or rescheduled.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/ultrasound_scan.jpg
Unbending orthosisUUnbending orthosisUnbending orthosisEnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)SpineSkeletal systemNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-12-29T05:00:00ZThe Certified Orthotists at the Centre for Orthotics and Medical Devices6.8000000000000069.70000000000001148.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to wear and take care of your unbending orthosis.</p><h2>What is the unbending orthosis?</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Unbending orthosis</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/HSC_bending_brace_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Illustration of unbending orthosis" /> </figure> <p>The unbending orthosis (say: or-THOH-sis) is a type of body brace designed to treat scoliosis. It is worn at night or when lying down. It is designed to correct or overcorrect the curves in the spine as much as possible during sleep. </p><p>Because it is only worn at night, you are free to be active during the day. Try to be as physically active as possible to maintain good muscle tone. </p><p>You may experience some discomfort at first when wearing the orthosis. This is because it will put your spine in an unusual position. However, most people get used to the orthosis very quickly and are able to sleep through the night with the orthosis after a few nights.</p><p>The orthosis is worn over a cotton undershirt.</p><p>For general information about scoliosis orthoses, including instructions on making cotton undershirts, please see <a href="/Article?contentid=974&language=English">Scoliosis: Treatment with a spinal orthosis (spinal brace).</a></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>The unbending orthosis is an orthosis designed to treat scoliosis. </li> <li>It is designed to correct or overcorrect the curves in the spine as much as possible during sleep. </li> <li>Because it is only worn at night, you are free to be active during the day. </li> <li>Most people get used to the orthosis very quickly and are able to sleep through the night with the orthosis after a few nights. </li> </ul><h2>Putting the orthosis on</h2> <ol> <li>To put the orthosis on, spread the orthosis at the bottom of the front opening and slide one side over your hip. Reach around the back and pull the rest of the orthosis around you.</li> <li>Make sure all the straps are outside the orthosis.</li> <li>Make sure the orthosis is facing straight ahead and not twisted. The cut-out at the back of the orthosis should be centered on the crease between the buttocks. The waist roll of the orthosis (the indentations inside) should sit at your waist, just above the hip bones.</li> <li>Thread the straps through the Velcro loops. Tuck the tongue under the orthosis. Starting with the bottom straps, fasten the straps loosely, tightening one side, then the other, until they are all at the proper tightness. As you do up the orthosis, you should be checking to ensure that the waist rolls are properly positioned. </li> <li>Pull the extra cloth of the undershirt down around the bottom and top of the orthosis so that it is smooth. Make sure there are no wrinkles in the undershirt. Wrinkles can cause sores on your skin. </li> <li>Always wear the orthosis at the proper tightness once you are used to it. The only reason an orthosis should be loosened is to have room for growth. In this case, you should contact your orthotist. </li> </ol><h2>At SickKids</h2><p>In Ontario, OHIP does not cover any of the cost of the unbending orthosis; however, most extended health insurance plans may cover all or a portion depending on your coverage. Ask your orthotist for an insurance letter to submit to your insurance company for coverage. If you need help to pay for the orthosis, visit our reception desk for a listing of charitable organizations that may assist you. </p><p>A minimum of 50% of the payment for this device is expected at the time of the casting. The remaining 50% of the cost is expected when you receive the orthosis. We are unable to bill your insurance company directly. </p><p>Please visit or contact The Centre for Orthotics for further information on pricing.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/HSC_bending_brace_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg
Undershirts for spinal orthosesUUndershirts for spinal orthosesUndershirts for spinal orthosesEnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)SpineSkeletal systemNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-12-29T05:00:00ZThe Certified Orthotists at the Centre for Orthotics and Medical Devices7.4000000000000063.4000000000000527.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>A spinal orthosis is worn over a cotton undershirt. Read about making stockinette undershirts.</p><figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Stockinette undershirt</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/stockinette_undershirt_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Woman wearing stockinette undershirt over bra and underpants" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Cotton undershirts are worn under the orthosis, and over the bra and underpants. It should be long enough to come well below the orthosis. An undershirt made from cotton stockinette is shown here.</figcaption> </figure> <p>A <a href="/Article?contentid=974&language=English">spinal orthosis</a> is worn over a cotton undershirt. For girls, the orthosis is worn over the bra and a cotton undershirt. It is sometimes difficult to find seamless 100% cotton undershirts that are long and snug enough.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>A spinal orthosis is worn over a cotton undershirt.</li> <li>You can buy cotton undershirts, or make your own from cotton stockinette.</li> <li>You can also use undershirts or T-shirts made from other breathable fabrics.</li> </ul><h2>At SickKids</h2><p>Rolls of tubular 100% cotton stockinette can be purchased from The Centre for Orthotics. Rolls are 25 yards long (about 23 metres) and will make 25 to 30 undershirts.</p><p>Ready-made undershirts made with COOLMAX material are also available to be purchased from The Centre for Orthotics. </p><p>All proceeds from orthotic treatment at The Centre for Orthotics go to support patient care and research at SickKids. For more information, please see <a href="/_layouts/15/Catalog.aspx?Url=https%3A%2F%2Fauthoring%2Eaboutkidshealth%2Eca%2Fakh%2FPages%2Fwww%2Ecentrefororthotics%2Eca">www.centrefororthotics.ca.</a><br></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/stockinette_undershirt_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg
Understanding diagnosis of a brain tumourUUnderstanding diagnosis of a brain tumourUnderstanding diagnosis of a brain tumourEnglishNeurology;OncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemNAAdult (19+)NA2009-08-14T04:00:00ZEric Bouffet, MD, FRCPC9.4000000000000053.8000000000000687.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Understanding the diagnosis of a brain tumour is necessary to choose the most effective treatment for your child.</p><p>Diagnosis is an important stage in understanding what is happening with your child. To help make a diagnosis, your child's doctor will do a thorough neurological assessment and order some diagnostic tests. These tests can show whether a brain tumour is causing the symptoms your child has been experiencing. If there is a tumour, these tests will also provide information about the type of tumour and where the tumour is located. This information helps the treatment team choose the most effective treatment for your child.</p> <p>If your child's symptoms are severe, they may need an urgent operation to relieve the symptoms. The doctor will also need to obtain a biopsy. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Diagnosis involves a physical examination, medical history, neurological examination and diagnostic testing.</li> <li>Grading is a system that indicates how aggressively tumour cells are growing.</li> <li>Staging determines the type of treatment that is most effective.</li> <li>The doctor will discuss next steps with you once they know what type of tumour your child has.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/understanding_diagnosis_brain_tumours.jpg
Understanding food product labelsUUnderstanding food product labelsUnderstanding food product labelsEnglishNutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NADigestive systemHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+) Educators Hospital healthcare providers Community healthcare providers Remote populations First nationsNA2013-09-27T04:00:00ZTheresa Couto, RD;Elly Berger, BA, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, MHPE10.100000000000052.8000000000000380.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Discover how to make informed choices about packaged foods by understanding ingredient lists, nutrition facts tables and manufacturers' nutrition claims.</p><p>In Canada, nutrition labelling laws require food companies to identify the nutrients in packaged goods in a consistent way. Food product packaging includes a wide range of information about your food: ingredients​, nutrition facts and nutrition claims. When comparing and choosing between food products, it helps to understand this information so you can make better choices for you and your family. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>On packaged foods, ingredients are listed in order of quantity, with the largest ingredient appearing first. </li><li>The Nutrition Facts table provides information on the amount of fats, carbohydrates, protein and key vitamins and minerals in a single serving of a food. The serving size in the table may differ from your idea of a single serving.</li><li>Nutrition claims on packaged foods are protected by law. Foods must meet certain standards before manufacturers can make claims about fibre, sodium or fat content, for example.</li></ul>
Understanding insulinUUnderstanding insulinUnderstanding insulinEnglishEndocrinologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)PancreasEndocrine systemDrug treatmentAdult (19+)NA2016-10-17T04:00:00ZCatherine Pastor, RN, MN, HonBSc;Vanita Pais, RD, CDE;Jennifer Harrington​, MBBS, PhD​11.600000000000036.0000000000000358.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn where injectable insulin comes from and how it works.</p><h2>Where does injectable insulin come from?</h2> <p>Insulin was first isolated and collected from the pancreases of cows and pigs for use in humans with diabetes. Since 1983, however, a product called biosynthetic human insulin has been available. This insulin is produced in a laboratory by introducing a man-made human gene into bacteria or yeast. This process produces insulin that is almost exactly the same as that created in the human pancreas.</p> <p>Through further changes, man-made altered forms of insulin (called insulin analogs) differ from naturally incurring insulin by having different action times. Today, all children and nearly all adults with diabetes receive biosynthetic human insulin products and insulin analogs.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>All children and nearly all adults with diabetes receive biosynthetic human insulin products and insulin analogs.</li> <li>Insulin is available in premixed doses that combine rapid -acting insulin with intermediate-acting insulin in fixed proportions.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMN_insulin_packaging_cartridges_EN.png
Understanding your baby's feeding cuesUUnderstanding your baby's feeding cuesUnderstanding your baby's feeding cuesEnglishNutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+) Educators Hospital healthcare providers Community healthcare providers Remote populations First nationsNA2013-09-27T04:00:00ZStephanie Gladman, RD, MHSc.;Elly Berger, BA, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, MHPE6.4000000000000075.9000000000000568.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out when and how to respond safely to your baby's interest in solid food and feeding cues.</p><p>You can begin introducing your baby to <a href="/Article?contentid=497&language=English">solids</a> at around six months of age. By about nine to 12 months of age, your baby will show signs that they are ready to feed themselves. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Babies can start pureed or mashed food at around six months, when they can hold food in their mouth and sit up and control their head independently.</li> <li>Never force feed your baby. Instead, understand that they can go through phases of wanting more, or less, food.</li> <li>Encourage your baby to eat a range of nutritious foods by demonstrating healthy eating habits. </li> <li>To prevent choking, always have an adult supervise a baby while they are feeding.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/nutrition_and_heart_conditions.jpg
Understanding your child's epilepsy diagnosisUUnderstanding your child's epilepsy diagnosisUnderstanding your child's epilepsy diagnosisEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+) EducatorsNA2010-02-04T05:00:00ZElizabeth J. Donner, MD, FRCPC8.1000000000000063.7000000000000733.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out how epilepsy is diagnosed and what questions to ask to make sure you understand the diagnosis.<br></p><p>Making a diagnosis involves identifying a condition or disease based on signs and symptoms. If your child has signs or symptoms that make your child's doctor suspect your child has epilepsy, they will do a thorough neurological assessment and order some diagnostic tests. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>An epilepsy diagnosis can include the type(s) of seizures, whether the seizure has a known cause and whether an epilepsy syndrome exists.</li> <li>You may feel overwhelmed as you learn about your child's diagnosis. Write down what you learn and record any questions you may want to ask.</li> <li>To make sure you understand the diagnosis, ask how the condition affects your child physically and mentally, what type of treatment is recommended and what you can do to help your child in the meantime.</li> <li>If your doctor cannot answer all your questions, talk to the clinic nurse, research your child's condition on reputable web sites and reach out to other parents of children with epilepsy.</li></ul>
Understanding your child's heart condition diagnosisUUnderstanding your child's heart condition diagnosisUnderstanding your child's heart condition diagnosisEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-12-04T05:00:00ZAndrew N. Redington, MD, FRCP (UK), FRCPCJennifer Russell, MD, FRCPC8.9000000000000059.3000000000000697.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about diagnosis of heart conditions in children. Patient histories, physical examinations, and the speed of the diagnosis itself are discussed.</p><p>Making a diagnosis involves identifying a condition or disease based on signs and symptoms. The diagnosis itself is the actual term for the condition or disease. In this section, you will learn about different heart conditions, as well as diagnostic tests and procedures. You will also find information to help you, your child, and your family get through this process.<br></p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>A cardiologist makes a diagnosis by taking your child's medical history, conducting a physical examination, and sometimes ordering diagnostic tests or referring your child to other health care professionals.</li> <li>It will not necessarily be possible for a doctor to diagnose your child right away. </li></ul>
Understanding your premature baby's diagnosisUUnderstanding your premature baby's diagnosisUnderstanding your premature baby's diagnosisEnglishNeonatologyPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)NANANAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZJonathan Hellmann, MBBCh, MHSc, FCP(SA), FRCPC12.200000000000042.6000000000000772.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about diagnosis, the first step towards treating a premature baby. Read about common diagnostic techniques and coming to a definite diagnosis.</p><p>Obtaining a diagnosis is the first step in treatment. Diagnosis is an attempt to find out exactly what is wrong with a premature baby so that appropriate steps can be taken to solve the problem and help the baby to get better. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Diagnosis is an attempt to find out what is wrong with a premature baby so that appropriate steps can be taken to treat the condition and help the baby get better.</li> <li>In some cases, diagnosis may take a long time or doctors may make a tentative diagnosis. In this case, treatment will begin either until a definitive diagnosis can be made or doctors will wait to see if treatment confirms the diagnosis.</li> <li>Diagnosis can be complicated by the fact that a premature baby may have multiple conditions with overlapping or conflicting symptoms.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/preemie_with_IV_splint_EN.jpg
Undescended testicleUUndescended testicleUndescended testicleEnglishGenital and reproductiveNewborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months)TesticleTesticleConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2010-03-05T05:00:00ZMark Feldman, MD, FRCPC7.3000000000000064.4000000000000482.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>If a boy's testicles have not descended by the time they are three to four months old then surgery may be needed to prevent fertility problems later in life.</p><h2>What is an undescended testicle?</h2><p>Testicles form inside your son's body in utero. They move from the body through a tube in the groin. Then they descend into the scrotum before birth. The scrotum is the sac of skin hanging behind the penis.</p><p>An undescended testicle stays in the abdomen. The testicle has not lowered into the scrotum before birth. This is called cryptorchidism.</p><p>The condition is common among baby boys who are born premature. All male babies are checked at birth to make sure their testicles have descended.</p><p>Often, the testicle will descend on its own within the first few months of life. If it does not, your child may need surgery.</p><p>Left untreated, an undescended testicle can cause fertility problems when the boy becomes an adult.</p><p>Other kinds of problems with testicles include:</p><ul><li>A retractable testicle, which moves back and forth between the scrotum and the groin.</li><li>An ascending testicle, which moves back into the groin.</li></ul><p>You can feel for your son's testicles while changing diapers or while bathing. If the testicle does not descend on its own by three or four months, your child may need surgery.<br></p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Undescended testes</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Undescended_testes_MED_ILL_EN.png" alt="Path of normal descent of testes and the path and potential sites of undescended testes between the abdomen and scrotum" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Testes normally develop in the abdomen and travel down to the scrotum before birth. Occasionally a testis may stop anywhere along this path from high in the abdomen to above the scrotum.</figcaption> </figure><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Undescended testicle has not lowered into the scrotum.</li> <li>Often, the condition corrects itself within the first few months of life.</li> <li>Surgery may be needed if the testicle does not descend on its own. </li> <li>If untreated, there is an increased risk of fertility problems.</li> </ul><h2>Risk factors</h2> <p>Undescended testicles happen because of problems in fetal development. Risk factors that may increase the risk of problems in fetal development include: </p> <ul> <li>premature birth</li> <li>family history of undescended testicle</li> <li>low birth weight</li> </ul><h2>How a doctor can help your child with an undescended testicle</h2> <p>If the testicle has not lowered into the scrotum, your son's doctor will try to manually move the testicle into the scrotum. If this does not work, the doctor may refer you to a specialist. </p> <p>If the testicle has not descended on its own by three or four months, your child may need surgery. Surgery will be scheduled when your child is between one and two years of age.</p><h2>Complications</h2> <p>Testicles need cool body temperature in the scrotum area to make sperm. An undescended testicle may be too warm to produce healthy sperm. This increases the risk of fertility problems. </p><h2>When to seek medical assistance</h2> <p>If you think a diagnosis of undescended testicles has been missed, see a doctor right away. See a doctor if you have any concerns about the area around your child's groin. </p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Undescended_testes_MED_ILL_EN.png
Unrelated donor for a blood and marrow transplantUUnrelated donor for a blood and marrow transplantUnrelated donor for a blood and marrow transplantEnglishHaematology;Immunology;OncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemNAAdult (19+)NA2010-03-05T05:00:00ZJohn Doyle, MD, FRCPC, FAAPChristine Armstrong, RN, MScN, NP Peds8.7000000000000063.9000000000000536.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn how unrelated donors are found, before your child's blood and marrow transplant.</p><p>If your child’s transplant team cannot find a donor within your family, then they will start to look for an unrelated donor. In Canada, your child’s transplant physician will make a request for a donor through the unrelated donor registry called One Match Stem Cell and Marrow Network. This is a registry of people who have volunteered to donate bone marrow. To respect everyone’s privacy, you and the donor will not know anything about each other.</p> <p>There is also an international registry containing bone marrow donors from all around the world, called Bone Marrow Donors Worldwide. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Once the donor is found and confirmed, the procedure to harvest the bone marrow is arranged at a hospital near the donor.</li> <li>In some cases, cord blood from an umbilical cord or placenta may be used for a BMT.</li> <li>It typically takes between three and six months to find an unrelated donor.</li></ul>
Upper arm (humerus) fractureUUpper arm (humerus) fractureUpper arm (humerus) fractureEnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Upper armBonesNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-10T05:00:00ZPreeti Grewal, RN, MN, APN;William Cole, MBBS, MSc, PhD, FRACS, FRCSC5.7000000000000076.2000000000000556.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>An upper arm (humerus) fracture is classified as a proximal fracture or a shaft fracture. Read how upper arm fractures are treated, and about recovery. </p><figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Fractured humerus (arm)</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Fracture_humerus_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Fracture in the middle of the upper arm" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The fracture may be near the shoulder. The illustration shows a shaft fracture, which is towards the middle of the bone.</figcaption> </figure> <p>Your child has a fracture of the humerus, the arm bone between the elbow and the shoulder.<br></p><p>Your child may have a proximal or shaft fracture. A proximal fracture is close to the shoulder. A shaft fracture is more towards the middle of the bone. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Fractured upper arm bones do not always need a cast. Often, these bone fracture are treated with a sling or a collar and cuff. </li> <li>Your child will have a follow-up visit to the fracture clinic. </li> <li>After about three weeks, your child can start slowly and gently exercising the shoulder. Swimming is a good low-impact way to do this.</li> </ul><h2>Your child will need an X-ray</h2> <p>Your child will have an <a href="/Article?contentid=1647&language=English">X-ray</a>. The X-ray will show where and how severe the fracture is. This may be the only X-ray taken, however, depending on the fracture, another X-ray may be needed. </p> <h2>Your child may not need a cast</h2> <p>Depending on the place, size and type of fracture, your child may not need a cast. Instead, your child will have a sling or a "collar and cuff." </p> <ul> <li>A collar and cuff is a strip of material tied around the wrist and around the neck. It keeps the arm bent but allows the elbow to drop. Proximal fractures will likely get a collar and cuff. </li> <li>A sling covers the whole arm and goes around the neck. It keeps the arm bent and supports the whole arm. Shaft fractures will likely need a sling.</li> </ul> <h2>Follow-up appointment</h2> <p>Your child will have a follow-up appointment at the fracture clinic about seven to 10 days after the break occurred. The staff there will make sure your child's arm is healing properly. You will be given special instructions about exercising the arm. You will also be told how much longer the sling, collar and cuff, or cast must stay on. </p> <p>Write down the date and time of your child's follow-up appointment here:</p> <p>Write down the number of the fracture clinic here:</p> <p>Write down the name of the doctor or nurse at the fracture clinic here:</p>upperarmfracturehttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/upper_arm_fracture.jpg
Upper endoscopyUUpper endoscopyUpper endoscopyEnglishGastrointestinalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Esophagus;Stomach;Small IntestineEsophagus;Stomach;Small intestineTestsCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2015-11-16T05:00:00ZHolly Norgrove, RN, BScN​;Simon Ling, MBChB, MRCP(UK)10.100000000000050.40000000000001055.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>An upper endoscopy allows doctors to visually look at the upper part of your child's digestive system. Learn how to prepare your child for their procedure.</p><h2>What is an upper endoscopy?</h2> <p>An upper endoscopy is a procedure that allows doctors to see the upper part of your child’s digestive system or upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This includes the esophagus (the swallowing tube), the stomach and the duodenum (the first part of the small intestines).</p> <h2>Why is an upper endoscopy done?</h2> <p>An upper endoscopy allows doctors to investigate symptoms or diagnose conditions (such as <a href="/Article?contentid=816&language=English">celiac disease</a> and <a href="/Article?contentid=824&language=English">eosinophilic esophagitis</a>). An upper endoscopy can also be done to treat bleeding in the esophagus, stomach or duodenum.</p><h2>Key Points</h2> <ul> <li>An upper endoscopy uses a camera to see the upper part of the digestive system or gastrointestinal tract to investigate symptoms or check on existing conditions.</li> <li>An upper endoscopy is usually a low risk procedure.</li> <li>Your child will be given a general anaesthetic.</li> </ul><h2>Risks of an upper endoscopy</h2> <p>Upper endoscopy is a safe, low-risk procedure. Very rarely, the following complications can occur:</p> <ul> <li>Bleeding. If this happens, it can often be corrected immediately at the time of the endoscopy. Rarely, an admission to hospital may be required after the procedure.</li> <li>Infection, in which case your child will be given antibiotics.</li> <li>Tearing or perforation, in which a hole is caused in the wall of the esophagus, stomach or duodenum. This may require surgery to fix. This is very rare, occurring in approximately one child out of 1000 children who have an endoscopy.</li> </ul> <p>If your child is at a high risk of infection, they may be given antibiotics preventively before the upper endoscopy takes place. However, the likelihood of any of these complications occurring is small. If any of these complications occur, they are usually recognized before your child is discharged home.</p><h2>When to call a doctor</h2> <p>You should contact your doctor or visit the Emergency Department if you notice these signs and symptoms after the procedure:</p> <ul> <li>fever</li> <li>severe pain, in the chest or abdomen</li> <li>increased vomiting</li> <li>vomiting blood</li> <li>shortness of breath</li> <li>blood in the stools, or black stools</li> <li>difficulty swallowing</li> </ul><h2>On the day of the upper endoscopy</h2><p>Arrive at the hospital at least two hours before the planned time of your child’s procedure. After your child is registered they will receive an identification band and be shown to their room. It is important to bring your child’s health card or insurance information when you register.</p><p>The nurse will assess your child to be sure they are healthy enough for the test to be completed and the fasting rules have been met. At the time of the procedure, your child will be taken to the procedure room or operating room for the upper endoscopy. Your child will have an intravenous (IV) inserted once they are asleep.</p><h2>How is an upper endoscopy done?</h2><p>During an upper endoscopy, a thin flexible tube with a camera on the end is inserted into the mouth and down the esophagus to look at the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract – the esophagus, the stomach, and the duodenum. In addition to the images taken with the camera, doctors will also take small samples of tissue (called biopsies) for testing.</p> <figure class="asset-c-100"> <span class="asset-image-title">Upper endoscopy</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_endoscope_EN.jpg" alt="Endoscope inserted through esophagus and into stomach" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">During an upper endoscopy, a thin flexible tube with a camera on the end is inserted into the mouth and down the esophagus to look at the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.</figcaption> </figure> <p>All children getting an upper endoscopy will receive a <a href="/Article?contentid=1261&language=English">general anaesthetic</a>. This means that your child will be given a medication so they sleep through the procedure. If there is a family history of <a href="/Article?contentid=2549&language=English">malignant hyperthermia</a> or other reactions to anesthesia, please let your nurse know before the procedure. General anaesthetics are safe, and are given by a specially trained doctor called an anaesthesiologist. The anaesthesiologist will meet with you before the procedure to explain how the anaesthetic is given and to discuss any possible complications.</p><h2>After the upper endoscopy</h2><p>When the upper endoscopy is complete, the doctor will speak with you regarding what they saw. The full results of the biopsies should be available a few weeks after the procedure. Expect to be at the hospital for at least two hours <a href="/Article?contentid=3262&language=English">after the procedure</a> to be sure your child wakes up safely.</p><h2>Preparing for your upper endoscopy</h2> <p>Your child must follow strict eating and drinking rules before the procedure. Your child’s stomach must be empty before a general anaesthetic. If the eating and drinking instructions are not followed correctly, for the safety of your child, the procedure may be cancelled when you get to the hospital. If your child has special needs during fasting, talk to your doctor to make a plan. If your child is on daily medications, make a plan with your doctor about which medications to take on the day of procedure and when to take them.</p> <p>Please reschedule or cancel your child’s upper endoscopy if they have:</p> <ul> <li>a cough, cold, nasal congestion, vomiting or diarrhea, or if they are generally unwell</li> <li>been sick with, or exposed to, chicken pox or tuberculosis in the past four weeks</li> </ul><h2>At SickKids</h2> <p>SickKids will call to notify you of your child’s appointment details, as well as where and when to arrive. Upper endoscopy procedures are usually performed on 4C, in the main hospital, on the 4th floor of the atrium (use the main elevators). Some cases are performed in the operating room, in the main hospital, on the 2nd floor of the atrium. Your doctor will decide where the endoscopy will take place.</p> <p>To change or cancel your appointment on 4C, please contact 416-813-6583. To change or cancel your appointment in the operating room, contact the procedure room nurses at 416-813-7004. </p> <p>Sick Kids policy allows up to two adults to accompany a child for their procedure. The exception is a breastfeeding infant. If you have other children, please ensure you have made arrangements to have them stay at home on the day of the procedure.</p> <p>For more information on fasting see <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/VisitingSickKids/Coming-for-surgery/Eating-guidelines/index.html">Eating and drinking before surgery</a>.</p> <p>For more information on preparing your child for their procedure see <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/VisitingSickKids/Coming-for-surgery/index.html">Coming for surgery</a>.</p> <p>For information about getting to the hospital see <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/VisitingSickKids/Getting-to-SickKids/index.html">Getting to SickKids</a>.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_endoscope_EN.jpg
Upper endoscopy and colonoscopy: Caring for your child at home after the procedureUUpper endoscopy and colonoscopy: Caring for your child at home after the procedureUpper endoscopy and colonoscopy: Caring for your child at home after the procedureEnglishGastrointestinal;Other(diagnostic imaging, bloodwork, picc line, procedures�.)Child (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Small Intestine;Large Intestine/Colon;Stomach;EsophagusDigestive systemProceduresAdult (19+) CaregiversAbdominal pain;Fever;Vomiting2018-07-17T04:00:00ZHolly Norgrove, RN, BScN;Judy Henry, RN65.60000000000008.10000000000000658.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Your child will need special care after an upper endoscopy or colonoscopy. Learn about the complications and how to care of your child once you go home.</p><p>Your child has had an <a href="/Article?contentid=2472&language=English">upper endoscopy</a> and/or a <a href="/Article?contentid=2446&language=English">colonoscopy</a> under a general anaesthetic. It is important to know what signs and symptoms to look for and how to take care of your child once you go home.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Once your child is awake, feeling well and keeping liquids down, they can go home.</li><li>When you arrive home after the procedure, your child should do quiet activities. They can resume their normal activities the following day.</li><li>A light lunch or dinner is recommended after the procedures.</li><li>Contact your child’s doctor or take them to the Emergency Department if your child has continued pain and/or vomiting, excessive blood in their vomit or stool, a sore throat lasting longer than two days and/or a persistent fever.</li></ul><h2>When to seek medical attention</h2><p>Contact your child’s doctor immediately or take your child to the Emergency Department if they experience any of the following:</p><ul><li>Stomach pain continues</li><li>Vomiting does not stop</li><li>There is more than a spoonful of blood in their vomit or stool</li><li>Your child is passing blood in their stool for longer than two days</li><li>A sore throat lasts longer than two days or becomes worse instead of better</li><li>Your child has a persistent fever</li></ul><h2>After the procedure</h2><p>Once your child is awake and able to drink liquids and keep them down, you may take your child home. </p><p>Some children may experience side effects from the procedure or <a href="/Article?contentid=1261&language=English">general anaesthesia</a> such as fatigue, upset stomach or <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a>. If your child is feeling sick, they will be monitored by the nurse a little longer until they are feeling better. The nurses will remove the intravenous (IV) from your child before you leave.</p><p>Your child may feel dizzy and unsteady for up to six hours after a general anaesthetic. Once at home, your child should do quiet activities, such as watch TV or listen to music, and rest. Do not let your child do activities that they need to have good balance for, such as riding a bike. Your child should be able to resume their normal activities the following day.</p><p>When you get home after the procedure, give your child a light meal. Do not give them heavy or fried foods, as this may upset their stomach or make them vomit. The day after the procedure, your child may resume eating and drinking as normal. </p><p>After the procedure, your child may experience some discomfort, stomach pain, or other symptoms listed below.</p><h3>Upper endoscopy</h3><ul><li>Stomach pain</li><li>Gas pain</li><li>Vomiting </li><li>Bleeding: Spitting up small amounts of blood is normal. This should be less than a spoonful each time</li><li><a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">Fever</a></li><li>Sore throat lasting 1-2 days</li></ul><h3>Colonoscopy</h3><ul><li>Stomach pain</li><li>Gas pain</li><li>Abdominal distention </li><li>Vomiting</li><li>Bleeding: It is normal to pass small amounts of blood in the stool (poo) for the next 1-2 days. This should be less than a spoonful each time</li><li>Fever</li></ul><h2>At SickKids</h2><p>For urgent concerns on the night of the procedure or on weekends, call the GI Fellow On-Call through hospital locating at 416-813-7500.</p>
Ureteral reimplant surgeryUUreteral reimplant surgeryUreteral reimplant surgeryEnglishUrologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NAUretersProceduresCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-10T05:00:00ZCathy Daniels, RN, MS, ACNP;Dalia Bozic, RN, BScN6.8000000000000070.20000000000001134.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>A ureteral reimplant is an operation to fix a ureter that is not connected to the bladder properly. Read what to expect after ureteral reimplant surgery.</p><h2>What is ureteral reimplant surgery?</h2> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">Urinary system (female)</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Urinary_female_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Location of kidney, ureter, bladder and urethra in upper body of a girl" /> </figure> <p>Ureteral reimplant (you-REE-ter-al ree-IM-plant) is a surgical procedure to fix a ureter that is not connected to the bladder in the usual place. The ureter is the tube that carries urine (pee) from <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=kidney-child">the kidneys to the bladder</a>. Sometimes, the ureter is connected to the bladder in such a way that it lets urine flow back to the kidneys. This can damage the kidneys.</p><p>Your child's operation is needed to prevent urine from backing up from the bladder to the kidney and damaging kidney tissue. Two different methods can be used for this operation. The urologist will discuss with you which one is best suited to your child's condition.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>A ureteral reimplant is a surgical procedure to fix a ureter that is not connected to the bladder in the usual place. </li> <li>The surgery may take several hours. </li> <li>Your child will have one or more tubes after the surgery. These will need to stay in place for several days. </li> <li>Children can usually return to regular activities within about a week after the surgery. </li> </ul><h2>Your child will have several tubes after the operation</h2> <p>When your child comes back from the operating and recovery rooms, they will have some or all of the following tubes in place:</p> <ul> <li>An intravenous (IV) tube. This is a small plastic tube that goes into a vein in your child's arm. It is used to give your child fluids and medications until they can drink. </li> <li>A <a href="/Article?contentid=1246&language=English">urinary catheter</a>. This is a small tube that goes into your child's bladder to drain the urine. The type of catheter your child has depends on the type of surgery. A urethral catheter goes into the bladder through the urethra, the tube that takes urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. A supra-pubic catheter goes into the bladder through a tiny opening in your child's abdomen (belly). </li> <li>A drain. This is a small rubber tube that is placed in your child's belly to drain out extra fluid that may have collected during surgery. </li> <li>A stent. This is a tube that drains the urine from the ureter above the place where the surgery was performed. The stent will come out through a small opening in the belly. </li> <li>An internal stent. This is a small tube that might be left inside the body and removed six weeks after the operation. It helps drain the urine from the kidney to the bladder. This helps the area where the surgery was done to heal. </li> </ul> <p>Ask your doctor what types of draining tubes your child will probably need, so that you know what to expect after the operation. The doctor or nurse can explain how long your child will need each tube. </p><h2>Returning to normal after the operation</h2> <h3>Eating and drinking</h3> <p>Most likely, your child will not be allowed to eat or drink anything until the morning after the operation. At this time, your nurse will explain how to start slowly with fluids. Your child can gradually eat and drink more until they are back to what they normally eat and drink. The IV tube will come out after your child is drinking fluids well. </p> <h3>Pain management</h3> <p>Your child will feel pain after surgery. There are several ways to control pain. Your doctor and nurse will recommend the method they think will keep your child most pain free. Let your nurse know how well the pain is being managed. If you feel your child is in pain, tell the nurse. </p> <h3>Bladder spasms</h3> <p>After the surgery, your child may have bladder spasms. Bladder spasms happen because of irritation from the surgery and from the catheters in the bladder. When the bladder muscle spasms, your child may do the following things: </p> <ul> <li>suddenly get irritable </li> <li>draw their legs up </li> <li>complain of itchiness or pressure in their bottom </li> </ul> <p>The nurse can give your child medicine that will help control the spasms. There are two types of medicine that can help reduce bladder spasms. One is orally taken by mouth. The other is a suppository, a pill that is put in your child's bottom. </p> <h3>Getting up and out of bed</h3> <p>Your child will be encouraged to get out of bed the day after surgery, with the help of pain medication. Getting up and moving around are an important part of getting better. </p> <p>The nurse will also encourage your child to take big deep breaths and to cough. These actions will help your child get better faster. </p> <h3>Stitches on the incision</h3> <p>Your child will have a bandage covering the incision (cut). This will come off four to five days after the operation, or you will be asked to soak it off in the bath at home. The stitches underneath the bandage will dissolve on their own. This means that no stitches need to be removed after you take your child home. </p> <h3>Removing the catheter or catheters</h3> <p>Your child's doctor or nurse will discuss with you when the catheter(s) will be taken out and which tests need to be done before the child goes home. Your child may be discharged with a catheter in place. Your nurse will teach you how to care for the catheter at home and organize any home nursing or other supports you may need. </p><h2>The day of surgery</h2> <p>Bring your child to the Urology or Day Surgery unit two hours before the time of your child's operation. During this time the following things will happen: </p> <ul> <li>your child will be admitted to the unit </li> <li>the nurse will examine your child </li> <li>your child will change into a hospital gown </li> </ul> <p>A small number of children are admitted on the day before surgery. Your child's urologist will tell you if your child needs to do this. </p> <p>Your child's operation is scheduled for: (date and time) _______________________________</p> <p>Please bring your child to the unit at: (date and time) _________________________________</p> <p>Name and location of the surgical unit doing the operation:____________________________</p> <p>How long the operation takes depends on the surgery that is planned. Check with your child's nurse to find out how long the operation will probably take. </p><h2>At SickKids</h2><h3>Supporting your child</h3><p>When preparing your child for an operation, the urology team recommends that whenever possible, your child and family members attend the Pre-Admission Program offered at SickKids. For more information call 416-813-6150 or visit the website at <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/">www.sickkids.ca</a>.</p><p>A <a href="/Article?contentid=1153&language=English">Child Life Specialist</a> can also help to prepare and support your child if they are anxious about the operation.</p><p>Urology surgery is done at the SDA unit on 6B. Take the Atrium elevators from the Elizabeth Street entrance to the 6th floor.</p><h2>Useful websites</h2><p> <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/" target="_blank">www.sickkids.ca</a> </p><p> <a href="http://www.cua.org/" target="_blank">www.cua.org</a> </p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Urinary_female_MED_ILL_EN.jpg
Ureteral reimplant: Caring for your child at homeUUreteral reimplant: Caring for your child at homeUreteral reimplant: Caring for your child at homeEnglishUrologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NAUretersNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2011-03-14T04:00:00ZCathy Daniels, RN (EC), MS, NP-Paeds6.8000000000000070.4000000000000865.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>A ureteral reimplant is an operation that stops urine, or pee, from going back into the kidneys from the bladder. Learn how to care for your child at home after the procedure.</p><figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Urinary system (female)</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Urinary_female_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Identification of kidney, ureter, bladder and urethra in a girl" /></figure> <p>A ureteral reimplant is an operation that stops urine (pee) from going back into the kidneys from the bladder. This problem is called reflux. A reimplant operation fixes the reflux. </p><p>This page is about taking care of your child after the operation. For more information about the operation, please read <a href="/Article?contentid=1021&language=English">Ureteral Reimplant Surgery</a>.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Ureteral reimplant surgery fixes reflux into the kidney from the bladder.</li> <li>Your child should take all their medications as directed by the doctor or nurse.</li> <li>Your child should rest for a few days and avoid any activity the hurts.</li> <li>Your child will visit the Urology Clinic about three months after the operation.</li> </ul><h2>Contact your child's urology team if your child has a high fever, kidney pain or is unable to pass urine</h2> <p>Write down the Urology Unit phone number here:</p><h2>A catheter is a small tube that helps your child's bladder heal</h2> <p>Your child had a small tube called a catheter put in during the operation. This tube will keep the bladder empty for the first several days after the operation and help your child's bladder rest while it heals. </p> <p>The tube may be left in after your child goes home to continue to help the healing. If the tube is left in, your child's nurse in the hospital will arrange for another nurse to come to your house to help you with your child's care. </p> <p>When it is time for your child to start urinating (peeing) again, the tube will be taken out. Your child's nurse in hospital will tell you more about taking the tube out. </p> <h2>Ureteral stents</h2> <p>Your child may have one or two ureteral stents. There are small tubes that keep the ureters open while they heal. Stents go from the kidney, down the ureter and into the bladder. Ureteral stents are removed in the operating room under general anaesthesia about six weeks after the reimplantation surgery. </p><h2>At SickKids</h2><p>If your child has a high fever or pain in the back, you should take them to see to their doctor. You can also visit your local Emergency Room or the Hospital for Sick Children Emergency Department. If you have any questions, you may also contact your family physician or paediatrician.</p> <br>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Urinary_female_MED_ILL_EN.jpg
Urethral prolapseUUrethral prolapseUrethral prolapseEnglishUrologyPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years)UrethraUrethraConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2019-08-07T04:00:00ZJoley Johnstone RN, BScN; Maria Sierralta Born, MD8.1000000000000060.50000000000001041.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Urethral prolapse occurs when a girl's urethra becomes swollen and sticks out. Learn about what causes urethral prolapse and how it is treated.</p><h2>What is urethral prolapse?</h2><p>The urethra is the tube that connects the bladder to the outside of the body. Urine (pee) passes through the urethra. Urethral prolapse occurs when the inner lining of the urethra sticks out through the opening of the urethra. When this happens, the opening of the urethra looks like a small purple or red donut and seems larger than normal.</p><p>Urethral prolapse happens most commonly to school-aged girls before puberty.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Urethral prolapse</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Urethral_prolapse_MED_ILL_EN.png" alt="Identification of clitoris, vaginal opening, labia minora, labia majora with normal urethra and with enlarged urethral area" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The urethra is a narrow tube that connects the bladder with the outside of the body. Urine passes through the urethra. Urethral prolapse occurs when the inner lining of the urethra protrudes through the opening of the urethra. The urethra appears larger than normal and is purple or red and circular.</figcaption> </figure><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Urethral prolapse usually happens to school-aged girls. </li> <li>Often the condition is not painful, but the swelling can cause discomfort.</li> <li>Urethral prolapse is treated with special creams and baths. Sometimes surgery is needed. </li> <li>Urethral prolapse can happen again, even after treatment. </li> </ul><h2>Urethral prolapse causes swelling and irritation</h2> <p>Sometimes, there is bleeding from around the outside of the opening of the urethra. Usually, parents notice the condition when they see a small amount of blood in their child's diaper or underwear. It is often not painful for the child, but there can be some discomfort and pain when she urinates or wipes. Blood in the urine is uncommon.<br></p><h2>Urethral prolapse can be caused by different things</h2> <p>The exact cause of urethral prolapse is not known. It may happen if the tissues around the urethra are weak. It often happens before puberty starts, when a girl has low levels of the hormone estrogen. Black and Hispanic girls are more at risk for getting urethral prolapse. It is also more likely to happen to girls who have a history of heavy coughing, constipation, obesity or genital trauma. All these conditions can increase pressure inside the belly, which may lead to urethral prolapse. </p><h2>Diagnosing urethral prolapse</h2> <p>If your daughter has any bleeding from her urethra or any redness in the area, she should be seen by her doctor. Her doctor may then decide to refer her to a gynaecology or urology specialist. </p> <p>The doctor will ask questions about your child's health. The doctor will also ask about recent coughing or constipation, which may have caused the prolapse. </p> <p>Your daughter will also need a physical examination. Before your child is examined, the doctor will tell her what will happen during the examination. That way, your child will feel comfortable with the examination and will not have a painful or scary experience. </p> <p>The doctor may also want to make sure there is no infection in the area. To do this, the doctor might take a small swab from the affected area. A swab is a small fluid sample taken with a cotton-tip swab. </p> <p>The doctor will also want to make sure that your child can urinate without problems.</p> <p>If there is bleeding and the doctor cannot see where it is coming from, more examinations may be needed. Examinations of this type are sometimes done under sedation. Sedation is medicine that makes your child sleepy and more comfortable. </p><h2>Treating urethral prolapse</h2><h3>Estrogen cream</h3><p>Your doctor may prescribe a hormone cream called Premarin. Premarin is an estrogen cream. Put a pea-sized amount directly on the reddened area once or twice a day. Use a cotton-tip swab or your fingertip. </p><p>Premarin is usually prescribed for a short time until the urethral prolapse gets better. If Premarin is used in large amounts or for a long time, your daughter's breasts may grow a little. This is a harmless and temporary side effect. Your child's breasts will return to the normal size when treatment with Premarin stops. </p><h3>Sitz baths</h3><p>A warm, shallow sitz bath twice a day for 15 to 20 minutes will help the urethral prolapse area heal and keep the area clean. Girls with urethral prolapse should not take bubble baths or use strong soaps. These can irritate the skin. </p><h3>Antibiotics</h3><p>The doctor will prescribe antibiotics only if your daughter also has an infection. Antibiotics do not treat the urethral prolapse itself.</p><h3>Surgery</h3><p>Sometimes, treatment with Premarin cream and sitz baths do not resolve the urethral prolapse or urethral prolapse comes back. Your doctor may suggest surgery to reduce the prolapse by pushing back the inner lining of the urethra that is sticking out or to remove the prolapse tissue if: </p><ul><li>the prolapse does not get better with cream and baths </li><li>the prolapse gets better but then comes back </li><li>your child has persistent bleeding from the prolapse, severe pain or trouble voiding (urinating)<br></li></ul><p>If your child does need surgery, she will receive sedation for the operation. After the operation, your child may have a catheter in her urethra for a couple of days to help her urinate. She will be given pain medicine and should begin treatments with Premarin cream and sitz baths again. </p><h3>Management of other conditions</h3><p>Other conditions such as heavy coughing, constipation, obesity or genital trauma may lead to urethral prolapse. If one of these conditions is identified as a cause for your child’s urethral prolapse, it should be managed to prevent further episodes.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Urethral_prolapse_MED_ILL_EN.png
Urinary catheter: Care at homeUUrinary catheter: Care at homeUrinary catheter: Care at homeEnglishUrologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Bladder;UrethraBladder;UrethraNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-10T05:00:00ZCathy Daniels, RN, MS, ACNP;Dalia Bozic, RN, BScN6.5000000000000070.00000000000001245.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Urinary catheters require regular cleaning and irrigation to keep them working properly. Find out how to care for your child's catheter at home. </p><p>Your child has come home from the hospital with a urinary catheter. A catheter is a thin tube. A urinary catheter drains urine (pee) from your child's bladder to the outside of the body. </p> <p>There are some things you need to do to look after your child's catheter at home. Parents and older children can learn how to care for a catheter. Before your child goes home, a nurse will show you what to do. This page also explains what to do. </p> <p>There are different types of urinary catheters:</p> <ul> <li>A Foley catheter enters your child's bladder through the tube that carries urine out of the body (the urethra). </li> <li>A suprapubic catheter enters your child's bladder through a cut in the belly. </li> </ul> <p>You care for both these catheters the same way.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>A urinary catheter is a thin tube that drains urine (pee) from the bladder to the outside of the body.</li> <li>Parents and older children can learn how to look after a urinary catheter at home.</li> <li>The catheter needs to be irrigated (rinsed). Irrigation is a way to help keep urine flowing freely through the catheter. </li> <li>Never try to take a catheter out or put it back in by yourself. If your child's catheter falls out, take your child to the emergency department right away. </li> <li>If urine does not flow from the catheter after you irrigate it, take your child to the emergency department right away. </li> <li>Call your child's surgeon or the urology resident on call if the flow of urine slows down or stops; if you notice a change in the colour of your child's urine; or if your child has a fever or chills. </li> </ul><h2>Catheter problems that need a doctor or nurse</h2> <p>There are some catheter problems that you cannot take care of by yourself. These problems need a doctor or nurse:</p> <ul> <li>If the catheter comes out, do not try to put it back by yourself. Instead, go to the emergency department at the hospital right away. </li> <li>Normally, there should be a slow, steady flow of urine through the catheter. If there is much less urine than usual, call your child's surgeon or the urology resident on call in the hospital. </li> <li>If you notice a change in the colour of your child's urine, call your child's surgeon or the urology resident on call. </li> <li>If your child gets a <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a> or chills, call the urology resident on call. </li> </ul> <h3>Important phone numbers</h3> <p>Your child's surgeon:</p> <p>Urology resident on call:</p> <h2>When to call the hospital</h2> <p>If the flow of urine slows down or stops; if you notice a change in the colour of your child's urine; or if your child has a fever or chills, you should see the doctor. You can also visit your local Emergency Room or the Hospital for Sick Children Emergency Department. If you have any questions, you may also contact your family physician or paediatrician.</p><h2>At SickKids</h2><h3>Supporting your child</h3><p>When preparing your child for an operation, the urology team recommends that whenever possible, your child and family members attend the Pre-Admission Program offered at SickKids. For more information call 416-813-6150 or visit the website at <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/" target="_blank">www.sickkids.ca</a>.</p><p>A <a href="/Article?contentid=1153&language=English">Child Life Specialist</a> can also help to prepare and support your child if they are anxious about the operation.<br></p><h2>Useful websites</h2><p> <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/" target="_blank">www.sickkids.ca</a></p> <p> <a href="http://www.cua.org/" target="_blank">www.cua.org</a></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/urinary_catheter_caring_for_child_at_home.jpg
Urinary tract infectionUUrinary tract infectionUrinary tract infectionEnglishUrologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)UrethraUrethraConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Fever;Vomiting2014-11-25T05:00:00ZShawna Silver, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, PEng​10.100000000000051.9000000000000996.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn how a urinary tract infection affects the bladder and kidneys and how it can be treated. </p><h2>What is a urinary tract infection?</h2><p>A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection of the <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=kidney-child">bladder or the kidneys</a>.</p><ul><li>A bladder infection is called cystitis.</li><li>A kidney infection is called pyelonephritis.</li></ul><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>UTIs occur when bacteria enter the bladder through the urethra.</li> <li>A urinary tract infection is diagnosed if there is a positive culture test.</li> <li>Antibiotics will treat the infection.</li> <li>If your child is aged under two years and has their first febrile UTI, they will need an ultrasound to look for kidney problems or severe urinary reflux.</li> <li>If your child has had one febrile UTI, they should be assessed for a possible UTI during an unexplained fever.</li> </ul><h2>Symptoms of a urinary tract infection</h2><p>Symptoms of a urinary tract infection may include:</p><ul><li> <a href="/article?contentid=30&language=english">fever</a></li><li>unexplained fussiness in a baby or young child</li><li>needing to urinate (pee) more often</li><li>pain or burning with urination</li><li>wetting during the day in a toilet-trained child</li><li> <a href="/article?contentid=746&language=english">vomiting</a> or abdominal (belly) pain</li><li>back pain</li><li>blood in the urine</li></ul><h2>Causes of urinary tract infections</h2><p>UTIs occur when bacteria from the skin enter the bladder through the urethra (the tube that allows urine to leave the body from the bladder).</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Urinary system</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_urinary_system_V2_EN.png" alt="Location of kidney, ureter, bladder and urethra in a male and in a female" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The male and female urinary system are very similar, however the urethra in males is much longer than in females.</figcaption> </figure><h2>How urinary tract infections are diagnosed</h2> <p>Your child’s doctor will diagnose a UTI through testing a sample of your child’s urine. Diagnosis involves three steps:</p> <ul> <li>testing the sample of urine with a dipstick</li> <li>studying the sample under a microscope</li> <li>growing a culture (bacteria) in the sample in a laboratory.</li> </ul> <h3>Urine sample</h3> <p>In toilet-trained children, the urine sample should be taken mid-stream. In children who are not toilet-trained, the urine sample can be collected by a “clean catch”, a catheter (tube) or, sometimes, a urine bag.</p> <h3>Results of urine test</h3> <p>The doctor will consider the results of the dipstick test and the culture test. If the urine sample has been collected properly, a “positive” culture confirms a urinary tract infection. A “negative” culture confirms that there is no infection.</p> <p>The final results of the urine culture test are usually ready in two or three days. The results will show which specific bacteria caused the infection and guide which antibiotics will treat them.</p> <p>If a child’s urine has been collected in a urine bag and there is a positive result from a dipstick test, your child’s doctor should collect another urine sample by clean catch or a catheter and send it for further testing.</p><h2>How to care for a child with a urinary tract infection</h2><h3>Antibiotics</h3><p>Depending on your child’s age, symptoms and medical history, they may require either oral<a href="/article?contentid=1120&language=english">antibiotics</a> (antibiotics by mouth) or admission to hospital for intravenous antibiotics (antibiotics given into the vein).</p><p>Your child’s doctor will first prescribe a broad-spectrum antibiotic (one that can treat most bacteria). Once the doctor knows the bacteria that have caused the urinary tract infection, they will prescribe a more specific antibiotic if necessary. Your child will only get better when they take the correct antibiotic for their infection.</p><p>Your child’s symptoms should improve within 48 hours of starting the correct antibiotic. Even so, continue to give the antibiotic to your child until it is finished. Finishing the antibiotic prevents the infection from returning and reduces the chance that your child will get an infection that is harder to treat with antibiotics in the future.</p><h3>Pain and fever relief</h3><p>Give your child <a href="/article?contentid=62&language=english">acetaminophen</a> or <a href="/article?contentid=153&language=english">ibuprofen</a> to help with any <a href="/pain">pain</a> or fever. These medicines usually begin to work within an hour and do not interfere with antibiotics. You may need to give them during the first few days of treatment until the antibiotic starts to take effect.</p><h3>Follow-up appointment</h3><p>After your child starts antibiotics, make an appointment to see your child’s regular doctor. They can check how well the antibiotic is working and prescribe a different one if your child is still sick.</p><h3>Other tests for children under two years</h3><p>If your child has their first urinary tract infection with fever (known as a febrile UTI) before they turn two, they should have an <a href="/article?contentid=1290&language=english">ultrasound</a> of their kidneys.</p><p>They may also need to have a test called a <a href="/article?contentid=1294&language=english">voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG)</a> to look for urinary reflux, a condition that causes the urine to flow backwards from the bladder to the ureters and kidneys. Whether they have this test depends on the results of the ultrasound and on whether they are young and have had more than one febrile UTI (a UTI with a fever).</p><h2>When to see a doctor about a UTI</h2> <p>Call your child’s doctor during office hours if your child’s symptoms last more than 48 hours after starting an antibiotic.</p> <p>Take your child to the nearest emergency department, or call 911, if your child:</p> <ul> <li>starts acting very sick or seems lethargic (very sleepy)</li> <li>complains of severe abdominal or back pain</li> <li>is vomiting (throwing up) repeatedly and cannot keep down any fluids or medicines.</li> </ul>utihttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Urinary_tract_infection.jpg
Urinary tract infections in babiesUUrinary tract infections in babiesUrinary tract infections in babiesEnglishNABaby (1-12 months)Bladder;UrethraRenal system/Urinary systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)Painful urination;Fever;Abdominal pain;Vomiting2009-10-18T04:00:00ZDouglas Campbell, MD, FRCPCAndrew James, MBChB, MBI, FRACP, FRCPC9.7000000000000053.1000000000000810.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the symptoms and treatment of urinary tract infections in babies and children. Helpful suggestions for prevention are also included.</p><p>A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection of the bladder and sometimes the kidneys. A bladder infection is called cystitis. Bladder infections occur when bacteria travel up the urethra to the bladder. Usually the urethra is protected, but if it becomes irritated by bubble bath or shampoo, bacteria can grow there. Careless wiping after a bowel movement can also cause irritation. Bladder infections need to be treated promptly so the infection does not spread to the kidneys. A kidney infection is called pyelonephritis. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>A UTI is a bacterial infection of the bladder and sometimes the kidneys.</li> <li>Symptoms of UTI include frequent or painful urination, wetting during the day or night, leaking or dribbling, and foul-smelling urine.</li> <li>Treatment for UTI include antibiotics, giving your child lots of fluids, and acetaminophen or ibuprofen to reduce pain or fever.</li> <li>To prevent UTI in babies and children do not wash the genital area with soap, do not use bubble bath and give your child plenty of liquids.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/urinary_tract_infections_baby.jpg
Urodynamics procedureUUrodynamics procedureUrodynamics procedureEnglishUrologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BladderBladderTestsCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-10T05:00:00ZCathy Daniels, RN, MS, ACNP;Angela Buffett, RN, MN7.5000000000000068.3000000000000918.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>A full urodynamics procedure is a series of tests done to give your doctor information about how well your child's bladder is working.</p><h2>What is a full urodynamics procedure?</h2> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">Urinary system (female)</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Urinary_female_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Identification of the kidney, ureter, bladder and urethra in a girl" /> </figure> <p>A full urodynamics procedure is a series of tests done to find out how well your child's <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=kidney-child">bladder</a> is working. It measures:</p><ul><li>what is happening to your <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=bladder-child">bladder as it is filling</a> </li><li>how much urine the bladder can hold </li><li>bladder sensation (feeling) </li><li>changes in bladder pressure </li><li>how much stretch (contractility) the bladder has while filling </li></ul><p>The information on this page will help you and your child get ready for the procedure. After reading it, please explain it to your child, using words they can understand. If you have questions, please speak with your child's doctor or the urodynamics nurse. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>A full urodynamics procedure tests how well your child's bladder is working. </li> <li>The test will be less uncomfortable if your child is relaxed. To make sure your child is comfortable during the test, tell them what to expect and help them practice relaxation exercises. </li> <li>If your child has a urinary tract infection, you will need to reschedule the test. </li> <li>If your child feels stinging or burning for more than 48 hours after the test or your child develops a fever, contact your family doctor. </li> </ul><h2>Your child's appointment</h2> <p>Please arrive 15 minutes before the time of your child's appointment. The procedure will take about 1.5 hours (90 minutes).</p><h2>What happens during the test</h2> <p>During the procedure, a nurse will put a small tube called a urinary catheter into your child's urethra (urinary passage). Your child's bladder will be filled with water through this tube. This tube also monitors pressure in the bladder. </p> <p>Another small tube will be put into your child's rectum. This measures rectal pressure during the test. The rectum pushes on the bladder and this can affect bladder pressure.</p> <p>Having these tubes inserted can be uncomfortable, but it should not hurt. The nurses are very experienced and will help your child relax during the test. </p> <p>Your child will also have stickers called electrodes gently stuck to the buttocks and hip. The electrodes let us assess your child's pelvic floor muscles when the bladder is being filled.</p> <p>During the test, your child may have a feeling of fullness or pressure, similar to what they would feel before urinating with a full bladder. There may be some discomfort when the urinary and rectal tubes are put in and taken out. Your child may have the urge to urinate or have a bowel movement. These feelings will be less if your child is more relaxed. You or the child life specialist can help your child with the relaxation strategies you practiced. </p> <h3>Sedation</h3> <p>Some children may need mild sedation to help them relax and have a positive experience during the test.</p><h2>After the test</h2> <p>Your child may feel stinging or burning when urinating the first few times after the test. Encourage your child to drink a lot after the test. If the discomfort lasts for more than 48 hours (two days) or your child develops a fever, contact your family doctor. </p><h2>Helping your child get ready for the test</h2> <p>The test will be easier and less uncomfortable if your child is relaxed. Before you come to the hospital, explain to your child what will happen. You can help practice relaxing by having your child breathe in and out with slow, deep breaths. </p> <p>To make your child feel more comfortable during the test, please bring their favourite toy, a movie or books. Babies can have a pacifier or a bottle during the test.</p> <p>A <a href="/Article?contentid=1153&language=English">child life specialist</a> can help your child get ready for the test by teaching your child to relax and distract themselves. If you and your child would like to meet with a child life specialist, please ask. </p> <h2>Before the test</h2> <p>Your child can eat and drink as usual before the test.</p> <p>If possible, please encourage your child to have a bowel movement on the morning of the test. If your child follows a bowel routine, please do this the evening before or the morning of the test. </p> <p>If your child has a heart condition, please check with your family doctor to see if your child will need antibiotics before the test. If antibiotics are needed, your family doctor will write a prescription. </p> <p>Please do not use lotion on your child's skin on the day of the test.</p> <h3>Urinary tract infection</h3> <p>Please be aware that the test will not be done if your child has a urinary tract infection and is showing symptoms. Signs and symptoms of a urinary tract infection include: </p> <ul> <li>burning or stinging with urination </li> <li>foul-smelling or cloudy urine </li> <li>abdominal (belly) pain </li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a></li> <li>blood in the urine </li> </ul> <p>If your child has any of these symptoms, please go to your family doctor to check for a urinary tract infection. If your child has an infection, please call to reschedule your appointment. </p><h2>At SickKids</h2> <p>If your child has been to the hospital before, go directly to 5D. Please check in with the receptionist at the front desk on 5D to register.</p> <p>If this is your first visit to the hospital, please check in at the registration desk on the main floor before coming to 5D. When you arrive on 5D, you will need to check in with the receptionist at the front desk.</p> <p>If you have questions or concerns about this test, please contact the urodynamics nurse by calling the urology clinic at 416-813-6661.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Urinary_female_MED_ILL_EN.jpg
UrologyUUrologyUrologyEnglishUrologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Kidneys;Bladder;Penis;Testicle;UrethraRenal system/Urinary systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2018-03-19T04:00:00ZLanding PageLearning Hub<p>Urology covers the entire urological and genital systems. These systems include the kidneys, bladder and genitals. Learn about some of the conditions that are seen, the tests that are used to diagnose them and how they are treated.</p><p>Urology covers the entire urological and genital systems for children. These systems include the kidneys, bladder and genitals. Learn about some of the conditions that are seen, the tests that are used to diagnose them and how they are treated.</p>urologyhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/urology_learning_hub.jpg
Urticaria pigmentosaUUrticaria pigmentosaUrticaria pigmentosaEnglishDermatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)SkinSkinConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2016-06-24T04:00:00ZShanna Spring, MD, FRCPC, FAAD;Irene Lara-Corrales, MSc, MD​​​9.8000000000000048.4000000000000908.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Urticaria pigmentosa is a harmless condition that produces red-brown spots or bumps on the skin. Learn how it is caused, diagnosed and treated.</p><h2>What is urticaria pigmentosa?</h2> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_urticaria_pigmentosa_EN.jpg" alt="The back of a baby with urticaria pigmentosa" /> </figure> <p>Our immune system contains different types of cells, including mast cells. These cells help the body heal after a wound and respond to possible allergens.</p><p>Sometimes mast cells build up in large numbers outside their usual environment, causing a condition called mastocytosis. Cutaneous mastocytosis occurs when mast cells build up in skin, hair or nails. The most common type of cutaneous mastocytosis in children is urticaria pigmentosa (UP). The condition is also called maculopapular mastocytosis.</p><p>Over half of all cases of UP first appear in children aged under two. New spots can continue to appear over the next few years.<br></p><p>Like most childhood cutaneous mastocytoses, urticaria pigmentosa is benign (harmless). It is limited to the skin and there is little risk of symptoms that involve other organs.</p><p>UP is not a permanent disease. About half of all cases resolve by puberty and the other half improve greatly by then.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Urticaria pigmentosa is the most common type of childhood cutaneous mastocytosis.</li> <li>Most UP appears before the age of two and often disappears or improves greatly by puberty.</li> <li>In most children, symptoms are limited to redness, swelling and itchiness, but diarrhea, vomiting, flushing, wheezing and anaphylaxis can also occur.</li> <li>There is no cure for UP. Treatment is aimed at relieving symptoms by using medications and avoiding triggers.</li> <li>See a doctor for UP if your child shows signs of a severe allergic reaction. See a dermatologist if your child develops many new spots or has UP along with vomiting and diarrhea.</li> </ul><h2>How does urticaria pigmentosa affect the body?</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Positive Darier’s sign</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_urticaria_pigmentosa_Dariers_sign_EN.jpg" alt="" /> </figure> <p>Urticaria pigmentosa most commonly appears as red-brown spots or bumps and can affect any part of the body. The number of spots varies from child to child, from just a few to hundreds.</p><p>These spots are commonly itchy. After vigorous rubbing, they can become red and swollen, indicating that the mast cells are activated. Your doctor might describe the redness and swelling as a positive Darier’s sign.<br></p><p>Besides being red and itchy, the spots associated with UP can sometimes become fluid-filled blisters. They usually do not leave a scar, but they can linger for months to years.</p><p>UP is limited to the skin in most children, but, in rare cases, it can produce other symptoms such as:</p><ul><li> <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a><br></li><li> <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=347&language=English">vomiting</a></li><li>flushing</li><li>wheezing<br></li><li> <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=781&language=English">anaphylaxis</a> (serious allergic reactions).</li></ul><p>If your child has any of these unusual symptoms, tell your doctor at your next visit.<br></p><h2>What causes urticaria pigmentosa?</h2> <p>The cause of urticaria pigmentosa is unknown, but it is thought that genetics may play a part.</p><h2>How is urticaria pigmentosa diagnosed?</h2> <p>Urticaria pigmentosa is easily diagnosed in clinic if a child under age two has red-brown spots and a positive Darier’s sign. When the diagnosis is more uncertain, your child’s doctor may order a <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=2464&language=English">skin biopsy</a> to examine the spots.</p> <p>Once UP is diagnosed, a dermatologist will monitor your child every six to 12 months.</p> <p>Usually your child will not need further testing. However, your doctor may consider doing a blood test or may refer your child to a hematologist (a blood specialist) if:</p> <ul> <li>your child has many spots</li> <li>the spots look unusual</li> <li>any flare ups (redness and swelling) take longer to resolve than usual<br></li> <li>your child has severe systemic complaints, such as severe vomiting, diarrhea or wheezing.</li> </ul><h2>How is urticaria pigmentosa treated?</h2> <p>Unfortunately, there is no cure for UP. However, most children affected by the disease improve by puberty. In the meantime, the symptoms of UP can be treated successfully with a range of approaches.</p> <h3>Avoiding triggers</h3> <p>The website Mastokids features a <a href="http://www.mastokids.org/degranular-list" target="_blank">detailed list of possible triggers</a> and how to monitor your child for symptoms if you cannot avoid them.</p> <p>Examples of common triggers include:</p> <ul> <li>medications such as aspirin, NSAIDs (such as ibuprofen), narcotics, general anaesthetics (usually older agents that are no longer being used) and x-ray contrast dye<br></li> <li>stimuli such as stress, heat and <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=308&language=English">direct sunlight</a>.</li> </ul> <p>Always tell your child’s doctor if your child has UP so they can avoid using or recommending anything that may trigger your child’s symptoms.</p> <h3>Medications</h3> <ul> <li>Antihistamines can help relieve the itchiness and other side effects of mast cell activation, such as redness and swelling.</li> <li>Corticosteroid creams can provide itch relief.</li> <li>Cromolyn sodium (an anti-inflammatory medication given through an inhaler or by mouth) helps treat any diarrhea, vomiting or other gastrointestinal complaints.</li> <li>An <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=130&language=English">EpiPen</a> can help treat severe allergic reactions. Your child should carry one with them at all times if they have a history of <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=781&language=English">anaphylaxis</a>.</li> </ul> <h3>Light therapy</h3> <p>Light therapy (PUVA) has been used successfully in some severe cases.</p><h2>Complications of urticaria pigmentosa </h2> <p>In a very small number of cases, mast cells can build up in the liver, spleen and bone marrow. This is such a rare occurrence in children that regular screening is not recommended. Adults with UP can sometimes develop leukemia, but this is extremely rare in children.</p><h2>When to see a doctor for urticaria pigmentosa</h2> <ul> <li>Go to the emergency room if your child shows any signs of a severe allergic reaction or difficulty breathing.</li> <li>See your child’s dermatologist if your child develops many more or many different types of spots or if your child has new symptoms such as vomiting or diarrhea.</li> </ul>​ <h2>Further information</h2><p>For more information on urticaria pigmentosa, see <a target="_blank" href="https://www.mastokids.org/">Mastokids.org​</a>, a website to support children and families living with mastocytosis.​</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_urticaria_pigmentosa_Dariers_sign_EN.jpg
Use of dissolve and dose containersUUse of dissolve and dose containersUse of dissolve and dose containersEnglishPharmacyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)MouthNADrug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2010-03-11T05:00:00ZElaine Lau, BScPhm, PharmD, MSc, RPhLori Chen, BScPhm, RPh, ACPR7.5000000000000064.1000000000000450.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>This information explains how to use a dissolve and dose container to dissolve medicine in water and give it to your child.</p><p>Sometimes your child cannot swallow a tablet or their dose does not use an entire tablet. In these cases, you may be able to make the tablet into a solution using a dissolve and dose container.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Use a dissolve and dose container so make a solution out of a tablet if your child has trouble swallowing it or their dose does not use an entire tablet.</li> <li>Shake the container a few times as the tablet dissolves. It will take about five minutes for this to happen.</li> <li>Make sure the tablet is completely dissolved and you cannot see any pieces in the container before giving the medicine to your child.</li> </ul><h2>How to use dissolve and dose container</h2><ol class="akh-steps"><li><p>Place the tablet(s) into dissolve and dose container. </p><p>*You are to use __________ tablet(s) of __________.</p></li><li><p>Add water up to the black line on the container.</p><p>*On your dissolve and dose container, the line marks __________ mL. </p><p>Replace the blue cap.</p></li><li> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/DissolveNdose_rock_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Shaking dissolve and dose container with liquid inside" /> </figure> <p>Allow the tablet to dissolve over a five-minute period, shaking the container a few times during this period.</p></li><li><p>Ensure that there are no pieces of tablet remaining in the container. If there are pieces of tablet still visible, continue to shake until the pieces are gone. There may be some fine powder floating in the water. If this is the case, you may still give the medicine.</p></li><li> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/DissolveNdose_measure_dose_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Syringe attached to dissolve and dose container, with downward arrow showing to pull handle of syringe" /> </figure> <p>Shake the container well, and using the oral syringe provided, draw the liquid into the syringe to the black line, as instructed below. </p><p>*You are to measure __________ mL in the syringe. Give this amount.</p></li><li><p>Discard any liquid left in the container. Each dose of medication must be freshly prepared each time and cannot be saved. Wash the Dissolve and Dose in warm soapy water and allow it to air dry.</p></li></ol><p>Keep all medicines out of your child's sight and reach.</p><p>If your child takes too much of any medicine, call the Ontario Poison Centre at one of these numbers. These calls are free.</p><ul><li>Call 416-813-5900 if you live in Toronto. </li><li>Call 1-800-268-9017 if you live somewhere else in Ontario. </li><li>If you live outside of Ontario, call your local Poison Information Centre. </li></ul><p>Disclaimer: The information in this Family Med-aid is accurate at the time of printing. It provides a summary of information about dissolve and dose and does not contain all possible information about this medicine. Not all side effects are listed. If you have any questions or want more information about dissolve and dose, speak to your health-care provider. </p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/DissolveNdose_rock_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg

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