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Obesity after brain tumour treatmentOObesity after brain tumour treatmentObesity after brain tumour treatmentEnglishNeurology;NutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-08-14T04:00:00ZEric Bouffet, MD, FRCPC Mary Barron, MSc, RD7.0000000000000066.0000000000000769.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>An in-depth discussion of the factors that can affect weight gain in children with brain tumours, and tips for maintaining a healthy weight.</p><p>Weight will be monitored during clinic visits. A healthy diet is very important. Regular physical activity is also crucial. There are some general guidelines to follow for maintaining a healthy weight, but further measures may need to be taken in some cases. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Steroid use, treatment or type of tumour, and hypothyroidism can all affect weight gain in children with brain tumours.</li> <li>If left unmanaged, obesity can lead to other health problems.</li> <li>Children should be as active as possible and establish healthy eating patterns.</li></ul>
Obesity: Medical complicationsOObesity: Medical complicationsObesity: Medical complicationsEnglishNABaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2016-02-02T05:00:00ZSeena Grewal, MD, MSc, FRCP(C);Robyn Legge, PhD;Jessica Watts, RN9.7000000000000054.5000000000000245.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>​Learn how obesity can lead to a range of medical complications.</p><p>Obesity carries a range of possible medical complications.​​</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Obesity leads to a range of short- and long-term medical complications, including heart disease and high blood pressure.</li><li>Other complications of obesity include diabetes and joint problems.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/obesity_medical_complications.jpg
Obsessive compulsive disorder: How it affects your child's lifeOObsessive compulsive disorder: How it affects your child's lifeObsessive compulsive disorder: How it affects your child's lifeEnglishPsychiatrySchool age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2016-07-19T04:00:00ZSandra L. Mendlowitz, PhD, C Psych​​10.300000000000052.3000000000000690.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>​Discover how OCD can impact a child's family and school life and their long-term future.</p><h2>What is the difference between OCD and occasional unusual thoughts or a preference for routine?</h2><p>Most people experience unwelcome thoughts or images now and then. Similarly, many children and teens, as well as adults, prefer specific routines from time to time.</p><p>Children usually express a preference for rituals from about 18 months until around age two to three. These are called age-dependent behaviours and are completely normal. During this time, it is not unusual for children to want to eat the ingredients of their meals in a particular order or have their toys lined up in a certain way, for example.</p><p>What separates these preferences and age-dependent behaviours from OCD is a person's ability to dismiss their thoughts and/or be flexible with their behaviour and still maintain regular function. For instance, someone without OCD would not get upset if their thought were interrupted and would not feel compelled (forced) to perform or complete a ritual.</p><p>In contrast, people with OCD tend to be very rigid in these situations. This is because they tend to dislike change and are consumed by following a routine sequence. If they are interrupted, they will insist on returning to the routine to complete it. Another difference is that completing a pattern, sequence or routine becomes very time-consuming.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>A child's OCD can disrupt family life, interfere with schooling and have a negative effect on relationships with peers.</li> <li>If left untreated, OCD can lead to other mental health conditions, social isolation and difficulty holding regular employment.</li> </ul><h2>Further information</h2><p>For more information about OCD, please see the following pages:</p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=285&language=English">OCD: Overview</a></p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=288&language=English">OCD: Signs and symptoms</a></p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=709&language=English">OCD: Treatment with psychotherapy and medications</a></p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=287&language=English">OCD: How to help your child</a></p><h2>Resources</h2><p>The following books and websites have some useful advice about OCD for parents and teens.</p><h3>Books</h3><p>Chansky, T. (2001). <em>Freeing Your Child from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: a Powerful, Practical Program for Parents of Children and Adolescents</em>. Harmony.</p><p>Derisley, J., et al (2008). <em>Breaking Free from OCD: a CBT Guide for Young People and Their Families</em>. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. </p><p>Dotson, A. (2014). <em>Being Me with OCD: How I Learned to Obsess Less and Enjoy My Life</em>. Free Spirit Publishing. </p><p>Jassi, A. (2013). <em>Can I Tell You about OCD? A Guide for Friends, Family, and Professionals</em>. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.</p><h3>Websites</h3><p>International OCD Foundation (2016). <a href="https://kids.iocdf.org/" target="_blank"><em>OCD in Kids</em></a> </p><p>TeenMentalHealth.org (2016). <em><a href="http://teenmentalhealth.org/learn/mental-disorders/obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd/" target="_blank">Obsessive Compulsive Disorder</a></em></p><p>AnxietyBC (2016). <em><a href="https://www.anxietybc.com/parenting/obsessive-compulsive-disorder" target="_blank">Obsessive Compulsive Disorder</a></em></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/obsessive_compulsive_disorder_affects.jpg
Obsessive compulsive disorder: How to help your childOObsessive compulsive disorder: How to help your childObsessive compulsive disorder: How to help your childEnglishPsychiatrySchool age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2016-07-19T04:00:00ZSandra L. Mendlowitz, PhD, C Psych​​9.4000000000000062.10000000000001383.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to avoid enabling your child's OCD and use limits, consistency and praise to improve symptoms over time.</p><br><br><p>Parents often engage in rituals to help their child feel less distressed. Unfortunately, parents can unintentionally reinforce a child's symptoms of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) by:</p><ul><li>performing a specific routine demanded by their child</li><li>changing their behaviour to accommodate their child's ritual</li><li>offering excessive reassurance.</li></ul><p>While <a href="/Article?contentid=709&language=English">psychotherapy and medications</a> play an important role in treating OCD, your everyday behaviour at home is extremely important in supporting your child as they cope with, and eventually recover from, their OCD.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Make sure that parents and caregivers take a consistent approach in helping a child manage their OCD.</li> <li>Accommodation and enabling OCD reinforce the disorder rather than weaken it.</li> <li>Rewards and brief praise provide important incentives for children to work through their OCD.</li> <li>Do not model or encourage OCD behaviours in your child.</li> <li>If you have OCD symptoms, seek your own treatment and be open with your child about it.</li> </ul><h2>Further information</h2><p>For more information about OCD, please see the following pages:</p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=285&language=English">OCD: Overview</a></p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=288&language=English">OCD: Signs and symptoms</a></p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=286&language=English">OCD: How it affects your child's life</a></p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=709&language=English">OCD: Treatment with psychotherapy and medications</a></p><h2>Resources</h2><p>The following books and websites have some useful advice about OCD for parents and teens.</p><h3>Books</h3><p>Chansky, T. (2001). <em>Freeing Your Child from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: a Powerful, Practical Program for Parents of Children and Adolescents</em>. Harmony.</p><p>Derisley, J., et al (2008). <em>Breaking Free from OCD: a CBT Guide for Young People and Their Families</em>. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. </p><p>Dotson, A. (2014). <em>Being Me with OCD: How I Learned to Obsess Less and Enjoy My Life</em>. Free Spirit Publishing. </p><p>Jassi, A. (2013). <em>Can I Tell You about OCD? A Guide for Friends, Family, and Professionals</em>. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.</p><h3>Websites</h3><p>International OCD Foundation (2016). <a href="https://kids.iocdf.org/" target="_blank"><em>OCD in Kids</em></a> </p><p>TeenMentalHealth.org (2016). <em><a href="http://teenmentalhealth.org/learn/mental-disorders/obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd/" target="_blank">Obsessive Compulsive Disorder</a></em></p><p>AnxietyBC (2016). <em><a href="https://www.anxietybc.com/parenting/obsessive-compulsive-disorder" target="_blank">Obsessive Compulsive Disorder</a></em></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/obsessive_compulsive_disorder_how_to_help.jpg
Obsessive compulsive disorder: OverviewOObsessive compulsive disorder: OverviewObsessive compulsive disorder: OverviewEnglishPsychiatrySchool age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2016-07-19T04:00:00ZSandra L. Mendlowitz, PhD, C Psych​​9.8000000000000054.7000000000000901.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Find out the main features and causes of OCD and what you can do to help your child.</p>​ ​<h2>What is obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)?</h2><p>OCD occurs when a person suffers from troubling and intrusive thoughts or images in their head and/or follows repetitive or strict patterns of behaviour (rituals) to feel less worried.</p><p>Most people with OCD, except very young children, recognize that the thoughts and/or images they experience are not true. However, they still believe them and feel compelled, or forced, to perform certain rituals to make them less troubling. This link between thoughts and behaviour means that it is more common for someone with OCD to experience obsessions and compulsions together than to experience either an obsession or a compulsion on its own.</p><p>Often, people with OCD engage in compulsive behaviour out of fear that something terrible will happen if they do not follow certain patterns. Completing the behaviour helps them feel "just right", if only for a short time. Teens and adults can express their worries about what will happen if they do not perform their ritual, but children — especially very young children — cannot do so.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>OCD is a disorder that causes a person to experience intrusive thoughts and/or repetitive behaviour.</li> <li>The main causes of OCD include genetics and chemical imbalances.</li> <li>A child may have OCD on its own or with other mental health conditions such as an anxiety disorder, depression, ADHD or an eating disorder.</li> <li>Speak to your child's doctor or paediatrician if you suspect that your child has OCD.</li> </ul><h2>What causes OCD?</h2> <p>The exact cause of OCD is unknown, but research is looking at many different factors.</p> <ul> <li>Genetics (characteristics that run in families) are known to play an important role in OCD. People who have relatives with OCD or anxiety have a greater chance of developing OCD in childhood.</li> <li>Abnormal levels of neurotransmitters (brain chemicals that carry information) are also known to play a part. In particular, low or imbalanced serotonin can contribute to OCD.</li> <li>OCD can also occur after a streptococcal infection. However, this type of OCD results from an autoimmune reaction where the body confuses its own tissues for the strep infection. Symptoms occur suddenly (many parents describe as almost overnight). As a result, it is <em>very</em> different from what occurs in what is normally considered to be childhood OCD.</li> </ul> <h2>How common is OCD?</h2> <p>OCD affects between 1 and 4 percent of children and teens, making it the fourth most common youth mental health problem today. Some studies have shown that as many as 8 percent of children and teens may have a mild form of OCD. This means that, while they may have some symptoms, they do not interfere significantly with their everyday routine.</p><h2>What to do if you suspect your child has OCD</h2> <p>If you suspect your child has OCD, speak to your child's doctor. They can refer your child to a specialist for diagnosis and treatment.</p> <p>If your child has already been diagnosed with anxiety, seek help for OCD from someone who is experienced in using <a href="/Article?contentid=709&language=English">CBT <em>and</em> treating OCD</a>. It is not enough to see a therapist experienced in anxiety treatment on its own, as different skills are needed to treat OCD.</p><h2>Further information</h2><p>For more information about OCD, please see the following pages:</p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=288&language=English">OCD: Signs and symptoms</a></p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=286&language=English">OCD: How it affects your child's life</a></p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=709&language=English">OCD: Treatment with psychotherapy and medications</a></p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=287&language=English">OCD: How to help your child</a></p><h2>Resources</h2><p>The following books and websites have some useful advice about OCD for parents and teens.</p><h3>Books</h3><p>Chansky, T. (2001). <em>Freeing Your Child from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: a Powerful, Practical Program for Parents of Children and Adolescents</em>. Harmony.</p><p>Derisley, J., et al (2008). <em>Breaking Free from OCD: a CBT Guide for Young People and Their Families</em>. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. </p><p>Dotson, A. (2014). <em>Being Me with OCD: How I Learned to Obsess Less and Enjoy My Life</em>. Free Spirit Publishing. </p><p>Jassi, A. (2013). <em>Can I Tell You about OCD? A Guide for Friends, Family, and Professionals</em>. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.</p><h3>Websites</h3><p>International OCD Foundation (2016). <a href="https://kids.iocdf.org/" target="_blank"><em>OCD in Kids</em></a> </p><p>TeenMentalHealth.org (2016). <em><a href="http://teenmentalhealth.org/learn/mental-disorders/obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd/" target="_blank">Obsessive Compulsive Disorder</a></em></p><p>AnxietyBC (2016). <em><a href="https://www.anxietybc.com/parenting/obsessive-compulsive-disorder" target="_blank">Obsessive Compulsive Disorder</a></em></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/obsessive_compulsive_disorder_overview.jpg
Obsessive compulsive disorder: Signs and symptomsOObsessive compulsive disorder: Signs and symptomsObsessive compulsive disorder: Signs and symptomsEnglishPsychiatrySchool age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2016-07-19T04:00:00ZSandra L. Mendlowitz, PhD, C Psych​​10.300000000000058.20000000000001017.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Find out about the range of OCD signs and symptoms in children and teens and how the disorder is diagnosed.</p><p>OCD is often called "the secret disorder" because symptoms often go unnoticed or unrecognized by parents and others.</p><p>When unusual behaviours are observed, many children either justify them or react so strongly that frustrated parents often tolerate or enable the behaviours to avoid conflict. But without follow-up and treatment, OCD can get worse.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Warning signs of OCD include resisting change, spending too much time on routine tasks, refusing to touch things with bare hands or experiencing outburst when unable to do things a certain way.</li> <li>Obsessive symptoms include excessive fears and doubt and taboo thoughts. Compulsive symptoms include repeated checking or counting or needing to do things in a certain order or a certain number of times.</li> <li>Less obvious signs can include lack of hot water, wet floors, constant changing of clothing or behaviour that isolates your child from others.</li> <li>OCD is diagnosed through an interview with a psychologist or psychiatrist.</li> </ul><h2>General warning signs of OCD</h2> <p>In general, children and teens with OCD experience similar warning signs of worry as other children and teens, but they show them differently.</p> <p>Key warning signs of OCD include:</p> <ul> <li>excessively seeking reassurance</li> <li>resisting change</li> <li>spending too much time completing things, getting dressed or eating a meal (longer than would be expected for the child's age)</li> <li>redoing tasks</li> <li>refusing to touch objects with bare hands</li> <li>excessively washing hands, body and so on</li> <li>having red, dry or cracked hands (for example from repeated washing or skin picking)</li> <li>being excessively interested in numeric patterns</li> <li>experiencing outbursts when unable to complete things in a certain way</li> </ul> <h3>Common obsessive symptoms in children and teens</h3> <p>The most common obsessive symptoms in children and teens include:</p> <ul> <li>fears of contamination or illness</li> <li>fears of harming others or themselves</li> <li>a need for symmetry and order</li> <li>excessive doubt</li> <li>religious fears (regarding guilt or moral values and divine punishment)</li> <li>taboo thoughts (such as sexual thoughts or thoughts considered as immoral)</li> </ul> <h3>Common compulsive symptoms in children and teens</h3> <p>The most common compulsive symptoms in children and teens include:</p> <ul> <li>prolonged and repeated washing of hands or body parts</li> <li>refusing to touch things</li> <li>repeated checking or counting</li> <li>needing to do things in a specific order or specific way</li> <li>needing to do things a certain number of times</li> <li>excessive interest in routines, rituals or patterns</li> <li>unusually frequent religious praying, well beyond what would be expected</li> </ul> <h2>Less obvious signs of OCD</h2> <p>Children and teens tend to display symptoms of OCD at home first, but not all of these are obvious. As a parent, it is important to be aware of the less obvious signs of OCD, as these can also impair a child's, and family's, quality of life.</p> <p>Indirect signs to watch for include:</p> <ul> <li>excessive use of hot water, hand soap, shower gel or toilet paper</li> <li>frequent clogging of toilets</li> <li>excessive loads of "dirty" clothes for laundry</li> <li>wet floors (if a child or teen will not dry themselves with a towel)</li> <li>towels on the bathroom floor</li> <li>constant changing of clothing (for instance having "inside" and "outside" clothes)</li> <li>insistence on putting items used in school in just one area of the home</li> <li>using only one specific washroom in a public space, for example at school</li> <li>behaviour that isolates your child from others, such as avoiding going to friends' homes, not sharing pencils or pens, not sharing food, making friends repeat things and repeated questioning that does not seem to make sense.</li> </ul><h2>How OCD is diagnosed</h2> <p>OCD is diagnosed through an interview with an experienced and regulated healthcare professional such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. During the interview, you and your child will be asked about your child's symptoms and how they affect your child's life.</p> <p>The psychologist or psychiatrist may also use some standard questionnaires to help them make a diagnosis. Here are some common questions that they may ask you or your child about your child's thoughts and behaviour.</p> <ul> <li><em>Have you ever had a bad thought, image or picture in your head that bothered you and kept coming back even though you tried not to think about it?</em></li> <li><em>Have you ever had to do something over and over again that you couldn't stop doing, such as checking your school work or making sure you read all the words on a page?</em></li> <li><em>Did you ever feel like your hands were still dirty or had germs on them, even though you just washed them?</em></li> <li><em>Does your child take an unusually long time in the washroom or showering?</em></li> <li><em>Does your child ever appear 'stuck' in a routine, where they cannot move on to a different task until something has been completed a certain way?</em></li> </ul> <p>The healthcare professional will usually ask questions about other problems or concerns about a child. This is because, for example, "bad" thoughts may not mean OCD but instead may be part of an <a href="/Article?contentid=270&language=English">anxiety disorder</a> or even <a href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">depression​</a>.</p> <p>This is why it is important to get a thorough assessment of your child's symptoms. An early and proper diagnosis leads to effective treatment and an improved quality of life for both the child and the rest of the family.</p> ​<h2>Further information</h2><p>For more information about OCD, please see the following pages:</p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=285&language=English">OCD: Overview</a></p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=286&language=English">OCD: How it affects your child's life</a></p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=709&language=English">OCD: Treatment with psychotherapy and medications</a></p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=287&language=English">OCD: How to help your child</a></p><h2>Resources</h2><p>The following books and websites have some useful advice about OCD for parents and teens.</p><h3>Books</h3><p>Chansky, T. (2001). <em>Freeing Your Child from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: a Powerful, Practical Program for Parents of Children and Adolescents</em>. Harmony.</p><p>Derisley, J., et al (2008). <em>Breaking Free from OCD: a CBT Guide for Young People and Their Families</em>. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. </p><p>Dotson, A. (2014). <em>Being Me with OCD: How I Learned to Obsess Less and Enjoy My Life</em>. Free Spirit Publishing. </p><p>Jassi, A. (2013). <em>Can I Tell You about OCD? A Guide for Friends, Family, and Professionals</em>. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.</p><h3>Websites</h3><p>International OCD Foundation (2016). <a href="https://kids.iocdf.org/" target="_blank"><em>OCD in Kids</em></a> </p><p>TeenMentalHealth.org (2016). <em><a href="http://teenmentalhealth.org/learn/mental-disorders/obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd/" target="_blank">Obsessive Compulsive Disorder</a></em></p><p>AnxietyBC (2016). <em><a href="https://www.anxietybc.com/parenting/obsessive-compulsive-disorder" target="_blank">Obsessive Compulsive Disorder</a></em></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/obsessive_compulsive_disorder_warning_signs.jpg
Obsessive compulsive disorder: Treatment with psychotherapy and medicationsOObsessive compulsive disorder: Treatment with psychotherapy and medicationsObsessive compulsive disorder: Treatment with psychotherapy and medicationsEnglishPsychiatrySchool age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANANon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2016-07-19T04:00:00ZSandra L. Mendlowitz, PhD, C Psych​​10.100000000000052.0000000000000624.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn how psychotherapy and medications can help improve the symptoms of OCD.</p><p>OCD is known to be treated successfully with both psychotherapy and medications.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>CBT for OCD should be conducted by a clinician experienced in treating OCD.</li> <li>CBT and ERP should always be tried before medications are prescribed.</li> <li>Medications are generally used with CBT in cases of more severe OCD.</li> </ul><h2>Psychotherapy for OCD</h2> <h3>Cognitive behavioural therapy</h3> <p>Research has shown cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) to be a very effective treatment for OCD. CBT is a type of therapy in which a person learns to:</p> <ul> <li>recognize how their thoughts, feelings and behaviours are connected</li> <li>challenge their worries or unrealistic thoughts</li> <li>replace their thoughts with more rational or realistic thoughts</li> </ul> <p>With OCD, the person over-estimates the importance of an intrusive thought. This can then make them feel anxious. The rituals they create offer temporary relief from their anxiety, but they provide no real guarantee that the thought will not recur. As a result, the ritual is repeated, usually several times, until the person "feels right" or has repeated the actions a special number of times.</p> <p>CBT helps to address the anxiety a child with OCD might feel, but another treatment, exposure response prevention (ERP), helps them to challenge their thoughts and learn relaxation techniques such as deep breathing and muscle relaxation.</p> <h3>Exposure response prevention (ERP)</h3> <p>As its name suggests, ERP consists of two major parts: exposure and response prevention.</p> <ul> <li>Exposure involves having your child confront the feared situation (for example touching an object they think is contaminated).</li> <li>Response prevention involves keeping the child from acting on their immediate compulsion (for example preventing them from washing their hands immediately).</li> <li>While parents may help stop the child completing the ritual, (for example by turning off the main water valve so there is no running water), the child eventually must be able to stop themselves independently.</li> </ul> <p>ERP is designed to allow the child to tolerate the anxiety without following the ritual. At first, not following the ritual is the most difficult part of treatment for the child, but, over time, their anxiety naturally reduces and the link between the fear and ritual weakens.</p> <p>If your child needs ERP, it is not unusual to have many sessions before they stop the ritual. Even still, this treatment remains the most effective way to treat OCD.</p><h2>Further information</h2><p>For more information about OCD, please see the following pages:</p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=285&language=English">OCD: Overview</a></p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=288&language=English">OCD: Signs and symptoms</a></p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=286&language=English">OCD: How it affects your child's life</a></p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=287&language=English">OCD: How to help your child</a></p><h2>Resources</h2><p>The following books and websites have some useful advice about OCD for parents and teens.</p><h3>Books</h3><p>Chansky, T. (2001). <em>Freeing Your Child from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: a Powerful, Practical Program for Parents of Children and Adolescents</em>. Harmony.</p><p>Derisley, J., et al (2008). <em>Breaking Free from OCD: a CBT Guide for Young People and Their Families</em>. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. </p><p>Dotson, A. (2014). <em>Being Me with OCD: How I Learned to Obsess Less and Enjoy My Life</em>. Free Spirit Publishing. </p><p>Jassi, A. (2013). <em>Can I Tell You about OCD? A Guide for Friends, Family, and Professionals</em>. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.</p><h3>Websites</h3><p>International OCD Foundation (2016). <a href="https://kids.iocdf.org/" target="_blank"><em>OCD in Kids</em></a> </p><p>TeenMentalHealth.org (2016). <em><a href="http://teenmentalhealth.org/learn/mental-disorders/obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd/" target="_blank">Obsessive Compulsive Disorder</a></em></p><p>AnxietyBC (2016). <em><a href="https://www.anxietybc.com/parenting/obsessive-compulsive-disorder" target="_blank">Obsessive Compulsive Disorder</a></em></p> https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/obsessive_compulsive_disorder_psychotherapy.jpg
Obstructive sleep apneaOObstructive sleep apneaObstructive sleep apneaEnglishRespiratoryChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANasopharynxConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2017-08-02T04:00:00ZSuhail Al-Saleh, MBBS, MSc, FRCPC​8.8000000000000058.3000000000000855.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Sleep apnea is a condition that affects a child's breathing while they are sleeping. Learn about the causes, symptoms and diagnosis.</p><h2>What is obstructive sleep apnea?</h2> <p>Paediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), or sleep apnea, happens when a child's airway becomes partially or completely blocked while they are sleeping. The blockage of the airway can cause snoring, gasping, pauses in breathing and changes in the body's oxygen levels.</p> <p>Sleep apnea affects one to five children in 100. If your child snores, for example, it may not always be due to sleep apnea.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs when a child’s airway becomes blocked while they are sleeping.</li> <li>Common causes of sleep apnea in children are larger than normal tonsils or enlarged adenoids. Other causes include excess body weight and weakness in the muscles involved in breathing.</li> <li>Nighttime symptoms of sleep apnea include snoring, breathing through the mouth and restless sleeping. Daytime symptoms include drowsiness, poor concentration and lack of energy.</li> <li>Sleep apnea is diagnosed through a sleep study. Treatment can include surgery, a weight loss program or positive airway pressure.</li> </ul><h2>Nighttime symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea</h2> <p>If your child has obstructive sleep apnea, you will recognize a number of signs while you watch them sleep. These may include:</p> <ul> <li>snoring — this may be continuous or with pauses or may only occur in certain body positions (for example while your child lies flat on the back) or during certain periods of sleep</li> <li>breathing only through the mouth </li> <li>restless sleep</li> <li>long pauses in breathing</li> <li>frequently waking up at night</li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=799&language=English">sweating</a></li></ul> <p>When your child is experiencing restless sleep, they may be turning from side to side, jerking their legs or sitting up in an attempt to breathe better while still asleep.</p> <h2>Daytime symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea</h2> <p>Because your child is waking up many times during the night, they are not rested in the morning. As a result, they may have the following symptoms during the day:</p> <ul> <li>sleepiness, especially at school or during quiet activities</li> <li>learning difficulties</li> <li>poor concentration for homework</li> <li>lack of energy for sports and hobbies</li> <li>irritability, hyperactivity, impulsivity or aggression.</li> </ul><h2>What causes obstructive sleep apnea?</h2><p>Common causes of obstructive sleep apnea in children are larger than normal <a href="/Article?contentid=748&language=English">tonsils</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=831&language=English">enlarged adenoids</a> at the back of the nasal passages (the airways behind the nose). Obstructive sleep apnea due to enlarged tonsils or adenoids commonly occurs in children aged two to eight years.</p><p>Other possible causes of obstructive sleep apnea include:</p><ul><li>a child being overweight or <a href="/Article?contentid=640&language=English">obese</a></li><li>weakness in the muscles involved in breathing, such as the diaphragm and muscles in the neck and around the ribs, such as in a neuromuscular disease (a disease that affects the nerves and muscles)</li><li>the shape and size of a child's skull and jaw</li><li>other health conditions that affect your child's airways or ability to breathe.</li></ul> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Tonsils and adenoids</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Tonsils_adenoid_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Location of tonsils and adenoids" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Common causes of sleep apnea include enlarged adenoids or tonsils.</figcaption> </figure><h2>How is sleep apnea diagnosed in children?</h2> <p>Your health-care provider will usually refer your child to a sleep medicine specialist in the hospital. The sleep medicine specialist will meet with you to see if your child's symptoms need a closer look. If so, your child will come back to the hospital for a <a href="/Article?contentid=1287&language=English">sleep study</a>.</p> <p>This study is an overnight sleep "test" during which your child will have wires attached to their skin with paste and child-friendly tape. The wires do not hurt and are connected to a machine. As your child sleeps, the machine will record their oxygen level, breathing pattern, heart beat and sleep pattern. A sleep technologist will also observe your child during the study.</p> <p>Once the sleep study is over, a sleep respiratory therapist will study the recordings on the machine to identify the type of sleep problem your child has and how serious it is.</p><h2>How is obstructive sleep apnea treated?</h2> <p>Obstructive sleep apnea can be treated with:</p> <ul> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=1019&language=English">surgery to remove your child's tonsils and/or adenoids</a></li> <li>a weight loss program if your child is overweight or obese </li> <li>medicines to reduce swelling in the nasal passage or airway </li> <li>continuous <a href="/Article?contentid=977&language=English">positive airway pressure</a> therapy (commonly known as CPAP) </li> <li>reduced exposure to <a href="/Article?contentid=1963&language=English">second-hand tobacco smoke</a> and other indoor and outdoor forms of pollution</li> </ul> <p>If your child has other medical conditions that may affect or be affected by obstructive sleep apnea, the sleep medicine team may refer them to other specialists and clinics to make sure they get the best treatment.</p><h2>Why is it important to diagnose and treat obstructive sleep apnea?</h2><p>It is important to diagnose obstructive sleep apnea early. If it is not treated, it can be linked to other health issues, such as:</p><ul><li>cardiovascular complications, including high <a href="/Article?contentid=1257&language=English">blood pressure</a></li><li>not growing well or gaining weight</li><li>learning difficulties at school</li><li>behavioural problems such as <a href="/Article?contentid=1922&language=English">hyperactivity</a> or inattention.</li></ul><h2>At SickKids</h2><p>The sleep medicine team at SickKids includes:</p><ul><li>a respirologist — a doctor specially trained to diagnose and manage sleep disorders in children</li><li>a nurse practitioner</li><li>a respiratory therapist</li><li>a sleep technologist</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=1153&language=English">a child life specialist</a></li></ul><p>Other members of the health care team, such as a <a href="/Article?contentid=1168&language=English">social worker</a> or a psychiatrist, may provide specialized care when needed.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Tonsils_adenoid_MED_ILL_EN.jpg
Occupational therapy after brain tumour surgeryOOccupational therapy after brain tumour surgeryOccupational therapy after brain tumour surgeryEnglishNeurology;DevelopmentalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemNon-drug treatmentAdult (19+)NA2009-07-10T04:00:00ZErin Lawson, BA, OT8.5000000000000065.9000000000000406.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>An in-depth description of the problems your child might have with swallowing after brain tumour surgery, and some useful solutions.</p><p>​Your child may benefit from an occupational therapist (OT) to improve their ability to do everyday tasks. In the hospital, the OT can help identify areas of difficulties such as thinking, eating, or playing skills. If your child is having any problems swallowing, they should be referred to an OT. Once your child is at home, they may need to continue to use the services of an OT in the community. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>An occupational therapist can help with difficulties in fine motor, gross motor, thinking and swallowing skills.</li> <li>The OT will observe your child while they eat and drink, and may recommend a feeding study to see what your child can safely eat and drink.</li></ul>
Occupational therapy for JIAOOccupational therapy for JIAOccupational therapy for JIAEnglishRheumatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodySkeletal systemNon-drug treatmentAdult (19+)NA2017-01-31T05:00:00ZJennifer Stinson RN-EC, PhD, CPNPLori Tucker, MDKristi Whitney, BSc PT, MScChristine O’Brien, OT Reg (Ont), MScAdam Huber, MSc, MD, FRCPCLynn Spiegel, MD, FRCPC8.7000000000000055.4000000000000773.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Occupational therapy can be beneficial for children and teenagers with JIA. Find out what an occupational therapist does and about common occupational therapy services, such as assistive devices and splints.</p><p>An occupational therapist can help a child function their best at school, work, and play. Occupational therapy can help to reduce a child's pain. It can help to maximize their strength, endurance, and physical function. Occupational therapy can make them more independent in their activities of daily living.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Occupational therapy can help reduce a child's pain; maximize their strength, endurance and physical function; make them more independent in their activities of daily living.</li> <li>Occupational therapists are trained in fine motor assessment and treatment, hand function, the design and fabrication of hand splints.</li> <li>Occupational therapy services for JIA include assistive devices and splints.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Splints_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg
Ocular albinismOOcular albinismOcular albinismEnglishGeneticsChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)EyesNervous systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2011-08-11T04:00:00ZJoanne Sutherland, MSc7.0000000000000068.70000000000001212.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Ocular albinism (OA) is a genetic condition that affects the pigment in the eyes. It causes poor eyesight. OA does not affect the pigment in the skin or the hair. </p><h2>What is albinism?</h2><p>Albinism is a name used for genetic conditions that cause a person to have no pigment or less pigment than usual. Pigment is what gives our eyes, skin and hair their colour. </p><p>There are two types of albinism.<br></p><p>When the skin, hair and eyes are involved, it is called oculocutaneous albinism (OCA).</p><p>When the eyes are involved, but skin and hair colouring are normal, it is called ocular albinism (OA).<br></p><p>Both types of albinism will cause your child to have poor eyesight. Each child's vision will be affected in a different way. Albinism does not usually cause other medical problems or cause your child to have poor health. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Ocular albinism is a genetic condition that affects the pigment in the eyes.</li> <li>OA affects only boys.<br></li> <li>Your child can see but has impaired vision.</li> <li>There are devices and tips that can help your child see better and to succeed in school.</li> </ul><h2>Characteristics of ocular albinism</h2> <h3>Eye colour </h3> <p>People with albinism often have pale blue eyes because they have very little pigment in the iris. Most children with albinism do not have red or pink eyes. </p> <h3>Iris transillumination</h3> <p>When an eye doctor shines a bright light into an eye unaffected by albinism, the light bounces back out through the pupil. This is the effect that causes "red eye" in photographs. For children with albinism the light comes through the iris as well as the pupil. This is called iris transillumination. Most likely only the eye doctor will be able to tell if your child has iris transillumination.</p> <h3>Nystagmus</h3> <p>Nystagmus (say: na-STAG-mass) causes the eyes to "shake" or move rapidly. The eyes may move side to side, up and down or in a circle. Most children with albinism have some form of nystagmus. The shaking decreases with age and will usually level off by the time your child is seven. </p> <p>People sometimes think that nystagmus causes children to see a "moving world". This is a myth. </p> <h3>Chiasmal misrouting</h3> <p>In the eyes of a person without albinism, the optic nerve leaves each eye and goes to the centre of the brain. This is where the pathways from each eye meet in a structure called the optic chiasm. At the chiasm, about half of the nerve fibres travel to the opposite of the brain from where they started. The other half travel to the same side of the brain as they started. The crossing of the nerves helps us see properly and transmit images from the eye to the brain.</p> <p>For a person affected with albinism, the nerves split unevenly. For example, instead of half going to each side of the brain, 30 per cent may go to one side and 70 per cent to the other. This is called chiasmal misrouting. </p> <p>Most people with albinism have chiasmal misrouting. It is uncommon in people who do not have a form of albinism. To find out if your child has chiasmal misrouting the eye doctor will do a test called a visual evoked potential (VEP).</p> <h3>Light sensitivity</h3> <p>Most people with albinism are sensitive to bright lights. This can be uncomfortable but is usually not painful. Your child may want to wear sunglasses or a peaked cap both inside and outside to protect the eyes from bright lights. </p><h2>Who ocular albinism affects</h2> <p>OA is an x-linked disorder, which means it affects only boys. Women can be carriers of ocular albinism. <br></p><h2>Vision care for children with albinism</h2> <p>Your child with albinism should visit the eye doctor at least once per year to have their eyes tested.</p> <p>Ask your eye doctor about your child's visual acuity (VA) before they start kindergarten. If your child has poor visual acuity (20/70 or worse), they may need vision aids for school. </p> <p>Your child will probably sit very close to the television and will hold books very close to their face. This is normal for children with albinism and will not hurt their eyes.</p> <h2>Devices and tips to help your child's vision</h2> <p>Your child may need assistive devices to see as well as possible. In Ontario, the Assistive Devices Program (ADP) may help you pay for devices to help your child's vision. Ask your eye doctor for a referral for a low-vision assessment. This type of service can show you devices to help your child see as well as possible.</p> <h3>These devices and tips may be especially helpful in school:</h3> <h3>Low tech</h3> <ul> <li>Eye glasses may help some children but will not give them 20/20 vision.</li> <li>Corning lenses are specially tinted eye glass lenses for light-sensitive children.</li> <li>A monocular is a mini-telescope that can be useful for seeing distances, especially for young students. Most monoculars come on a lanyard for your child to wear around their neck.</li> <li>Make sure your child has an itinerant teacher. This is a special teacher who comes to your child's class to make sure they have what they need to do well in school, such as large print books and an arrangement to sit at the front of the classroom.</li> <li>Closed circuit television (CCTV) is a machine that enlarges the print in books and photographs. Your child should have one at home and one at school.</li> <li>White canes are usually not used by people with albinism for getting around. They can, however, be a useful safety device to alert others, especially drivers, that your child is visually impaired.</li> </ul> <h3>High tech</h3> <p>High tech vision aids can be useful for older students once they need to do a lot of reading.</p> <ul> <li>Software programs (for example, JAWS and ZOOMTEXT) can help increase the size of icons, cursor and fonts when using the computer.</li> <li>Computerized dictation programs.</li> <li>Video cameras that bring images closer and can attach to a laptop computer.</li> </ul><h2>Support</h2><p>National Organization for Albinism and Hypopigmentation (NOAH) <a href="http://www.albinism.org/">www.albinism.org</a></p>
Oligoarticular arthritisOOligoarticular arthritisOligoarticular arthritisEnglishRheumatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodySkeletal systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)Joint or muscle pain;Pain2017-01-31T05:00:00ZJennifer Stinson RN-EC, PhD, CPNPLori Tucker, MDAdam Huber, MSc, MD, FRCPCLynn Spiegel, MD, FRCPCLaura Schanberg, MDPatrick McGrath, OC, PhD, FRSC10.300000000000043.5000000000000378.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Oligoarticular arthritis is the most common type of arthritis in young people, affecting four joints or less in the first six months of symptoms. Find out more about the two different types of oligoarticular arthritis.</p><p>Oligoarticular (pronounced: oh-lee-go-ar-tik-yoo-lur) arthritis occurs in 50% to 60% of children and teenagers who have JIA. It is the most common type of JIA in children and teenagers. It affects up to four joints in the first six months of symptoms. There are two types of oligoarticular arthritis. These are oligoarticular-persistent arthritis and oligoarticular-extended arthritis.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Oligoarticular arthritis is the most common type of JIA in children and teens, affecting up to four joints in the first six months of symptoms.</li><li>There are two types: oligoarticular-persistent arthritis an oligoarticular-extended arthritis.</li><li>Both types have a high risk of eye disease called uveitis.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/arthritis_oligoarticular_persistent_MED_ILL_EN.jpg
Ongoing care after heart surgeryOOngoing care after heart surgeryOngoing care after heart surgeryEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemDrug treatment;Non-drug treatmentAdult (19+)NA2010-01-15T05:00:00ZJennifer Russell, MC, FRCPC11.000000000000047.0000000000000718.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about ongoing care for children with congenital heart disease. Frequency of evaluation, adult care, and non-cardiac surgery are discussed.<br></p><p> This page explains what kind of care your child will need after they have been treated for a heart condition.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>Children who have been treated for heart conditions must be regularly monitored as the heart can change over time.</li> <li>Your child's cardiologist will tell you how frequent follow-up visits should be.</li> <li>Your child needs regular dental care to reduce the risk of infective endocarditis.</li> <li>If your child needs surgery that is unrelated to their heart condition, all the health care professionals involved must know about their congenital heart disease as they face a slightly higher risk from surgery.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/ongoing_care_after_heart_surgery.jpg
Ongoing care for premature babiesOOngoing care for premature babiesOngoing care for premature babiesEnglishNeonatologyPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)NANAHealthy living and preventionPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZAndrew James, MBChB, MBI, FRACP, FRCPC11.100000000000050.40000000000001014.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about ongoing care options for your premature baby. Premature babies may have both short and long-term effects from their experience. </p><p>Premature babies, especially those who were born very early or who had complications in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), may have both short-term and long-term effects from their experience. The range and severity of these effects is large, from nearly undetectable to severely debilitating. As these babies prepare to leave the NICU, parents gradually become more responsible for their complete care so that transition to home or a less intensive care environment is easier.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>The chances that a baby will have ongoing medical and developmental concerns are usually related to how premature the baby was at birth and the complications which occurred.</li> <li>For developmental benchmark purposes your baby will have two ages: their actual, chronological age, and their corrected age.</li> <li>Health-care professionals can help parents understand what is normal development and behaviour for their growing baby.</li> <li>Parents should observe and record their child's behaviour, as well as learn basic lifesaving skills such as CPR and first aid.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/ongoing_care_for_premature_babies.jpg
Ongoing care of brain and behaviour problemsOOngoing care of brain and behaviour problemsOngoing care of brain and behaviour problemsEnglishNeurologyPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)BrainNervous systemHealthy living and preventionPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZHilary Whyte, MSc, MB, BCh, BAO, MRCPI, FRCPC12.000000000000042.0000000000000548.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about ongoing care for brain and behavior difficulties that may arise for your premature baby. Complications caused by a shunt are discussed.</p><p>Probably the biggest fear parents of premature babies have is that there has been some sort of lasting damage to the brain and the baby will not develop normally. Depending on their experience in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), a reasonable prediction of your baby’s abilities in terms of physical, mental, or behavioural ability may not be possible. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>It is very difficult to predict the outcome for a baby with a brain injury, as disability from brain injury can take months to appear.</li> <li>Sequential scans of the baby’s brain will be done to evaluate whether there is a need for an intervention such as shunt surgery.</li> <li>Complications from a shunt can occur and are usually caused by blockage in the tubing or an infection.</li></ul>
Ongoing care of breathing problemsOOngoing care of breathing problemsOngoing care of breathing problemsEnglishRespiratoryPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)LungsRespiratory systemHealthy living and preventionPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZAndrew James, MBChB, MBI, FRACP, FRCPC10.900000000000048.00000000000001160.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about ongoing care options for a premature baby's breathing problems. CLD, supplemental oxygen, and ventilation are discussed.</p><p>The first thing that parents can do before bringing home a premature baby who has had lung complications in the NICU, is to clean the house and remove air pollution sources. Potential allergens should be removed and smoking should not be allowed in the house. Depending on the circumstances, parents may also want to consider not having a pet. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Chronic lung disease (CLD) is the most common reason for re-hospitalization during the first year of a premature baby’s life.</li> <li>Signs of respiratory distress include indrawing, increased respirations, nostril flaring, and a change in baby's colour or level of awareness.</li> <li>If a baby is sent home with supplemental oxygen or specific medications, parents must learn how to properly use them.</li></ul>
Ongoing care of heart conditionsOOngoing care of heart conditionsOngoing care of heart conditionsEnglishCardiologyPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)HeartCardiovascular systemHealthy living and preventionPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZPatrick McNamara, MB, BCh, BAO, FRCPC11.000000000000048.0000000000000660.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about ongoing care for heart problems that your premature baby may be at risk for. Medications, cardiologists, and evaluations are discussed.</p><p>Most graduates of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) with heart conditions will be in the recovery phase, while others might be awaiting surgery. Usually, any heart complications have been resolved, at least temporarily, by the time a premature baby has gone home. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>If a baby's heart is weakened in any way it can affect the development of movement and other activities as the lungs often become congested.</li> <li>Your baby may be sent home with heart medications to help their heart and other parts of the body function better.</li> <li>The type of condition and the success of the treatment will determine the level of follow-up care your baby will require in the future.</li></ul>
Ongoing care: feeding and nutritionOOngoing care: feeding and nutritionOngoing care: feeding and nutritionEnglishGastrointestinal;NutritionPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)Esophagus;Stomach;Small Intestine;Large Intestine/ColonDigestive systemHealthy living and preventionPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZChris Tomlinson, MBChB, BSc11.000000000000050.0000000000000711.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about ongoing care for a premature baby in terms of feeding and nutrition. Learn about what is normal, and what may be a concern.</p><p>It can be difficult to tell when a baby is showing normal feeding behaviour and whether they're getting enough nutrition. Staff at the follow-up clinic can help parents deal with any potential feeding and nutrition issues.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Although baby growth is predictable within a certain range, most babies will go through periods when they eat more and periods when they eat less, making it difficult for some parents to know if this is normal feeding behaviour.</li> <li>In general, you will know that your baby is getting enough milk in the first two weeks if they pass three to four substantial bowel movements and wets six or more diapers per day.</li> <li>Premature babies may require more nutritional supplements to either breast milk or formula than do full-term babies, such as iron and vitamins.</li> <li>If your baby suffered from anaemia in the NICU, watch for signs of recurrence once they are home.</li></ul>
Opioids for painOOpioids for painOpioids for painEnglishPain/AnaesthesiaChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyCentral nervous system;Peripheral nervous system;Autonomic nervous systemSymptomsCaregivers Adult (19+)Pain2014-05-16T04:00:00ZAnna Taddio, PhD;Laura Wang, RPh11.300000000000043.3000000000000687.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn why opioids such as morphine, fentanyl and codeine are prescribed and how they help manage pain in children.</p><p>Although there are many types, formulations and strengths of opioids, they are all chemically related to the same poppy plant that produces opium. Opioids are either synthetically produced or natural products and are among the oldest and best-known pain medicines.</p><ul><li>Opioids are among the oldest and best-known pain medications.</li><li>When taken exactly as instructed, opioids are very effective in treating moderate to severe pain with no risk of overdose or addiction.</li><li>The most commonly used opioids are morphine, oxycodone, hydromorphone, fentanyl and codeine.</li><li>Opioid side effects include constipation, drowsiness, itching, nausea, vomiting, mood changes and, most seriously, shallow and slow breathing.</li></ul><p>​SickKids has developed a <a href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/OpioidSafetyChecklist.pdf" target="_blank">checklist for parents and caregivers on the safe use and disposal of opioids</a>. Always speak with your child's health-care team if you have any questions or concerns about your child's opioid prescription.<br></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Medications_for_JIA.jpg
Optic and hypothalamic gliomasOOptic and hypothalamic gliomasOptic and hypothalamic gliomasEnglishNeurology;OncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-07-10T04:00:00ZEric Bouffet, MD, FRCPC12.000000000000024.000000000000067.0000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about hypothalamic gliomas and optic gliomas, their causes, and potential medical symptoms.<br></p><p>Optic and hypothalamic gliomas are usually benign, slow-growing tumours. Optic gliomas are located along the nerves involved with sight. Hypothalamic gliomas occur in an area of the brain called the hypothalamus. This area is involved in growth, sexual development, sleep patterns, regulating the body’s temperature, water balance, appetite, blood sugar levels, and the breakdown of fat from food (fat metabolism). </p> <p>These tumours are types of low grade glioma but unlike other low grade gliomas, optic and hypothalmic gliomas cannot be removed surgically due to the irreversible damage surgery would cause. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Optic gliomas are located along the nerves involved with sight and hypothalamic gliomas occur in an area of the brain called the hypothalamus.</li> <li>Optic and hypothalmic gliomas are usually benign and slow-growing.</li> <li>The cause of these tumours is unknown but children with NF1 have a slightly increased risk.<br></li> <li>Some symptoms include a swollen optic nerve ( papilledema), abnormal eye movements ( nystagmus), and personality changes.</li></ul>
Oral rehydration therapyOOral rehydration therapyOral rehydration therapyEnglishOtherNewborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years)BodyNANon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-08-13T04:00:00ZShawna Silver, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, PEng9.9000000000000050.7000000000000985.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Find out how oral rehydration therapy can treat dehydration caused by viral gastroenteritis.</p><p>Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is a treatment for <a href="/Article?contentid=776&language=English">dehydration</a>. It involves drinking a special mixture of water, glucose and salts to return the amount of fluids, sugars and electrolytes in the body to normal levels.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is an effective form of treatment for dehydration caused by gastroenteritis.</li> <li>ORT is an effective alternative to intravenous therapy and can be given in a range of settings.</li> <li>Oral rehydration solution (ORS) can be bought in stores in a pre-mixed bottle or packaged powder.</li> <li>ORS should be given in small, frequent amounts.</li> <li>If your child's dehydration or sickness does not improve with ORT, take them to the hospital for treatment.</li> </ul><h2>When to get medical attention for dehydration</h2> <p>Go to the nearest emergency room if your child:</p> <ul> <li>has not passed urine in more than 12 hours</li> <li>is unusually sleepy or cranky</li> <li>refuses to drink and continues to have diarrhea or vomiting</li> <li>continues to drink but vomits and cannot keep anything down.</li> </ul><h2>Benefits of oral rehydration therapy</h2> <p>If your child becomes severely dehydrated, they may need to have their fluids replaced through an intravenous line (IV). However, oral rehydration therapy is as effective as, if not better than, intravenous fluid therapy for rehydrating mild or moderately dehydrated children.</p> <p>There are a number of reasons for this.</p> <ul> <li>ORT is less traumatic for a child, as they will not need needle "pokes" for the IV or blood work.</li> <li>ORT is easier to give in a range of settings, including at home. </li> </ul> <h2>What is in a typical oral rehydration solution?</h2> <p>An oral rehydration solution (ORS) is a specially-created solution that contains a mixture of:</p> <ul> <li>water</li> <li>glucose</li> <li>sodium, potassium and other electrolytes.</li> </ul> <p>Together, these ingredients help replace lost fluids and nutrients that the body needs to work properly. The solution normally takes about five minutes to start passing from the digestive system into the blood stream.</p><h2>How to give oral rehydration solution to your child</h2> <p>Give your child oral rehydration solution in small, frequent amounts. Use a spoon or dropper to make sure the first doses are very small. Small amounts will allow your child to better retain the ORS and reduce the chance of vomiting from the extra fluid in their system.</p> <p>Gradually increase the amount of ORS until your child is able to drink the full dose recommended for them.</p> <p>If your child refuses to drink the ORS, squirting the solution into their mouth with a syringe can be helpful.</p> <p>In very rare cases, where a child refuses to drink the ORS by any of these measures, a <a href="/Article?contentid=2457&language=English">nasogastric feeding tube</a> can be used in hospital.</p><h2>Re-introducing food to a child after gastroenteritis<br></h2><p>As soon as your child has been rehydrated, you can start early refeeding. This involves re-introducing age-appropriate foods, which promotes better nutrition and reduces the duration of diarrhea.</p><p>If a breast-fed infant is dehydrated, continue breastfeeding throughout the illness. In non-breastfed infants, offer undiluted formula. The formula does not need to be lactose free.</p><h2>Where to get oral rehydration solution</h2> <p>Oral rehydration solution is sold at most pharmacies in:</p> <ul> <li>pre-mixed bottles</li> <li>packaged powders that need to be mixed with water.</li> </ul> <p>Examples of commercial brands of ORSs include Pedialyte, Infalyte and Resol. </p> <p>Pre-mixed liquid ORSs have the correct balance of fluids, salts and glucose. ORS powders are cheaper and have a longer shelf life. However, if a powder is not mixed with the exact amount of water specified, the resulting solution can either be too concentrated or too diluted, making it less effective.</p> <p>Whether you use a pre-mixed bottle or packaged powder, follow the dosage directions exactly to maximize the effectiveness of the ORS.</p><h2>Sources</h2> <p>Canadian Paediatric Society (2006). <em>Oral rehydration therapy and early refeeding in the management of childhood gastroenteritis.</em> Paediatr Child Health 2006;11(8):527-31.</p> <br> <p>Canadian Paediatric Society (2011; re-affirmed 2014).<em> <a href="http://www.cps.ca/documents/position/oral-ondansetron" target="_blank">Emergency department use of oral ondansetron for acute gastroenteritis-related vomiting in infants and children</a>.</em>Paediatr Child Health 2011;16(3):177-9.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/oral_rehydration_therapy.jpg
Oral thrushOOral thrushOral thrushEnglishInfectious DiseasesNewborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)MouthMouthConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2010-03-05T05:00:00ZSheila Jacobson, MBBCh, FRCPC64.90000000000007.20000000000000463.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>A summary of causes, symptoms and treatments of oral thrush, an infection of the mouth most often found in infants during the first year of life.</p><h2>What is oral thrush?</h2> <p>Oral thrush is an infection of the mouth. The infection occurs most often in babies in the first year of life.</p> <h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Oral thrush is a yeast infection of the mouth.</li> <li>The infection occurs most often in babies during the first year of life.</li><li>White lesions that look like cottage cheese may form on the tongue or other parts of the mouth.</li><li>Infected breast-feeding women may have red or sensitive nipples.</li><li>Antifungal gel or drops are used to treat the infection.</li><li>In order to prevent another infection, sterilize baby bottles and thoroughly clean nipples.</li></ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of thrush</h2> <p>The main symptoms of oral thrush are:</p> <ul> <li>white lesions that look like cottage cheese may appear on your baby's tongue (these lesions may appear on the inner cheeks and gums, and sometimes on the roof of the mouth)</li> <li>occasionally pain, fussiness or irritability, and difficulty feeding</li> </ul> <p>Breast-feeding women infected by the baby's mouth during breastfeeding may have:</p> <ul> <li>red, sensitive or itchy nipples</li> <li>flaky or shiny skin on the areola</li> <li>pain during nursing</li> <li>sharp pains deep within the breast</li> </ul> <h2>Causes of thrush</h2> <p>Oral thrush is caused by an overgrowth of yeast. The yeast is called <em>candida albicans</em>. The yeast occurs naturally in the mouth. The infection occurs when there is more yeast in the mouth than normal. </p> <p>Thrush is common in babies. It can be caused by medications like antibiotics or corticosteroids. </p> <h2>Risk factors</h2> <p>Thrush is more likely to develop in:</p> <ul> <li>normal healthy babies</li> <li>babies with weak immune systems</li> <li>babies taking antibiotics or corticosteroids</li> </ul> <h2>Treating thrush</h2> <p>Your child's doctor will physically examine your child. If thrush is diagnosed, the doctor may prescribe <a href="/Article?contentid=202&language=English">antifungal drops</a>. If the mother is breastfeeding, the doctor may prescribe antifungal lotion to apply to your nipples so your baby does not get infected again.</p> <h2>Complications</h2> <p>Oral thrush is rarely a severe problem for healthy babies. Usually it does not hurt or affect feeding. If your child has a weak immune system, thrush can be more serious. In such cases, the infection can spread to the digestive tract, blood, lungs, liver and other body organs.</p> <h2>When to seek medical assistance</h2> <p>Once you notice creamy yellow or white spots on the tongue, gums or lining of the mouth, see the doctor. This is very important if your baby seems unwell or is feeding poorly.</p> https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/oral_thrush.jpg
Orchidopexy: Surgery for undescended testiclesOOrchidopexy: Surgery for undescended testiclesOrchidopexy: Surgery for undescended testiclesEnglishUrologyBaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)TesticleTesticleProceduresCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-10T05:00:00ZCathy Daniels, RN, MS, ACNP;Dalia Bozic, RN, BScN;Walid Farhat, MD6.8000000000000066.9000000000000892.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>An orchidopexy is an operation for undescended testicles. What happens during surgery, and how parents can care for their child at home afterwards.</p><h2>What are undescended testicles?</h2> <p>Normally before a baby boy is born, the testicles move into the scrotum (the sac that holds the testicles). Sometimes, though, one or both testicles stay in the body cavity instead of moving into the scrotum. This is called <a href="/Article?contentid=884&language=English">undescended testicles</a> or cryptorchidism, which means "hidden testicle."</p> <h2>What is an orchidopexy?</h2> <p>An orchidopexy is an operation to lower the testicles into the scrotum. Your son may need to have this operation on one or both testicles. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>An orchidopexy is an operation for undescended testicles. </li> <li>The surgery usually does not require an overnight stay at the hospital. </li> <li>Boys will have to avoid strenuous activity for a few days after the operation. </li> <li>Parents will have to clean and change the bandage at the incision site. </li> </ul><h2>Making sure there are no problems</h2> <p>Most children have no problems getting better after their operations. Your child's scrotum may be swollen and bruised after the operation. This will go away after a few days. Some children get infections in the scrotum or in their incision lines, the place where the doctor cut through the skin to operate. Your child may have an infection if he has one or more of these signs: </p> <ul> <li>increased pain at the incision line </li> <li>a red incision line </li> <li>swelling or puffiness at the incision line </li> <li>liquid leaking from the incision line </li> <li>a <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a> higher than 38.5°C </li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a> (throwing up) </li> <li>stomach pain or stomach ache </li> <li>loss of appetite </li> <li>tiredness or no energy </li> </ul> <p>If your child has one or more of these signs, see your child's doctor.</p> <p>Sometimes, a testicle will twist or rise up again after the operation. A doctor must see your child right away if he has any of these signs: </p> <ul> <li>has severe pain or swelling </li> <li>has difficulty or is unable to urinate (pee) </li> </ul> <p>Call the hospital and ask for the surgeon on call if you are worried that your child's testicle is twisted or has risen up.</p> <h2>When you suspect a problem</h2> <p>Talk to a doctor if you have any concerns. Call your child's surgeon, the doctor who did your child's operation.</p><h2>What happens during the operation</h2> <p>Your child will be given a special "sleep medicine" called a <a href="/Article?contentid=1261&language=English">general anesthetic</a>. This will make sure that he sleeps during the operation. </p> <p>The doctors will make a small incision (cut) in the area at the top of your child's leg, called the groin. They will gently move your son's testicle into the scrotum. If both testicles need descending, there will be two incisions, one on each side of the groin. </p> <p>The operation usually takes about one hour per testicle.</p> <p>Usually an orchidopexy is an out-patient operation. This means the operation is done on the day that your child comes to the hospital. Your son will have to spend a few hours waking up from the surgery. Your son can probably go home after the operation. He will not stay in the hospital overnight. </p>
Organ and tissue donation by children with a heart conditionOOrgan and tissue donation by children with a heart conditionOrgan and tissue donation by children with a heart conditionEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2010-05-19T04:00:00Z9.8000000000000055.2000000000000702.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about organ and tissue donation by children with a heart condition.<br></p><p> This page explains how organ and tissue donation is carried out.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>Organ and tissue donation can save a life or improve its quality.</li> <li>The heart, liver, kidneys, pancreas, lungs, small bowel, stomach, corneas, heart valves, bone, and skin can all be donated.</li> <li>Organ donors have brain injuries that cannot be treated with medicines or operations. </li></ul>
Organization tips for parents of a child with a complex illnessOOrganization tips for parents of a child with a complex illnessOrganization tips for parents of a child with a complex illnessEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANASupport, services and resourcesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2012-06-13T04:00:00ZNA7.2000000000000065.9000000000000348.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Taking care of a medically complex child can be a daunting task. Staying organized may help to make your life easier.</p><p>Being a full-time case manager on top of parenting a medically complex child can be a daunting task. Finding ways to do things faster and smarter can make your life easier down the road.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>There is a lot to keep track of when you are caring for a child with a complex condition. Staying organized may help to make your life easier.</li> <li>Suggestions to staying organized include designating a work area; having the right tools; creating a status document; have a system to keep track of different types of information; and find a daily calendar system that works for you.</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/organization_tips_for_parents_complex_illness.jpg
Organized sports: A winning formula for childrenOOrganized sports: A winning formula for childrenOrganized sports: A winning formula for childrenEnglishPreventionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-07-16T04:00:00ZGreg Wells, PhD;Shawna Silver, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, PEng10.200000000000053.10000000000001451.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the benefits of taking part in organized sports for your child.</p><p>Sporting events occur so often throughout the year that it is usually easy to find at least one athlete, player or team to support. Families can come together to follow an athlete or team’s performance and children can quickly pick up the rules of a game without any pressure to perform.</p><p>As children get older, the time usually comes to move them from spectator to participant and sign them up for an organized sport, whether at school or in a local club. With good support and the right sport for their age and skills, they can reap many benefits.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Organized sports can improve a child’s self-esteem, teach them about teamwork and help them develop self-discipline and social skills.</li> <li>A child should only take part in an organized sport that matches their sport readiness. This makes sure the sport is safe and enjoyable.</li> <li>Parents can help a child stick with a sport by focusing on fun and fitness rather than perfecting skills.</li> <li>When considering activities in which to enroll your child, take time to talk to the coach and find out how they work.</li> <li>Allow your child enough downtime away from sporting activities if they are taking part in a competitive league.</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/organized_sports_a_winning_formula_for_children.jpg
OsteomyelitisOOsteomyelitisOsteomyelitisEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NABonesConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2016-02-15T05:00:00ZMollie McConnell, NP (Ped);Michael Weinstein, MD, FRCP (C), FAAP9.0000000000000056.0000000000000795.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone. Learn more about the diagnosis and treatment of osteomyelitis. </p><h2>What is osteomyelitis?</h2><p>Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone. Bones of our <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=skeleton-child">skeleton</a> are living parts of our body.</p><p>They get their "food" supply from the blood.</p><ul><li>They grow.</li><li>They heal when broken.</li><li>They get infections like any other part of the body.</li></ul><p>Bacteria, a type of germ, can settle into the bone and infect it. Bacteria get to the bone through the bloodstream or from surrounding tissue (such as from a cut or wound). It is usually unclear how bacteria get in the body and reach the bloodstream.</p><p>Children are at higher risk for osteomyelitis because their immune system is not fully developed. They also tend to have breaks in their skin allowing bacteria to get into the body. Because they are growing, children have a rich supply of blood to the growing parts of the bone allowing infections to spread quickly.</p><p>Osteomyelitis in children usually affects the long bones of the arms and legs. The two most common bacteria that cause bone infections in children are <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Group A streptococcus</em>.</p> <figure class="asset-c-100"> <span class="asset-image-title">Osteomyelitis (bone infection)</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_osteomyelitis_EN.jpg" alt="Illustration of bacteria entering the body, then entering the bloodstream and causing an infection in the bone" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone due to bacteria that entered the body. Through often unclear routes, the bacteria enter the bloodstream that can then lead into the bone causing a bone infection.</figcaption> </figure> <br><h2>Key points </h2> <ul> <li>Osteomyelitis is a bone infection.</li> <li>Osteomyelitis can be diagnosed with MRI or X-ray.</li> <li>It requires a long course of antibiotic treatment at the hospital and then at home.</li> <li>Follow up with your child’s health-care team is necessary to ensure your child has fully recovered and can resume their normal activities.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of osteomyelitis</h2> <p>The signs and symptoms of osteomyelitis include:</p> <ul> <li>pain</li> <li>difficulty moving the affected area (for example limping)</li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a></li> <li>redness and swelling of the affected area</li> </ul><h2>Diagnosis of osteomyelitis</h2> <p>If your child’s health-care team members suspect osteomyelitis, they will perform <a href="/Article?contentid=36&language=English">blood tests</a> and imaging tests. Blood tests will include looking at markers of infection and inflammation, and looking for bacteria in the blood. Imaging tests may include:</p> <ul> <li>X-rays: These images, often normal early on, start showing signs of osteomyelitis after approximately two weeks of symptoms.</li> <li>An <a href="/Article?contentid=1270&language=English">MRI</a>: MRI looks more closely at the bones and soft tissues, and also helps your health-care team know whether or not there is a bone infection.</li> <li>A <a href="/Article?contentid=1304&language=English">bone scan</a>: This sensitive imaging test can show a bone infection about two weeks before it is visible on X rays.</li> </ul><h2>Treatment of osteomyelitis</h2> <h3>At the hospital</h3> <p>At the hospital, your child will receive antibiotics through one of their veins (intravenous) until they have improved. It usually takes a few days to about one week to get better. To assess how your child responds to treatment, the members of the health-care team will be monitoring your child’s:</p> <ul> <li>fever</li> <li>pain</li> <li>ability to use the affected limb</li> </ul> <p>The team will also repeat some of the blood tests to see whether inflammation has decreased. A physiotherapist can also help with exercises for the affected limb.</p> <p>Sometimes the joint can be infected as well. This is called septic arthritis. If there is a collection of infection, such as an abscess, your child may need to be seen by an orthopedic surgeon.</p> <p>Once your child is ready to go home, the health-care team will give them an antibiotic to take by mouth. Your child will need to take this antibiotic for at least three to six weeks. In some cases, longer courses of intravenous antibiotics may be needed. The health-care team will discuss this with you if necessary. </p> <h3>At home</h3> <p>Upon discharge home from the hospital, let pain be the guide of your child’s activity level. You may continue to administer over the counter pain relievers such as <a href="/Article?contentid=153&language=English">ibuprofen</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=62&language=English">acetaminophen</a> as needed. When there is infection present in the bone, the bone becomes more fragile and is more likely to break with accidental falls or injury. Your child should avoid contact sports and strenuous physical activity until a member of your health-care team says otherwise.</p> <p>Your child will have a follow up visit with a member of their health-care team before the course of antibiotics is complete. At this visit, your child’s health-care provider will look for any signs of infection and will make sure your child has fully recovered and can return to all of their usual activities. </p> <p>Your child should not have any long-term consequences if the condition is found early and fully treated.</p><h2>When to see a doctor</h2> <p>Go see a doctor if:</p> <ul> <li>Symptoms return or worsen.</li> <li>Your child develops a fever.</li> <li>Redness and swelling appears at the affected area.</li> <li>Your child has difficulty moving the affected area.</li> <li>Your child does not tolerate the antibiotic.</li> </ul> <p>If you live in Ontario and you are unsure about your child’s symptoms, you can call Telehealth at 1-866-797-0000 (toll-free number).</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_osteomyelitis_EN.jpg
Osteopenia of prematurityOOsteopenia of prematurityOsteopenia of prematurityEnglishNeonatology;Orthopaedics/MusculoskeletalPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)NASkeletal systemConditions and diseasesPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZAndrew James, BSc, MBChB, FRACP, FRCPCAideen Moore, MD, FRCPC, MRCPI, MHSc11.500000000000036.8000000000000183.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about osteopenia, a decrease in bone density and ultimately bone strength. Osteopenia is treated with nutritional supplements such as vitamin D.</p><p>Osteopenia is a decrease in bone density and ultimately bone strength. Some degree of osteopenia is common in lower birth weight preemies. The condition puts premature babies at risk for fractures.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Osteopenia is a decrease in bone density and bone strength.</li> <li>Osteopenia is treated with nutritional supplements to promote bone growth.</li></ul>
Osteoporosis after brain tumour treatmentOOsteoporosis after brain tumour treatmentOsteoporosis after brain tumour treatmentEnglishNeurology;Orthopaedics/MusculoskeletalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous system;Skeletal systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-08-14T04:00:00ZEric Bouffet, MD, FRCPC9.0000000000000053.0000000000000604.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Detailed information on how osteoporosis can develop in your child as a result of brain tumour treatment, and preventative methods to be taken.</p><p>Osteoporosis is a weakening of the bones. With osteoporosis, the bones are weak because they are less dense and can break easily. Children who have been treated for a brain tumour have an increased chance of developing osteoporosis as they get older. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Children who have been treated for brain tumours may be at increased risk of bone loss, which can make the bones become weaker.</li> <li>Growth problems can increase the risk of osteoporosis, and treatment can increase some of the factors that affect bone density.</li> <li>Calcium and vitamin D supplements may be needed and your child should try to maintain a healthy and active lifestyle.</li></ul>
Osteoporosis: Managing bone painOOsteoporosis: Managing bone painOsteoporosis: Managing bone painEnglishMetabolicChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyBonesNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2013-12-17T05:00:00ZAnne Murphy, RN8.0000000000000066.0000000000000452.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Bone pain is one of the most challenging aspects of osteoporosis. Learn about the different ways that bone pain can be treated.</p><p>Bone pain is one of the most challenging aspects of <a href="/Article?contentid=948&language=English">osteoporosis</a> for children, families and even health-care providers. Some children with osteoporosis will have bone pain often, but others might only have pain when they fracture a bone.</p><p>Sometimes it can be very difficult to decide if your child's pain is related to their bones or has another cause. Always discuss your child's pain with their bone health doctor or nurse.​<br></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>A child with osteoporosis can have pain for many different reasons. Always discuss your child's bone pain with a health-care provider.</li> <li>Bone pain can be treated with over-the-counter medications, hot and cold compresses, movement and proper footwear.</li> <li>You can also help your child take their mind off their pain by using their imagination or relaxing their muscles.</li> </ul><h2>Over-the-counter medications</h2> <ul> <li>Your child's doctor or nurse may recommend that your child try over-the-counter pain medications such as <a href="/Article?contentid=62&language=English">acetaminophen</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=153&language=English">ibuprofen</a>.</li> <li>Follow the instructions on the box or ask your pharmacist for help when giving pain medications to your child.</li> </ul> <h2>Heat and cold</h2> <ul> <li>Switch between hot and cold compresses on the area of bone pain. You can buy products to make hot and cold compresses in a pharmacy or grocery store. Or, if you prefer, you can make compresses yourself by soaking a cloth in hot or cold water and sealing it inside a plastic bag.</li> <li>Always wrap the compress in a towel before applying it to your child's skin. Leave it on for a maximum of 15 minutes at a time.</li> </ul> <h2>Movement</h2> <ul> <li>Encourage your child to be <a href="/Article?contentid=1969&language=English">active</a> and move around as much as they can. This helps their blood flow and encourages their muscles to support their bones.</li> </ul> <h2>Proper footwear</h2> <ul> <li>Active children can have bone pain after a lot of exercise. Make sure your child wears <a href="/Article?contentid=1947&language=English">proper running shoes</a> with good support to reduce the risk of pain in their heels, shins or knees.</li> <li>If your child still has heel, shin or knee pain when they are active, try using a gel insert inside their shoes to provide extra cushioning and support. You can buy these at your local pharmacy or sports store.</li> </ul> <h2>Distraction and relaxation</h2> <ul> <li>Encourage your child to do something they enjoy - this can help distract them from the pain.</li> <li>Let your child <a href="/article?contentid=1259&language=English">use their imagination</a> to take their mind off their pain, for example by picturing a favourite situation or memory. Having your child describe the scene using all their senses focuses their attention on something other than their pain.</li> <li>Your child can also use muscle <a href="/article?contentid=1259&language=English">relaxation</a> to ease pain. This involves tensing and relaxing specific groups of muscles before moving on to the next group. It can be done with audio guidance.</li> </ul><h2>Sources</h2><p>National Institute of Health (2013). <a href="http://www.bones.nih.gov/">Publications on bone health, osteoporosis and osteogenesis imperfecta</a>.</p><p>College of Family Physicians of Canada (2011). <a href="https://www.cfpc.ca/ProjectAssets/Templates/Resource.aspx?id=3523">Osteoporosis information for patients</a>.</p><p>International Osteoporosis Foundation (2013). <a href="https://www.iofbonehealth.org/content-type-semantic-meta-tags/bone-health-brochures">Bone health brochures</a>.<br></p><p>Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation (2013). <a href="http://www.oif.org/site/DocServer/med_guide.pdf?docID=4501">Osteogenesis Imperfecta: A Guide for Medical Professionals, Individuals and Families affected by OI</a>.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/osteoporosis_managing_bone_pain.jpg
Osteoporosis: Minimizing the risk of fracturesOOsteoporosis: Minimizing the risk of fracturesOsteoporosis: Minimizing the risk of fracturesEnglishMetabolicChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyBonesNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-01-31T05:00:00ZAnne Murphy, RN8.0000000000000072.0000000000000796.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Find out how to safely hold and support your baby or child with osteoporosis.</p><p>If your child has <a href="/Article?contentid=948&language=English">osteoporosis</a>, you might be afraid of causing a bone fracture while caring for them. However, holding your baby is one of the best things you can do to comfort them and help them develop. Even if your baby has recently had a fracture, holding and cuddling them can be a very effective way to soothe and manage their pain.</p> <p>You will need to take care with any child who has osteoporosis. The tips below will minimize the risk of fractures in children with a type of osteoporosis called osteogenesis imperfecta.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Do not be afraid to hold or cuddle your child if they have osteoporosis.</li> <li>Learn how to hold your child and encourage them to explore the world around them safely.</li> <li>Know the signs of a fracture so you can get help from your child's doctor as soon as possible.</li> <li>Even if it carries a risk of a bone fracture, use standard first aid right away if your child appears to be choking or not responding to you.</li> <li>Contact your nurse or doctor or go to the nearest emergency room if you are not sure if you need help or are not comfortable managing your child at home.</li> </ul><h2>Holding a baby with osteoporosis</h2><h3>Supporting your baby</h3><ul class="akh-steps"><li> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_osteoporosis_head_support_baby_EN.jpg" alt="Gently support babys head" /> </figure> <p>Until your baby has full head control, gently place your hand behind their head and cradle it for support.<br></p></li><li> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_osteoporosis_hold_baby_EN.jpg" alt="Spread hands to support babys body" /> </figure> <p>When holding your baby, try to spread out your hands to support the head, back and pelvis. This spreads out your baby's weight and means there is less stress on any single part of their body.</p></li><li> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_osteoporosis_lift_baby_EN.jpg" alt="Support baby with your body" /> </figure> <p>Use your body to support your baby when you move from a horizontal to a vertical position, for example from lying down to sitting up.<br></p><p>Encourage your baby's older sisters and brothers to hold your baby's hand or give your baby gentle kisses instead of holding your baby on their own.</p></li></ul><h3>Comfortable positions</h3><ul class="akh-steps"><li> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_osteoporosis_sitting_baby_EN.jpg" alt="Baby sitting with arms supported" /> </figure> <p>Use your fingers, arms or chest to keep your baby's arms and legs contained in front of them. This is often a more comfortable position for your baby and allows them to explore their hands and arms. This is great for helping them develop!</p></li><li> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_osteoporosis_burp_baby_EN.jpg" alt="Hold baby to chest and move up and down while burping" /> </figure> <p>Brace your baby against your chest while you move up and down. This is a safe alternative to "burping" to help release gas.</p></li></ul><p>While your baby is awake, try to have them experience different positions such as being on their side or, when they have head control, on their <a href="/article?contentid=296&language=English" target="_blank">tummy</a>. This allows your child to learn about their body and help them control different muscles. It also helps reduce the risk of stiffness in the joints and potential flattening of the back of your baby's head.</p><h3>Lifting your baby</h3><ul class="akh-steps"><li> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_osteoporosis_diaper_baby_EN.jpg" alt="Lift baby by their buttocks" /> </figure> <p>Do not lift your baby from under their arms. When changing your baby's diaper, lift your baby by their buttocks, not by their legs or feet.</p></li></ul><h2>Sources</h2><p>National Institute of Health (2013). <a href="http://www.bones.nih.gov/">Publications on bone health, osteoporosis and osteogenesis imperfecta</a>.</p><p>College of Family Physicians of Canada (2011). <a href="https://www.cfpc.ca/ProjectAssets/Templates/Resource.aspx?id=3523">Osteoporosis information for patients</a>.</p><p>International Osteoporosis Foundation (2013). <a href="https://www.iofbonehealth.org/content-type-semantic-meta-tags/bone-health-brochures">Bone health brochures</a>.<br></p><p>Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation (2013). <a href="http://www.oif.org/site/DocServer/med_guide.pdf?docID=4501">Osteogenesis Imperfecta: A Guide for Medical Professionals, Individuals and Families affected by OI</a>.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_osteoporosis_diaper_baby_EN.jpg
Osteoporosis: OverviewOOsteoporosis: OverviewOsteoporosis: OverviewEnglishMetabolicChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyBonesConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2013-12-17T05:00:00ZAnne Murphy, RN9.7000000000000048.0000000000000641.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn about osteoporosis and how it can be diagnosed and treated.</p><h2>What is osteoporosis?</h2><p>Osteoporosis is a condition that occurs when bones are weaker or less dense than they should be. Osteoporosis can occur in babies, children or adults. It is most common when older adults lose their bone mass.</p><p>Weaker bones are generally more likely to break or fracture. In mild osteoporosis, the bones may only break with a strong force or injury. For more severe osteoporosis, bones may break with even a gentle knock or sudden movement.</p><p>Some children are born with a bone disease called osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). This disease is a form of osteoporosis that reduces the amount or quality of the collagen that <a href="/Article?contentid=1938&language=English">makes up bones</a>. If your child has osteogenesis imperfecta, you may need to <a href="/Article?contentid=1189&language=English">manage it differently</a>.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_osteoporosis_EN.png" alt="Bone without osteoporosis and bone with osteoporosis" /> </figure><br><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Osteoporosis occurs when bones are weaker or less dense than they should be. It is most common in older adults, but it can also affect babies and children.</li><li>Bones affected by osteoporosis break more easily, sometimes with only a gentle knock or sudden movement.</li> <li>Osteoporosis can be caused by a lack of calcium and vitamin D, lack of weight-bearing exercise, some medications and, sometimes, other medical conditions that affect how bones develop.</li><li>Osteoporosis can be diagnosed with X-rays, bone mineral density scans or blood tests. It can be treated with diet, exercise and, sometimes, medications.</li></ul><h2>What causes osteoporosis?</h2> <p>Osteoporosis can have a number of causes:</p> <ul> <li>too little <a href="/Article?contentid=1970&language=English">calcium, vitamin D or other nutrients</a> to build bones</li> <li>too little <a href="/Article?contentid=1969&language=English">exercise or activity</a> to strengthen bones</li> <li>underlying medical conditions that change the collagen in bones (for example osteogenesis imperfecta)</li> <li>medications that slow down the rate at which new bone is created.</li> </ul><h2>How is osteoporosis diagnosed?</h2><p>Osteoporosis can be diagnosed in different ways, for example through:</p><ul><li>X-rays</li><li>bone mineral density scans</li><li>blood tests</li></ul><h3>X-ray</h3><p>An X-ray shows how well the bones are growing and if they are the right shape. If a child is likely to need many X-rays in their lifetime, for example if they are being monitored for osteoporosis, they will have a special type of X-ray that delivers less radiation.</p><h3>Bone mineral density scan</h3> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Bone mineral density scan</span> <img alt="Person lying on their back for a bone mineral density scan" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_bone_mineral_densitometry_machine_EN.jpg" /> </figure> <p>Your child's doctor may ask your child to have a <a href="/Article?contentid=1296&language=English">bone mineral density scan</a>. This involves lying down while a machine scans your child's body and calculates how dense their bones are. This can help your child's doctor understand if your child's bones are more or less dense than they should be for boys and girls of the same age.</p><h3>Blood tests</h3><p>Blood tests can show if your child has enough bone-building nutrients and hormones to make strong bones. They can also indicate how quickly your child's bones are turning over.</p><h2>What types of treatment help with osteoporosis?</h2> <p>Osteoporosis can be treated through diet and exercise. Some medications, called bisphosphonates, can also help by making the bones stronger. These medications are sometimes known by their brand names <a href="/Article?contentid=209&language=English">Pamidronate</a> or Zoledronate.</p> <h3>Testing if medications will work</h3> <p>Not everyone with osteoporosis will benefit from medications. To find out if medication might help your child, your child's doctor will first need to do a bone biopsy to diagnose your child's type of osteoporosis.</p> <p>The bone biopsy involves taking out a very tiny piece of bone and studying it under a microscope. Your child will have a <a href="/Article?contentid=1261&language=English">general anaesthetic</a> or "sleep medicine" before the bone biopsy to make sure they do not feel any pain. If you have any questions about the bone biopsy, talk to your doctor or nurse.</p><h2>Resources</h2><p>National Institute of Health (2013). <a href="http://www.bones.nih.gov/">Publications on bone health, osteoporosis and osteogenesis imperfecta</a>.</p><p>College of Family Physicians of Canada (2011). <a href="https://www.cfpc.ca/ProjectAssets/Templates/Resource.aspx?id=3523">Osteoporosis information for patients</a>.<br></p><p>International Osteoporosis Foundation (2013). <a href="https://www.iofbonehealth.org/content-type-semantic-meta-tags/bone-health-brochures">Bone health brochures</a>.<br></p><p>Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation (2013). <a href="http://www.oif.org/site/DocServer/med_guide.pdf?docID=4501">Osteogenesis Imperfecta: A Guide for Medical Professionals, Individuals and Families affected by OI</a>.<br></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/osteoporosis.jpg
Osteoporosis: Telling others about your child's needsOOsteoporosis: Telling others about your child's needsOsteoporosis: Telling others about your child's needsEnglishMetabolicChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyBonesSupport, services and resourcesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2013-12-17T05:00:00ZAnne Murphy, RN8.4000000000000067.0000000000000353.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out who you should tell about your child's osteoporosis.<br></p><p>When you have a child with <a href="/Article?contentid=948&language=English">osteoporosis</a>, you quickly come to know a lot about what your child needs to stay healthy and safe.</p><p>Part of your role as a parent is to share this information with others so that your child can be safe in many environments.</p> ​<h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>When a child has osteoporosis, it is important to tell others so they can help keep your child safe when you are not there.</li> <li>Share what you know with anyone your child meets regularly, for example teachers, child minders, coaches, summer camp staff, health-care providers, neighbours and friends.</li> <li>Share tips about what makes your child comfortable, how to handle your child, what activities your child can and cannot do and how to respond to a fracture.</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/teaching_others_about_childs_osteoperosis.jpg
OstomyOOstomyOstomyEnglishGastrointestinalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Small Intestine;Large Intestine/ColonSmall intestine;Large intestineProceduresCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2013-11-19T05:00:00ZKimberly Colapinto RN (EC), MN, CETN (C);Theresa Allan RN, ET6.9000000000000071.40000000000001036.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>An ostomy is an opening to collect urine or stool outside the body. Learn some basic tips to help care for your child's ostomy.</p><figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Gastrointestinal (GI) tract</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_digestive_system_V3_EN.jpg" alt="Location of salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small and large intestines and anus" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The gastrointestinal tract begins at the mouth and ends at the anus.</figcaption> </figure> <h2>What is an ostomy?</h2><p>An ostomy is an opening from the inside of the body to the outside, on the abdomen (tummy). It can be temporary or permanent.</p><p>An ostomy helps your child get rid of stool or urine if their intestine or urinary tract does not work properly. It is created during surgery (an operation).</p><p>Ostomies have different names depending on where they are on your child's body. For example, an opening from the intestine to the abdomen is an ileostomy or a colostomy. An opening from the urinary tract to the abdomen is called a urostomy. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>An ostomy is an opening from the inside of the body to the outside, through the abdomen. The end of the ostomy is called the stoma.</li> <li>Stool or urine is collected outside the body in a bag called an ostomy pouch. Always carry a spare pouch in case of leaks.</li> <li>Call your nurse if you have questions about the ostomy, the pouch or any skin irritation around the stoma.</li> <li>Call your doctor if your child has diarrhea, a fever or much longer delays between bowel movements than normal, if their vomit is green or if the stoma does not stop bleeding.</li> </ul><h2>When to get medical help </h2> <h3>Call your child's nurse if: </h3> <ul> <li>your child has a rash or other problems with the skin around the stoma</li> <li>the ostomy pouch leaks a lot</li> <li>you have any questions about the ostomy and ostomy pouch</li> </ul> <h3>Call your child's doctor if: </h3> <ul> <li>your child develops <a href="/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a></li> <li>a lot more stool than usual collects in the pouch over a few hours</li> <li>your child is unusually sleepy</li> <li>your child is not making urine</li> <li>your child has a <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a> of 38.5°C (101°F) or higher</li> <li>there is a major change in the stoma's size or colour for more than a few minutes</li> <li>the stoma bleeds more than a small amount or will not stop bleeding</li> <li>your child has less frequent bowel movements</li> <li>your child is crying non-stop or otherwise seems to be in <a href="/pain">pain</a></li> <li>your child's belly becomes firm and bloated</li> <li>your child has green <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomit</a>, even once</li> </ul> <h2>Important phone numbers </h2> <p>My child's surgeon is: ________________________________</p> <p>Phone number: ________________________________</p> <p>My child's ostomy nurse is: ________________________________</p> <p>Phone number: ________________________________</p><h2>What the end of the ostomy looks like</h2><p>The end of the ostomy — the part you can see — is called a stoma. This looks different in every patient, but it is usually:</p><ul><li>round or oval</li><li>red, like the inside of your cheek</li><li>moist and shiny.</li></ul><p>The stoma can be small or large. It usually changes size during the first six weeks after surgery but stays the same size from then on.</p><p>There are no nerve endings in the stoma. This means that your child will not feel pain when the stoma is touched or when stool comes out of it.</p><p>Stomas can sometimes bleed a little during washing or if they are bumped. This is normal. They can sometimes also bleed when they are irritated. You can stop any <a href="/Article?contentid=1043&language=English">bleeding</a> by applying gentle pressure to the stoma with a soft cloth.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Ostomy types</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_ostomy_types_EN.png" alt="An ileostomy in the small intestine and a colostomy in the large intestine" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">An ileostomy creates an opening from the last part of the small intestine, the ileum, to the abdomen (tummy). A colostomy connects the colon to the abdomen. The end of an ostomy, the part you see on the outside of the abdomen, is called a stoma.</figcaption> </figure> <h2>How stool or urine is collected outside the body</h2><p>A bag, called an ostomy pouch, is placed over the stoma to catch urine or stool. The ostomy pouch protects the skin around your child's stoma and protects their clothing from becoming soiled (dirty). It can have one or two pieces and come with accessories such as a belt.</p><p>You can get lots of different ostomy products from many different companies. Your ostomy nurse will tell you where to buy ostomy pouches and accessories before you leave the hospital.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Ostomy pouch</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_ostomy_pouch_EN.png" alt="Abdomen with a red, moist and painless stoma and an abdomen with an ostomy pouch over stoma collecting stool and urine" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The stoma does not have any nerve endings and can be washed while your child is having a bath or shower. The ostomy pouch catches any stool and urine that leave the body through the stoma and acts as a barrier to protect the skin.</figcaption> </figure><h2>Sources</h2> <p>American Pediatric Surgical Nurses Association, 2006. <a target="_blank" href="http://www.apsna.org/resource/resmgr/teaching_materials/ostomy_family_information_sh.doc">Ostomy Information Teaching Sheet</a>.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_ostomy_pouch_EN.png
Other considerations during therapy for leukemiaOOther considerations during therapy for leukemiaOther Considerations During Therapy for LeukemiaEnglishOncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodySkeletal systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2018-03-06T05:00:00ZOussama Abla, MDDanielle Weidman, MDKarin Landenberg, MD10.100000000000051.70000000000001123.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p> Learn how to safeguard children with leukemia against infection and other precautions they should be taking during treatment. </p><p> Children receiving treatment for leukemia will have a suppressed immune system. As such, they will have to take precautions in avoiding infections and certain immunizations. It is also important for children with leukemia to avoid herbal medicines and take all of their prescribed medicines properly.</p><h2> Key points </h2><ul><li>It is important for children with leukemia to avoid infections as they have a suppressed immune system while on treatment and are more prone to infection.</li><li> Children who are being treated for leukemia should avoid herbal medicines as they can interact with chemotherapy drugs and cause serious side effects.</li><li> Teachers in hospital can work with children with leukemia.</li><li> Children with leukemia must take precautions against sun exposure and bug bites.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Other_considerations_during_therapy_for_leukemia.jpg
Other devices for insulin injectionsOOther devices for insulin injectionsOther devices for insulin injectionsEnglishEndocrinologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)PancreasEndocrine systemDrug treatmentAdult (19+)NA2016-10-17T04:00:00ZCatherine Pastor, RN, MN, HonBSc;Vanita Pais, RD, CDE;Jennifer Harrington​, MBBS, PhD​8.5000000000000060.0000000000000437.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Several other devices can be used to make insulin injections easier. Learn what these devices are and whether they are right for your child.</p><p>There are many devices that try to help make injections easier. However, none takes away the need for an injection itself. Before you spend any money on any injection aid, talk to your diabetes team.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>No injection aid device will eliminate the need for an injection itself.</li> <li>If your child is bothered by manually inserting a needle, a spring-loaded device can be useful.</li> <li>Insuflon and i-Port are a more pain-free method of injecting insulin.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_insuflon_function_EN.jpg
Other diagnostic procedures for brain tumoursOOther diagnostic procedures for brain tumoursOther diagnostic procedures for brain tumoursEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemTestsAdult (19+)NA2009-07-10T04:00:00ZEric Bouffet, MD, FRCPCUte Bartels, MD6.5000000000000074.0000000000000917.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>An in-depth description of other diagnostic procedures, such as blood tests and x-rays, which are involved in the medical diagnosis of brain cancer.</p><p>Other diagnostic tests and procedures will also be done to help diagnose a brain tumour or provide information. These include blood tests and X-rays.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Blood work is necessary for all children with brain tumours who are undergoing treatment. </li> <li>X-rays are not done anymore to diagnose brain tumours, but they may be used to provide information in exceptional cases.</li></ul>
Other infections in pregnancyOOther infections in pregnancyOther infections in pregnancyEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)BodyReproductive systemConditions and diseasesPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-11T04:00:00ZNicolette Caccia, MEd, MD, FRCSCRory Windrim, MB, MSc, FRCSC10.300000000000048.0000000000000571.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about serious infections in pregnancy that are not caused by viruses or bacteria. Toxoplasmosis and malaria are discussed.</p><p>When you are pregnant, you need to careful about infections and infectious diseases. Unborn and newborn babies have weak immune systems compared with older children and adults, and therefore are very susceptible to infection. </p> <p>Infections in pregnancy can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or other organisms called protozoa. Below is a description of the protozoal infections that can affect the growing baby during pregnancy. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>To prevent toxoplasmosis, prepare and cook food properly and avoid changing cat litter pans.</li> <li>Refrain from travelling to areas that have high rates of malaria.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/other_infections_in_pregnancy.jpg
Other late effects after an allogeneic blood and marrow transplantOOther late effects after an allogeneic blood and marrow transplantOther late effects after an allogeneic blood and marrow transplantEnglishHaematology;Immunology;OncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Body;Thyroid;Heart;Mouth;Teeth;Lungs;EyesImmune systemNATeen (13-18 years) Adult (19+)NA2010-04-07T04:00:00ZJohn Doyle, MD, FRCPC, FAAPChristine Armstrong, RN, MScN, NP Peds9.8000000000000051.8000000000000920.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about late term effects after your child's blood and marrow transplant (BMT).</p><p>After your child's blood and marrow transplant (BMT), they may be at risk of developing other types of late effects. Keep in mind that these are the potential late effects and not necessarily what your child will develop. Many BMT survivors go on to lead healthy and productive lives. Being aware of possible late effects will help you look for early signs and get the best treatment right away.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Other late effects after and allogeneic BMT can have an impact on fertility, the risk of developing secondary cancers, the thyroid, the heart, dental, respiratory problems, cataracts, learning and memory.</li></ul>
Other late effects of diabetesOOther late effects of diabetesOther late effects of diabetesEnglishEndocrinologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Pancreas;Foot;HeartEndocrine system;Cardiovascular system;Nervous systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2017-11-20T05:00:00ZCatherine Pastor, RN, MN, HonBScVanita Pais, RD, CDEAndrea Ens, MD, FRCPCJennifer Harrington, MBBS, PhD000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about other complications that can occur as a result of diabetes including neuropathy, foot problems, heart disease and stroke.</p><p>In addition to eye damage and kidney disease, there are several other complications that can result from diabetes. These include nerve damage (neuropathy), foot problems (peripheral vascular disease), heart disease and stroke.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Over time, nerve damage, foot problems, heart disease and stroke can all occur as a result of diabetes.</li> <li>Proper diabetes management and blood sugar control can help prevent these complications.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/nerves_EN.jpg
Other late effects of leukemiaOOther late effects of leukemiaOther Late Effects of LeukemiaEnglishOncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodySkeletal systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2018-03-06T05:00:00ZOussama Abla, MDDanielle Weidman, MDKarin Landenberg, MD000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p> Learn potential issues that can result from treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).</p><p> Fertility issues, heart and thyroid problems, and complications from a bone marrow transplant are all possible effects from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li> Certain boys who have been treated with radiation and children who received a bone marrow transplant (BMT) may have problems with fertility.</li> <li> Children who have received chemotherapy may experience heart problems.</li> <li> Children who have received radiation may develop thyroid problems.</li></ul>
Other lung conditions in premature babiesOOther lung conditions in premature babiesOther lung conditions in premature babiesEnglishNeonatology;RespiratoryPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)LungsRespiratory systemConditions and diseasesPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZAndrew James, MBChB, MBI, FRACP, FRCPCJaques Belik, MD, FRCPC12.000000000000041.0000000000000800.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about lung complications, such as pneumothorax, pneumonia, and other congenital lung defects, that can afflict premature infants.</p><p>There are several other lung conditions that can affect premature babies. These conditions include pneumothorax, pneumonia and congenital malformations of the lung. Treatment of these conditions will depend on the severity and on the prematurity of the baby.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Lung conditions that can affect a newborn baby include pneumothorax, pneumonia and congenital malformations of the lung.</li> <li>Congenital malformations of the lung are rare; these malformations include congenital diaphragmatic hernia, cystic adenomatous malformations, congenital lobar emphysema, pulmonary sequestration and pulmonary hypoplasia.<br></li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Pneumothorax_MED_ILL_EN.jpg
Other questions about JIA medicationsOOther questions about JIA medicationsOther questions about JIA medicationsEnglishRheumatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodySkeletal systemDrug treatmentAdult (19+)NA2017-01-31T05:00:00ZJennifer Stinson RN-EC, PhD, CPNPLori Tucker, MDAdam Huber, MSc, MD, FRCPCMichael Rapoff, PhDShirley Tse, MD, FRCPCLynn Spiegel, MD, FRCPC9.3000000000000049.1000000000000701.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn the answers to some common questions about JIA medications including which vaccinations are safe to take, and the role of complementary and alternative medicines, and how they can affect your child.</p><p>You and your child may still have other questions about JIA medications. This section will answer some of the questions you may have. Talk to your child's doctor for more information.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Some JIA medications can limit the type of vaccine that a child can safely receive.</li> <li>Complementary and alternative medicines are therapies that are not prescribed by the regular health care team. </li> <li>Complementary medicine is used together with conventional medicine, while alternative medicine is used in place of conventional medicine.</li></ul>
Other symptoms of a heart conditionOOther symptoms of a heart conditionOther symptoms of a heart conditionEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years);Adult (19+)HeartCardiovascular systemSymptomsAdult (19+)NA2009-12-04T05:00:00ZFraser Golding, MD, FRCPC8.7000000000000061.8000000000000877.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about other possible symptoms of heart conditions, including fainting, chest pain, edema, and palpitations. These symptoms are not always signs of a heart condition.</p><p> Chest pain, edema, fainting and palpitations can all be symptoms of a heart condition.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>Chest pain, edema, fainting and palpitations are not always signs of a heart condition, but it is important they are investigated to be ruled out as a cause.</li></ul>
Other team members of a blood and marrow transplantOOther team members of a blood and marrow transplantOther team members of a blood and marrow transplantEnglishHaematology;Immunology;OncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemHealth care professionalsAdult (19+)NA2010-02-12T05:00:00ZJohn Doyle, MD, FRCPC, FAAPChristine Armstrong, RN, MScN, NP Peds9.6000000000000054.4000000000000306.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the members of your child’s blood and marrow (BMT) health-care team.</p><p>There are many other team members involved in the care of your child during a BMT.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Other members of the BMT include Blood Bank staff, occupational therapists, physiotherapists, housekeeping, and teachers.</li></ul>
Other tests for your premature babyOOther tests for your premature babyOther tests for your premature babyEnglishNeonatologyPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)BodyNATestsPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZKim Dionne, RN, MN, NNP11.000000000000045.0000000000000564.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about other tests that can be done shortly after birth to detect important genetically determined diseases such as metabolic diseases.</p><p>A premature baby will undergo additional screening tests to detect important genetically determined metabolic diseases, endocrine disorders and blood disorders. Hearing and eye tests will also be conducted.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Newborn screening tests are done to detect important genetically determined metabolic diseases, endocrine disorders and blood disorders.</li> <li>Newborns will also be given routine hearing and eye tests to test for hearing loss and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/other_tests_for_your_premature_baby.jpg
Other types of brain tumoursOOther types of brain tumoursOther types of brain tumoursEnglishNeurology;OncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-07-10T04:00:00ZEric Bouffet, MD, FRCPC9.3000000000000050.40000000000001046.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about different brain tumors including pituitary adenoma, schwannoma, meningioma, and PNETs. Trusted answers from The Hospital for Sick Children.</p><p>There are several other types of brain tumours children can develop. Diagnosis, treatment and outcomes will vary depending on the type of tumour and its location.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Children may develop other types of brain tumours, which will range in severity and have different forms of treatment depending on their location and size.<br></li></ul>
Other types of painOOther types of painOther types of painEnglishPain/AnaesthesiaChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyCentral nervous system;Peripheral nervous system;Autonomic nervous systemSymptomsCaregivers Adult (19+)Pain2009-09-18T04:00:00ZLisa Isaac, MD, FRCPC10.900000000000044.1000000000000844.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about other types of pain, including recurrent, procedural, and palliative pain. Read about how they are treated. Lumbar punctures are discussed.</p>
Other vitamins and mineralsOOther vitamins and mineralsOther vitamins and mineralsEnglishNutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NADigestive systemHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+) Educators Hospital healthcare providers Community healthcare providers Remote populations First nationsNA2013-09-27T04:00:00ZTheresa Couto, RD;Elly Berger, BA, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, MHPE;Francy Pillo-Blocka RD, FDC8.1000000000000065.4000000000000647.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Discover the role and food sources of vitamins A, B, C, E and K and key minerals such as potassium and selenium.</p><p></p><p>The body needs a range of vitamins and minerals to function effectively. This page covers vitamins A, B, C, E and K and key minerals such as potassium and selenium.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>A range of vitamins help the body produce energy from food and keep eyes, skin and the immune system healthy. </li> <li>Potassium helps control blood pressure and keep fluids balanced in blood and tissue.</li> <li>Selenium helps the thyroid work properly. </li> <li>A balanced diet of food from all four food groups will help a healthy person meet their daily vitamin and mineral needs.</li></ul>
Outcomes for premature babiesOOutcomes for premature babiesOutcomes for premature babiesEnglishNeonatologyPrematureNANASupport, services and resourcesPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZJonathan Hellmann, MBBCh, MHSc, FCP(SA), FRCPC12.000000000000031.0000000000000793.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about possible outcomes for premature babies, which vary on the degree of prematurity and the severity and number of any complications. </p><p>In general, outcomes for premature babies are very good. Before the development of Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs), many premature babies did not survive. The introduction of incubators, mechanical ventilation, and other technologies and medical techniques, as well as a more complete understanding of newborn baby physiology, have increased premature baby survival dramatically. As a result, some premature babies who would have died in the past now survive, but may have lifelong problems. Medical professionals make this distinction using the words “morbidity” and “mortality.” </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>The overwhelming majority of premature babies with access to modern technology and medical techniques now survive.</li> <li>Based on gestational age and birth weight, premature babies are placed into loosely defined categories of mild, moderate and extreme prematurity.</li> <li>Mortality and morbidity data help medical staff anticipate and predict problems in premature babies, but they do cannot predict an individual baby's outcome as each baby's health and body are different.</li></ul>

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