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WartsWWartsWartsEnglishDermatologySchool age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)SkinSkinConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2020-05-13T04:00:00Z6.4000000000000069.90000000000001185.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the types of skin warts, what causes warts, how to prevent warts and what common treatments are used.<br></p><h2>What are warts?</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Common warts</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Warts_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="A hand with warts on the fingers and a close-up of warts around the fingernail" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Common warts are usually found on the fingers, toes and knees. They make up about 70 per cent of warts.</figcaption> </figure> <p>Warts are common, harmless growths of skin that occur in roughly 10 per cent of all children. They are caused by a virus called <a href="/Article?contentid=25&language=English">human papillomavirus (HPV)</a>. Warts are caused by the rapid growth of skin as a result of the virus. They are not cancer. </p><p>Normally, warts are found on the top layer of skin (epidermis). They may look different depending on what area of the body they are on. They can often have small black or dark red spots in the center. These spots are very small clotted blood vessels. </p><p>Some warts can cause pain and bleeding, especially the plantar type on the bottom of the feet.</p><p>Warts are most common in people between the ages of five and 20 years.</p><p>Generally, your child's doctor can diagnose a wart by looking at it. Your child will not usually need special tests.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Warts are common growths of skin. </li> <li>Warts are caused by a virus called human papilloma virus (HPV). They can spread. </li> <li>Warts often go away on their own. </li> <li>Wart treatment may or may not work. </li> </ul><h2>Treatment of warts</h2><h3>Option not to treat</h3><p>Viral warts will often go away on their own, but they can also persist for years. They are not dangerous. Depending on where they are located in the body, they may cause pain and discomfort, or people can be unhappy with how they look. How long it takes for warts to go away on their own varies and cannot be predicted.</p><h3>Option to treat</h3><p>There is no treatment to cure HPV, the cause of warts. Most treatments kill the cells that contain the virus. If treatments are started, the aim is to remove the wart without scarring. </p><p>Because some warts go away on their own, stronger treatments are often not used, except with plantar warts. Also, treatments can be painful and may not work well. People may need multiple treatments to remove the wart entirely.<br></p><p>There is no treatment that is considered "the best" at removing warts. Your doctor may choose different treatments depending on the age of your child, where the wart is located or what has been used so far.</p><h4>Treatments to use at home</h4><ul><li>Salicylic acid wart removal products can be purchased without a prescription at a pharmacy (there are many brands available). There are also prescription forms of salicylic acid. Apply the product once per day to the area of the wart. Usually, it is not applied to the face, genitals or normal skin unless directed by a doctor. The salicylic acid will make the wart turn into dead skin (the skin will look white). </li><li>Duct tape or other airtight tape may be used. This can be combined with other treatments, such as applying duct tape over the salicylic acid product. The use of duct tape alone for management of warts is not very effective.</li><li>Other medications such as podophyllotoxin, topical retinoids (such as tretinoin or tazarotene), cimetidine, imiquimod or sinecatechins might also be prescribed by your doctor. </li></ul><h4>Doctor's office treatments<br></h4><ul><li>Higher concentrations of salicylic acid can be applied to the wart by your doctor.</li><li>Liquid nitrogen, also called cryotherapy, is a common treatment for warts. The liquid nitrogen is very cold, and it freezes or burns the wart. After, the skin will likely blister and scab. When the scab comes off, the wart can come with it. This treatment is quick but can also be painful. For this reason, it is not often done in young children. Multiple treatments, or use of other treatments at the same time, are commonly necessary.</li><li>Other treatments applied in the doctor's office include <a href="/Article?contentid=86&language=English">bleomycin</a> injections, podophyllotoxin, candida injections and cantharone.</li></ul><h4>Not-so-common treatments<br></h4><ul><li>Electrosurgery with a carbon dioxide (CO2) laser requires a pain medicine called a local anaesthetic. </li><li>Photodynamic therapy involves two steps: applying a prescription cream and then exposing the wart to a specific type of light. This is used for warts resistant to other treatments.</li><li>Surgery is very rarely used, as it may increase the chances that the virus may spread in the skin. </li></ul><h2>When does a wart need to be seen by a doctor?</h2><p>See your child's doctor if:</p><ul><li>warts develop on the genital area or around the anus</li><li>plantar warts are painful or cause discomfort when walking</li><li>warts develop on the face</li><li>any warts are causing pain or distress</li></ul><p>For further information about warts, see the following resource from the Society for Pediatric Dermatology: "<a href="https://pedsderm.net/site/assets/files/1028/4_spd_warts_web_final.pdf">Warts (verruca vulgaris) and what to do about them"</a>.</p><h2>References</h2><p>Schmitt, B. <a href="https://patiented.solutions.aap.org/handout.aspx?gbosid=494586">Warts</a>. American Academy of Pediatrics, Pediatric Patient Education. Retrieved from <a href="https://patiented.solutions.aap.org/handout.aspx?gbosid=494586">https://patiented.solutions.aap.org/handout.aspx?gbosid=494586</a>.</p><p>Boull, C. and Groth, D. Update: Treatment of Cutaneous Viral Warts in Children. <em>Pediatric Dermatology</em> (2011). <em>28</em>(3), 213-217.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/warts.jpgMain
Water safety and drowning preventionWWater safety and drowning preventionWater safety and drowning preventionEnglishPreventionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2020-11-09T05:00:00Z7.0000000000000072.30000000000001552.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to keep children safe in or around water.</p><p>Timing is critical when it comes to saving your baby or your child from a near-drowning (submersion) episode. If enough oxygen is not being delivered to the brain, severe damage can occur within a few minutes. If your child's heart has stopped beating for more than eight to 10 minutes, their chances of surviving are greatly reduced.<br></p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/CI1BvnNEQNY" frameborder="0"></iframe><br> <p>For more videos from SickKids experts in collaboration with Youngster, visit <a href="https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCoKMd2cYwegtZX19uHdNLQA">Youngster on YouTube</a>.</p></div><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Drowning can occur in as little as 20 seconds.</li><li>Most accidents happen when swimming, boating or bathing in the bathtub.</li><li>Always supervise children near any water and keep young children within arm's reach.</li><li>Do not put your life at risk trying to save your child. If you must enter the water to perform a rescue, bring a flotation device with you.</li><li>If your child is unconscious and not breathing, have someone call 911 and get an AED right away.</li><li>After a drowning episode, see a doctor if your child develops fever or difficulty breathing.</li></ul><h2>How can you tell if your baby or your child is drowning?<br></h2><p>Be sure to monitor your child at all times when they are in, or near, water. Watch for signs of drowning because a child in distress will be <strong>unable</strong> to yell for help.</p><h3>Signs of drowning</h3><ul><li>head tilted back with mouth open</li><li>floating face down</li><li>gasping for air</li></ul><h2>Rescue</h2><h3>Avoid putting yourself at risk trying to save your child</h3><p>You should not put your life in danger trying to rescue your baby or your child. If your only option is to enter the water, bring a flotation device with you. This can be a life-jacket or even a pool noodle. </p><h3>CPR</h3><p>CPR stands for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. CPR is an emergency procedure that involves a combination of chest compressions and rescue breaths (mouth-to-mouth resuscitation). <a href="/Article?contentid=1044&language=English">CPR given to a baby</a> younger than 12 months of age is different from <a href="/Article?contentid=1041&language=English">CPR given to an older child</a>.</p><p>Once you are safely out of the water and if your child is not responsive, not breathing or only gasping, call for help and begin CPR right away.</p><h2>Assess your child’s state</h2><h3>Checking for alertness and injuries </h3><p>Check to see if <strong>your baby</strong> is responsive by rubbing their back, flicking their feet and calling their name.</p><p>Check to see if <strong>your child</strong> is responsive by tapping them on the shoulder and asking loudly, "Are you OK?"</p><ul><li>If you get an answer or a physical response, quickly check to see if they have any injuries. If they need medical attention, have someone call 911 right away.</li><li>If you get no answer or physical response, shout for help, ask someone to call 911 and have them get an AED (automated external defibrillator) right away, if available, while you begin CPR. If you are alone, call 911 from a cell phone that you can put on speaker and begin CPR.</li></ul><h3>Check for breathing</h3><p>Check for normal breathing (no gasping) by watching your child's chest for any movement. If you are alone, make sure your child is breathing normally before you leave to call 911. Carry your baby with you to make the call.</p><h2>When to call a doctor</h2><p>Get medical attention right away if you see any of these signs in your baby or your child:</p><ul><li>persistent coughing</li><li>difficulty breathing</li><li>blue colour on skin and lips</li><li>loss of consciousness (fainting)</li><li>fever</li><li>being moody or very sleepy</li></ul>watersafetyhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/water_safety_and_drowning_prevention.jpgMain
Ways to relaxWWays to relaxWays to relax-CANEnglishRheumatology;AdolescentPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)BodySkeletal systemNon-drug treatmentPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)Joint or muscle pain;Pain2017-01-31T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Now that you’ve reviewed what relaxation is and why it’s important, it is time to start learning more about how to relax!</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/ways_to_relax_JIA_US.jpgTeens
Weight gain after a blood and marrow transplantWWeight gain after a blood and marrow transplantWeight gain after a blood and marrow transplantEnglishHaematology;Immunology;OncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemNATeen (13-18 years) Adult (19+)NA2010-03-19T04:00:00Z10.200000000000052.3000000000000520.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to prevent and manage your child's weight gain, after a transplant.</p><p>Some children who have undergone an allogenic transplant may gain weight. This is particularly true for those who have taken the steroid, prednisone. Children are at most risk of gaining weight during their treatment and up to one year after finishing it.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>To prevent weight gain, encourage your child to eat healthy, exercise, and maintain a healthy lifestyle.</li><li>Long-term survivors of BMT are at risk for developing high blood pressure, high blood sugar levels, hyperlipidemia, heart disease and type 2 diabetes.</li><li>Children who have a BMT are at risk of becoming obese due to steroids used for treatment and a lack of physical activity.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/weight_gain_after_a_blood_and_marrow_transplant.jpgMain
What causes JIA?WWhat causes JIA?What causes JIA?-CANEnglishRheumatology;AdolescentPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)BodySkeletal systemConditions and diseasesPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)Joint or muscle pain;Pain2017-01-31T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>This page describes how joint inflammation happens and how juvenile idiopathic arthritis can hurt your joints. It also outlines some of the symptoms of arthritis in young people.</p><p>It is important to remember that JIA is not contagious. It is also not known for certain what the exact cause is. In JIA, the immune system is not working normally. The immune system's job is to fight off germs and disease. However, in JIA, the immune system attacks healthy joints, causing inflammation.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>The exact cause of JIA is not known.</li><li>In JIA, the immune system attacks healthy joints, causing inflammation.</li><li>If the inflammation of JIA is not treated, it can lead to permanent damage of the joint.</li><li>A flare is when there is an overall increase in symptoms for a longer period of time, while a remission is when the symptoms go away.</li></ul>Teens
What causes cancer?WWhat causes cancer?What causes cancer?EnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)BodyNAConditions and diseasesPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z6.2000000000000071.8000000000000537.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about possible causes of cancer and the role of genetics in a cancer diagnosis.</p><h2>What causes cancer?</h2><p>Scientists are researching the answer to what causes cancer. For most cancers though, especially cancers in young people, it’s still not known what causes them. We do know that cancer is not contagious. This means that cancer does not spread from one person to the next – you cannot "catch" cancer.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>The cause of most cancers is unknown.</li><li>In rare cases, cancer is caused by a mutation in the genes of DNA passed on through family, but this does not guarantee you or anyone else in your family will have cancer.</li><li>For most teenagers, cancer happens by chance and not as a result of any one thing.</li></ul>Teens
What causes epilepsy?WWhat causes epilepsy?What causes epilepsy?EnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+) EducatorsNA2021-03-17T04:00:00Z10.800000000000047.80000000000001410.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the many different causes of epilepsy in children, which are classified into six categories: structural, genetic, infectious, metabolic, immune and unknown.</p><h2>Causes of epilepsy</h2><p>Once your child is diagnosed with epilepsy (seizure disorder), your child’s health-care team will try to find the cause of their epilepsy. This will help them determine the treatment options available for your child. The causes of epilepsy are classified into six categories. These are described below.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>There are many different causes of epilepsy in children.</li><li>Causes of epilepsy are categorized into six groups: structural, genetic, infectious, metabolic, immune and unknown.</li><li>Your child’s health-care team will try to find the cause of their epilepsy; however, in 60–70% of cases, no apparent cause can be identified.</li></ul><h2>Causes of epilepsy are divided into six groups</h2><h3>1. Structural</h3><p>This means that your child has epilepsy due to an abnormality in the brain structure. These abnormalities are seen on brain imaging, such as a CT scan or an MRI. Abnormal brain structure may be caused by: </p><ul><li><p> <strong>Injury or trauma</strong>: Head injury or trauma, at birth or later, may cause focal epilepsy. Older teenagers and young adults are more likely to have brain injuries that result in epilepsy because they are more active and more likely to be injured than younger children.</p><p>The more severe the injury, the higher the risk that a child will later develop epilepsy and the longer the child is at risk. Severe head trauma, where the child’s brain is bruised or the child is unconscious for more than 24 hours, increases the risk of epilepsy 17 times. Moderate trauma, where the child’s skull is fractured or the child is unconscious for more than half an hour, increases the risk three times. Ordinary bumps and bruises do not increase the risk of epilepsy.</p><p>Epilepsy does not always develop right away. The risk of developing epilepsy is highest for the first year after the injury. However, a child who has had a serious head injury may develop epilepsy years afterward.</p></li><li><p> <strong>Lack of oxygen to the brain</strong>: Lack of oxygen to the brain before, during or shortly after birth can damage the brain and result in seizures in the newborn period. This may result from various birth complications, including difficult or prolonged labour, <a href="/article?contentid=354&language=english">placental abruption</a> (when the placenta separates early from the uterus) or compression of the umbilical cord.</p><p>Lack of oxygen to the brain (for example, from an accident, drowning or heart attack) can also result in seizures in older children and adults.</p></li><li><p> <strong>Brain tumour</strong>: Brain tumours are the second most common type of cancer in children, after leukaemia, but they are still rare. Approximately 30 per cent to of people with brain tumours have seizures, but they may not develop chronic epilepsy. The type of tumour affects the risk of developing epilepsy. Some studies suggest that epilepsy is more common in people with low-grade tumours that have been present for a long time than in people with malignant tumours. Brain tumours are a fairly rare cause of epilepsy, especially in children and young adults.</p><p>The outlook for children with epilepsy caused by a brain tumour varies but is often good. With the right surgical procedure, most people become entirely seizure-free or have more than 80 per cent fewer seizures. The outcome may depend on how long a child has had epilepsy and the type of surgery they have. </p></li><li> <strong>Cerebrovascular problems</strong>: A cerebrovascular problem (a problem with the blood vessels in the brain), such as a tangle of blood vessels or a stroke, can also cause epilepsy. Cerebrovascular problems such as stroke are common causes of seizures in older patients, but can also be seen in children.</li><li> <strong>Congenital malformation</strong>: Before a baby is born, their brain is formed in a complicated process in which new brain cells travel to their intended location in a very specific pattern. Different types of congenital (present at birth) brain malformations can be caused by: </li><ul><li>abnormal proliferation (when too many or too few brain cells grow or when brain cells multiply abnormally)</li><li>o abnormal migration (when brain cells stop moving at the wrong time and end up in the wrong place)</li><li>abnormal organization (when all or part of the brain forms in the wrong shape)</li></ul><p>Almost any brain malformation can lead to seizures. Sometimes, these malformations can also lead to developmental disabilities. If a baby has very severe brain malformations, they may not survive.</p><li> <strong>Neurocutaneous syndromes</strong>: Neurocutaneous syndromes are congenital disorders that cause tumours to grow in the brain, spinal cord or peripheral nerves. They often cause skin lesions (abnormal growths or marks on the skin) and may also cause developmental disability.</li><ul><li>Tuberous sclerosis is a genetic disorder in which growths or ‘tubers’ develop in the brain and, sometimes, in the kidney and heart. Hypopigmented, or pale, areas shaped like ash leaves are found on the skin, and butterfly-shaped facial acne develops over time. Approximately 80 per cent of people with tuberous sclerosis develop epilepsy. The number of tubers and their location seem to play important roles in cognitive and developmental outcome as well as seizure outcome.</li><li>Sturge-Weber syndrome is also accompanied by a birthmark on the face and is connected with epilepsy in 70 per cent to 90 per cent of cases. Sturge-Weber syndrome may get worse with time but eventually stabilizes. Early treatment, particularly surgery, may improve seizure control and intellectual outcome.</li><li>Neurofibromatosis, a group of genetic disorders in which many soft tumours develop throughout the body and is often accompanied by skin changes. Epilepsy occurs in less than 14 per cent of cases.</li></ul><li> <strong>Mesial temporal sclerosis</strong>, also known as hippocampal sclerosis, is a condition in which parts of the brain in the inner part of the temporal lobe shrink and develop scar tissue. The causes are unclear. It is more common in older children and adults, but it has been seen in children as young as two years old.</li></ul><h3>2. Genetic</h3><p>A genetic cause may be due to genes passed on from the parent to the child. Other times, a new genetic mutation occurs in the child. There are certain genetic mutations that increase the risk of having seizures.</p><p>Even though the same genetic mutation may be identified in your child and others, the degree to which each child is affected can vary.</p><h3>3. Infection</h3><p>Infection of the brain is thought to cause up to 25 per cent of epilepsy cases in children and 3 per cent to 6 per cent of all cases of epilepsy. Many different infections can result in seizures either at the time of infection or afterward, including: </p><ul><li> <a href="/article?contentid=761&language=english">meningitis</a>, a bacterial or viral infection of the tissues covering the brain</li><li>encephalitis, an infection of the brain</li><li>opportunistic brain infections in children with a weakened immune system, for instance from HIV infection</li><li>infections elsewhere in the body that cause metabolic changes or a lack of oxygen to the brain</li><li>various parasitic infections of the CNS, including trichinosis, cerebral malaria, cysticercosis and toxoplasmosis (more common in developing countries but can be acquired anywhere)</li></ul><p>The level of risk depends on the specific infection. For instance, viral encephalitis and bacterial meningitis increase the risk of epilepsy ten times, but aseptic meningitis (when no bacterial cause is found) or viral meningitis does not appear to increase the risk.</p><h3>4. Metabolic disorder</h3><p> <a href="/article?contentid=938&language=english">Metabolic disorders</a> are problems with producing, absorbing, breaking down or storing specific substances in the body, including sugars, fats, proteins and vitamins. They usually happen when a child lacks a specific enzyme, often because of a genetic mutation.</p><h3>5. Immune</h3><p>The immune system protects our body from illness and attacks bacteria and viruses to prevent us from getting sick. However, sometimes the immune system becomes confused and these cells end up attacking our own cells. This abnormal activity can disrupt normal functioning of all our body parts. When it affects cells in the brain, it can result in epilepsy. </p><h3>6. Unknown</h3><p>In 60–70% of cases, no apparent cause can be identified.</p><p>Sometimes a child can have more than one cause for epilepsy. For example, in children with tuberous sclerosis, genes in the body make it more likely for the body to make benign (non-cancerous) tumours. These tumours can also grow in the brain; however, some are more likely to cause epilepsy than others. If this is the case, the child is considered to have both a structural cause (the tuber) as well as a genetic cause (the gene mutation) for their epilepsy.</p>Main
What causes hemophilia?WWhat causes hemophilia?What causes hemophilia?EnglishHaematologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NAArteries;VeinsConditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2019-03-13T04:00:00Z8.0000000000000062.0000000000000318.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Teens can learn how gene mutations cause hemophilia. </p><p>Each of us inherits genetic material called deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from our parents. DNA is made of segments of genes, and is organized into chromosomes. We have about 20 000 different genes organized into 23 pairs of chromosomes. We get one of each chromosome from each of our parents. Our genes influence the way we look, our personalities, and our health. Our genetic code contains recipes for making proteins. These proteins help our bodies to work properly. </p> <p>When there is a change in the genetic code, it can interfere with the body's ability to work normally. These changes in your genetic code are called mutations. </p>Teens
What causes juvenile idiopathic arthritis?WWhat causes juvenile idiopathic arthritis?What causes juvenile idiopathic arthritis?EnglishRheumatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodySkeletal systemNAAdult (19+)Joint or muscle pain;Pain2017-01-31T05:00:00Z7.2000000000000066.8000000000000477.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out why arthritis can occur in young people. This page describes how joint inflammation happens, and how juvenile idiopathic arthritis can hurt your joints. It also outlines some of the symptoms of arthritis in young people.</p>It is important to remember that JIA is not contagious. It is also not known for certain what the exact cause is. In JIA, the immune system is not working normally. The immune system's job is to fight off germs and disease. However, in JIA, the immune system attacks healthy joints, causing inflammation.<p></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>The exact cause of JIA is not known.</li> <li>In JIA, the immune system attacks healthy joints causing inflammation.</li> <li>If the inflammation of JIA is not treated it can lead to permanent damage of the joint.</li> <li>A flare is when there is an overall increase in symptoms for a longer period of time, while a remission is when the symptoms go away.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/what_causes_juvenile_ideopathic_arthritis.jpgMain
What causes seizures?WWhat causes seizures?What causes seizures?EnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+) EducatorsNA2021-03-17T04:00:00Z9.8000000000000052.10000000000001919.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn about what causes seizures, the different types of seizures and what the concept of the seizure threshold means. </p><h2>What happens during a seizure?</h2><p>Electrical activity in the brain is carefully balanced. Neurons (brain cells) fire singly or in small groups to accomplish a task (excitation) and then stop firing (inhibition). A seizure happens if many neurons fire at once in uncontrolled bursts. This firing interferes with how the brain normally functions:</p><ul><li>Neuron excitation and inhibition become unbalanced; either there is too much excitation, or too little inhibition.</li><li>A small group of neurons begin to fire together.</li><li>Other neurons nearby or throughout the brain also start firing together because of abnormal connections between neurons or groups of neurons — this firing is called hyper-synchrony.</li><li>The neurons involved in the seizure send instructions to the parts of the body that they control which may result in movements, sounds or change in level of consciousness.</li></ul><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A provoked seizure has a direct cause such as a head injury, an infection or low blood sugar.</li><li>An unprovoked seizure does not have an immediate cause. A child must have two or more unprovoked seizures before epilepsy will be considered or have one seizure and an underlying condition with a high risk of more seizures.</li><li>A seizure threshold is a person's likelihood to have a seizure. The higher the threshold, the less likely it is that a seizure will happen.</li><li>Factors that raise a seizure threshold include getting enough sleep every night and taking anti-epileptic drugs according to instructions.</li></ul><h2>Causes of epilepsy</h2><p>There are many different causes of epilepsy. There are tests available to look for the cause. However, in 60–70% of cases, no apparent cause can be identified.</p><p>The cause of epilepsy can be classified into six categories: </p><ol><li>Structural: There is an abnormality in the brain tissue, including previous injury to the brain from trauma, car accident or stroke that makes the brain more likely to have seizures.</li><li>Genetic: Some types of epilepsy run in families. In these cases, it is passed on from parent to child. Other times, a child has a new change in genes (mutation) that has only occurred in them and there is no family history. There are some types of epilepsy that have been linked to specific genes.</li><li>Infectious diseases: Infections such as meningitis or encephalitis affect the brain and can cause seizures and epilepsy.</li><li>Metabolic disease: The brain cells use energy in a way that makes them more likely to create abnormal electrical activity.</li><li>Unknown: The cause of epilepsy is not yet known.</li><h2>Seizure threshold</h2><p>The seizure threshold is not a specific measurement. It is a way of thinking about the balance between excitation and inhibition in the brain cells or neurons.</p><p><em>Sarah’s seizures are well controlled on anti-epileptic drugs. She has an important test tomorrow. She stays up three hours later than usual to study, and then takes her medication when she goes to bed. The next day, she has a seizure at breakfast. </em></p><p>Under normal circumstances, Sarah would not have had a seizure because her medication and her regular sleep schedule keep her seizure threshold high. The combination of taking her medication late and losing three hours of sleep lowered her seizure threshold just enough to trigger a seizure.</p><p>Some factors can lower the seizure threshold of a person with epilepsy.</p><ul><li>Missing medication doses: This is the most common trigger.</li><li>Lack of sleep: Children with epilepsy are encouraged to maintain a regular sleep pattern and avoid late nights. If your child has a medical condition that causes sleep loss, such as sleep apnea, treatment should be sought for this condition to decrease the risk of breakthrough seizures.</li><li>Illness: Fever, vomiting and diarrhea can lower the seizure threshold. </li><li>Alcohol and drugs: Too much alcohol or certain drugs (e.g., cocaine, ecstasy) can trigger seizures. Over-the-counter or herbal medicines may also trigger seizures. Always check with your medical team when starting your child on a new medication or supplement to determine whether it will affect their seizures.</li><li>Hormones: For some women, changes in menstrual cycle can reduce seizure threshold. Their neurologist can propose changes to help with this trigger.</li><li>Stress: Stress and anxiety, common in adolescents, are reported as seizure triggers. Participating in support groups can decrease stress and anxiety.</li><li>Sensory input: Some children have triggers that include flashing lights, doing puzzles and soaking in hot water.</li></ul><p>While one of these things by itself might not be enough to cause a seizure, a combination of them may lower the seizure threshold enough to cause a seizure.</p><p>There are many things your child can do to help control seizures:</p><ul><li>Avoid triggers.</li><li>Get enough sleep every night.</li><li>Take prescribed medications regularly.</li><li>Keep a medication reminder chart or other alerts to help with remembering to take medications.</li></ul><p>Many children do not have seizure triggers. Try to keep precise records and include details of what occurred before the seizure to identify a pattern and trigger. One way to do this is by keeping a seizure diary or using a seizure diary application on your phone or another device. Identifying common triggers and avoiding them can improve your child’s quality of life, as well as your own. </p></ol><h2>Do seizures damage the brain?</h2><p>A great deal of epilepsy research in humans and animals has focused on the question of whether seizures cause brain damage. Because there are so many different factors, including the specific epilepsy syndrome, other health conditions, the age of the child, the age at which epilepsy began, the treatment regimen and the child’s particular characteristics, this is a difficult question to answer.</p><p>It is not clear whether single seizures can cause brain damage or if it is the cumulative effect of many seizures that cause damage.</p><p>We know that:</p><ul><li>While children who have multiple seizures over a long period of time are at risk for long-term effects, children who have only one or a few brief seizures in their lives do not usually have long-term consequences.</li><li>In animal studies, seizures lasting more than 30 minutes and frequent, recurrent seizures appear to cause some brain cell death and may affect learning and memory. We don’t yet know how these animal studies translate to children.</li><li>If the child’s epilepsy is caused by underlying abnormalities of the brain, this abnormality may also cause learning and behaviour problems.</li></ul><p>Most children with epilepsy do not have developmental disabilities. They have as wide of a range of cognitive abilities as other children, ranging from very intelligent to below average.<br></p><h2>Can my child die from a seizure?</h2><p>It is uncommon for a child to die from a seizure. However, people with epilepsy, particularly those who have other neurological disorders, do have a higher risk of death than people without epilepsy. The risks vary widely and depend on the individual child.</p><p>There is a higher risk of death if:</p><ul><li>The child has a significant underlying neurological disorder. For example, children with severe cerebral palsy may also have problems with swallowing. The difficulty swallowing makes it more likely for them to choke on food, fluids or secretions, and then develop pneumonia, an infection of the lungs. This can lead to complications with breathing that result in death.</li><li>The child has status epilepticus, defined as a seizure lasting longer than 30 minutes; however, status epilepticus is less likely to cause death in children than in adults.</li><li>The child is injured during a seizure, for instance through head injuries, drowning, burns or suffocation.</li></ul><p>In the absence of these factors, the risks to the child are very low. Most of the time, death is related to the underlying cause of the epilepsy. If a child is otherwise in good health, their risk of death is small. Talk to your child's doctor about their specific situation.</p><h2>SUDEP (Sudden Unexplained Death in Epilepsy)</h2><p>SUDEP is defined as death for no obvious reason in a person with epilepsy. These deaths occur most often suddenly at nighttime. SUDEP does not always involve a recent seizure. In some cases, there is no evidence that a recent seizure has occurred.</p><p>SUDEP affects one in 1,000 people with epilepsy each year. The rates of SUDEP are about the same in adults and children; however, rates are higher in adults and children with seizures that are not well controlled by medication. </p><p>The most well-proven risk factors for SUDEP is frequent seizures, especially a type of seizure called generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Having even a few of these types of seizures each year increases SUDEP risk. SUDEP is also more common in people who have a neurological problem of which epilepsy is one of the symptoms and those with difficulty following their anti-seizure medication regimen (such as skipping doses).</p><p>More information about SUDEP and support for families who have been affected is available from <a href="https://www.sudep.news/">SUDEP Aware</a> and the <a href="https://www.epilepsy.com/living-epilepsy/our-programs/about-sudep-institute">SUDEP Institute</a>.</p><h2>Resources</h2><p><a href="https://ontarioepilepsyguidelines.ca/">Ontario Epilepsy Guidelines</a> — Find recommendations to improve the quality and consistency of care for people living with epilepsy. These may be helpful in advocating for care for your child with epilepsy.</p>Main
What causes stress and anxietyWWhat causes stress and anxietyWhat causes stress and anxietyEnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANANAPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z6.2000000000000073.3000000000000313.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>You may not always know what is causing your stress and anxiety. Find out about some common stressors and how they can change over time.</p><p>Sometimes people know what causes their anxiety and sometimes they don’t. The things that may lead to stress are called 'stressors'. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Stressors are things such as events, thoughts or emotions that cause stress or anxiety such as having a major test, starting a new round of treatment, missing school or fighting with a friend.</li><li>Stressors can change over time, for example something that was a stressor at the beginning of your treatment no longer causes stress and anxiety for you.</li><li>It is more common for people with cancer to feel a high level of stress at certain times such as at diagnosis, when receiving treatment or when treatment ends.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/What_causes_stress_and_anxiety.jpgTeens
What causes stress?WWhat causes stress?What causes stress?-CANEnglishRheumatology;AdolescentPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)BodySkeletal systemNAPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)Joint or muscle pain;Pain2017-01-31T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Stressors are things that happen in your life that can cause stress. We usually think of stressors as being negative. Examples of negative stressors could be an exhausting school schedule, or a rocky relationship with your boyfriend or girlfriend. However, anything that forces us to adjust or change can be a stressor. </p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/what_causes_stress_JIA_US.jpgTeens
What does scoliosis look like?WWhat does scoliosis look like?What does scoliosis look like?EnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Vertebrae;SpineMuscular system;Skeletal systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2020-09-08T04:00:00Z7.1000000000000072.8000000000000542.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>There are five different curve patterns in the spines of children with scoliosis. Learn about these, and other physical changes that can occur. </p><p>There are three parts to the spine: the cervical spine (neck), the thoracic spine (mid back), and the lumbar spine (lower back). Usually, the spine looks relatively straight when viewed from the front or back. In patients with scoliosis, the spine curves sideways, usually into the shape of an <em>S</em> or a <em>C</em>. An S-shaped curve is also called a double curve. A C-shaped curve is also called a single curve.</p><h2> Key points </h2><ul><li>The spine is made up of three major sections: the cervical spine (neck), the thoracic spine (mid back) and the lumbar spine (lower back).</li><li>Scoliosis is when the spine curves sideways, typically into an S-shape (a double curve) or a C-shape (single curve).</li><li>A curve in the spine can be accompanied by changes to the rib cage, shoulders and hips. As the curve in the spine increases, the spine and ribs twist, making the ribs more pronounced on the side of the curve (a "rib prominence.")</li></ul>Main
What does scoliosis look like?WWhat does scoliosis look like?What does scoliosis look like in teens?EnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Vertebrae;SpineMuscular system;Skeletal systemConditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2008-06-01T04:00:00Z5.0000000000000080.8000000000000486.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>There are five different curve patterns in the spines of teenagers with scoliosis. Learn about these, and other physical changes that can occur.</p><h2>Curve patterns</h2> <p>There are three parts to the spine: the cervical spine (neck), the thoracic spine (mid back), and the lumbar spine (low back). The spine should look relatively straight when viewed from the front or back. Scoliosis is when the spine curves sideways, usually into the shape of an <em>S</em> or a <em>C</em>. An S-shaped curve is also called a double curve. A C-shaped curve is also called a single curve. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>The spine is made up of three major sections: the cervical spine (neck), the thoracic spine (mid back) and the lumbar spine (lower back).</li><li>Scoliosis is when the spine curves sideways, typically into an S-shape (a double curve) or a C-shape (single curve).</li><li>A curve in the spine can be accompanied by changes to the rib cage, shoulders and hips. As the curve in the spine increases, the spine and ribs twist, making the ribs more pronounced on the side of the curve (a rib prominence).</li></ul>Teens
What happens during kidney transplant surgeryWWhat happens during kidney transplant surgeryWhat happens during kidney transplant surgeryEnglishTransplant;NephrologyTeen (13-18 years)KidneysRenal system/Urinary systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-ZTeens
What happens during liver transplant surgeryWWhat happens during liver transplant surgeryWhat happens during liver transplant surgeryEnglishTransplant;GastrointestinalTeen (13-18 years)LiverDigestive systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-ZTeens
What happens if scoliosis is not treated?WWhat happens if scoliosis is not treated?What happens if scoliosis is not treated?EnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Vertebrae;SpineMuscular system;Skeletal systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2008-06-01T04:00:00Z8.7000000000000061.1000000000000355.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Informed decision making is an important component of choosing whether to treat scoliosis. Learn about what can happen if scoliosis is not treated.</p><p> Without treatment, your teen's curve may increase. Their doctor and an orthopaedic surgeon can advise as to whether surgery is the best option.</p><h2> Key points </h2><ul><li>A young teen with a medium to large sized curve will probably see their curve increase without treatment.</li><li>Older teens with a small or medium curve will probably not see an increase.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/what_happens_if_scoliosis_is_not_treated.jpgMain
What is JIA?WWhat is JIA?What is JIA?-CANEnglishRheumatology;AdolescentPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)BodySkeletal systemConditions and diseasesPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)Joint or muscle pain;Pain2017-01-31T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>JIA can occur in young people, up to age 16. Discover the differences in arthritis between young people and adults, how common arthritis is in young people, and how it can affect the joints.</p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/Wq2GZ530M8s" frameborder="0"></iframe> <br></div><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Arthritis is inflammation in the joints, the places where the bones come together.</li><li>JIA affects about 10,000 children and teens in Canada.</li><li>Symptoms of joint inflammation include redness, swelling, warmth, stiffness, and pain.</li></ul>Teens
What is a blood and marrow transplant?WWhat is a blood and marrow transplant?What is a blood and marrow transplant?EnglishHaematology;Immunology;OncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemProceduresAdult (19+)NA2010-02-12T05:00:00Z7.5000000000000066.10000000000001166.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn what a blood and marrow transplant is, and where blood stem cells come from.</p><p>During a blood and marrow transplant (BMT), doctors replace your child’s bone marrow system with healthy blood stem cells. These stem cells are young, immature cells that grow into more specialized cells. The stem cells your child receives during the transplant will grow into mature blood cells. During the transplant, your child’s bone marrow absorbs the healthy stem cells. Once inside the bone marrow, the cells start to produce healthy blood cells. This process is called engraftment.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Your child may need a BMT because they have too few blood stem cells, the blood cells do not work properly, or as part of cancer treatment.</li><li>Healthy blood stem cells can come from bone marrow, circulating (peripheral) blood, and cord blood.</li><li>Graft vs host disease is a common complication that can occur when a child receives a BMT.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Graft_vs_Host_Disease_MED_ILL_EN.jpgMain
What is a good A1c reading?WWhat is a good A1c reading?What is a good A1c reading?EnglishEndocrinologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)PancreasEndocrine systemTestsAdult (19+)NA2016-10-17T04:00:00Z8.1000000000000063.6000000000000285.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out what a good A1c reading is and what it means for your child.</p><p>An A1c test measures the average glucose level over the previous three months. This section will tell you what a good A1c reading is.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>A child should aim for an A1c level based on their age.</li> <li>Your child should have their A1c measured and recorded every three months.</li> <li>Children and teens using insulin pumps may be able to aim for lower blood glucose targets and achieve lower A1c levels.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMN_hemoglobin_A1c_targets_EN.pngMain
What is a menstrual period?WWhat is a menstrual period?What is a menstrual period?EnglishAdolescentTeen (13-18 years)UterusReproductive systemConditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)Abdominal pain;Bleeding;Headache2022-07-19T04:00:00Z9.4000000000000053.60000000000001031.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn more about menstrual periods, what is considered normal, and when you should see your doctor about your periods.</p><h2>What is a menstrual period?</h2><p>A menstrual period is experienced by people with female reproductive body parts. It is the bleeding that occurs approximately once a month during the <a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4051&language=English">menstrual cycle</a> when the lining of the uterus sheds. This bleeding is also called a “menses,” and you might also hear people talk about it using other nicknames and phrases like “Aunt Flo,” the “Time of the Month,” a person’s “Moon Time,” being on/having “Your days”, “Little Red Riding Hood is coming,” or the “Little strawberry.”</p><p>A cycle length is measured from the first day of bleeding (Day 1 of one menstrual period) to the first day of the next menstrual period. There is a wide range of normal cycle lengths. For teenagers, a normal menstrual cycle can be anywhere between 21-45 days. The average menstrual cycle length is approximately 28 days. In the first 1-2 years following your first period, it is very common and normal to have irregular cycles.</p><h2>What is normal menstrual bleeding?</h2><p>Just like menstrual cycle length, normal menstrual bleeding also varies in length.</p><p>Normal menstrual bleeding can last between 3-8 days. The amount of blood lost during this time can also vary. Usually, a normal range is 30-80 mL of blood. Because it is difficult to directly measure the amount of blood you are losing (unless using a menstrual cup), you can determine if you are having a normal period by knowing the number of menstrual products you use during your period.</p><h3>Normal bleeding</h3><ul><li>Soaking through up to 10-15 sanitary pads per cycle</li><ul><li>The pads are filled from side to side</li><li>Soaking through up to 3-6 tampons per day during your period</li></ul></ul><h3>Abnormal/heavy bleeding</h3><ul><li>Soaking through and needing to change your menstrual products every 1-2 hours</li><ul><li>The tampons are soaked through</li><li>The sanitary pads are filled from side to side and front to back</li></ul><li>Bleeding for longer than a week</li><li>Passing blood clots larger than a quarter</li></ul><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Menstrual periods are experienced by people with female reproductive body parts.</li><li>A period is the bleeding that occurs approximately once a month during the menstrual cycle when the lining of the uterus sheds.</li><li>Normal menstrual bleeding can last between 3-8 days, with 30-80 mL of blood loss.</li><li>Common symptoms of a period can include abdominal cramping, headaches, breast tenderness, changes in appetite, nausea, mood changes and fatigue.</li><li>There are a variety of menstrual products that you can use to help manage bleeding including sanitary pads, tampons, menstrual cups, and period underwear.</li></ul><h2>Menstrual symptoms</h2><p>There are a wide variety of symptoms that you might experience during your period, and they can range from very mild to significantly uncomfortable. These symptoms can change from cycle to cycle, and over time.</p><p>As well as during your period, it is also common to have symptoms in the week leading up to your period (premenstrual symptoms or PMS). Common symptoms include, but are not limited to:</p><ul><li>Abdominal cramping and discomfort</li><li>Lower back pain</li><li>Headaches</li><li>Muscle aches</li><li>Breast tenderness</li><li>Changes in appetite</li><li>Nausea</li><li>Constipation</li><li>Diarrhea</li><li>Acne</li><li>Mood changes</li><li>Fatigue/low energy</li></ul><p>These symptoms can occur in the week leading up to your period, and for up to 1-4 days after your period starts.</p><h2>Managing your period</h2><p>There are a variety of menstrual products that you can use to help manage menstrual bleeding. You may find that different products work better for you over time, on different days of your period, or depending on your comfort level, availability of products, and personal preference.</p><p>These products include sanitary pads, tampons, menstrual cups, and period underwear.</p><h3>Sanitary pads</h3><p>Sanitary pads range in thickness and absorption. They also come in disposable (single use) forms, or in reusable forms (which can be washed with detergent and reused). Disposable pads often have an adhesive backing or adhesive flaps, which can be applied to your underwear. Reusable pads usually have Velcro or snap button flaps to stay secure. Both types of pads should be changed every 4-6 hours. Reusable pads can be washed, but you should discard disposable pads after a single use.</p><h3>Tampons</h3><p>Like pads, tampons come in a variety of sizes and absorbability. Tampons have a string attached to help you remove them, and they can come with or without an applicator. Tampons are made of cotton or rayon and are inserted into the vagina to absorb menstrual blood. They must be changed every 4-6 hours and discarded after a single use. For more information, see <a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=4025&language=English">Using your first tampon</a>.</p><h3>Menstrual cups</h3><p>Menstrual cups come in a variety of sizes and can be disposable or reusable. They are cup-shaped, with a small “stem” to help you remove them. They are inserted into the vagina to collect menstrual blood. Cups should be removed and emptied every 8-12 hours. Disposable cups should be discarded after a single use.</p><h3>Period underwear</h3><p>Period underwear is underwear designed to absorb menstrual blood without the need for other menstrual products. They are best for times of light bleeding and can be used in combination with other menstrual products during heavier flow. Period underwear looks and feels like regular underwear and is reusable with regular washing. It can be worn all day for up to 24 hours, depending on your flow.</p><h2>When to see a doctor</h2><p>It is recommended you talk to your doctor if:</p><ul><li>Your menstrual period started early (before the age of nine).</li><li>Your menstrual period has not started by the age of 15, or it has not started and it has been over two years since you started puberty (since your breasts started developing).</li><li>You are experiencing heavy menstrual bleeding (changing menstrual products every 1-2 hours because they are completely soaked through).</li><li>You are consistently bleeding for more than seven days.</li><li>You are noticing significant symptoms (e.g., pain) around the time of your menstrual period that are impacting your ability to participate in school or other daily activities, or symptoms that occur throughout your cycle.</li><li>Your menstrual period has stopped.</li></ul><h2>Resources</h2><p>LetsTalkPeriod. <em>Queen’s University</em>. Retrieved from https://letstalkperiod.ca/video-resources/.</p>Teens
What is an adult care centre like?WWhat is an adult care centre like?What is an adult care centre like?EnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANASupport, services and resourcesPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z7.2000000000000068.5000000000000648.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out what to expect at an adult health-care centre including similarities and differences and how you can prepare for the transition.</p><p>Like some other teenagers, you may be excited about your move to adult care. Or you may be nervous to leave the paediatric team that you have gotten to know so well. Both reactions are normal. Being prepared and knowing what to expect can make your transition smoother.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>The main difference between paediatric and adult care is the focus of health; paediatric care is family-centred while adult care is patient-centred.</li><li>You can prepare for the transition by learning all about your cancer treatment and health history, practicing self-monitoring, managing your own care and being more involved in decision making.</li><li>You will be responsible for scheduling and attending your own appointments and you will need to call the clinic yourself if you need to reschedule an appointment.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/What_is_an_adult_care_centre_like.jpgTeens
What is asthma?WWhat is asthma?What is asthma?EnglishRespiratoryChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)LungsRespiratory systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-01-29T05:00:00Z6.1000000000000069.7000000000000390.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Asthma is the most common chronic condition in children. Learn about what happens during an asthma attack and how bronchiole constriction affects breathing.</p><p>Asthma is a chronic lung condition. When properly managed, children with asthma can live perfectly normal lives.</p><h2> Key points </h2><ul><li>Asthma can be a lifelong condition, but good asthma control can allow your child to live a normal life.<br></li><li>Asthma symptoms are different in different children.</li><li>In certain conditions, a child with asthma's airways become narrower, making it harder to breathe.<br></li></ul><figure class="asset-c-100"> <span class="asset-anim-title">What happens during an asthma attack?</span> <div class="asset-animation asset-cv-animation"> <iframe src="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Style%20Library/akh/animation/What%20happens%20during%20an%20asthma%20attach/WhatHappensDuringAsthmaAttack_CANVAS_EN%20.html"></iframe>  </div> <p class="sr-only">This click-through animation demonstrates what happens within the lungs during an asthma attack and how medications can help.</p> </figure> <p>Asthma is a condition that affects your child's lungs. The most common signs of problems with asthma include:</p><ul><li>feeling short of breath</li><li>tightness in the chest<br></li><li>coughing</li><li>wheezing</li></ul><p>These symptoms may be mild, moderate, or severe. Sometimes your child may feel well, and at other times your child may feel worse because of the asthma.</p><p>Asthma may affect your child's lungs for the rest of their life. But with good asthma control, your child can go on to live a perfectly normal life.</p><p>Asthma is the most common chronic (long-term) illness in children. About 10 per cent to 13 per cent of children have asthma.</p><h2>Asthma symptoms are not always the same</h2><p>Asthma symptoms are different in different children, even within the same family.</p><p>Your child may have different asthma symptoms triggered by different things.</p><p>Your child's symptoms may look or feel different from one episode to the next. They may change over time.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Asthma_MED_ILL_EN.jpgMain
What is autism spectrum disorder?WWhat is autism spectrum disorder?What is autism spectrum disorder?EnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years)NANervous systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-03-09T04:00:00Z8.2000000000000060.5000000000000989.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>General information about autism spectrum disorder, its possible causes, and how it is diagnosed. Also discusses related conditions such as pervasive developmental disorder and Asperger's syndrome.</p><br><p>Autism spectrum disorder affects your child's social behaviour, communication, and play behaviour and interests. This page explains general characteristics of ASD, how ASD is diagnosed, and common misconceptions about its causes. </p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>Autism spectrum disorder (also called ASD) refers to a specific set of behavioural and developmental issues affecting your child's communication, social and play skills. </li> <li> Every child with ASD is unique and has their own combination of characteristics.</li> <li> A diagnosis of ASD is based on what a medical doctor or psychologist observes and learns about your child’s behaviour and development in the early years. </li> <li> ASD is not a mental illness. </li> <li> No one specific cause of ASD is known. </li> <li> There is no medical cure for the difference in the brain that cause ASD, but with the right treatment, some behaviours can be changed. </li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/what_is_autism_spectrum_disorder.jpgMain
What is cancer?WWhat is cancer?What is cancer?EnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyNAConditions and diseasesPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>There are many types of cancer, but there are some things that are similar in most cancers. Learn about cells, tumours and how cancer spreads.</p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe width="560" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/wENemDstwEQ?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> <p>For more videos regarding teens and cancer, please visit the <a href="https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PLjJtOP3StIuVPUkVxvdZfVGhAY_Dj-Vb7">Teens Taking Charge Cancer playlist</a>. <br></p></div><p>Cancer is not just one disease. There are over 100 different types of cancer, each with different names, effects and treatments. Even though each type of cancer is different, there are some basic things that are similar in most cancers. </p><p>To understand more about cancer, you first need to understand a bit about cells.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Cells reproduce to replace cells that have died or to make more cells as your body is growing.</li><li>Cancer happens when there is a mutation in the DNA of a normal cell, which can cause the cell to reproduce even when the body doesn't need it to.</li><li>A cancer with a higher grade is more likely to grow quickly and spread than a cancer with a lower grade.</li><li>Cancer cells can break away and travel to other parts of the body through the blood or lymph, and grow in a new part of the body. This is called metastasis.</li><li>Treatment will depend on many factors including where the cancer is, how fast it is growing and whether it has spread.</li></ul>Teens
What is chemotherapy?WWhat is chemotherapy?What is chemotherapy?EnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)BodyNADrug treatmentPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z10.200000000000045.2000000000000240.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment. Learn about the different types of chemotherapy medications, how your health-care team decides which types to use, and the role of corticosteroids in cancer treatment.</p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe width="560" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/APzhKldV-iM?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> <br></div><p> For more videos regarding teens and cancer, please visit the <a href="https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PLjJtOP3StIuVPUkVxvdZfVGhAY_Dj-Vb7">Teens Taking Charge Cancer playlist</a>.<br></p><h2>What is chemotherapy?</h2><p>Chemotherapy is the use of medications to treat cancer. You may hear these medications refered to as "chemo" drugs or chemotherapeutic agents.</p><p>Chemotherapy medications are considered cytotoxic. This means they may damage normal or healthy cells in addition to killing cancer cells. Special precautions may be needed when handling these drugs. </p><p>Other medications, such as corticosteroids, are non-cytotoxic. While they may not require special handling, they are still very important for your treatment.</p><p>You may also need to take medicines called supportive care drugs. These medications are not directed at the cancer but may be used to help manage symptoms and potential side effects of treatment.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Chemotherapy medications are used to treat cancer. They work by killing cancer cells but may also damage normal or healthy cells.</li><li>Corticosteroids are non-toxic medications that help to control inflammation in the body; they are also used in cancer treatment.</li><li>You may also need to take supportive care drugs to help you manage symptoms and side effects of the cancer treatment.</li><li>The type of chemotherapy medication your health-care team uses will depend on the type of cancer, where in the body the cancer started and where it has spread.</li></ul>Teens
What is confidentiality?WWhat is confidentiality?What is confidentiality?EnglishAdolescentTeen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionTeen (13-18 years)NA2021-11-10T05:00:00Z10.700000000000052.0000000000000992.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn more about confidentiality and your rights when it comes to sharing your personal health information (PHI).</p><h2>Confidentiality: Keeping your information private</h2><p> <em>Confidentiality</em> means to keep something private. For example, you may tell your best friend that you have a crush on someone and ask them to keep that information private or <em>in confidence</em>. This means you do not want your friend to tell anyone else.</p><p>When it comes to your personal health information (PHI), health-care providers have to follow a set of laws that specify that your health information cannot be shared with others without your permission. These laws also specify information that <em>cannot</em> be kept private by a health-care provider for safety reasons.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Confidentiality means to keep information private.</li><li>By law, your personal health information (PHI) is confidential and cannot be shared with others without your permission.</li><li>Some information may have to be reported to the proper authorities if it is related to your safety and the safety of others.</li><li>Health-care providers involved in your care are allowed to discuss your PHI with each other.</li><li>At any time, you may request your PHI be placed in a locked box. This means your information may only be accessed and shared by health-care providers with your consent.</li></ul><div class="callout2"><h2>We want to hear from you!</h2><p>AboutKidsHealth is trying to improve the information and education we provide young people (aged 12-18) and families through our website. After reading this article, please take 5 minutes to complete our Adolsecent Health Learning Hub survey.</p> <button> <a class="redcap-survey" href="https://surveys.sickkids.ca/surveys/?s=XHD3EK3XD4">click here</a></button> </div><h2>Resources</h2><p>Relevant laws for Ontario can be found at <a href="http://www.ontario.ca/">www.ontario.ca</a>:</p><ul><li> <a href="https://www.ontario.ca/laws/statute/96h02">Health Care Consent Act (1996)</a></li><li> <a href="https://www.ontario.ca/laws/statute/90m07">Mental Health Act (1990)</a></li><li> <a href="https://www.ontario.ca/laws/statute/04p03">Personal Health Information Protection Act (2004)</a></li><li> <a href="https://www.ontario.ca/laws/statute/92s30">Substitute Decisions Act (1992)</a></li><li> <a href="https://www.ontario.ca/laws/statute/90h08">Highway Traffic Act (1990)</a></li><li> <a href="https://www.ontario.ca/laws/statute/17c14">Child, Youth, Family Services Act (2017)</a></li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/What_is_confidentiality.jpgTeens
What is diabetesWWhat is diabetesWhat is diabetesEnglishEndocrinologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)PancreasEndocrine systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2016-10-17T04:00:00Z8.3000000000000061.6000000000000851.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Diabetes is a life-long condition. Learn what causes it and what role insulin plays in the body.</p><p>Diabetes is a life-long condition that occurs when the body is not able to use and store sugar for energy.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Diabetes occurs when the body is not able to use and store sugar for energy</li> <li>Insulin is made in the pancreas and helps the body use and store glucose for energy.</li> <li>In order for us to supply our bodies with energy, we must eat food.</li> <li>Carbohydrates are used for energy by the cells after they break down into sugar.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_pancreas_cells_EN.jpgMain
What is distraction?WWhat is distraction?What-is-distraction-CANEnglishRheumatology;AdolescentPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)BodySkeletal systemNAPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2017-01-31T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Distraction is another way to help you manage JIA pain and stiffness. Distraction can also help you manage your emotions and the stress that you may feel because of JIA. </p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/distraction_JIA_US.jpgTeens
What is fatigue?WWhat is fatigue?What is fatigue?-CANEnglishRheumatology;AdolescentPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)BodySkeletal systemNAPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)Joint or muscle pain;Pain2017-01-31T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about fatigue, a common problem associated with JIA, including its causes and how it may affect you in your day-to-day life.</p><p>Fatigue is when you feel extremely tired or exhausted. You may feel weak, and that can make it difficult for you to do the things you want to do. Fatigue is a common problem associated with JIA, especially during a flare.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>You may experience fatigue randomly or during a flare, or you may experience ongoing fatigue that gets worse during a flare.<br></li><li>Some things that can cause fatigue are JIA, joint and muscle pain and overdoing activities.</li><li>Symptoms of fatigue vary from person to person. Knowing how it makes you feel will help you manage it better.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/what_is_fatigue_JIA_US.jpgTeens
What is genetics?WWhat is genetics?What is genetics?EnglishGeneticsChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years);Adult (19+)NANAConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2022-06-09T04:00:00Z9.2000000000000050.1000000000000857.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about genetics and how genetics contribute to health and disease.</p><p>This page explains genetics concepts, including the role genes play in our body, the types of inheritance patterns, and how changes in genes are linked to health and disease.</p><h2> Key points </h2><ul><li>Genetics is the study of genes and heredity, and how they contribute to health and diseases.</li><li>We inherit traits from our biological parents that make up who we are.</li><li>Some genetic changes can cause health issues.</li><li>Learning about genetics can help us better understand, diagnose and manage disorders that have an underlying genetic cause.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Chromosomal_translocation_MED_ILL_EN.jpgMain
What is juvenile idiopathic arthritis?WWhat is juvenile idiopathic arthritis?What is juvenile idiopathic arthritis?EnglishRheumatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodySkeletal systemNAAdult (19+)Joint or muscle pain;Pain2017-01-31T05:00:00Z8.3000000000000058.5000000000000596.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>JIA can occur in young people, up to age 16. Discover the differences in arthritis between young people and adults, how common arthritis is in young people, and how it can affect the joints.</p><p>The word arthritis comes from the Greek words "arthron" meaning "joint," and "itis", meaning inflammation. Thus, arthritis is inflammation in the joints, the places where the bones come together. Many people think that arthritis is something only old people get. Children and teenagers get a type of arthritis called juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). "Juvenile" means young (16 years of age or younger) and "idiopathic" means the cause is not known. JIA is also sometimes called juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA).</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Arthritis is inflammation in the joints, the places where the bones come together.</li><li>JIA affects about 10,000 children and teens in Canada.</li><li>Symptoms of joint inflammation include redness, swelling, warmth, stiffness, and pain.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/what_is_jevenile_ideopathic_arthritis.jpgMain
What is pain?WWhat is pain?What is pain?-CANEnglishRheumatology;Pain/Anaesthesia;AdolescentPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)BodySkeletal systemNAPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)Joint or muscle pain;Pain2017-01-31T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out why and how you feel pain, whether from JIA or another source, such as a needle or cut, and learn the differences between acute and chronic pain.</p><p>Everyone has experienced pain, whether from a needle or a cut, or due to something more long-lasting like JIA.</p> <p>It is really hard to understand someone else’s pain because pain is very personal. It can be difficult for those around you to know how much pain you have when you may not have any visible signs of injury such as a cut, bruise or swollen joint. Likewise, it is hard to describe to other people what your pain feels like. It is like describing the taste of chocolate to someone who has never tasted chocolate before.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Pain is the body's warning system, alerting you that something is wrong.</li><li>Acute pain is called ordinary or nociceptive pain. It protects us from hurting ourselves.</li><li>Chronic pain refers to pain that has lasted for at least three months. It does not serve a useful purpose like warning us about something harmful.</li><li>It may not be possible to eliminate all pain due to JIA, but there are things you can do to reduce your pain.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/what_is_pain_JIA_US.jpgTeens
What is relaxation?WWhat is relaxation?What is relaxation?-CANEnglishRheumatology;AdolescentPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)BodySkeletal systemNAPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)Joint or muscle pain;Pain2017-01-31T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Relaxation is a skill you can learn and improve on with practice. Just like playing the guitar or baseball, the more you practice, the better you get. When you are relaxed, your body is limp and your muscles are loose. If you are sitting in a chair or lying in bed, you might feel your body sink as you let go of your tension. You will also notice your breathing become slow and deep. </p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/what%20_is_relaxation_JIA_US.jpgTeens
What is stiffness?WWhat is stiffness?What is stiffness?-CANEnglishRheumatology;AdolescentPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)BodySkeletal systemNAPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)Joint or muscle pain;Pain2017-01-31T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>You may experience stiff joints in the morning when your JIA is active. Learn about medications and physical methods to help with stiffness, as well as some coping strategies.</p><p>Stiffness means that you may have trouble moving your joints. When JIA is active, you probably have stiff joints first thing in the morning each day. This is called morning stiffness, and it can be one of the best measures of your disease activity.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>How much trouble you have moving your joints in the morning, or morning stiffness, can be one of the best measures of how active your JIA is.<br></li><li>The medications your doctor prescribes for JIA should help with stiffness as well as pain.</li><li>Other methods to help with stiffness include using heat, doing stretches and using coping strategies such as relaxation and distraction.</li></ul> https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/what_is_stiffness_JIA_US.jpgTeens
What is stress?WWhat is stress?What is stress?-CANEnglishRheumatology;AdolescentPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)BodySkeletal systemNAPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)Joint or muscle pain;Pain2017-01-31T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about stress and how it affects the body. Also learn the differences between good stress and bad stress.</p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/OBmtW92wo_g" frameborder="0"></iframe> <br></div> <p>Stress is a normal part of life. Stress happens to everyone. It is your body’s physical and emotional reaction to something that upsets your personal balance. To your body, stress means change. Anything that bothers you can create stress. In turn, stress can create tension in your body. Imagining an unwelcome change or event is also stressful. This is called worry.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Stress is your body's physical and emotional reaction to pressure or an unwelcome change.</li><li>Stressors can come from either the outside world or from inside yourself.</li><li>Stress can be good in small doses to help motivate you to do your best.</li><li>Stress that affects your physical and emotional well-being is known as bad stress and needs to be managed.<br></li></ul>Teens
What is the difference between IBD and IBS?WWhat is the difference between IBD and IBS?What is the difference between IBD and IBS?EnglishGastrointestinalPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Small Intestine;Large Intestine/ColonLarge intestine;Small intestineConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2011-01-24T05:00:00Z10.100000000000050.1000000000000829.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out how inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are each diagnosed and treated.<br></p><figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Digestive system</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_digestive_system_V3_EN.jpg" alt="The salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, large and small intestines, anus, pancreas, gallbladder and liver" /> </figure> <p>When children have chronic troubles with their digestive system and parents start looking for answers, they often get confused between <a href="/Article?contentid=823&language=English">irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)</a> and <a href="/Article?contentid=821&language=English">inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)</a>. While many of the symptoms of these two conditions are similar, there’s actually a large difference between the two. These differences also include how each is diagnosed and treated.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have similar symptoms but are different conditions.</li><li>IBD causes inflammation. There are two types of IBD, ulcerative colitis (affects the colon) and Crohn's disease (affects any part of the digestive system).</li><li>IBS does not cause inflammation. With IBS, the digestive system appears normal but does not work properly.</li></ul><p>For more information, you can reach Specialty Food Shop Dietitians with your nutrition questions by calling 1-800-737-7976 (toll-free line) Monday to Friday or by sending an e-mail to <a href="mailto:sfs.admin@sickkids.ca">sfs.admin@sickkids.ca</a>. Or, visit the web site at <a target="_blank" href="https://www.specialtyfoodshop.ca/">www.specialtyfoodshop.ca</a>.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_digestive_system_V3_EN.jpgMain
What teens need to know about bullyingWWhat teens need to know about bullyingWhat teens need to know about bullyingEnglishDevelopmental;AdolescentTeen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionTeen (13-18 years)NA2022-05-16T04:00:00Z6.8000000000000072.2000000000000526.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out what the different types of bullying look like and what do if you’re being bullied or if someone else you know is being bullied.</p><h2>What does bullying look like?</h2><p>Bullying can take many different forms. It includes:</p><ul><li>Punching, shoving and other acts that hurt people physically</li><li>Spreading rumours about people</li><li>Keeping certain people out of a group</li><li>Teasing people in a mean way</li><li>Getting other people to bully someone else</li><li>Sending harassing or threatening messages online or by text message (cyberbullying)</li><li>Threatening to do any of the above things</li></ul><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Bullying can take many different forms including hurting people physically, gossiping, teasing, and cyberbullying.</li><li>Dealing with a bully can be difficult but there are options you can try such as acting brave, ignoring them, standing up for yourself without being aggressive, and hanging out with friends who support you.</li><li>If you have been threatened or assaulted, call the police.</li><li>Never start or repeat rumours, or share messages or posts that could harm someone.</li></ul><h2>Resources</h2><p>For more information on bullying, visit <a href="https://www.prevnet.ca/bullying">www.prevnet.ca/bullying</a></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Bullying_teen.jpgTeens
What to avoid before scoliosis surgeryWWhat to avoid before scoliosis surgeryWhat to avoid before your scoliosis surgeryEnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Vertebrae;SpineMuscular system;Skeletal systemConditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2008-06-01T04:00:00Z8.0000000000000057.0000000000000369.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>There are certain preparatory steps that must be followed prior to having surgery. Learn about some things to avoid leading up to an operation for scoliosis.</p><p> It is important that your body be free of certain substances for surgery to proceed effectively. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>You will need to stop using hormone-based birth control at least one month before the surgery to decrease your risk of a blood clot.</li><li>You will need to stop smoking cigarettes and avoid second-hand smoke for up to one year after your surgery to help the bones in your spinal column to heal properly.</li><li>Avoid alcohol and drugs prior to your surgery, as they can react badly with anaesthetic and other medication you are given while in hospital.</li><li>Your surgery may be cancelled if you are sick, so try to avoid infections and contagious illnesses before surgery.</li><li>If you are easily constipated, you may want to take a laxative or some fibre two days before surgery to ensure that your bowels are empty.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/what_to_avoid_before_scoliosis_surgery.jpgTeens
What to bring to the hospital before transplant surgeryWWhat to bring to the hospital before transplant surgeryWhat to bring to the hospital before transplant surgeryEnglishTransplant;NephrologyTeen (13-18 years)KidneysRenal system/Urinary systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-ZTeens
What to do before scoliosis surgeryWWhat to do before scoliosis surgeryWhat to do before your scoliosis surgeryEnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Vertebrae;SpineMuscular system;Skeletal systemConditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2008-06-01T04:00:00Z8.0000000000000068.0000000000000265.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out what should be done prior to having an operation for scoliosis, such as when to stop eating and what to bring to the hospital.</p><h2>What to do before coming to the hospital</h2><p>On the day of your surgery, you will not be able to eat anything solid after midnight. You can drink clear fluids until 5:00 am but after that, have absolutely nothing to eat or drink, and no chewing gum or throat lozenges. It is really important to keep your stomach completely empty before you go for surgery. Anaesthesia should be given on an empty stomach. If there is food or drink in your stomach while you are under anaesthesia, you may throw up and inhale the vomit into your lungs. This can lead to serious complications. If you break any of these rules, your surgery will be cancelled.</p><p>If you are travelling from far away, you may decide to arrive the day before your surgery. The hospital can provide you with information about hotels or other accommodations that are close by.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>You should not eat any solid food after midnight the night before or drink any fluids after 5:00 am the morning of your surgery. It is important to keep your stomach completely empty before surgery.</li><li>The hospital can provide you with information about hotels or other accommodations that are close to the hospital if you are travelling from far away and need to arrive a day before surgery.</li><li>Make sure to bring the following with you for your stay at the hospital: your health card, important hospital paperwork, any medications you are taking, essential toiletries, pajamas, a change of clothes and personal items to keep you entertained.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/what_to_do_before_scoliosis_surgery.jpgTeens
What to do in case of a seizureWWhat to do in case of a seizureWhat to do in case of a seizureEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+) EducatorsNA2022-01-25T05:00:00Z7.7000000000000068.20000000000003185.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about what to do in case of a seizure to ensure your child's safety and comfort.</p><p>Some seizures only involve short periods of unresponsiveness and do not require specific interventions. Other types of seizures are more intense and require specific interventions, such as ensuring the child maintains a clear airway to allow air into the lungs. </p><p>It is important for you, your family members, teachers, babysitters and anyone else who looks after your child to know what to do when your child has a seizure. The most important things to do in response to any type of seizure are to remain calm and to keep your child safe. No matter what the seizure type, if your child seems to be having prolonged seizures, many seizures in a short period of time (clusters of seizures), or many more seizures than usual, seek medical attention.</p><p>The following are general suggestions for how to help your child when they are having a seizure. You may find that some tips work better than others, or that your child needs one particular type of help during a seizure. You may already know or will come to know what works best for your child. Let other people know as well. </p><p>For information on what to do for specific types of seizures, please see the following pages:</p><ul><li>Absence seizures</li><li>Tonic, clonic and tonic-clonic seizures</li><li>Myoclonic seizures</li><li>Atonic seizures</li><li>Simple partial seizures</li><li>Complex partial seizures</li><li>Status epilepticus</li><li>Neonatal seizures</li><li>Febrile seizures</li><li>Pyridoxine-dependent seizures</li></ul><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>When your child has a seizure, remain calm, keep them safe and make them as comfortable as possible.</li><li>Observe and take notes about your child's seizure, for instance when and how the seizure began, what your child's movements were like during and right after the seizure and how long the seizure lasted. </li><li>If possible, record a video of the seizure. This will be helpful to show health care providers. </li><li>Call 911 if your child's seizure lasts a long time (more than five minutes), if your child does not regain consciousness after a seizure or if your child seems confused for more than an hour after the seizure ends. </li><li>Call your child's health-care team if your child's seizure seems different from usual or are happening more often than usual. <br></li></ul>Main
What to do when you are booked in for a kidney transplantWWhat to do when you are booked in for a kidney transplantWhat to do when you are booked in for a kidney transplantEnglishTransplant;NephrologyTeen (13-18 years)KidneysRenal system/Urinary systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-ZTeens
What to do when you are booked in for a liver transplantWWhat to do when you are booked in for a liver transplantWhat to do when you are booked in for a liver transplantEnglishTransplant;GastrointestinalTeen (13-18 years)LiverDigestive systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-ZTeens
What to do when you are called in for a kidney transplantWWhat to do when you are called in for a kidney transplantWhat to do when you are called in for a kidney transplantEnglishTransplant;NephrologyTeen (13-18 years)KidneysRenal system/Urinary systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-ZTeens
What to do when you are called in for a liver transplantWWhat to do when you are called in for a liver transplantWhat to do when you are called in for a liver transplantEnglishTransplant;GastrointestinalTeen (13-18 years)LiverDigestive systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-ZTeens
What to do when your teen is not learning new health-care skillsWWhat to do when your teen is not learning new health-care skillsWhat to do when your teen is not learning new health-care skillsEnglishOtherTeen (13-18 years)NANAProceduresCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2021-03-03T05:00:00Z9.5000000000000063.8000000000000551.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn some of the reasons why teens may stop doing self-care tasks and what you can do to help them. Also learn about some of the issues that teens with special needs have and how to help them learn new tasks.</p><p>There are many reasons that a teen may not be doing well learning or maintaining self-care tasks. Teens can feel unmotivated, find the tasks annoying and interfering, or they may be burned out or overwhelmed. There are also teens with special needs, such as developmental disabilty, that may need additional help and more time to learn new skills.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>If your teen has stopped doing a self-care task or is not doing it well then talk to your teen about it. If that does not help then talk to someone on your teen’s health-care team.</li><li>Teens with special needs, such as developmental disability, may need more time and help to learn new skills.</li></ul><p> Share these teen-specific articles with your child about what to expect when transitioning to adult care: <a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/adolescenthealth?topic=adulthealthcare">Adolescent Health - Transition to Adult Care</a> and  <a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/adolescenthealth?topic=chronicconditions">Adolescent Health - Managing Chronic Conditions</a></p><p></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/transplant_what_to_do_when_your_teen_is_not_learning_new_healthcare_skills.jpgMain
What to do while waiting for your kidney transplantWWhat to do while waiting for your kidney transplantWhat to do while waiting for your kidney transplant EnglishTransplant;NephrologyTeen (13-18 years)KidneysRenal system/Urinary systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-ZTeens
What to do while waiting for your liver transplantWWhat to do while waiting for your liver transplantKeeping in contact with your liver transplant teamEnglishTransplant;GastrointestinalTeen (13-18 years)LiverDigestive systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-ZTeens
What to expect during a pelvic examWWhat to expect during a pelvic examWhat to expect during a pelvic examEnglishAdolescent;DevelopmentalTeen (13-18 years)Pelvis;BodyReproductive systemHealthy living and preventionTeen (13-18 years)NA2021-10-19T04:00:00Z9.6000000000000057.4000000000000719.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>To make sure that your reproductive organs are healthy, you should have a pelvic exam every 3 years, starting at age 25, or sooner if you are sexually active or have specific concerns . Find out what you can expect during your first pelvic exam.</p><div class="callout2"><h2>We want to hear from you!</h2><p>AboutKidsHealth is trying to improve the information and education we provide young people (aged 12-18) and families through our website. After reading this article, please take 5 minutes to complete our Adolsecent Health Learning Hub survey.</p> <button> <a class="redcap-survey" href="https://surveys.sickkids.ca/surveys/?s=XHD3EK3XD4">click here</a></button> </div><h2>What is a pelvic exam?</h2><p>A pelvic exam (or internal exam) is a test done by a health-care provider to examine your vulva, vagina and cervix for any abnormalities. Sometimes it also involves taking a sample from the vagina or cervix to test for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or for changes that can lead to cervical cancer.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A pelvic exam is a test done to examine the vulva, vagina and cervix for abnormalities and to test for STIs and changes that can cause cervical cancer.</li><li>A pelvic exam should be done once you turn 25 and then every 3 years after that if you are sexually active; however, you may have a pelvic exam before you turn 25 if you are sexually active or if you have any specific concerns.</li><li>A pelvic exam includes external and internal visual exams to check for any abnormalities. In some cases, you may also need a physical exam to check the size, shape and position of your internal reproductive organs.</li></ul>Teens

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