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Tracheostomy and ventilation manual for family caregiversTracheostomy and ventilation manual for family caregiversTracheostomy and ventilation manual TEnglishRespiratoryChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Lungs;TracheaRespiratory systemNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NALanding PageLearning Hub<p>This manual provides instruction on caring for your child's tracheostomy tube and ventilation needs when your child leaves the hospital.</p><div class="intro-img"> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/TrachLTV_family_Milestones_map.jpg?RenditionID=10" alt="" style="margin:5px;" /> </div><p>This learning hub hosts a manual that lets you review all the tracheostomy and long-term ventilation knowledge and skills you will learn in the hospital before your child goes home.</p><p>We have also developed a parent pathway to show the important steps in your child’s care before and after tracheostomy surgery. <a href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/PDF_TrachLTV_famMilestones.pdf">Download and print the pathway PDF</a>, if you wish, and use it to write down any questions and answers that may come up​.<br></p><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">1. Introduction to the respiratory system<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>The first step in learning how to manage your child’s tracheostomy tube needs is to understand how the body breathes air in and out. This section guides you through the different parts of the respiratory system and how they work together​.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2911&language=English">Anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2912&language=English">Typical breathing, heart rate and temperature ranges in children</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">2. Infection control</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Your child has a condition that requires a tracheostomy tube, so it is vital to minimize the risk of infections. This section outlines how to identify and respond to the signs of an infection and how proper handwashing and mouth care can help keep your child safe.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2913&language=English">Infection control: General knowledge</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2914&language=English">Infection control: Hand hygiene and mouth care</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">3. Tracheostomy tube management</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Your child’s tracheostomy tube is now a vital part of their airway. Learn about the different parts of a tracheostomy tube, how the tube can affect your child’s health and how to safely and effectively change your child’s tube and clean their equipment.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2915&language=English">Tracheostomy management: General knowledge</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2916&language=English">Tracheostomy tube types and parts</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2917&language=English">Changing a tracheostomy tube</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2918&language=English">Cleaning common tracheostomy equipment</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2919&language=English">Cleaning metal or silver tracheostomy tubes</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2920&language=English">Protecting your child's airway while bathing</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">4. Humidifiers<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Warming and humidifying (adding water to) the air your child breathes in can help thin out mucus and let your child breathe more easily. Find out about different types of humidifiers, how they work and how often they should be changed.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2921&language=English">Humidifiers: General knowledge</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2922&language=English">Heat and moisture exchanger (large volume nebulizer)</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2923&language=English">Non-heated humidifier</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2924&language=English">Heated high flow humidifier</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2925&language=English">Heated humidifier</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2926&language=English">Sterilizing water for your child's humidifier</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">5. Secretions and suctioning</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Secretions (mucus) are produced in the nose, mouth and trachea and need to be cleared regularly to help your child breathe. Discover how to prepare and clean suctioning equipment and supplies, do different types of suctioning and troubleshoot problems.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2927&language=English">Secretions and suctioning: General knowledge</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2928&language=English">Suction machines, catheters and depth</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2929&language=English">Preparing suctioning equipment and supplies</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2930&language=English">How to perform nasal suctioning</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2931&language=English">How to perform oral suctioning</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2932&language=English">How to perform tip suctioning</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2933&language=English">How to perform tube suctioning</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2934&language=English">How to perform deep suctioning</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2935&language=English">Cleaning suctioning equipment and troubleshooting problems</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">6. Stoma care</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>The stoma is the opening through which your child’s tracheostomy tube is inserted into their airway. It is important to keep this area clean and dry to prevent infections. Find out how to care for your child’s stoma and prevent skin breakdown at the stoma site.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2936&language=English">Caring for your child's stoma</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">7. Mechanical ventilation</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Mechanical ventilation uses a ventilator to move air into your child’s lungs through a tracheostomy tube when they cannot breathe well on their own. Learn about ventilator parts, settings and alarms and how to safely connect a ventilator to the tracheostomy tube.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2937&language=English">Mechanical ventilation: General knowledge</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2938&language=English">Types and modes of mechanical ventilation</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2939&language=English">Ventilator settings and alarms</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2940&language=English">Ventilator parts: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2941&language=English">Parts of the Philips Respironics 200 ventilator</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2942&language=English">Ventilator breathing circuits: Overview</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2943&language=English">Ventilator circuits: Tests and cleaning</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">8. Manual ventilation</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Manual ventilation lets you give air to your child through a manual resuscitation bag, for example after suctioning or if there is a problem with your child’s ventilator. This section explains how to perform manual ventilation and clean and test the bag.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2944&language=English">Manual ventilation: General knowledge</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2945&language=English">How to use a manual resuscitation bag</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2946&language=English">Caring for and cleaning a manual resuscitation bag</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">9. CPR<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>In most cases, unless there is a heart condition, a child will need cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) because of an underlying breathing emergency. Learn how to identify and prevent breathing emergencies and how to do CPR for a child with a tracheostomy tube.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2947&language=English">CPR: General knowledge</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2948&language=English">CPR: How to perform chest compressions</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2949&language=English">How to perform CPR for a child with a tracheostomy</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">10. Feeding and nutrition</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>When a child has a tracheostomy tube, they may not be able to swallow food and drink like other children. Find out how to tell if your child has swallowing difficulties and how to work with your child’s team to make sure your child gets the nutrients they need.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2950&language=English">Feeding when a tracheostomy tube is in place</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">11. Medications and vaccines</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Your child may need to regularly take medications for their lungs once they leave the hospital. Discover what you need to know about your child’s medications before they go home and how to deliver medications through a tracheostomy tube with a puffer or nebulizer.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2951&language=English">Medications and vaccines: General knowledge</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2952&language=English">Giving medication through a meter dose inhaler</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2953&language=English">Giving medication through a nebulizer</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">12. Community living</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>As you care for a child with a tracheostomy tube, you will rely on the support of your personal network and a range of healthcare and equipment providers. Organizing your contacts and travel arrangements in advance can help make things easier.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2954&language=English">Your community support network</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2955&language=English">Travelling safely with your child</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">13. Emergency planning</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Having an emergency plan in place not only helps your child but also helps you feel more in control when serious difficulties arise. Learn what to do in case of a fire or a power failure and which healthcare information to record for emergency services teams.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2956&language=English">Planning for medical emergencies</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2957&language=English">Preparing for a long-term power failure</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">14. Oxygen</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Home oxygen therapy is oxygen that is provided through a machine at home when your child leaves hospital. This section describes different home oxygen systems, how to give oxygen to your child at home and how to transport and organize supplies when travelling.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2958&language=English">Oxygen therapy: General knowledge</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2959&language=English">Types of home oxygen therapy systems</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2960&language=English">Giving oxygen to your child</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2961&language=English">Travelling when your child uses home oxygen therapy</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">15. Oxygen saturation monitoring</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Oxygen saturation is the amount of oxygen in your child’s red blood cells. An oximeter can monitor this to help you make sure your child is getting enough oxygen. Find out how to use and clean an oximeter and what to do if your child’s oxygen levels are low.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2962&language=English">Oxygen saturation monitoring: General knowledge</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2963&language=English">How to monitor your child's oxygen saturation levels</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">16. Pulmonary clearance</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Coughing is the body’s natural way to clear secretions from the lungs. If your child’s cough is weak, pulmonary clearance helps to strengthen it so they can clear their secretions. Discover how to safely perform the main types of pulmonary clearance techniques.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2964&language=English">Pulmonary clearance: General knowledge</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2965&language=English">Chest physiotherapy</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2966&language=English">Lung volume recruitment</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2967&language=English">CoughAssist</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2968&language=English">Manual assisted cough method</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">17. Communication</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>When a child has a tracheostomy tube, most of the air from their lungs bypasses their vocal folds. This can affect their ability to speak. Find out how a speaking valve can help your child, when and how to use a speaking valve and how to fix common problems.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2969&language=English">Communicating when a tracheostomy tube is in place</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2970&language=English">How to use a speaking valve</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">18. School readiness</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>School offers an important opportunity to learn, make friends and spend time outside the home. Learn how to make sure your child’s school environment is safe, which equipment your child needs at school and how to prepare for possible emergencies.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2971&language=English">Preparing your child for school</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">19. Diaphragmatic pacing<br></h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>Diaphragmatic pacing is another way to provide mechanical ventilation to your child. This section describes the surgery to place the electrodes and receivers under your child’s skin as well as how to perform pacing safely and fix any equipment problems.</p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2972&language=English">Diaphragmatic pacing: General knowledge</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2973&language=English">How to use diaphragmatic pacing with your child</a></li></ol></div><div class="panel panel-primary"><div class="panel-heading clickable"> <span class="pull-right panel-heading-collapsable-icon"><i class="mdi mdi-chevron-down"></i></span> <h2 class="panel-title">20. Additional information</h2></div><div class="panel-body list-group" style="display:none;"><p>In this section, you can learn about the approximate costs of equipment and supplies and the type of funding available through Ontario’s Assistive Devices Program. You can also find a checklist to remind you when to clean or replace your child’s supplies.<br></p></div><ol class="list-group" style="display:none;"><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2974&language=English">Equipment funding and costs</a></li><li class="list-group-item"> <a class="overview-links" href="/Article?contentid=2975&language=English">When to clean and replace trach-vent supplies</a></li></ol></div> <br>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/trach_vent_learning_hub.jpgtrachvent

 

 

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