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Safe food handling and preparation after a blood and marrow transplantSSafe food handling and preparation after a blood and marrow transplantSafe food handling and preparation after a blood and marrow transplantEnglishHaematology;Immunology;Oncology;NutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemHealthy living and preventionAdult (19+)NA2017-06-05T04:00:00Z7.0000000000000068.2000000000000977.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to safely handle and prepare food for your child after a blood and marrow transplant.</p><p>After a <a href="/Article?contentid=1512&language=English">blood and marrow transplant</a>, your child’s immune system will be weak. Children with weak immune systems are more likely to get sick from harmful bacteria in food. Because of this, your child will need to avoid foods that may contain harmful bacteria. The diet that they follow is called a <a href="/Article?contentid=1546&language=English">low-bacteria diet</a>.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>After a blood and marrow transplant, your child will need to use safe food handling guidelines and follow a low-bacteria diet.</li> <li>A low-bacteria diet involves avoiding foods that contain harmful bacteria.</li> <li>To minimize harmful bacteria, wash your hands before and after handling food, keep hot and cold food outside the temperature danger zone and store cooked and raw food separately in the fridge.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/safe_food_handling_and_preparation_after_blood_marrow_transplant.jpg
Safe handling of hazardous medicineSSafe handling of hazardous medicineSafe handling of hazardous medicineEnglishPharmacyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANADrug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNALanding PageLearning Hub<p>​Learn how to handle hazardous medicines safely when giving children tablets, capsules or an injectable medicine by mouth.</p><p>This learning hub provides resources on hazardous medicines. Find information on how to give your child hazardous medicine in the form of tablets, capsules and as an injectable medicine by mouth. Also find information on how to prepare a space to give hazardous medicine and how to clean-up and store hazardous medicines. <br></p><p><br></p><p></p><p></p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/playlist?list=PLjJtOP3StIuUSnxPpK4bXdueTcDfdnudE"></iframe> <br></div> <br>safehandling,hazardousmedicinehttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Safe-Handling-Learning-Hub.png
Safe handling of hazardous medicines at home: Cutting and preparing tablets as a liquidSSafe handling of hazardous medicines at home: Cutting and preparing tablets as a liquidSafe handling of hazardous medicines at home: Cutting and preparing tablets as a liquidEnglishPharmacyBaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANADrug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2020-10-22T04:00:00Z7.3000000000000067.00000000000001510.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>A guide on cutting, dissolving and giving hazardous medicine tablets safely.</p><p>If your child cannot swallow tablets, you can dissolve them as a liquid. It is important that you do not crush hazardous medicine tablets. Follow these instructions to dissolve the medicine as a liquid using an oral syringe.</p><h2>What is hazardous medicine?</h2><p>Hazardous medicines are used to treat a variety of medical conditions. For example, chemotherapy is used to treat cancer, and immunosuppressants are used to prevent organ rejection after a transplant.</p><p>Hazardous medicine can damage healthy cells. Anyone handling hazardous medicine should keep themselves protected.</p><p>Although the risk of harm from handling hazardous medicine is small, it is a good idea to avoid exposure. This includes not tasting your child’s medicine. If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, it is best to avoid contact with hazardous medicine. If possible, have someone else prepare and give your child their medicine.<br></p><p></p><p></p><div class="asset-video"><p></p> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/jrptSfMagy0">frameborder=&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;quot;0&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;quot;</iframe>  <br> <p>For more videos on how to safely handle hazardous medicines, please visit the <a href="https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PLjJtOP3StIuWBtC0ID5BCbZCMVHJvTcdr">Safe Handling</a> playlist.<br></p></div> <p></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A gown, mask and gloves offer protection when handling hazardous medicine.</li><li>If your child's dose includes a part of a tablet you will need to use a tablet cutter to split the tablet.</li><li>If your child has trouble swallowing whole or partial tablets, you can dissolve the tablets using an approved liquid such as water using an oral syringe.<br><br></li></ul><h2>Giving the medicine</h2><ol><li>Pour some of the room-temperature water into the medicine cup. Do not use other drinks such as juice or cola.</li><li>Open the tablet cutter.</li><li>Open the medicine bottle and use the tweezers to remove the required number of tablets. Place the tablets into the medicine cup and put the lid back on the medicine bottle as soon as possible.</li> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/chemo_at_home_tablets_pill_splitter_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Gloved hand placing tablet in tablet cutter using tweezers" /> </figure> <li>Using the tweezers place a tablet in the tablet cutter. If the tablet has a score mark, line this up with the blade of the tablet cutter. Close the tablet cutter and press down firmly. Use the tweezers to place the portion of the tablet to be taken into the medicine cup.</li><li>When you are done, use the tweezers to return the remaining piece of the tablet to the original medicine bottle. You can use this piece for your child’s next dose. Only cut as many tablets as you need at one time. If any tablet pieces are not intact, place them in a container or plastic bag clearly marked for disposal of hazardous medicines.</li><li>You will use the oral syringe to dissolve the tablets and give your child the liquid medicine as follows:</li><ol type="a"><li>To prepare the syringe, remove the cap. Then remove the plunger from the syringe.</li><li>Use the tweezers to place the required number of tablets or partial tablet into the barrel of the oral syringe.</li><li>Place the plunger back into the syringe.</li> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/chemo_at_home_tablets_dissolve_tablets_in_oral_syringe_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Gloved hands drawing up 5 to 7.5 mL of water in a syringe containing tablets" /> </figure> <li>Place the tip of the syringe into the medicine cup with the room-temperature water. Pull up on the plunger to draw up 5 to 7.5 mL of water into the syringe.</li><li>Put the cap back onto the oral syringe.</li><li>Gently rock the syringe back and forth until you no longer see any big pieces of the tablet. This may take several minutes. The tablet does not dissolve completely — you may see small white particles floating in the water. It is fine to give the medicine like this, as long as there are no large chunks that will clog the syringe.</li><li>Give the dose to your child. To give the medicine to your child, remove the cap and place the oral syringe into their mouth. Slowly push the plunger to release the medicine.</li><li>If any medicine is left in the syringe, draw up more water, gently rock the syringe back and forth and give the medicine to your child.</li></ol><li>Your child may drink more water after taking their medicine. Your child’s health-care provider will tell you if your child may take any other drinks or food.</li></ol><p>Speak to your health-care provider if your child is having trouble taking the medicine.</p><h3>While preparing your child’s medicine, please remember:</h3><ul><li>Use the tweezers, tablet cutter and oral syringe to give the hazardous medicine only. Do not use them for other medicines.</li></ul><h2>Clean-up and storage of hazardous medicines</h2><p>Hazardous medicines should be handled safely. It is important to carefully handle the clean-up of the supplies and work area, and to dispose of wastes properly.</p><p>Remember these key tips for safe handling of hazardous medicines at home.</p><ul><li>If possible, avoid contact with hazardous medicines if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.</li><li>You and your child should wash your hands before and after handling hazardous medicines.</li><li>Wear gloves when handling hazardous medicine tablets, capsules, or liquids.</li><li>Properly clean, dispose or store the equipment and hazardous medicine.</li></ul><p>All disposable items that have been in contact with hazardous medicines, such as used paper towels and gloves, must go into a designated plastic waste bag or container. Contact the Household Hazardous Waste Depot in your neighbourhood to see if they will accept the waste bags or containers. If such a service does not exist in your area, ask a member of your child's healthcare team about other options.</p><p>You may wash and reuse some of your supplies, but do not rinse them in the kitchen sink over other dishes or utensils.</p><p>If you are reusing an item, such as the medicine cup, rinse it with warm soapy water and allow it to air dry. Clean the sink after washing your supplies.</p><p>Always store hazardous medicines away from children and pets. If stored at room temperature, place them in a locked box, away from moisture and direct sunlight, and in a cool, dry place. If the medicine needs refrigeration, place it in a separate container at the back of the fridge. Return the medicine to the locked box or fridge after each use. Do not keep any medicine in your purse, knapsack or diaper bag.</p><h3>Take special precautions with your child's waste (vomit, urine and stool) while they are taking hazardous medicine</h3><p>While your child is taking hazardous medicine, some of the drug is broken down and removed from the body through urine and stool. It may also appear in vomit. It is important that you protect yourself and others from hazardous medicine in your child's urine, stool or vomit by following these guidelines:</p><ul><li>When changing your child’s diaper, wear disposable gloves and place diapers in a sealed plastic bag before disposal.</li><li>If your child is toilet trained, have your child close the lid, to avoid splashes, and flush twice after using the toilet. Always make sure they wash their hands afterwards.</li><li>Have supplies ready in case you need to quickly clean up any accident. You need a paper towel, soap and water, disposable gloves, and a disposable container, such as an empty ice cream container.</li><li>Use a plastic mattress cover to protect the mattress from accidents.</li><li>Keep a plastic container close by in case of vomiting. If you use the container, empty the contents into the toilet and wash with warm soapy water.</li><li>Wear disposable gloves when you are handling any bodily wastes, such as changing soiled sheets or cleaning up vomit.</li><li>Wash soiled clothes or sheets separately from other laundry. If they cannot be washed right away, place them in a sealed plastic bag and set it aside.</li><li>Once you are all finished, wash your hands.<br><br></li></ul><h2>Preparing the space</h2><p>You will need to gather certain supplies and take careful steps when setting up your work area. Your child’s healthcare provider will help you make a list of the supplies you will need. You can buy some of these materials at a grocery or drug store.</p><p>To handle your child’s hazardous medicine at home, choose an uncluttered counter or table away from windows, fans, vents, areas where you prepare food, and where children and pets play.</p><p>If you are cutting your child’s tablets and dissolving them as a liquid, a gown, mask and gloves offer protection. Other supplies will include:</p><ul><li>paper towels or a disposable, absorbent plastic-backed mat — to contain any spills</li> a plastic bag — for waste disposal <li>a medicine cup — to hold the water used to dissolve the tablets</li><li>tweezers — to pick up the medicine</li><li>an oral syringe — to mix and give the medicine</li><li>a tablet cutter, also called a pill splitter</li><li>room-temperature water — to dissolve the medicine</li><li>a suitable drink such as water. Your child’s health-care provider will tell you which drinks are suitable</li><li>your child’s medicine</li></ul><h2>Giving your child the disolved tablets</h2><p>Always prepare the medicine right before your child will take it. Never prepare and store the dose ahead of time.</p><p>Before cutting a tablet and dissolving it as a liquid:<br></p> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/chemo_at_home_general_protect_yourself_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="person wearing mask, gloves and gown" /> </figure> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/chemo_at_home_general_wash_hands_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="handwashing at sink" /> </figure> <ul><li>Wash your hands with soap and water.</li><li>Put on your gloves, gown and mask.</li><li>Place paper towels or a disposable, absorbent plastic-backed mat over your work surface.</li></ul><p>You are now ready to handle your child’s medicine.</p>
Safe handling of hazardous medicines at home: Dissolving and giving whole tabletsSSafe handling of hazardous medicines at home: Dissolving and giving whole tabletsSafe handling of hazardous medicines at home: Dissolving and giving whole tabletsEnglishPharmacyBaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANADrug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2020-10-22T04:00:00Z7.4000000000000066.30000000000001322.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>A guide to dissolve and give whole tablets of hazardous medicine safely.</p><p>If your child cannot swallow tablets, you can dissolve them as a liquid. It is important that you do not crush hazardous medicine tablets. Follow these instructions to dissolve the medicine using an approved liquid and give it using an oral syringe.</p><h2>What is hazardous medicine?</h2><p>Hazardous medicines are used to treat a variety of medical conditions. For example, chemotherapy is used to treat cancer, and immunosuppressants are used to prevent organ rejection after a transplant.</p><p>Hazardous medicine can damage healthy cells. Anyone handling hazardous medicine should keep themselves protected.</p><p>Although the risk of harm from handling hazardous medicine is small, it is a good idea to avoid exposure. This includes not tasting your child’s medicine. If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, it is best to avoid contact with hazardous medicine. If possible, have someone else give your child their medication.</p><p></p><div class="asset-video"><p></p> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/q03l4355sK4">frameborder=&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;quot;0&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;quot;</iframe>  <br> <p>For more videos on how to safely handle hazardous medicines, please visit the <a href="https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PLjJtOP3StIuWBtC0ID5BCbZCMVHJvTcdr">Safe Handling</a> playlist.<br></p></div> <p></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A gown, mask and gloves offer protection when handling hazardous medicine.</li><li>If your child has trouble swallowing whole tablets, you can dissolve the tablets using an approved liquid such as water using an oral syringe.<br></li> <p> <strong></strong></p></ul><br><p></p><h2>Giving the medicine</h2><ol><li>Pour some of the room-temperature water into the medicine cup. Do not use other drinks such as juice or cola.</li><li>You will use the oral syringe to dissolve the tablets and give your child the liquid medicine as follows:</li><ol type="a"><li>To prepare the syringe, remove the cap. Then remove the plunger from the syringe.</li><li>Open the medicine bottle and use the tweezers to remove the required number of tablets and place them into the barrel of the oral syringe. Put the lid back on the medicine bottle as soon as possible.</li><li>Place the plunger back into the syringe.</li><li> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Dissolve tablet(s) in the oral syringe</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/chemo_at_home_tablets_dissolve_tablets_in_oral_syringe_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Gloved hand pulling 5 to 7.5 millilitres of water from a cup into an oral syringe containing tablets" /> </figure> <p>Place the tip of the syringe into the medicine cup with the room temperature water. Pull up on the plunger to draw up 5 to 7.5 mL of water into the syringe.</p></li><li>Put the cap back onto the oral syringe.<br></li><li>Gently rock the syringe back and forth until you no longer see any big pieces of the tablet. This may take several minutes. The tablet does not dissolve completely — you may see small white particles floating in the water. It is fine to give the medicine like this, as long as there are no large chunks that will clog the syringe.</li><li>Give the dose to your child. To give the medicine to your child, remove the cap and place the oral syringe into their mouth. Slowly push the plunger to release the medicine.</li><li>If any medicine is left in the syringe, draw up more water, gently rock the syringe back and forth, and give the medicine to your child.</li></ol><li>Your child may drink more water after taking their medicine. Your child’s health-care provider will tell you if your child may take any other drinks or food.</li></ol><p>Speak to your health-care provider if your child is having trouble taking the medicine.</p><h3>While preparing your child’s medicine, please remember:</h3><ul><li>Use the tweezers and oral syringe to give the hazardous medicine only. Do not use them for other medicines.</li></ul><h2>Clean-up and storage of hazardous medicines</h2><p>Hazardous medicines should be handled safely. It is important to carefully handle the clean-up of the supplies and work area, and to dispose of wastes properly.</p><p>Remember these key tips for safe handling of hazardous medicines at home.</p><ul><li>If possible, avoid contact with hazardous medicines if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.</li><li>You and your child should wash your hands before and after handling hazardous medicines.</li><li>Wear gloves when handling hazardous medicine tablets, capsules, or liquids.</li><li>Properly clean, dispose or store the equipment and hazardous medicine.</li></ul><p>All disposable items that have been in contact with hazardous medicines, such as used paper towels and gloves, must go into a designated plastic waste bag or container. Contact the Household Hazardous Waste Depot in your neighbourhood to see if they will accept the waste bags or containers. If such a service does not exist in your area, ask a member of your child's health-care team about other options.</p><p>You may wash and reuse some of your supplies, but do not rinse them in the kitchen sink over other dishes or utensils.</p><p>If you are reusing an item, such as the medicine cup, rinse it with warm soapy water and allow it to air dry. Clean the sink after washing your supplies.</p><p>Always store hazardous medicines away from children and pets. If stored at room temperature, place them in a locked box, away from moisture and direct sunlight, and in a cool, dry place. If the medicine needs refrigeration, place it in a separate container at the back of the fridge. Return the medicine to the locked box or fridge after each use. Do not keep any medicine in your purse, knapsack or diaper bag.</p><h3>Take special precautions with your child's waste (vomit, urine and stool) while they are taking hazardous medicine</h3><p>While your child is taking hazardous medicine, some of the drug is broken down and removed from the body through urine and stool. It may also appear in vomit. It is important that you protect yourself and others from hazardous medicine in your child's urine, stool or vomit by following these guidelines:</p><ul><li>When changing your child’s diaper, wear disposable gloves and place diapers in a sealed plastic bag before disposal.</li><li>If your child is toilet trained, have your child close the lid, to avoid splashes, and flush twice after using the toilet. Always make sure they wash their hands afterwards.</li><li>Have supplies ready in case you need to quickly clean up any accident. You need a paper towel, soap and water, disposable gloves, and a disposable container, such as an empty ice cream container.</li><li>Use a plastic mattress cover to protect the mattress from accidents.</li><li>Keep a plastic container close by in case of vomiting. If you use the container, empty the contents into the toilet and wash with warm soapy water.</li><li>Wear disposable gloves when you are handling any bodily wastes, such as changing soiled sheets or cleaning up vomit.</li><li>Wash soiled clothes or sheets separately from other laundry. If they cannot be washed right away, place them in a sealed plastic bag and set it aside.</li><li>Once you are all finished, wash your hands.<br><br></li></ul><h2>Preparing the space</h2><p>You will need to gather certain supplies and take careful steps when setting up your work area. Your child’s health-care provider will help you make a list of the supplies you will need. You can buy these materials at a grocery or drug store.</p><p>To handle your child’s hazardous medicine at home, choose an uncluttered counter or table away from windows, fans, vents, areas where you prepare food, and where children and pets play.</p><p>If you are preparing your child’s medicine as a liquid, a gown, mask and gloves offer protection. Other supplies will include:</p><ul><li>paper towels or a disposable, absorbent plastic-backed mat — to contain any spills</li><li>a plastic bag — for waste disposal</li><li>a medicine cup — to hold the water used to dissolve the tablets</li><li>tweezers — to pick up the medicine</li><li>an oral syringe — to mix and give the medicine</li><li>room-temperature water — to dissolve the medicine</li><li>a suitable drink such as water. Your child’s health-care provider will tell you which drinks are suitable</li><li>your child’s medicine</li></ul><h2>Giving your child the dissolved tablets</h2><p>Always prepare the medicine right before your child will take it. Never prepare and store the dose ahead of time.</p><p>Before preparing your child's medicine:</p> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/chemo_at_home_general_wash_hands_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Handwashing at a sink" /> </figure><figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/chemo_at_home_general_protect_yourself_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Person wearing gloves, a gown, and a mask over the nose and mouth" /></figure> <ul><li>Wash your hands with soap and water.</li><li>Put on your gloves, gown and mask.</li><li>Place paper towels or a disposable, absorbent plastic-backed mat over your work surface.</li></ul><p>You are now ready to handle your child’s medicine.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/chemo_at_home_tablets_pill_splitter_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg
Safe handling of hazardous medicines at home: Giving capsule solutionsSSafe handling of hazardous medicines at home: Giving capsule solutionsSafe handling of hazardous medicines at home: Giving capsule solutionsEnglishPharmacyNewborn (0-28 days);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANADrug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2020-10-22T04:00:00Z7.7000000000000063.90000000000001467.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>A guide on dissolving and giving a portion of a hazardous medicine capsule safely.</p><p>If your child is taking only a portion of the capsule, you will need to mix it with water first and give only a specific amount to your child.</p><p>If your child is taking the entire capsule and the contents need to be mixed with liquid or food, see the information on Safe Handling of hazardous medicines at home: Mixing capsules with liquid or food.</p><h2>What is hazardous medicine?</h2><p>Hazardous medicines are used to treat a variety of medical conditions. For example, chemotherapy is used to treat cancer, and immunosuppressants are used to prevent organ rejection after a transplant.</p><p>Hazardous medicine can damage healthy cells. Anyone handling hazardous medicine should keep themselves protected.</p><p>Although the risk of harm from handling hazardous medicine is small, it is a good idea to avoid exposure. This includes not tasting your child’s medicine. If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, it is best to avoid contact with hazardous medicine. If possible have someone else prepare and give your child their capsules.<br></p><div class="asset-video"><p></p> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/XvSHHvLBpj8">frameborder=&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;quot;0&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;quot;</iframe>  <br> <p></p>For more videos on how to safely handle hazardous medicines, please view the <a href="https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PLjJtOP3StIuWBtC0ID5BCbZCMVHJvTcdr">Safe Handling</a> playlist.<br></div><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A gown, mask and gloves offer protection when handling hazardous medicine.</li><li>You will need to prepare the dose inside a plastic bag to minimize exposure.</li><li>Room temperature water and a dissolve-and-dose device is used to make the solution.<br><br></li></ul><h2>Giving the medicine</h2><ol><li>Pour 10 mL of room-temperature water into a small medicine cup.</li><li>To prepare the syringe, remove the cap and push the plunger all the way in.</li><li>Open the medicine bottle and use tweezers to remove the capsule. Place the capsule onto the covered work surface. Put the lid back on the medicine bottle.</li><li>To minimize the amount of medicine that gets into the air, you will prepare the dose inside the plastic bag. Put the capsule, oral syringe, medicine cup filled with water, and the dissolve-and-dose device inside the clear plastic bag.</li><li>With your hands inside the bag, unscrew the lid of the dissolve-and-dose device.</li> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/chemo_at_home_capsules_pour_into_dissolveNDose_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="gloved hands emptying open capsule into dissolve-and-dose device" /> </figure> <li>Tap the capsule to loosen its contents. While holding the capsule upright, remove the top half. Empty the contents of the capsule into the dissolve-and-dose device. If needed, pinch the capsule ends to loosen the medicine. Make sure both halves of the capsule are empty.</li><li>Pour the 10 mL of room-temperature water from the medicine cup into the dissolve-and-dose device. Only mix the medicine with room temperature water.</li><li>Screw the cap back onto the device, making sure the top is secure. Then, gently rock the device back and forth. Leave it to sit for several minutes to allow the capsule contents to dissolve fully. Do not leave the medicine and equipment unattended while you wait.</li><li>Once the solution is ready, use it right away. Pop the cap off the dissolve-and-dose device and place the oral syringe into the cap nozzle. Carefully lift the dissolve-and-dose until it is upright over the oral syringe. This will help release any air bubbles. Draw and measure the appropriate dose using the oral syringe. Your health-care provider will tell you how much solution to give your child.</li><li>Place the syringe into your child’s mouth, and slowly push the plunger to release the liquid and medicine solution. Your child may drink more water after taking their medication. Your child’s health-care provider will tell you if your child may take any other drinks or food right afterwards.</li></ol><p>If there is solution left over in the dissolve-and-dose device, do not keep it. Instead, pour it into a bottle and store it there until you can dispose of it safely. Make sure you label the bottle "hazardous for disposal". When the bottle is full, you can take it to your local pharmacy to dispose of properly.</p><p>Speak to your child’s health-care provider if your child is having trouble taking their medicine.</p><h3>While preparing your child’s medicine, please remember: </h3><ul><li>Use the tweezers, dissolve ‘n dose device and oral syringe to give the hazardous medicine only. Do not use them for other medicines.</li></ul><h2>Clean-up and storage of hazardous medicines<br></h2><p>Hazardous medicines should be handled safely. It is important to carefully handle the clean-up of the supplies and work area, and to dispose of wastes properly.<br></p><p>Remember these key tips for safe handling of hazardous medicines at home.</p><ul><li>If possible, avoid contact with hazardous medicines if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.</li><li>You and your child should wash your hands before and after handling hazardous medicines.</li><li>Wear gloves when handling hazardous medicine tablets, capsules, or liquids.</li><li>Properly clean, dispose or store the equipment and hazardous medicine.</li></ul><p>All disposable items that have been in contact with hazardous medicines, such as used paper towels and gloves, must go into a designated plastic waste bag or container. Contact the Household Hazardous Waste Depot in your neighbourhood to see if they will accept the waste bags or containers. If such a service does not exist in your area, ask a member of your child's health-care team about other options.</p><p>You may wash and reuse some of your supplies, but do not rinse them in the kitchen sink over other dishes or utensils. If you are reusing an item, such as the medicine cup, rinse it with warm soapy water and allow it to air dry. Clean the sink after washing your supplies.</p><p>Always store hazardous medicines away from children and pets. If stored at room temperature, place them in a locked box, away from moisture and direct sunlight, and in a cool, dry place. If the medicine needs refrigeration, place it in a separate container at the back of the fridge. Return the medicine to the locked box or fridge after each use. Do not keep any medicine in your purse, knapsack or diaper bag.</p><h3>Take special precautions with your child's waste (vomit, urine and stool) while they are taking hazardous medicine</h3><p>While your child is taking hazardous medicine, some of the drug is broken down and removed from the body through urine and stool. It may also appear in vomit. It is important that you protect yourself and others from hazardous medicine in your child's urine, stool or vomit by following these guidelines:</p><ul><li>When changing your child’s diaper, wear disposable gloves and place diapers in a sealed plastic bag before disposal.</li><li>If your child is toilet trained, have your child close the lid, to avoid splashes, and flush twice after using the toilet. Always make sure they wash their hands afterwards.</li><li>Have supplies ready in case you need to quickly clean up any accident. You need a paper towel, soap and water, disposable gloves, and a disposable container, such as an empty ice cream container.</li><li>Use a plastic mattress cover to protect the mattress from accidents.</li><li>Keep a plastic container close by in case of vomiting. If you use the container, empty the contents into the toilet and wash with warm soapy water.<br></li><li>Wear disposable gloves when you are handling any bodily wastes, such as changing soiled sheets or cleaning up vomit.</li><li>Wash soiled clothes or sheets separately from other laundry. If they cannot be washed right away, place them in a sealed plastic bag and set it aside.</li><li>Once you are all finished, wash your hands.<br><br></li></ul><h2>Preparing the space</h2><p>You will need to gather certain supplies and take careful steps when setting up your work area. Your child’s health-care provider will help you make a list of the supplies you will need. You can buy these materials at a grocery or drug store.</p><p>To handle your child’s hazardous medicine at home, choose an uncluttered counter or table away from windows, fans, vents, areas where you prepare food, and where children and pets play.</p><p>If you are dissolving the contents of a capsule, a gown, mask and gloves offer protection. Other supplies will include:</p><ul><li>paper towels or a disposable, absorbent plastic-backed mat — to contain any spills</li><li>a large, clear plastic bag — to contain the work area and for waste disposal</li><li>a dissolve-and-dose device — to mix and hold the solution</li><li>a medicine cup – to hold the water used to dissolve the capsules</li><li>tweezers — to pick up the medicine</li><li>an oral syringe — to give the medicine</li><li>10 mL of room-temperature water</li><li>a labelled container to place any unused mixed medicine</li><li>your child’s medicine</li></ul><h2>Giving your child the capsule solution</h2><p>Always prepare the medicine right before your child will take it. Never prepare and store the dose ahead of time.</p><p>Before preparing your child's medicine:</p> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/chemo_at_home_general_wash_hands_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="handwashing at sink" /> </figure> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/chemo_at_home_general_protect_yourself_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="person wearing mask, gown and gloves" /> </figure> <ul><li>Wash your hands with soap and water.</li><li>Put on your gloves, gown and mask.</li><li>Place paper towels or a disposable, absorbent plastic-backed mat over your work surface.<br></li></ul><p>You are now ready to handle your child’s medicine.</p>
Safe handling of hazardous medicines at home: Giving cut tabletsSSafe handling of hazardous medicines at home: Giving cut tabletsSafe handling of hazardous medicines at home: Giving cut tabletsEnglishPharmacyBaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANADrug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2020-10-22T04:00:00Z7.6000000000000066.00000000000001235.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>A guide on cutting and giving hazardous medicine tablets safely.</p><p>If your child’s hazardous medicine dose includes part of a tablet that needs to be cut, please review the instructions on this page.</p><h2>What is hazardous medicine?</h2><p>Hazardous medicines are used to treat a variety of medical conditions. For example, chemotherapy is used to treat cancer, and immunosuppressants are used to prevent organ rejection after a transplant.</p><p>Hazardous medicine can damage healthy cells. Anyone handling hazardous medicine should keep themselves protected.</p><p>Although the risk of harm from handling hazardous medicine is small, it is a good idea to avoid exposure. This includes not tasting your child’s medicine. If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, it is best to avoid contact with hazardous medicine. If possible have someone else give your child their cut tablet.<br></p><p></p><p></p><div class="asset-video"><p></p> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/VBnzZrA6xQ8">frameborder=&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;quot;0&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;quot;</iframe>  <br> <p></p>For more videos on how to safely handle hazardous medicines, please view the <a href="https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PLjJtOP3StIuWBtC0ID5BCbZCMVHJvTcdr">Safe Handling</a> playlist.<br><p></p></div><br><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A gown, mask and gloves offer protection when handling hazardous medicine.</li><li>If your child's hazardous medicine dose includes part of a tablet, you will need to use a tablet cutter to cut the tablet.<br><br></li></ul><h2>Giving the medicine</h2><ol><li>Open the tablet cutter.</li><li>Open the medicine bottle and use the tweezers to remove the required number of tablets. Place the tablets into the medicine cup and put the lid back on the medicine bottle as soon as possible.</li><li> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">Use a tablet cutter for correct dosage</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/chemo_at_home_tablets_pill_splitter_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Gloved hand placing tablet into a pill splitter using tweezers" /> </figure> <p>Using the tweezers place a tablet in the tablet cutter. If the tablet has a score mark, line this up with the blade of the tablet cutter. Close the tablet cutter and press down firmly. Use the tweezers to place the portion of the tablet to be taken into the medicine cup.</p></li><li>When you are done, use the tweezers to return the remaining piece of the tablet to the original medicine bottle. You can use this piece for your child’s next dose. Only cut as many tablets as you need at one time. If any tablet pieces are not intact, place them in a container or plastic bag clearly marked for disposal of hazardous medicines.</li><li>Make sure your child has washed their hands. Using the medicine cup (and not their hands) have your child swallow each tablet or cut tablet, with an approved drink.</li><li>After your child has taken their medicine, they will need to wash their hands again.</li><li>Wash the tablet splitter with warm soapy water after each use.</li></ol><p>Only cut as many tablets as you need at one time. If any tablet pieces are not intact, place them in a container or plastic bag clearly marked for disposal of hazardous medicines.</p><h3>While preparing your child’s cut tablets, please remember:</h3><ul><li>Use the tablet cutter and tweezers to give the hazardous medicine only. Do not use them for other medicines.</li></ul><h2>Clean-up and storage of hazardous medicines</h2><p>Hazardous medicines should be handled safely. It is important to carefully handle the clean up of the supplies and work area, and to dispose of wastes properly.</p><p>Remember these key tips for safe handling of hazardous medicines at home.</p><ul><li>If possible, avoid contact with hazardous medicines if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.</li><li>You and your child should wash your hands before and after handling hazardous medicines.</li><li>Wear gloves when handling hazardous medicine tablets, capsules or liquids.</li><li>Properly clean, dispose or store the equipment and hazardous medicine.</li></ul><p>All disposable items that have been in contact with hazardous medicines, such as used paper towels and gloves, must go into a designated plastic waste bag or container. Contact the Household Hazardous Waste Depot in your neighbourhood to see if they will accept the waste bags or containers. If such a service does not exist in your area, ask a member of your child's health-care team about other options.</p><p>You may wash and reuse some of your supplies, but do not rinse them in the kitchen sink over other dishes or utensils. If you are reusing an item, such as the medicine cup, rinse it with warm soapy water and allow it to air dry. Clean the sink after washing your supplies.</p><p>Always store hazardous medicines away from children and pets. If stored at room temperature, place them in a locked box, away from moisture and direct sunlight, and in a cool, dry place. If the medicine needs refrigeration, place it in a separate container at the back of the fridge. Return the medicine to the locked box or fridge after each use. Do not keep any medicine in your purse, knapsack or diaper bag.</p><h3>Take special precautions with your child's waste (vomit, urine and stool) while they are taking hazardous medicine</h3><p>While your child is taking hazardous medicine, some of the drug is broken down and removed from the body through urine and stool. It may also appear in vomit. It is important that you protect yourself and others from hazardous medicine in your child's urine, stool or vomit by following these guidelines:</p><ul><li>When changing your child’s diaper, wear disposable gloves and place diapers in a sealed plastic bag before disposal.</li><li>If your child is toilet trained, have your child close the lid, to avoid splashes, and flush twice after using the toilet. Always make sure they wash their hands afterwards.</li><li>Have supplies ready in case you need to quickly clean up any accident. You need a paper towel, soap and water, disposable gloves, and a disposable container, such as an empty ice cream container.</li><li>Use a plastic mattress cover to protect the mattress from accidents.</li><li>Keep a plastic container close by in case of vomiting. If you use the container, empty the contents into the toilet and wash with warm soapy water.</li><li>Wear disposable gloves when you are handling any bodily wastes, such as changing soiled sheets or cleaning up vomit.</li><li>Wash soiled clothes or sheets separately from other laundry. If they cannot be washed right away, place them in a sealed plastic bag and set it aside.</li><li>Once you are all finished, wash your hands.<br><br></li></ul><h2>Preparing the space</h2><p>You will need to gather certain supplies and take careful steps when setting up your work area. Your child’s health-care provider will help you make a list of the supplies you will need. You can buy these materials at a grocery or drug store.</p><p>To handle your child’s hazardous medicine at home, choose an uncluttered counter or table away from windows, fans, vents, areas where you prepare food, and where children and pets play.</p><p>If you are cutting your child’s tablets, a gown, mask and gloves offer protection. Other supplies will include:</p><ul><li>paper towels or a disposable, absorbent plastic-backed mat — to contain any spills</li><li>a plastic bag — for waste disposal</li><li>a medicine cup — to hold cut tablets</li><li>tweezers — to pick up the medicine</li><li>a tablet cutter, also called a pill splitter</li><li>a suitable drink such as water. Your child’s health-care provider will tell you which drinks are suitable</li><li>your child’s medicine</li></ul><p>If your child cannot swallow the cut tablet, see the information on Safe handling of hazardous medicines at home – Cutting and preparing tablets as a liquid.</p><h2>Giving your child cut tablets</h2><p>Before cutting a tablet to give to your child:<br></p> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/chemo_at_home_general_protect_yourself_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Person wearing gloves, a gown, and a mask over the nose and mouth" /> </figure> <ul><li>Wash your hands with soap and water.<br></li><li>Put on your gloves, gown and mask.</li><li>Place paper towels or a disposable, absorbent plastic-backed mat over your work surface.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/chemo_at_home_tablets_pill_splitter_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg
Safe handling of hazardous medicines at home: Giving injectable medicine by mouthSSafe handling of hazardous medicines at home: Giving injectable medicine by mouthSafe handling of hazardous medicines at home: Giving injectable medicine by mouthEnglishPharmacyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANADrug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2020-10-22T04:00:00Z7.4000000000000067.50000000000001589.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>A guide on preparing and giving injectable hazardous medicine safely by mouth.</p><p>If your child's hazardous medicine comes in an injectable form that can be given by mouth using an oral syringe or a cup, follow these instructions.</p><h2>What is hazardous medicine?</h2><p>Hazardous medicines are used to treat a variety of medical conditions. For example, chemotherapy is used to treat cancer, and immunosuppressants are used to prevent organ rejection after a transplant.</p><p>Hazardous medicine can damage healthy cells. Anyone handling hazardous medicine should keep themselves protected.</p><p>Although the risk of harm from handling hazardous medicine is small, it is a good idea to avoid exposure. This includes not tasting your child’s medicine. If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, it is best to avoid contact with hazardous medicine. If possible, have someone else prepare and give your child their medicine.</p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/E6kjz_As-XU"></iframe> </div><p>For more videos on how to safely handle hazardous medicines, please view the <a href="https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PLjJtOP3StIuWBtC0ID5BCbZCMVHJvTcdr">Safe Handling</a> playlist.<br></p> <h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A gown, mask and gloves offer protection when handling hazardous medicine.</li><li>To remove the injectable hazardous medicine from the vial, you need to use a vial access device (spike) and a syringe.</li><li>You can dilute the injectable medicine using an approved drink.</li><li>Use a new vial spike for each new vial of medicine that you use.<br><br></li></ul><h2>Giving the medicine</h2><ol><li><p>If your child’s medicine is suitable to be mixed with liquids, put some of the drink into the medicine cup and set aside. You will need to add at least an equal amount of the drink to improve how the medicine tastes.</p><p>Only some medicines can be mixed with liquids. Your child’s health-care provider will tell you if you can do this with your child’s medicine. Ask your health-care provider which drink is suitable to mix with the medicine.</p></li><li>Remove the plastic cap from the vial and place the vial upright on your work surface.</li><li>Remove the vial spike from its packaging and take the protective cover off of the spike. </li><li>Making sure the vial is upright, align the spike with the centre of the vial closure. Keep the spike straight and push it down firmly into the vial until the spike passes through the rubber stopper and the plastic "skirt" snaps onto the vial.</li><li>Remove the syringe from its packaging. Attach the syringe to the top of the vial spike by pushing and twisting until secure. Turn the vial upside down and pull back the syringe plunger slowly to draw out the required dose. Your child’s health-care provider will tell you the required dose. If you need to push medicine back into the vial, turn the vial upright before doing so. </li><li>Remove the syringe from the vial spike. You are now ready to mix the medicine.</li><li>To give the injectable medicine by mouth you can dilute it in the syringe or mix it with the drink.</li><p><strong>Diluting the medicine in the syringe</strong></p><ol type="a"><li><p>Draw some of the drink from the medicine cup into the syringe with the medicine and give it to your child. Whatever amount of medicine your child needs, you will need to add at least an equal amount of the drink to improve how the medicine tastes.</p><p>For example, if your child’s dose is 5 mL, you will need to add at least 5 mL of the drink. You can add more of the drink to the syringe if needed.</p></li><li>Place the syringe into your child’s mouth, and slowly push the plunger to release the drink and medicine solution.</li></ol><p><strong>Mixing the medicine with the drink</strong></p><ol type="a"><li>If your child is unable to take their medicine from a syringe, you can dilute it with the drink in the cup instead. Push the medicine from the syringe into the cup with the drink.</li><li>Stir with the syringe to mix the medicine and the drink together.</li><li>Have your child drink from the cup, making sure they finish all the liquid in the cup. You may give them more of the drink afterwards.</li></ol><li>Once you are done, place the syringe into a container for disposal. You will use a new syringe every time you prepare a dose.</li><li>The vial spike can remain in the medicine vial and can be used for other doses. Your child’s health-care provider will inform you how long you can use the medicine vial once it is opened.</li></ol><p>Store the vial upright, in a cool, dry place, protected from light. Use a new vial spike for each new medicine vial that you use. Discard the empty vial and the used vial spikes into the disposal container.</p><p>Speak to your health-care provider if your child is having trouble taking the medicine.</p><h3>While preparing your child’s medicine, please remember:</h3><ul><li>Use the oral syringe to give the hazardous medicine only. Do not use them for other medicines.</li></ul> <h2>Clean-up and storage of hazardous medicines</h2><p>Hazardous medicines should be handled safely. It is important to carefully handle the clean-up of the supplies and work area, and to dispose of wastes properly.</p><p>Remember these key tips for safe handling of hazardous medicines at home.</p><ul><li>If possible, avoid contact with hazardous medicines if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.</li><li>You and your child should wash your hands before and after handling hazardous medicines.</li><li>Wear gloves when handling hazardous medicine tablets, capsules, or liquids.</li><li>Properly clean, dispose or store the equipment and hazardous medicine.</li></ul><p>All disposable items that have been in contact with hazardous medicines, such as used paper towels and gloves, must go into a designated plastic waste bag or container. Contact the Household Hazardous Waste Depot in your neighbourhood to see if they will accept the waste bags or containers. If such a service does not exist in your area, ask a member of your child's health-care team about other options.</p><p>You may wash and reuse some of your supplies, but do not rinse them in the kitchen sink over other dishes or utensils.</p><p>If you are reusing an item, such as the medicine cup, rinse it with warm soapy water and allow it to air dry. Clean the sink after washing your supplies.</p><p>Always store hazardous medicines away from children and pets. If stored at room temperature, place them in a locked box, away from moisture and direct sunlight, and in a cool, dry place. If the medicine needs refrigeration, place it in a separate container at the back of the fridge. Return the medicine to the locked box or fridge after each use. Do not keep any medicine in your purse, knapsack or diaper bag.</p><h3>Take special precautions with your child's waste (vomit, urine and stool) while they are taking hazardous medicine</h3><p>While your child is taking hazardous medicine, some of the drug is broken down and removed from the body through urine and stool. It may also appear in vomit. It is important that you protect yourself and others from hazardous medicine in your child's urine, stool or vomit by following these guidelines:</p><ul><li>When changing your child’s diaper, wear disposable gloves and place diapers in a sealed plastic bag before disposal.</li><li>If your child is toilet trained, have your child close the lid, to avoid splashes, and flush twice after using the toilet. Always make sure they wash their hands afterwards.</li><li>Have supplies ready in case you need to quickly clean up any accident. You need a paper towel, soap and water, disposable gloves, and a disposable container, such as an empty ice cream container.</li><li>Use a plastic mattress cover to protect the mattress from accidents.</li><li>Keep a plastic container close by in case of vomiting. If you use the container, empty the contents into the toilet and wash with warm soapy water.</li><li>Wear disposable gloves when you are handling any bodily wastes, such as changing soiled sheets or cleaning up vomit.</li><li>Wash soiled clothes or sheets separately from other laundry. If they cannot be washed right away, place them in a sealed plastic bag and set it aside.</li><li>Once you are all finished, wash your hands.<br><br></li></ul><h2>Preparing the space</h2><p>You will need to gather certain supplies and take careful steps when setting up your work area. Your child’s health-care provider will help you make a list of the supplies you will need. You can buy these materials at a grocery or drug store.</p><p>To handle your child’s hazardous medicine at home, choose an uncluttered counter or table away from windows, fans, vents, areas where you prepare food, and where children and pets play.</p><p>If you are giving your child their injectable medicine by mouth, a gown, mask and gloves offer protection. Other supplies will include:</p><ul><li>paper towels or a disposable, absorbent plastic-backed mat — to contain any spills</li><li>medicine vial</li><li>a syringe — to draw up medicine from the vial</li><li>a vial access device (vial spike) — to allow safe removal of medicine from the vial</li><li>a container with a lid or plastic bag — for disposal of the syringe, vial and spike</li><li>a suitable drink. Your child’s health-care provider will tell you which drinks are suitable</li><li>a labelled container — to place any unused mixed medicine</li><li>a medicine cup or labelled cup — used only for giving the medicine</li></ul><h2>Giving your child the injectable medicine by mouth</h2><p>Always prepare the medicine right before your child will take it. Never prepare and store the dose ahead of time.</p><p>Before giving your child their medicine:</p> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/chemo_at_home_general_wash_hands_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="handwashing at sink" /> </figure><figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/chemo_at_home_general_protect_yourself_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Person wearing gloves, a gown, and a mask over the nose and mouth" /></figure> <ul><li>Wash your hands with soap and water.</li><li>Put on your gloves, gown and mask.</li><li>Place paper towels or a disposable, absorbent plastic-backed mat over your work surface.</li></ul>
Safe handling of hazardous medicines at home: Giving injectable medicine by mouthSSafe handling of hazardous medicines at home: Giving injectable medicine by mouthSafe handling of hazardous medicines at home: Giving injectable medicine by mouthEnglishPharmacyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANADrug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2020-10-22T04:00:00Z7.4000000000000067.50000000000001589.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>A guide on preparing and giving injectable hazardous medicine safely by mouth.</p><p>If your child's hazardous medicine comes in an injectable form that can be given by mouth using an oral syringe or a cup, follow these instructions.</p><h2>What is hazardous medicine?</h2><p>Hazardous medicines are used to treat a variety of medical conditions. For example, chemotherapy is used to treat cancer, and immunosuppressants are used to prevent organ rejection after a transplant.</p><p>Hazardous medicine can damage healthy cells. Anyone handling hazardous medicine should keep themselves protected.</p><p>Although the risk of harm from handling hazardous medicine is small, it is a good idea to avoid exposure. This includes not tasting your child’s medicine. If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, it is best to avoid contact with hazardous medicine. If possible, have someone else prepare and give your child their medicine.</p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/E6kjz_As-XU"></iframe> </div><p>For more videos on how to safely handle hazardous medicines, please view the <a href="https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PLjJtOP3StIuWBtC0ID5BCbZCMVHJvTcdr">Safe Handling</a> playlist.</p> <h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A gown, mask and gloves offer protection when handling hazardous medicine.</li><li>To remove the injectable hazardous medicine from the vial, you need to use a vial access device (spike) and a syringe.</li><li>You can dilute the injectable medicine using an approved drink.</li><li>Use a new vial spike for each new vial of medicine that you use.</li></ul> <h2>Giving the medicine</h2><ol><li><p>If your child’s medicine is suitable to be mixed with liquids, put some of the drink into the medicine cup and set aside. You will need to add at least an equal amount of the drink to improve how the medicine tastes.</p><p>Only some medicines can be mixed with liquids. Your child’s health-care provider will tell you if you can do this with your child’s medicine. Ask your health-care provider which drink is suitable to mix with the medicine.</p></li><li>Remove the plastic cap from the vial and place the vial upright on your work surface.</li><li>Remove the vial spike from its packaging and take the protective cover off of the spike. </li><li>Making sure the vial is upright, align the spike with the centre of the vial closure. Keep the spike straight and push it down firmly into the vial until the spike passes through the rubber stopper and the plastic "skirt" snaps onto the vial.</li><li>Remove the syringe from its packaging. Attach the syringe to the top of the vial spike by pushing and twisting until secure. Turn the vial upside down and pull back the syringe plunger slowly to draw out the required dose. Your child’s health-care provider will tell you the required dose. If you need to push medicine back into the vial, turn the vial upright before doing so. </li><li>Remove the syringe from the vial spike. You are now ready to mix the medicine.</li><li>To give the injectable medicine by mouth you can dilute it in the syringe or mix it with the drink.</li><p><strong>Diluting the medicine in the syringe</strong></p><ol type="a"><li><p>Draw some of the drink from the medicine cup into the syringe with the medicine and give it to your child. Whatever amount of medicine your child needs, you will need to add at least an equal amount of the drink to improve how the medicine tastes.</p><p>For example, if your child’s dose is 5 mL, you will need to add at least 5 mL of the drink. You can add more of the drink to the syringe if needed.</p></li><li>Place the syringe into your child’s mouth, and slowly push the plunger to release the drink and medicine solution.</li></ol><p><strong>Mixing the medicine with the drink</strong></p><ol type="a"><li>If your child is unable to take their medicine from a syringe, you can dilute it with the drink in the cup instead. Push the medicine from the syringe into the cup with the drink.</li><li>Stir with the syringe to mix the medicine and the drink together.</li><li>Have your child drink from the cup, making sure they finish all the liquid in the cup. You may give them more of the drink afterwards.</li></ol><li>Once you are done, place the syringe into a container for disposal. You will use a new syringe every time you prepare a dose.</li><li>The vial spike can remain in the medicine vial and can be used for other doses. Your child’s health-care provider will inform you how long you can use the medicine vial once it is opened.</li></ol><p>Store the vial upright, in a cool, dry place, protected from light. Use a new vial spike for each new medicine vial that you use. Discard the empty vial and the used vial spikes into the disposal container.</p><p>Speak to your health-care provider if your child is having trouble taking the medicine.</p><h3>While preparing your child’s medicine, please remember:</h3><ul><li>Use the oral syringe to give the hazardous medicine only. Do not use them for other medicines.</li></ul> <h2>Clean-up and storage of hazardous medicines</h2><p>Hazardous medicines should be handled safely. It is important to carefully handle the clean-up of the supplies and work area, and to dispose of wastes properly.</p><p>Remember these key tips for safe handling of hazardous medicines at home.</p><ul><li>If possible, avoid contact with hazardous medicines if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.</li><li>You and your child should wash your hands before and after handling hazardous medicines.</li><li>Wear gloves when handling hazardous medicine tablets, capsules, or liquids.</li><li>Properly clean, dispose or store the equipment and hazardous medicine.</li></ul><p>All disposable items that have been in contact with hazardous medicines, such as used paper towels and gloves, must go into a designated plastic waste bag or container. Contact the Household Hazardous Waste Depot in your neighbourhood to see if they will accept the waste bags or containers. If such a service does not exist in your area, ask a member of your child's health-care team about other options.</p><p>You may wash and reuse some of your supplies, but do not rinse them in the kitchen sink over other dishes or utensils.</p><p>If you are reusing an item, such as the medicine cup, rinse it with warm soapy water and allow it to air dry. Clean the sink after washing your supplies.</p><p>Always store hazardous medicines away from children and pets. If stored at room temperature, place them in a locked box, away from moisture and direct sunlight, and in a cool, dry place. If the medicine needs refrigeration, place it in a separate container at the back of the fridge. Return the medicine to the locked box or fridge after each use. Do not keep any medicine in your purse, knapsack or diaper bag.</p><h3>Take special precautions with your child's waste (vomit, urine and stool) while they are taking hazardous medicine</h3><p>While your child is taking hazardous medicine, some of the drug is broken down and removed from the body through urine and stool. It may also appear in vomit. It is important that you protect yourself and others from hazardous medicine in your child's urine, stool or vomit by following these guidelines:</p><ul><li>When changing your child’s diaper, wear disposable gloves and place diapers in a sealed plastic bag before disposal.</li><li>If your child is toilet trained, have your child close the lid, to avoid splashes, and flush twice after using the toilet. Always make sure they wash their hands afterwards.</li><li>Have supplies ready in case you need to quickly clean up any accident. You need a paper towel, soap and water, disposable gloves, and a disposable container, such as an empty ice cream container.</li><li>Use a plastic mattress cover to protect the mattress from accidents.</li><li>Keep a plastic container close by in case of vomiting. If you use the container, empty the contents into the toilet and wash with warm soapy water.</li><li>Wear disposable gloves when you are handling any bodily wastes, such as changing soiled sheets or cleaning up vomit.</li><li>Wash soiled clothes or sheets separately from other laundry. If they cannot be washed right away, place them in a sealed plastic bag and set it aside.</li><li>Once you are all finished, wash your hands.</li></ul> <h2>Preparing the space</h2><p>You will need to gather certain supplies and take careful steps when setting up your work area. Your child’s health-care provider will help you make a list of the supplies you will need. You can buy these materials at a grocery or drug store.</p><p>To handle your child’s hazardous medicine at home, choose an uncluttered counter or table away from windows, fans, vents, areas where you prepare food, and where children and pets play.</p><p>If you are giving your child their injectable medicine by mouth, a gown, mask and gloves offer protection. Other supplies will include:</p><ul><li>paper towels or a disposable, absorbent plastic-backed mat — to contain any spills</li><li>medicine vial</li><li>a syringe — to draw up medicine from the vial</li><li>a vial access device (vial spike) — to allow safe removal of medicine from the vial</li><li>a container with a lid or plastic bag — for disposal of the syringe, vial and spike</li><li>a suitable drink. Your child’s health-care provider will tell you which drinks are suitable</li><li>a labelled container — to place any unused mixed medicine</li><li>a medicine cup or labelled cup — used only for giving the medicine</li></ul><h2>Giving your child the injectable medicine by mouth</h2><p>Always prepare the medicine right before your child will take it. Never prepare and store the dose ahead of time.</p><p>Before giving your child their medicine:</p> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/chemo_at_home_general_wash_hands_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="handwashing at sink" /> </figure><figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/chemo_at_home_general_protect_yourself_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Person wearing gloves, a gown, and a mask over the nose and mouth" /></figure> <ul><li>Wash your hands with soap and water.</li><li>Put on your gloves, gown and mask.</li><li>Place paper towels or a disposable, absorbent plastic-backed mat over your work surface.</li></ul>
Safe handling of hazardous medicines at home: Giving whole tablets or capsulesSSafe handling of hazardous medicines at home: Giving whole tablets or capsulesSafe handling of hazardous medicines at home: Giving whole tablets or capsulesEnglishPharmacyBaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANADrug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2020-10-22T04:00:00Z7.9000000000000063.40000000000001086.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>A guide on giving hazardous medicine tablets or capsules safely.</p><p>If your child takes their hazardous medicine as a tablet or capsule, and they are able to swallow the tablet or capsule whole, please review the instructions on this page.<br></p><h2>What is hazardous medicine?</h2><p>Hazardous medicines are used to treat a variety of medical conditions. For example, chemotherapy is used to treat cancer, and immunosuppressants are used to prevent organ rejection after a transplant.</p><p>Hazardous medicine can damage healthy cells. Anyone handling hazardous medicine should keep themselves protected.</p><p>Although the risk of harm from handling hazardous medicine is small, it is a good idea to avoid exposure. This includes not tasting your child’s medicine. If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, it is best to avoid contact with hazardous medicine. If possible, have someone else give your child their tablet or capsule. </p><p></p><div class="asset-video"><p></p> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/Rc7H6AYi1LI">frameborder=&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;quot;0&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;quot;</iframe>  <br> <p>For more videos on how to safely handle hazardous medicines, please visit the <a href="https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PLjJtOP3StIuWBtC0ID5BCbZCMVHJvTcdr">Safe Handling</a> playlist.<br></p> </div><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A gown, mask and gloves offer protection when handling hazardous medicine.</li><li>Hazardous medicine comes in several different forms including tablets and capsules.<br><br></li></ul><h2>Giving the medicine</h2><ol><li>Open the medicine bottle and with or without tweezers remove the required number of tablets. Place the tablets into the medicine cup and put the lid back on the medicine bottle.</li><li>Make sure your child has washed their hands. Using the medicine cup (and not their hands), have your child swallow each tablet or capsule whole, with an approved drink.</li><li>After your child has taken their medicine, they will need to wash their hands again.</li></ol><h3>While preparing your child’s tablets, please remember:</h3><ul><li>Use the tweezers to give the hazardous medicine only. Do not use them for other medicines.</li></ul><h2>Preparing the space</h2><p>You will need to gather certain supplies and take careful steps when setting up your work area. Your child’s health-care provider will help you make a list of the supplies you will need. You can buy these materials at a grocery or drug store.</p><p>To handle your child’s hazardous medicine at home, choose an uncluttered counter or table away from windows, fans, vents, areas where you prepare food, and where children and pets play.</p><p>If your child is able to swallow a whole tablet or capsule, your supplies will include:</p><ul><li>gloves — to minimize direct contact with the medicine</li><li>paper towels or a disposable, absorbent plastic-backed mat — to contain any spills</li><li>a plastic bag — for waste disposal</li><li>a medicine cup — to hold the tablets</li><li>tweezers — to pick up the medicine</li><li>a suitable drink, such as water. Your child’s health-care provider will tell you which drinks are suitable</li><li>your child’s medicine</li></ul><p>If your child cannot swallow whole tablets, see the information on Safe Handling of hazardous medicines at home – Dissolving and giving whole tablets.</p><p>If your child cannot swallow whole capsules, see the information on Safe Handling of hazardous medicines at home – Mixing capsules with liquid or food.</p><h2>Giving your child whole tablets or capsules</h2><p>Always prepare the medicine right before your child will take it. Before giving your child whole tablets or capsules:</p> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/chemo_at_home_general_wash_hands_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="handwashing at sink" /> </figure> <ol><li>Wash your hands with soap and water.</li><li>Put on your gloves.</li><li>Place paper towels or a disposable, absorbent plastic-backed mat over your work surface.</li></ol>
Safe handling of hazardous medicines at home: Mixing capsules with liquid or foodSSafe handling of hazardous medicines at home: Mixing capsules with liquid or foodSafe handling of hazardous medicines at home: Mixing capsules with liquid or foodEnglishPharmacyBaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANADrug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2020-10-22T04:00:00Z7.7000000000000066.70000000000001463.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>A guide on mixing hazardous medicine capsules with liquid or food safely.</p><p>If your child is taking an entire capsule and the contents need to be mixed with liquid or food, follow these instructions.</p><p>If your child is taking only a portion of the capsule, see the information on Safe Handling of hazardous medicines at home: Giving capsule solutions.</p><h2>What is hazardous medicine?</h2><p>Hazardous medicines are used to treat a variety of medical conditions. For example, chemotherapy is used to treat cancer, and immunosuppressants are used to prevent organ rejection after a transplant.</p><p>Hazardous medicine can damage healthy cells. Anyone handling hazardous medicine should keep themselves protected.</p><p>Although the risk of harm from handling hazardous medicine is small, it is a good idea to avoid exposure. This includes not tasting your child’s medicine. If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, it is best to avoid contact with hazardous medicine. If possible have someone else prepare and give your child their capsules.<br></p><p></p><div class="asset-video"><p></p> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/XyLtsuOjZ74">frameborder=&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;quot;0&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;quot;</iframe>  <br> <p></p>For more videos on how to safely handle hazardous medicines, please view the <a href="https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PLjJtOP3StIuWBtC0ID5BCbZCMVHJvTcdr">Safe Handling</a> playlist.<br><p><br></p></div> <p></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A gown, mask and gloves offer protection when handling hazardous medicine.</li><li>If your child is unable to swallow whole capsules you will need to open the capsule and mix the contents with an approved food or liquid.</li><li>You will need to prepare the dose inside a plastic bag to minimize exposure.</li><li>Mix the contents of the capsule with an approved food or liquid immediately prior to giving the dose.<br><br></li></ul><h2>Giving the medicine</h2><ol><li>Put the food or liquid you will use to mix the contents of the capsule with into the medicine cup. Keep extra food or liquid on hand in case you need to add more.</li><li>Open the medicine bottle and use tweezers to remove the required number of capsules. Place the capsules onto the covered work surface and put the lid back on the medicine bottle.</li><li>To minimize the amount of medicine that gets into the air, you will prepare the dose inside the plastic bag. Put the capsule(s), spoon or oral syringe, and the medicine cup filled with food or liquid into the clear plastic bag.</li><li><figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/chemo_at_home_capsules_pour_into_med_cup_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Gloved hands inside of clear plastic bag, adding contents of capsule to a cup with liquid" /> </figure> <p>With your hands inside the bag, tap the capsule to loosen its contents. While holding the capsule upright, remove the top half.</p></li><li>Empty the contents of the capsule into the medicine cup with room temperature food or liquid. If needed, pinch the capsule ends to loosen the medicine. Make sure both capsule ends are empty. Repeat this procedure if your child needs to take more than one capsule at a time.</li><li><figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/chemo_at_home_capsules_pour_into_med_cup_detail_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Close-up on capsule being emptied into a cup with liquid" /> </figure> <p>While keeping the medicine cup inside the plastic bag, use the spoon to mix the contents from the capsule with the food that is in the cup. If there is liquid in the cup, you can use the oral syringe to mix in the contents of the capsule. The medicine may not dissolve completely.</p></li><li>If you have prepared the medicine using food, you can use the spoon to scoop up the food mixture and allow your child to eat the mixed amount.</li><li>If you have prepared the medicine in liquid, your child can take the dose directly from the medicine cup.</li><li>Or, draw up the liquid from the cup using the oral syringe. Place the oral syringe into your child’s mouth and slowly push the plunger to release the medicine. If any medicine is left in the oral syringe, draw up more water, gently rock the syringe back and forth and give the medicine to your child.</li><li>When you are done, place the empty capsule pieces in a plastic bag or bottle clearly marked for disposal.</li></ol><p>Speak to your health-care provider if your child is having trouble taking the medicine.</p><h3>While preparing your child’s medicine, please remember:</h3><ul><li>Use the tweezers and oral syringe to give the hazardous medicine only. Do not use them for other medicines.</li></ul><h2>Clean-up and storage of hazardous medicines</h2><p>Hazardous medicines should be handled safely. It is important to carefully handle the clean up of the supplies and work area, and to dispose of wastes properly.</p><p>Remember these key tips for safe handling of hazardous medicines at home.</p><ul><li>If possible, avoid contact with hazardous medicines if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.</li><li>You and your child should wash your hands before and after handling hazardous medicines.</li><li>Wear gloves when handling hazardous medicine tablets, capsules or liquids.</li><li>Properly clean, dispose of or store the equipment and hazardous medicine.</li></ul><p>All disposable items that have been in contact with hazardous medicines, such as used paper towels and gloves, must go into a designated plastic waste bag or container. Contact the Household Hazardous Waste Depot in your neighbourhood to see if they will accept the waste bags or containers. If such a service does not exist in your area, ask a member of your child's healthcare team about other options.</p><p>You may wash and reuse some of your supplies, but do not rinse them in the kitchen sink over other dishes or utensils. If you are reusing an item, such as the medicine cup, rinse it with warm soapy water and allow it to air dry. Clean the sink after washing your supplies.</p><p>Always store hazardous medicines away from children and pets. If stored at room temperature, place them in a locked box, away from moisture and direct sunlight, and in a cool, dry place. If the medicine needs refrigeration, place it in a separate container at the back of the fridge. Return the medicine to the locked box or fridge after each use. Do not keep any medicine in your purse, knapsack or diaper bag.</p><h3>Take special precautions with your child's waste (vomit, urine and stool) while they are taking hazardous medicine</h3><p>While your child is taking hazardous medicine, some of the drug is broken down and removed from the body through urine and stool. It may also appear in vomit. It is important that you protect yourself and others from hazardous medicine in your child's urine, stool or vomit by following these guidelines:</p><ul><li>When changing your child’s diaper, wear disposable gloves and place diapers in a sealed plastic bag before disposal.</li><li>If your child is toilet trained, have your child close the lid, to avoid splashes, and flush twice after using the toilet. Always make sure they wash their hands afterwards.</li><li>Have supplies ready in case you need to quickly clean up any accident. You need a paper towel, soap and water, disposable gloves, and a disposable container, such as an empty ice cream container.</li><li>Use a plastic mattress cover to protect the mattress from accidents.</li><li>Keep a plastic container close by in case of vomiting. If you use the container, empty the contents into the toilet and wash with warm soapy water.</li><li>Wear disposable gloves when you are handling any bodily wastes, such as changing soiled sheets or cleaning up vomit.</li><li>Wash soiled clothes or sheets separately from other laundry. If they cannot be washed right away, place them in a sealed plastic bag and set it aside.</li><li>Once you are all finished, wash your hands.<br><br></li></ul><h2>Preparing the space</h2><p>You will need to gather certain supplies and take careful steps when setting up your work area. Your child’s healthcare provider will help you make a list of the supplies you will need. You can buy these materials at a grocery or drug store.</p><p>To handle your child’s hazardous medicine at home, choose an uncluttered counter or table away from windows, fans, vents, areas where you prepare food, and where children and pets play.</p><p>If you are preparing your child's medicine by mixing the contents of the capsule with liquid or food, a gown, mask and gloves offer protection. Other supplies will include:</p> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/chemo_at_home_capsules_required_supplies_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="plastic bag, medicine cup containing apple sauce, spoon, oral syringe, and capsules on a mat" /> </figure> <ul><li>paper towels or a disposable, absorbent plastic-backed mat — to contain any spills</li><li>a large, clear plastic bag — to contain the work area and for waste disposal</li><li>a medicine cup — to hold the food or liquid</li><li>tweezers — to pick up the medicine<br></li><li>a spoon or an oral syringe — to give the medicine</li><li>room-temperature food or drink — to mix with the medicine. Your child’s health-care provider will tell you which foods or liquids can be mixed with your child’s medicine</li><li>your child’s medicine</li></ul><h2>Giving your child the capsules mixed with liquid or food</h2><p>Always prepare the medicine right before your child will take it. Never prepare and store the dose ahead of time.</p><p>Before mixing the contents of the capsule with liquid or food:<br></p> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/chemo_at_home_general_wash_hands_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="handwashing at sink" /> </figure> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/chemo_at_home_general_protect_yourself_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Person wearing gloves, a gown, and a mask over the nose and mouth" /> </figure> <ul><li>Wash your hands with soap and water.</li><li>Put on your gloves, gown and mask.</li><li>Place paper towels or a disposable, absorbent plastic-backed mat over your work surface.</li></ul><p>You are now ready to handle your child’s medicine.<br></p>
Safe handling of hazardous medicines at home: Set up and clean upSSafe handling of hazardous medicines at home: Set up and clean upSafe handling of hazardous medicines at home: Set up and clean upEnglishPharmacyBaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANADrug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2020-10-22T04:00:00Z7.9000000000000063.4000000000000885.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>A guide on how to safely give and handle your child's hazardous medicines at home.</p><h2>What is hazardous medicine?</h2><p>Hazardous medicines are used to treat a variety of medical conditions. For example, chemotherapy is used to treat cancer, and immunosuppressants are used to prevent organ rejection after a transplant.</p><p>Hazardous medicine can damage healthy cells. Anyone handling hazardous medicine should keep themselves protected.</p><p>Although the risk of harm from handling hazardous medicine is small, it is a good idea to avoid exposure. This includes not tasting your child’s medicine. If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, it is best to avoid contact with hazardous medicine. If possible, have someone else give your child their tablet or capsule.<br></p><p></p><div class="asset-video"><p></p> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/VBnzZrA6xQ8">frameborder=&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;quot;0&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;quot;</iframe>  <br> <p></p>For more videos on how to safely handle hazardous medicines, please view the <a href="https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PLjJtOP3StIuWBtC0ID5BCbZCMVHJvTcdr">Safe Handling</a> playlist.<br><p></p></div><br><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A gown, mask and gloves offer protection when handling hazardous medicine.</li><li>Hazardous medicine comes in several different forms, including tablets and capsules.<br><br></li></ul><h2>Giving your child the medicine</h2><p>Always prepare the medicine right before your child will take it. Never prepare and store the dose ahead of time.</p><p>Before preparing your child's medicine:</p> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/chemo_at_home_general_wash_hands_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="handwashing at sink" /> </figure> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/chemo_at_home_general_protect_yourself_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="person wearing a mask, gown and gloves" /> </figure> <ul><li>Wash your hands with soap and water.</li><li>Put on your gloves, gown and mask.</li><li>Place paper towels or a disposable, absorbent plastic-backed mat over your work surface.</li></ul><p>You are now ready to handle your child’s medicine.</p><h2>Clean-up and storage of hazardous medicines</h2><p>Hazardous medicines should be handled safely. It is important to carefully handle the clean-up of the supplies and work area, and to dispose of wastes properly.</p><p>All disposable items that have been in contact with hazardous medicines, such as the used paper towels and gloves, must go into a designated plastic waste bag or container. Contact the Household Hazardous Waste Depot in your neighbourhood to see if they will accept the waste bags or containers. If such a service does not exist in your area, ask a member of your child's health-care team about other options.</p><p>You may wash and reuse some of your supplies, but do not rinse them in the kitchen sink over other dishes or utensils. If you are reusing an item, such as the medicine cup, rinse it with warm soapy water and allow it to air dry. Clean the sink after washing your supplies.</p><p>Always store hazardous medicines away from children and pets. If stored at room temperature, place them in a locked box, away from moisture and direct sunlight, and in a cool, dry place. If the medicine needs refrigeration, place it in a separate container at the back of the fridge. Return the medicine to the locked box or fridge after each use. Do not keep any medicine in your purse, knapsack or diaper bag.</p><h3>Take special precautions with your child's waste (vomit, urine and stool) while they are taking hazardous medicine</h3><p>While your child is taking hazardous medicine, some of the drug is broken down and removed from the body through urine and stool. It may also appear in vomit. It is important that you protect yourself and others from hazardous medicine in your child's urine, stool or vomit by following these guidelines:</p><ul><li>When changing your child’s diaper, wear disposable gloves and place diapers in a sealed plastic bag before disposal.</li><li>If your child is toilet trained, have your child close the lid, to avoid splashes, and flush twice after using the toilet. Always make sure they wash their hands afterwards.</li><li>Have supplies ready in case you need to quickly clean up any accident. You need a paper towel, soap and water, disposable gloves, and a disposable container, such as an empty ice cream container.</li><li>Use a plastic mattress cover to protect the mattress from accidents.</li><li>Keep a plastic container close by in case of vomiting. If you use the container, empty the contents into the toilet and wash with warm soapy water.</li><li>Wear disposable gloves when you are handling any bodily wastes, for example, when changing soiled sheets or cleaning up vomit.</li><li>Wash soiled clothes or sheets separately from other laundry. If they cannot be washed right away, place them in a sealed plastic bag and set it aside.</li><li>Once you are all finished, wash your hands.</li></ul><p>Remember these key tips for safe handling of hazardous medicines at home.</p><ul><li>If possible, avoid contact with hazardous medicines if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.</li><li>You and your child should wash your hands before and after handling hazardous medicines.</li><li>Wear gloves when handling hazardous medicine tablets, capsules or liquids.</li><li>Properly clean, dispose or store the equipment and hazardous medicine.<br><br></li></ul><h2>Preparing the space</h2><p>You will need to gather certain supplies and take careful steps when setting up your work area. Your child’s health-care provider will help you make a list of the supplies you will need. You can buy these materials at a grocery or drug store.</p><p>To handle your child’s hazardous medicine at home, choose an uncluttered counter or table away from windows, fans, vents, areas where you prepare food, and where children and pets play.</p><p>Depending on how you prepare your child’s medicine you may need to wear a gown, mask and gloves as they offer protection. Other supplies may include:</p><ul><li>paper towels or a disposable, absorbent plastic-backed mat — to contain any spills</li><li>a plastic bag — for waste disposal</li><li>a syringe, medicine cup, tweezers, pill splitter or other items that you need to prepare your child’s medicine dose</li><li>your child’s medicine</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/chemo_at_home_general_protect_yourself_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg
Safe outdoor mealsSSafe outdoor mealsSafe outdoor mealsEnglishPreventionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-06-11T04:00:00Z7.5000000000000067.9000000000000731.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Follow these tips for safe and tasty outdoor meals during the summer months.</p><p>On a hot summer day, there are few things nicer than a picnic or barbecue. Both offer a great opportunity to get outside, enjoy healthy foods in season and spend time with family and friends.<br></p><p>To make sure your dining experience is remembered for fun rather than food poisoning, follow these tips for tasty and safe summertime meals.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Wash hands carefully before and after handling food.</li><li>Keep raw meat, seafood and poultry separate from other food.</li><li>Use a food thermometer to check the internal temperature of barbecued meat.</li> <li>For picnics, bring plenty of water and balance treats with whole grains, vegetables and fruit, and lean protein choices.</li><li>Wash vegetables and fruit before packing them and use cold packs or coolers to keep food and drinks cool.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/safe_outdoor_meals.jpg
Safety & the environmentSSafety & the environmentSafety & the environmentEnglishNANANANANACaregivers Adult (19+) Teen (13-18 years)NALanding PageLearning Hub<p>Information for parents about indoor and outdoor safety, car and travel safety, and poison prevention. Also find first aid resources including information about animal bites, insect bites and sunburns.</p><p>Information for parents about indoor and outdoor safety such as scald prevention and how to prevent head injuries in children. There are also resources discussing car and travel safety, and poison prevention. Also find first aid resources including information about animal bites, insect bites and sunburns.<br></p>safetyhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/safety_and_the_environment_landing_page.jpg
Saline solution: How to prepare at homeSSaline solution: How to prepare at homeSaline solution: How to prepare at homeEnglishOtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANANon-drug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2021-09-16T04:00:00Z7.7000000000000062.9000000000000663.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to make a salt rinse (saline solution) at home.</p><p>Saline is a mixture of salt and water. A normal saline solution is called normal because its salt concentration is similar to tears, blood and other body fluids (0.9% saline). It is also called isotonic solution. A homemade saline solution can be used to:</p><ul><li>rinse the nasal passages (nasal irrigation)</li><li>rinse the mouth to alleviate a <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=748&language=English">sore throat</a></li><li>cleanse <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1046&language=English">cuts and scrapes</a></li><li>rinsing the mouth after the loss of a tooth</li><li>Cleansing a new a piercing</li></ul><p><strong>Warning! Do not drink homemade saline solution and do not use it to:</strong></p><ul><li>cleanse the bladder or a urinary catheter (bladder irrigation)</li><li>rinse your eyes or contact lenses, as this could lead to corneal abrasions</li><li>treat dehydration</li></ul><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Saline solution can be made at home and has several useful purposes.</li><li>It is generally safe to make at home, as long as you wash your hands and the container in which you plan to store the solution.</li><li>It is important to only use a fresh saline solution and to throw it away if it looks cloudy or dirty.</li></ul><h2>How to make a saline solution at home</h2><p>Saline solution is easy to make at home. Always wash your hands with soap and water before preparing saline at home.</p><p>You will need:</p><ul><li>one clean, air-tight glass bottle or jar with lid</li><li>pot with lid</li><li>table salt (it is best to use non-iodized salt, which does not have iodine in it)</li><li>baking soda (optional, but will make the solution less irritating)</li></ul><h3>Instructions</h3><p>Option 1:</p><ol><li>Put one cup (250 mL) of tap water into a pot and boil for 15 minutes with the lid on.</li><li>Remove from heat and cool until the water reaches room temperature.</li><li>Add ½ teaspoon of salt into the pot and stir to dissolve. <em>Optional: Add a pinch of baking soda.</em></li><li>Carefully pour the salt-water solution from the pan into the jar or bottle and put the lid on.</li><li>Refrigerate solution and use within 24 hours.</li></ol><p>Option 2:</p><p>You can used distilled water purchased from most drug and grocery stores to make sterile and longer-lasting saline without boiling water. This is an easy and less time-consuming process.</p><ol><li>Mix eight teaspoons of salt into 1 gallon (4 L) of distilled water.</li><li>Refrigerate solution and use within one month.</li></ol><p>If you plan on using the saline solution as a nasal saline rinse, follow this recipe:</p><ol><li>Put one cup (250 mL) of tap water into a pot and boil for 15 minutes with the lid on.</li><li>Remove from heat and cool until the water reaches room temperature.</li><li>Add three teaspoons of salt and one teaspoon of baking soda into the pot and stir to dissolve.</li><li>Carefully pour the solution from the pan into the jar or bottle and put the lid on.</li><li>Refrigerate solution and use within 24 hours.</li></ol>
ScabiesSScabiesScabiesEnglishDermatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)SkinSkinConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2010-03-05T05:00:00Z6.2000000000000071.2000000000000620.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Scabies is a skin condition caused by mites. Learn what to look for and how it is treated.</p><figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Scabies</span> <img alt="Infant with scabies on arm, shoulder and armpit" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Scabies2_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.jpg" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Scabies can lead to a secondary infection. It should be treated as soon as possible by a doctor.</figcaption> </figure> <h2>What is scabies?</h2><p>Scabies is an itchy skin condition caused by mites. The female mites dig into the skin to lay eggs. This causes intense itching. Scabies spreads very easily. The more mites on a person, the more likely they will spread to another person. Scabies spreads more easily in crowded places. Scabies can be confused with eczema or impetigo in children.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Scabies is a common, highly infectious skin disease caused by a small mite.</li> <li>Signs and symptoms of the skin disease start about three to six weeks after contact.</li> <li>Scabies spread rapidly through direct physical contact. </li> <li>Untreated scabies can lead to bacterial infection </li> <li>All close contacts should be treated for scabies to prevent reinfection.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of scabies</h2> <p>After the mites burrow into your child's skin, it may take three to six weeks before any symptoms show. Signs and symptoms may include:</p> <ul> <li>intense itching that gets worse at night</li> <li>thin, grey, raised lines on the skin, often found in the skin between the fingers or around the wrists, the elbows, armpits or the genitals</li> <li>in babies, sores may appear on the palms, the soles of the feet, neck, face and the scalp</li> <li>sores, blisters, or scabs from scratching</li> <li>inflamed lumps on the body</li> </ul><h2>Causes of scabies</h2> <p>Scabies is caused by mites. The female mites dig into the skin to lay eggs. Scabies usually spread through direct skin-to-skin contact, like holding hands or hugging. It can also spread by sharing towels or linens. Scabies spread from person to person during the incubation period, when there are no symptoms. The mites can only reproduce on human beings. Pets are unlikely to spread scabies.</p> <h2>Risk factors</h2> <p>The presence of scabies does not mean your child has poor personal hygiene. Children who live in crowded housing, share beds or spend time in crowded day cares are at higher risk. </p><h2>Treatment of scabies</h2> <p>Scabies will not clear without treatment. Your child's doctor will likely prescribe a cream or lotion that will kill the scabies mites. The cream will likely contain 5% permethrin. In general, your doctor will advise you to treat the scabies with one application of cream to your child's body for about eight hours. Apply the cream all over your child's body, with particular attention to the spaces between fingers, wrists, armpits and around the genitals. Do not put the cream inside your child's genitals. If mites reappear, it may be necessary to reapply the cream one or two weeks later. </p> <p>Your doctor may also prescribe an antihistamine or anti-itch cream to help ease your child's skin irritation. The irritation can go on for two to four weeks after the mites are killed.</p> <p>Your child can go back to day care or school once the treatment regime is complete. You must be certain the mites have been killed. </p><h2>Complications </h2> <p>Scratching can further damage the skin resulting in additional infection. If these infections are not treated, it can lead to impetigo, a bacterial infection of the skin. Children who do not have scabies diagnosed early are more likely to develop a secondary infection. </p><h2>When to seek medical assistance</h2> <p>Make an appointment with your child's doctor as soon as you notice your child scratching regularly. See a doctor right away if you see other signs or symptoms of scabies.</p>scabieshttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Scabies2_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.jpg
Scald preventionSScald preventionScald preventionEnglishPreventionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2020-11-25T05:00:00Z5.3000000000000075.0000000000000292.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Hot liquids cause approximately 70% of burns in children. Learn how to keep your children safe from scalds and how to treat a burn.</p><p>Hot liquids are the major cause of burn injuries in young children. Burns that are caused by contact with a hot liquid are called scalds. They are preventable. A burn from hot water can lead to deep burns requiring surgery and to permanent scars.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Hot liquids are the major cause of burn injuries in young children. Burns that are caused by contact with a hot liquid are called scalds.</li> <li>Scalds are preventable. Do not leave children alone around hot beverages or food preparation areas, including the stove. Turn handles of pots on the stove inwards.</li> <li>If your child has a scald injury, remove any clothes that are covering the injury. Then, use water that is either room temperature or a bit cooler than room temperature to cool the burn over a period of 20 minutes.</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/scald_prevention.jpg
Scarlet feverSScarlet feverScarlet feverEnglishInfectious DiseasesPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years)SkinImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Fever;Headache;Nausea;Rash;Sore throat;Vomiting2014-07-28T04:00:00Z7.8000000000000064.6000000000000995.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Easy-to-understand overview covers signs, causes, treatment and advice on when to seek medical assistance for this serious strep throat infection with a rash.</p><figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Scarlet </span> <span class="asset-image-title">fever</span> <img alt="Scarlet fever rash on body" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Scarlet_fever_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.jpg" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The</figcaption> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption"> scarlet fever rash looks like red, sunburned skin. It is made up of tiny pink spots.</figcaption> </figure> <h2>What is scarlet fever</h2><p>Scarlet fever is an infection caused by a strain of the bacteria called Group A Beta-haemolytic Streptococcus (GABS), or strep for short. This strain of bacteria produces a toxin (a harmful substance) that causes the scarlet rash. However, not all strains of bacteria produce this toxin.</p><p>Scarlet fever occurs most often in children aged four to eight. It is rare in children younger than two years.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>The main symptoms of scarlet fever are fever and a rough red rash. Your child may also have a sore throat.</li> <li>If you suspect that your child might have scarlet fever, go to see your child's health-care provider.</li> <li>Scarlet fever is treated with antibiotics. It is very important to finish the antibiotics to prevent repeat infections and complications.</li> <li>Use soft foods and cold drinks as well as pain medications to reduce the pain.</li> <li>Make sure that any other family members or close contacts with similar symptoms see their health-care provider.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of scarlet fever</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Scarlet fever on the </span> <span class="asset-image-title">elbow</span> <img alt="Scarlet fever rash on arm, in elbow crease" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Scarlet_fever_arm_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.jpg" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Scarlet</figcaption> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption"> fever can cause the elbow creases and other skin folds to become very red.</figcaption> </figure> <h3>Rash</h3><p>The main symptom of a scarlet fever infection is a scarlet (red-to-orange) rash that spreads along your child's skin.</p><ul><li>The rash often appears first on the neck and face.</li><li>It begins by looking like a sunburn. It can feel rough, like sandpaper and may itch.<br></li><li>After it appears on the neck and face, the rash spreads to the chest and back, and then the rest of the body.</li><li>It tends to form red streaks in body creases, especially around the underarms and elbows.</li><li>It usually fades after four to six days.</li></ul><h3>Skin peeling</h3><p>The affected skin may start to peel seven to 10 days after the rash disappears and may continue to peel for up to six weeks.</p><h3>Fever</h3><p>Often, a <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a> appears one to four days before the rash.</p><h3>Sore throat</h3><p>If you look into your child's mouth, you may see enlarged red tonsils, sometimes covered with a white-yellow coating. The tongue may be white-red with small red dots and look like a strawberry.</p><h3>Other symptoms</h3><p>Some children may have other symptoms like <a href="/Article?contentid=29&language=English"> headache</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=347&language=English">nausea</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a>, stomach-area pain and muscle pain.</p><p>Other infectious conditions (such as measles or staphylococcal skin infection) or inflammatory conditions (such as Kawasaki disease) can cause similar symptoms to scarlet fever.</p><h2>How scarlet fever is diagnosed</h2> <p>To find out the cause of your child's pain and rash, the doctor may take a throat swab. A throat swab is a cotton-tipped stick that the doctor wipes along the side and back of your child's throat. The swab is then tested for the GABS or strep bacteria.</p><h2>How scarlet fever is treated</h2> <p>If the throat swab is positive for GABS, the doctor will prescribe oral antibiotics (taken by mouth) for your child.</p><h2>Complications from scarlet fever</h2> <p>Although rare, one complication of scarlet fever is rheumatic fever, a condition that can involve the skin, joints, heart and brain. Treating the initial strep infection with antibiotics almost always prevents rheumatic fever.</p> <p>Other complications can include joint inflammation (arthritis) and kidney inflammation.</p><h2>When to see a doctor</h2> <p>Call your child's doctor if:</p> <ul> <li>the fever does not go away three days after starting antibiotics</li> <li>the rash develops blisters or open sores or becomes quite painful</li> <li>your child is unable to drink or eat and is becoming dehydrated</li> <li>your child has difficulty breathing</li> </ul>scarletfeverhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Scarlet_fever_arm_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.jpg
School & career planning for children with heart diseaseSSchool & career planning for children with heart diseaseSchool & career planning for children with heart diseaseEnglishCardiologyTeen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-12-14T05:00:00Z12.700000000000043.1000000000000515.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about preparing a teenager with congenital heart disease for high school. Guidance counselors and managing work, time and treatment are discussed.<br></p><p> This page outlines how you can support your teenager with a heart condition while they are in school and help them start thinking about prospective careers.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li> Teenagers with a heart condition may require extra support from their school administration, a tutor, or guidance counsellor as they navigate high school and start planning a career path.<br></li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/school_and_career_planning_for_children_with_heart_disease.jpg
School Age ChildSSchool Age ChildSchool Age ChildYourSchoolagechildEnglishNASchool age child (5-8 years)NANANACaregivers Adult (19+)NALanding PageLearning Hub<p>Starting school is a landmark in a young child's life. Learn about the typical physical, emotional and communication milestones for school-age children and how to handle issues such as bullying, bladder control and sleep problems.</p><p>Starting school is a landmark in a young child's life. Learn about the typical physical, emotional and communication milestones for school-age children and how to handle issues such as bullying, bladder control and sleep problems.<br></p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/2MVtfq0xFTQ?list=PLjJtOP3StIuXbgK4LObxQVt1sgxcE-L5r" frameborder="0"></iframe><br></div><p>For more videos from SickKids experts in collaboration with Youngster, visit <a href="https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCoKMd2cYwegtZX19uHdNLQA">Youngster on YouTube</a>.</p>yourschoolagechildhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Ages_stages_school-age.jpg
School and children with heart diseaseSSchool and children with heart diseaseSchool children with heart diseaseEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-12-14T05:00:00Z10.000000000000053.10000000000002143.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn how congenital heart disease can affect a child’s experience in school.</p><p> This page explains how congenital heart disease can affect your child's academic performance, and outlines ways you can prepare your child for their return to school.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li> A heart condition will often have some impact on a student’s performance at school, both in and out of the classroom.</li> <li> Teachers should be aware of any restrictions on physical activity a student has because of a heart condition.</li> <li> Teachers should understand that heart surgery will be disruptive to the student's school work and may also have other physical and behavioural effects.</li> <li> By co-ordinating with the student's parents and staff at the child’s cardiac clinic, teachers can help children with heart conditions succeed.</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/school_and_children_with_heart_disease.jpg
School and leukemiaSSchool and leukemiaSchool and LeukemiaEnglishOncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodySkeletal systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2018-03-06T05:00:00Z9.7000000000000057.2000000000000461.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p> Learn about education options for your child during their leukemia treatment and how to handle their transition back into school.</p><p>Education should remain an active part of your child’s life during their leukemia treatment so they will not fall too far behind. You can work with your child’s doctors and teachers to create a unique program that can accommodate your child.</p> <p> The hospital can provide school teachers to your child, especially if their length of admission is long.</p><h2> Key points </h2><ul><li>You can work with your child's school and the hospital to keep education as part of their life during their leukemia treatment.</li><li> Your child's teachers may not be familiar with leukemia, so it is important to advocate for your child's abilities upon their return to school.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/School_and_leukemia.jpg
School services for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)SSchool services for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)School services for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)EnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years)NANervous systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-03-09T04:00:00Z11.100000000000042.7000000000000706.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Provides information about the various services that are available in schools for children with autism spectrum disorder. Also provides information about other programs that can be used to help pre-school and school-age children.<br></p>
School-aged children with diabetesSSchool-aged children with diabetesSchool-aged children with diabetesEnglishEndocrinologySchool age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years)PancreasEndocrine systemHealthy living and preventionAdult (19+)NA2017-09-25T04:00:00Z9.3000000000000057.8000000000000776.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about sharing responsibility for diabetes care with your school-aged child, and the impact diabetes management will have on them.</p><p>​​Starting school is an exciting time for both children and parents. Children will spend most of their day away from home and their parents’ watchful eyes. Because children cannot be expected to understand their <a href="/Article?contentid=1717&language=English">diabetes</a> treatment fully until late childhood and early adolescence, some planning is needed to support them at school.</p> <p>Normal developmental patterns in the early school years include:</p> <ul><li>Learning to solve concrete problems logically</li> <li>Further development of social skills (friends begin to take on more importance)</li> <li>Learning to play by the rules and thrive in a structured and supportive environment (when children know the rules and can gain appropriate skills in a fun way, they develop a positive self-image)<br></li></ul><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>The target range for blood sugar levels in school-aged children is between 4 and 10 mmol/L, to allow for good blood sugar control while reducing the risk of hypoglycemia.</li> <li>School-aged children with diabetes may feel different from their peers, which may cause stress for your child.<br></li> <li>At this age, your child may be able to help with their finger pricks or giving their own injections, but parents and caregivers should still take most of the responsibility.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/school_aged_children_diabetes.jpg
Sclerotherapy using image guidanceSSclerotherapy using image guidanceSclerotherapy using image guidanceEnglishOtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyArteries;VeinsNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2017-08-04T04:00:00Z9.9000000000000050.30000000000001386.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn about sclerotherapy and how it is used to treat vascular malformations. Also find information about what will happen to your child before, during and after the procedure.<br></p><h2>What are vascular malformations?</h2><p> <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/PlasticSurgery/What-we-do/Vascular-Anomalies-Clinic/index.html">Vascular malformations</a> are abnormal clusters of blood vessels that develop before birth. Some may not be noticed until many years later. Some vascular malformations cause no problems, but others interfere with blood flow and can be dangerous. Vascular malformations can cause disfigurement, pain, troublesome swelling, bleeding and infection. Some are associated with growth abnormalities in the affected body part. Vascular malformations can be treated with minimally invasive procedures such as embolization, laser and sclerotherapy. The type of treatment your child will receive will depend on the location, size and type of vascular malformation.</p><h2>What is sclerotherapy?</h2><p>Sclerotherapy is sometimes called “sclero”. A doctor inserts a needle into the skin and injects a special liquid (sclerosant) into the abnormal blood vessel. This makes the blood vessel shrink. Sometimes the malformations can enlarge again and sclerotherapy may be done in stages.</p><p>Sclerotherapy is done using image guidance by an interventional radiologist. Most often sclerotherapy is done alone or in combination with <a href="/Article?contentid=2448&language=English">laser</a> or embolization.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Sclerotherapy</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Sclerotherapy_EN.jpg" alt="Needle injecting sclerosant into abnormal blood vessel" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">A) Abnormal blood vessels are injected directly with a needle filled with a liquid called sclerosant. B) Sclerosant works by clotting and shrinking the blood vessel.</figcaption> </figure> <h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Sclerotherapy is a procedure used to treat vascular malformations. An interventional radiologist injects a sclerosant into the malformation to shrink the blood vessel.</li><li>Sclerotherapy is usually considered a low risk procedure.</li><li>Your child will need to stay at the hospital for the whole day.</li><li>The areas injected are normally swollen for one week and bruised for two to three weeks following the procedure.</li></ul> <h2>On the day of the procedure</h2><p>Arrive at the hospital two hours before the planned time of your child’s procedure. Once you are checked in, your child will be dressed in a hospital gown, weighed and assessed by a nurse. You will also be able to speak to the interventional radiologist who will be doing the sclerotherapy and the anaesthetist who will be giving your child medication to make them comfortable for the procedure.</p><p>During sclerotherapy, you will be asked to wait in the surgical waiting area.</p><h2>Your child will have medicine for pain</h2><p>It is important that your child is as comfortable as possible for the procedure. They may be given <a href="/Article?contentid=3001&language=English">local anaesthesia</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=1260&language=English">sedation</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=1261&language=English">general anaesthesia</a>. The type of medicine that your child will have for the procedure will depend on your child’s condition and the treatment option the interventional radiologist uses for sclerotherapy. Most children receive general anaesthetic for sclerotherapy.</p><h2>How sclerotherapy is done</h2><p>The interventional radiologist inserts a needle through your child's skin into the abnormal blood vessel and injects a special dye called contrast. The dye is a clear, colourless liquid that helps to outline the blood vessel so it will show up on an X-ray (fluoroscopy). The interventional radiologist can use fluoroscopy as a guide for the sclerotherapy injection. Ultrasound is often used in combination with fluoroscopy prior to the injection of the sclerosant to identify the abnormal blood vessels.</p><p>Next, the interventional radiologist injects a special liquid called sclerosant directly into the abnormal blood vessel. Sclerosant causes clotting and shrinking of the blood vessel. The interventional radiologist gives injections of the sclerosant into different areas of the vascular malformation if needed.</p><p>Each treatment will take about one to two hours and sometimes longer depending on the complexity of the malformation.</p><h2>After sclerotherapy</h2><p>Once sclerotherapy is complete, your child will be moved to the recovery area. The interventional radiologist will come and talk to you about the details of the procedure. As soon as your child starts to wake up, a nurse will come and get you.</p><p>In the recovery area, your child will receive fluids through an intravenous. Your child should drink plenty of fluids when they wake up.</p><p>If a foley catheter has been placed to monitor your child’s urine output, it will remain in, for four hours and will be removed before you go home.</p><p>It is important that your child passes urine at least once before going home.</p><h2>Going home</h2><p>After sclerotherapy, most children go home the same day. Your child will be ready to go home when they are wide awake, have started to eat and drink, and are making urine. Usually, this happens four hours after the procedure.</p><p>The areas that were injected are normally swollen for one week and bruised for two to three weeks following the procedure. The skin close to the abnormal blood vessel may blister or be sore.</p><p>Your child may have some discomfort after the procedure which may last one to two days.</p><p>At home, you can give your child <a href="/Article?contentid=62&language=English">acetaminophen</a> if needed or medications as prescribed by your doctor.</p><p>For more details on how to care for your child after sclerotherapy, please see: <a href="/Article?contentid=1223&language=English">Sclerotherapy: Caring for your child at home after the procedure</a>.</p><h2>Visiting the clinic before the procedure</h2><p>Your child will need to have a clinic visit with the interventional radiologist before the procedure to decide on the best treatment options.</p><p>During the visit, your child may:</p><ul><li>see physiotherapy and/or occupational therapy</li><li>obtain information about pressure garments</li><li>have a health assessment to make sure they are healthy and it is safe to have <a href="/Article?contentid=1260&language=English">sedation</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=1261&language=English">general anaesthesia</a></li><li>be sent for photography</li><li>review the consent forms</li><li>have blood work done if needed</li></ul><h2>Giving consent before the procedure</h2><p>Before the procedure, the interventional radiologist will go over how and why the procedure is done, as well as the potential benefits and risks. They will also discuss what will be done to reduce these risks and will help you weigh any benefits against the risks. It is important that you understand all of these potential risks and benefits of sclerotherapy and that all of your questions are answered. If you agree to the procedure, you can give consent for treatment by signing the consent form. A parent or legal guardian must sign the consent form for young children. The procedure will not be done unless you give your consent.</p><h2>How to prepare your child for the procedure</h2><p>Before any treatment, it is important to talk to your child about what will happen. When talking to your child, use words they can understand. Let your child know that medicines will be given to make them feel comfortable during the procedure.</p><p>Children feel less anxious and scared when they know what to expect. Children also feel less worried when they see their parents are calm and supportive.</p><h2>If your child becomes ill within two days before the procedure</h2><p>It is important that your child is healthy on the day of their procedure. If your child starts to feel unwell or has a fever within two days before sclerotherapy, let your doctor know. Your child may need to be rebooked.</p><h2>Food, drink, and medicines before the procedure</h2><ul><li>Your child’s stomach must be empty before sedation or general anaesthetic.</li><li>If your child has special needs during fasting, talk to your doctor to make a plan.</li><li>Your child can take their regular morning medicine with a sip of water two hours before the procedure.</li><li>Medicines such as <a href="/Article?contentid=77&language=English">acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=198&language=English">naproxen</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=153&language=English">ibuprofen</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=265&language=English">warfarin</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=129&language=English">enoxaparin</a> may increase the risk of bleeding. Do not give these to your child before the procedure unless they have been cleared first by their doctor and the interventional radiologist.</li></ul><h2>At SickKids</h2><p>At SickKids, the interventional radiologists work in the <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/IGT/index.html">Department of Diagnostic Imaging — Division of Image Guided Therapy (IGT)</a>. You can call the IGT clinic at (416) 813-6054 and speak to the clinic nurse during working hours (8:00 to 15:00) or leave a message with the IGT clinic nurse.</p><p>For more information on fasting see <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/VisitingSickKids/Coming-for-surgery/Eating-guidelines/index.html">Eating and drinking before surgery</a>.</p><p>For more information on preparing your child for their procedure see <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/VisitingSickKids/Coming-for-surgery/index.html">Coming for surgery</a>.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Sclerotherapy_EN.jpg
Sclerotherapy with bleomycin using image guidanceSSclerotherapy with bleomycin using image guidanceSclerotherapy with bleomycin using image guidanceEnglishOtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyArteries;VeinsNon-drug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2017-08-04T04:00:00Z11.400000000000037.1000000000000837.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn how bleomycin is used in sclerotherapy to treat vascular malformations. Find information about the advantages of using bleomycin as well as any risks involved and precautions to be considered.</p><h2>What are vascular malformations?</h2><p> <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/PlasticSurgery/What-we-do/Vascular-Anomalies-Clinic/index.html">Vascular malformations</a> are abnormal clusters of blood vessels that develop before birth. Some may not be noticed until many years later. Some vascular malformations cause no problems, but others interfere with blood flow and can be dangerous. Vascular malformations can cause disfigurement, pain, troublesome swelling, bleeding and infection. Some are associated with growth abnormalities in the affected body part.</p><h2>What is sclerotherapy?</h2><p>Sclerotherapy (sometimes called “sclero”) is a procedure used to treat vascular malformations. A doctor inserts a needle into the skin and injects a special liquid (sclerosant) into the abnormal blood vessel. This makes the blood vessel shrink. Sometimes the malformations can enlarge again and sclerotherapy may be done in stages. Bleomycin is a type of sclerosant.</p><p>Sclerotherapy is done using image guidance by an interventional radiologist.</p><p>For more information on sclerotherapy, please see <a href="/Article?contentid=3206&amp%3blanguage=English">Sclerotherapy using image guidance</a> and <a href="/Article?contentid=1223&amp%3blanguage=English">Sclerotherapy: Caring for your child at home after the procedure</a>.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Sclerotherapy using bleomycin</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/sclerotherapy_bleomycin_EN.jpg" alt="Needle injecting bleomycin into abnormal blood vessel" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">A) Abnormal blood vessel is injected directly with a needle filled with a liquid called bleomycin. B) Bleomycin works by clotting and shrinking the blood vessel.</figcaption> </figure> <h2>What is bleomycin?</h2><p>Bleomycin is a medicine that is used as a chemotherapy to kill cancer cells but it also has other uses. For example, it has been used as a sclerosant to shrink blood vessels since 1977. Many medical centres around the world use bleomycin for treatment of vascular malformations that involve veins and lymph vessels.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Sclerotherapy is used to treat vascular malformations. The sclerosant is injected into the vascular malformation by an interventional radiologist to shrink the malformed blood vessels.</li><li>Bleomycin is a sclerosant that can be used for sclerotherapy for lymphatic and venous malformations.</li><li>Bleomycin is associated with less swelling than other sclerosants.</li><li>Using bleomycin for sclerotherapy is usually considered a low risk procedure.</li><li>Patients who have had bleomycin treatment need to get a yearly health assessment by their primary care physician.</li><li>A chest X-ray will need to be done one to two years following the completion of bleomycin treatment.</li></ul> <h2>How will it be determined if my child can receive bleomycin?</h2><p>Your child will have a clinic visit with the interventional radiologist a few weeks before the procedure to decide on the best treatment options.</p><p>During the visit, your child may:</p><ul><li>see physiotherapy and/or occupational therapy</li><li>obtain information about pressure garments</li><li>have a health assessment to make sure they are healthy and it is safe to have <a href="/Article?contentid=1260&amp%3blanguage=English">sedation</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=1261&amp%3blanguage=English">general anaesthesia</a></li><li>be sent for photography</li><li>review the consent forms</li><li>have blood work done</li></ul> <h2>At SickKids</h2><p>At SickKids, the interventional radiologists work in the <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/IGT/index.html">Department of Diagnostic Imaging — Division of Image Guided Therapy (IGT)</a>. You can call the IGT clinic at (416) 813-6054 and speak to the clinic nurse during working hours (8:00 to 15:00) or leave a message with the IGT clinic nurse.</p><p>For more information on fasting see <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/VisitingSickKids/Coming-for-surgery/Eating-guidelines/index.html">Eating and drinking before surgery</a>.</p><p>For more information on preparing your child for their procedure see <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/VisitingSickKids/Coming-for-surgery/index.html">Coming for surgery</a>.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/sclerotherapy_bleomycin_EN.jpg
Sclerotherapy: Caring for your child at home after the procedureSSclerotherapy: Caring for your child at home after the procedureSclerotherapy: Caring for your child at home after the procedureEnglishOtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyArteries;VeinsNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2021-02-23T05:00:00Z7.4000000000000066.4000000000000662.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to properly care for your child at home after sclerotherapy.</p><p>Your child has had <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3206&language=English">sclerotherapy</a>. The information on this page explains how to look after your child at home after the procedure, and when to call for help.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>If your child has a change in the colour or temperature of the limb where sclerotherapy was done, go to the nearest Emergency Department.</li><li>If your child has a fever, severe pain around the treated area, or blackened skin, go to the nearest Emergency Department.</li><li>If a blister forms, gently wash your child's skin with unscented soap and water. Apply Vaseline three times a day and cover with a clean bandage.</li><li>For pain relief, give your child acetaminophen or ibuprofen.</li></ul><h2>When to see a doctor</h2><p>Call your child’s specialist or go to the nearest Emergency Department right away if your child has any of the following:</p><ul><li><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a> greater than 38°C (100.4°F)</li><li>severe <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/pain">pain</a> in the treatment area</li><li>blackening of the skin in the treated area</li><li>change in colour or temperature of the limb on the side of the body where the sclerotherapy was done; for example, the foot turns a pale blue/white or is cool to the touch</li></ul><h2>Discharge from the hospital</h2><p>Most children who have had sclerotherapy go home the same day. This is usually four hours after the procedure.</p><h2>At SickKids</h2><p>If you have any concerns, call the <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/IGT/index.html">Image Guided Therapy (IGT) clinic</a> at (416) 813-7654 ext. 201804. Speak to the IGT clinic nurse during working hours or leave a non-urgent message.</p><p>If you have concerns and it is after working hours, see your family doctor or go to the nearest Emergency Department. You can also call the Hospital for Sick Children switchboard at (416) 813-7500 and ask them to page a member of your child’s health-care team or the interventional radiology fellow on call. </p>
ScoliosisSScoliosisScoliosisEnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Vertebrae;SpineMuscular system;Skeletal systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2018-01-19T05:00:00Z000Landing PageLearning Hub<p>Scoliosis is a sideways curvature in the spine. This curve can lead to changes in your child's shoulders, ribcage, pelvis, waist and the overall shape of their back. Find information about the diagnosis and treatment of scoliosis.</p><p>Scoliosis is a sideways curvature in the spine. This curve can lead to changes in your child's shoulders, ribcage, pelvis, waist and the overall shape of their back. Find information about the diagnosis and treatment of scoliosis and what to expect at home after surgery, and for the long-term.</p><br> <div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/videoseries?list=PLjJtOP3StIuUsRcFCSKL0KIVYNv6Le2lu" frameborder="0"></iframe><br></div><p>Above is video playlist featuring teens and families discussing their experiences with scoliosis surgery. To view other AboutKidsHealth videos, please visit the AboutKidsHealth YouTube channel.please visit the <a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/Aboutkidshealth">AboutKidsHealth YouTube channel</a>.</p>scoliosishttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/scoliosis_landing_page.jpg
Scoliosis and emotional issuesSScoliosis and emotional issuesScoliosis and emotional issuesEnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Vertebrae;SpineMuscular system;Skeletal systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2020-09-08T04:00:00Z10.500000000000052.70000000000001464.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Having scoliosis can be emotionally upsetting for young children and teenagers. Find out about some common issues they face, such as negative self-image and increased stress.</p><p>Sometimes, scoliosis can cause a child stress and negatively affect their body image. There are a number of ways to help them with the feelings brought on by the diagnosis.</p><h2> Key points</h2><ul><li>Scoliosis can affect your child's body image, but feelings of anxiety, fear, and withdrawal often improve with time.</li><li>Treatment can improve the appearance of your child’s back, rib cage, shoulders and hips.</li><li>While some studies showed that children with scoliosis are unhappy with their appearance or feel isolated or depressed, others found that many children were not bothered by scoliosis.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/scoliosis_and_emotional_issues.jpg
Scoliosis resourcesSScoliosis resourcesScoliosis resourcesEnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Vertebrae;SpineMuscular system;Skeletal systemSupport, services and resourcesAdult (19+)NA2020-09-08T04:00:00Z10.200000000000031.900000000000076.0000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>This page lists some useful websites that can help you learn more about scoliosis.</p><p>There are many resources that can allow you to better help your child learn to manage scoliosis.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>There are many different resources to help you and your child manage scoliosis, including several websites.</li></ul>
Scoliosis surgery in boysSScoliosis surgery in boysScoliosis surgery in boysEnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Vertebrae;SpineMuscular system;Skeletal systemProceduresAdult (19+)NA2008-06-01T04:00:00Z8.6000000000000057.4000000000000198.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Most scoliosis research focuses on girls. Read about the similarities and differences between boys and girls in their experiences with scoliosis.</p><p>Scoliosis is more common in girls than boys. As a result, most research studies tend to focus on girls. There have been a couple of studies comparing the outcome of scoliosis surgery between boys and girls.</p><h2> Key points </h2><ul><li> Studies have shown that boys and girls generally respond to surgery in similar ways, but boys had more rigid spines before surgery, experienced greater blood loss during surgery and higher pain scores on the day after surgery.</li></ul>
Scoliosis: At homeSScoliosis: At homeScoliosis: At homeEnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Vertebrae;SpineMuscular system;Skeletal systemHealthy living and preventionAdult (19+)NA2008-06-01T04:00:00Z7.7000000000000067.9000000000000213.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>This page is an introduction to the At Home section of the scoliosis resource centre. It touches on building back your teen's food intake after scoliosis surgery, going back to school, and getting back to normal.</p><p>This section describes what you and your teen can expect during their recovery, including care at home, pain management, clinic visits, and complications to watch for.</p>
Scoliosis: Caring for a spinal brace (orthosis)SScoliosis: Caring for a spinal brace (orthosis)Scoliosis: Caring for a spinal brace (orthosis)EnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)SpineSkeletal systemNon-drug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2021-08-09T04:00:00Z6.0000000000000077.4000000000000702.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Proper care and cleaning of the spinal brace (orthosis) and your child’s skin are necessary to prevent the growth of bacteria and skin breakdown. Learn how to care for a spinal brace.</p><p>When worn properly, your child will be wearing their <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=974&language=English">spinal brace</a> daily for most of the day. Your child’s skin and the brace need to be kept clean in order to prevent the growth of bacteria and skin breakdown.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>It is important to keep both your child’s skin and the brace clean to prevent the growth of bacteria and skin breakdown.</li><li>Make sure your child always wears a close-fitting, 100% cotton undershirt underneath their brace.</li><li>The hard-plastic outer shell and the inner soft plastic foam of the brace must be cleaned every day.</li></ul>
Scoliosis: Cons of having or not having surgerySScoliosis: Cons of having or not having surgeryScoliosis: Cons of having or not having surgeryEnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Vertebrae;SpineMuscular system;Skeletal systemProceduresAdult (19+)NA2008-06-01T04:00:00Z14.900000000000038.80000000000001454.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about some of the disadvantages of having surgery to correct scoliosis, as well as some of the disadvantages of not having surgery.</p><p>The information in this section is based on the results of many different research studies. Sometimes the results of these studies are in conflict with each other. One study may say one thing while another says the opposite. As a result, some of the information in this section may also be conflicting. In these situations, it’s important to understand that there may not be one specific result for all situations and all patients.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>When considering whether or not to have surgery, there may or may not be cons with neurologic complications, infection, failure of spinal fusion (pseudoarthrosis), lung function, life span, self-image or appearance, pain, osteoarthritis in the lower (lumbar) spine, everyday activities, need for surgery in the future, quality of life, sexuality and childbirth, and curve changes. </li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/scoliosis_cons_of_having_not_having_surgery.jpg
Scoliosis: Looking aheadSScoliosis: Looking aheadScoliosis: Looking aheadEnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Vertebrae;SpineMuscular system;Skeletal systemHealthy living and preventionAdult (19+)NA2008-06-01T04:00:00Z9.0000000000000057.6000000000000378.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>This page gives a few statistics on how many teens may need additional surgery in the future. It describes why additional surgery may be required. It gives an idea of what to expect in terms of medical follow-up as the teen gets older.</p><p> If your teen has had scoliosis surgery, it is possible they will need more surgery in the future or need to continue seeing an adult spine surgeon.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>While it is not common, teens who have had scoliosis surgery may need more surgery for reasons including infection, painful or prominent rods, or their spine not fusing properly.</li> <li>Your teen's paediatric spine surgeon will advise as to whether they need to see an adult spine surgeon after they turn 18.</li></ul>
Scoliosis: Pros of having or not having surgerySScoliosis: Pros of having or not having surgeryScoliosis: Pros of having or not having surgeryEnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Vertebrae;SpineMuscular system;Skeletal systemProceduresAdult (19+)NA2008-06-01T04:00:00Z14.000000000000041.90000000000001146.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about some of the advantages of having surgery to correct scoliosis, as well as some of the advantages of not having surgery.</p><p>The information in this section is based on the results of many different research studies. Sometimes the results of these studies are in conflict with each other. One study may say one thing while another says the opposite. As a result, some of the information in this section may also be conflicting. In these situations, it’s important to understand that there may not be one specific result for all situations and all patients. </p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>When considering whether or not to have surgery, there may or may not be pros in a teen's lung function, life span, self-image and physical appearance, pain, osteoarthritis in the lower (lumbar) spine, everyday activities, need for surgery in the future, quality of life, marriage and childbirth, and curve changes.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/scoliosis_pros_of_having_not_having_surgery.jpg
Scoliosis: The physical examSScoliosis: The physical examScoliosis: The physical examEnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Vertebrae;SpineMuscular system;Skeletal systemTestsAdult (19+)NA2008-06-01T04:00:00Z6.9000000000000071.4000000000000418.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>When assessing a child's scoliosis, several measurements may be taken. Learn about how Adam's test, balance, leg length and height are used in assessment.</p><p>If your teen’s curve is moderate or large, they will be referred to an orthopaedic surgeon. In that case, your teen’s surgeon, or a member of the surgical team, may do some or all of these physical tests. </p><h2>Key points </h2><ul><li>Teens with a moderate or large curve will be referred to an orthopaedic surgeon.</li><li>Height, reflexes, senses, strength, legs, shoulder and hip and spinal balance may all be measured. Your teen will also be asked to bend and touch their toes in the Adam's test to show if there is rib prominence.</li><li>Your teen's surgeon may request before and after medical photographs to document changes in the back.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/scoliosis_the_physical_exam.jpg
Scoliosis: Treatment with a body castSScoliosis: Treatment with a body castScoliosis: Treatment with a body castEnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalTeen (13-18 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years)SpineSkeletal systemNon-drug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2021-08-09T04:00:00Z7.4000000000000070.50000000000001528.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>A body cast is a special type of cast that helps treat your child’s spinal curvature or protect spinal instrumentation after surgery. Learn how to take care of your child while they wear the cast and after it is removed.</p><h2>What is a body cast?</h2><p>A body cast is a special type of cast that is used to treat progressive scoliosis in very young children. Serial casting may be used to minimize the spinal curve before beginning <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=974&language=English">bracing</a>. It may be used to help delay scoliosis surgery until your child gets older. A body cast may also be used to protect spinal instrumentation after surgery. The body cast will cover the upper body and extend over both shoulders. Legs and arms are free to move. The body cast uses gentle corrective pressure to reshape the spine.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A body cast is a special type of cast that helps treat your child’s spinal curvature or protect spinal instrumentation after surgery.</li><li>Your child’s cast will be made of Plaster of Paris and reinforced with fibreglass materials.</li><li>If your child is not able to roll themself, turn your child every four hours during the night. You may turn your child either from side to side or stomach to back.</li><li>Check the colour, feeling and movement of your child’s limbs regularly. Contact your child’s primary care provider or the orthopaedic clinic if you find any persistent changes or have concerns.</li><li>Your child’s orthopaedic team will tell you when the cast will be taken off and/or discuss further plans for putting your child into another cast or a brace.</li></ul><h2>When to seek medical attention</h2><p>If your child is having trouble breathing, or is persistently vomiting, please go to the nearest Emergency Department. You can also call or visit your primary care provider.</p><h2>Applying the cast</h2><p>The body cast is put on your child in the operating room while they are asleep under <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1261&language=English">general anaesthesia</a> and will be applied with the assistance of an Orthopaedic Technologist.</p><p>A special t-shirt with moisture wicking and antimicrobial properties will be applied first, followed by soft padding that provides cushioning. The plaster is applied next and carefully molded before it sets.</p><p>A specially trained practitioner or an orthopaedic doctor will mold the plaster to control the curvature of the spine. The fiberglass is then wrapped over the plaster to strengthen the cast without further weighing it down.</p><p>A large abdominal hole (called a window) is cut into the front and back of the cast to allow for chest and abdominal expansion as your child breathes and eats. Often, a small window is also cut on the back side of the cast. The edges of the cast are padded and secured with tape. The fiberglass is dry before your child leaves the operating room; however, plaster can take 48 hours to dry completely.</p><p>The cast may feel warm to your child when they wake up. The entire process takes approximately two hours.</p><h2>Removal of the cast</h2><p>Your child’s orthopaedic team will tell you when the cast should be removed and the plan for further treatment, which may include another cast or a brace. If the plan is to continue with casting, the new cast will be applied the day after the old cast is removed. This provides the opportunity for bathing.</p><p>An electric cast saw will be used to remove the cast. The saw is large and noisy, and your child might feel scared. Before the procedure, the orthopaedic technologist will explain to you and your child what is going to happen. This will help your child to feel more comfortable. Your child will also be provided with ear protection.</p><h2>Caring for your child after the cast comes off</h2><p>After the cast comes off, the skin that was under the cast will be dry and flaky, and you will need to:</p><ul><li>Wash the skin several times with warm and soapy water.</li><li>Apply lotion to soften the skin.</li><li>Do not scratch or rub the skin too hard, as it will be very tender.</li></ul><p>You might see a little more hair than usual. This will fall out after several weeks.</p><p>After the cast is removed, you will be given more instructions on your child’s activities and further treatment of scoliosis. You may also have an appointment in the orthotics department to arrange a brace for your child for the next phase of treatment.</p><h2>At SickKids</h2><p>If you have a specific concern about the fit of the cast, or if the cast becomes soaked or excessively soiled, contact the orthopaedic technologist team at SickKids.</p><p>To speak with an Orthopaedic Technologist, call 416-813-5785.</p><p>To call the orthopaedic clinic, please call 416-813-5008.</p>
Scoliosis: Treatment with a spinal brace (spinal orthosis)SScoliosis: Treatment with a spinal brace (spinal orthosis)Scoliosis: Treatment with a spinal brace (spinal orthosis)EnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)SpineSkeletal systemNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2021-08-09T04:00:00Z7.4000000000000070.40000000000001635.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>A spinal brace holds your child’s spine in place, decreasing the chance that the curve in their spine will get larger as they grow. Learn more about getting fit for, and wearing, a spinal orthosis.</p><h2>What is a spinal brace (spinal orthosis)?</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Scoliosis</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/scoliosis_03_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Person’s back with a curve in the spine" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">With scoliosis, the spine curves to one side, usually to the right in the mid-upper back, resulting in one shoulder being higher than the other.</figcaption></figure> <p>At this time in your child’s life, their body is growing quickly. If your child has <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=2006&language=English">scoliosis</a>, this rapid growth increases the risk that the curve(s) in their spine will get larger. A spinal orthosis is a back brace that is designed to hold your child’s spine in place and decrease the chance that the curve in their spine will become larger as they grow. By wearing a spinal brace, 80% of curves will stay the same size. Some curves may even get smaller, but this should not be expected.</p><p>Your child’s brace will be custom-made to fit them.</p><h2>Who needs a brace?</h2><p>Children who are still growing may require a brace, as there is a risk that the curve in their spines will continue to increase. The risk relative to your child’s growth rate is assessed by the maturity of their bones and—for females—when they have begun having menstrual periods.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A spinal brace holds your child’s spine in place and decreases the chance that the curve in their spine will get larger as they grow.</li><li>Your child needs to wear a spinal brace until their body is finished growing.</li><li>Although there are different styles of braces, it is recommended that the brace is rigid.</li><li>Sometimes, in very young children with large curves, a spinal cast is used in combination with bracing.</li></ul><h2>How long will my child need to wear a spinal brace?</h2><p>In order for the brace to work properly, it must be worn full-time, which is about 20 to 22 hours per day. Your child will need to wear a spinal brace until their body stops growing. This will be when they have reached their full adult height. For girls, this occurs about two years after their period starts. Boys usually stop growing by age 16.</p><p>Your child’s scoliosis care team will monitor them closely and will determine through X-rays and height measurements when they can safely stop wearing the brace.</p><h2>Getting a spinal brace</h2><p>Your child has been referred to the <a href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/care-services/clinics/orthopaedic-clinic/">Orthopaedic Clinic</a> because of concerns with their spine. Your child will need to make several visits to the clinic.</p><ul><li>At their first visit, they will be seen by a spine specialist to assess their spine. An X-ray may be taken at this time.</li><li>If a spinal brace is needed, your child will be seen by a certified orthotist. An orthotist is a person who has been trained in making, fitting, and assessing spinal and other orthoses. The first visit with the orthotist may be on the same day as your child’s clinic appointment, or it may be scheduled later. The brace is made based on your child’s X-ray and a 3D scan of their body.</li><li>About a month later, your child will see the orthotist again to receive their brace. They will be educated on how to put on and take off the brace and how to keep it clean.</li><li>About a month after the brace is received, your child will see the orthotist again to have an X-ray taken with the brace on. Any final adjustments will be made. The X-ray should show that the curve in your child’s spine is straighter while wearing the brace.</li><li>The scoliosis care team will see your child approximately every six months, or sooner if needed. Your child’s scoliosis care team may include an orthopedic surgeon, a physical therapy (PT) practitioner, and a certified orthotist.</li></ul><h2>What happens at the first visit?</h2><p>Your child’s first appointment with the orthotist takes about an hour. The orthotist will spend some time providing information about spinal braces and answering your questions. Your child will then be given a long body stocking to wear for the assessment and shape acquisition part of the visit.</p><p>The orthotist will examine your child, ask you some questions, and then measure your child’s body with a cloth measuring tape and a caliper, which is a type of ruler. A handheld 3D scanner will then be used to obtain a digital computerized copy of your child’s body.</p><p>This process is not painful and should only take 15 minutes. Your child can customize the appearance of their brace by choosing the colour of the plastic, images or patterns that can be applied to the brace. Your child can even provide a custom image that is meaningful to them to apply to the brace. Please discuss your child’s options with the orthotist.</p><h2>What happens at the fitting appointment?</h2><p>After putting on a body stocking, your child will try on their new spinal brace. The orthotist will mark the plastic to trim some away. This will happen a few times until the trim lines of your child’s brace are right. At this point, the spinal brace is finished and is ready for the final fitting, about an hour later.</p><p>The orthotist will speak with you and your child and give you written instructions to make sure your child knows how to use the brace, and how to take care of it and their body.</p><p>A fitting appointment may take up to three hours. A lot of time is spent waiting while the orthotist is completing work, so please bring something to keep your child and yourself busy during these down times.</p><h2>At SickKids</h2><p>If your child lives in Ontario and has a valid Ontario health card, 75% of your child’s spinal brace will be paid for by the Assistive Devices Program (ADP). The remaining 25% is the responsibility of the family. Many private insurance companies cover some or all of the remaining cost. If you need help paying for your child’s brace, visit our reception desk for a list of charitable organizations that may assist you. Please visit or contact <a href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/care-services/support-services/childrens-orthotics/">The Children's Orthotics Clinic</a> for further information on pricing.</p><p>All proceeds from orthotic treatment at The Children’s Orthotics Clinic go towards supporting patient care and research at SickKids. For more information, please see <a href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/care-services/support-services/childrens-orthotics/">https://www.sickkids.ca/en/care-services/support-services/childrens-orthotics/</a>.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/scoliosis_03_MED_ILL_EN.jpg
Scoliosis: Understanding diagnosisSScoliosis: Understanding diagnosisScoliosis: Understanding diagnosisEnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Vertebrae;SpineMuscular system;Skeletal systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2008-06-01T04:00:00Z6.5000000000000071.5000000000000538.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>This page gives a brief introduction to the diagnosis of scoliosis. Usually a health-care professional doing a routine scoliosis check at the school will pick up on the problem, although sometimes a parent notices it first.</p><p>Parents and health-care professionals may notice a curve in a teen's back, but scoliosis is diagnosed after they have had an X-ray. Treatment depends on the type of curve they have.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>In order to diagnose scoliosis, your teen requires an X-ray to view their vertebrae, which usually curve in the shape of an S or C with scoliosis.</li> <li>Small curves can be followed by their paediatrician or family doctor; moderate curves may require a brace or be followed for observation; and large curves may require surgery.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/ScoliosisDiagnosis_EN.jpg
Scoliosis: What to expect in adulthoodSScoliosis: What to expect in adulthoodScoliosis: What to expect in adulthoodEnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Vertebrae;SpineMuscular system;Skeletal systemHealthy living and preventionAdult (19+)NA2008-06-01T04:00:00Z9.3000000000000054.1000000000000647.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn what to expect regarding physical and social activities, body image, sexual activity and pregnancy when a teen with scoliosis reaches adulthood.</p><p>A few studies have been done on adults who went through scoliosis surgery as teens. Most of these studies followed patients from five to 20 years after surgery. Here are some of the results.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li> Studies have shown that certain men and women who had scoliosis surgery in childhood experienced some difficulties with physical activity, social activities, body image and sexual activity.</li</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/ChantalDriving_EN.jpg
Scoping procedures: Bronchoscopy, laryngoscopy, esophagoscopy and laser surgerySScoping procedures: Bronchoscopy, laryngoscopy, esophagoscopy and laser surgeryScoping procedures: Bronchoscopy, laryngoscopy, esophagoscopy and laser surgeryEnglishOtolaryngologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Trachea;EsophagusEsophagus;TracheaTestsCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-10T05:00:00Z7.1000000000000067.30000000000001275.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Scoping procedures are used to look inside the throat. Learn why your child may have to have a scoping procedure, how to prepare and what to expect.</p><h2>What are scoping procedures?</h2> <p>Your child is having trouble breathing or swallowing. To find out what is causing this problem, the doctor needs to look inside your child's air or food passageway. To do this, the doctor will use a thin tube with a light and a tiny camera on the end. This device is called a scope. </p> <p>During the scoping procedure, your child will be given a special sleep medicine called a <a href="/Article?contentid=1261&language=English">general anesthetic</a>. This means your child will sleep through the procedure and feel no pain. </p> <p>If the problem is caused by tissue that is not normal, the doctor may remove it using laser surgery.</p> <p>The doctor who will do the scoping procedure is called an otolaryngologist/head and neck surgeon (say: OH-toe-lar-ing-GOL-oh-jist). This is a doctor who specializes in problems with the ears, nose and throat. </p> <h3>To look inside your child's air passageway, we use bronchoscopy and laryngoscopy</h3> <p>Your child's air passageway is called the trachea (say: TRAY-key-ah). To look inside, the doctor will use scoping procedures called a bronchoscopy (say: bron-KOSS-co-pee) and a laryngoscopy (say: lar-ing-GOSS-co-pee). During each of these procedures, the doctor will put a scope in your child's mouth and down into the trachea. The doctor can look through the scope to see what is causing your child's breathing problem. The procedure takes about one hour. </p> <h3>To look inside your child's food passageway, we use esophagoscopy</h3> <p>Your child's food passageway is called the esophagus (say: ee-SOFF-ah-gus). To look inside it, the doctor will use a scoping procedure called an esophagoscopy (say: ee-SOFF-ah-GOSS-co-pee). During this procedure, the doctor will put a scope in your child's mouth and down into the esophagus. The doctor can look through the scope to see what is causing your child's swallowing problem. The procedure takes about one hour. </p> <h2>Laser surgery</h2> <p>Laser surgery uses a concentrated beam of light instead of a scalpel or knife to remove unwanted tissue or blockages. Laser surgery can be performed during a bronchoscopy, laryngoscopy and esophagoscopy.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Scoping procedures let doctors look into your child's throat. They take about one hour. </li> <li>Your child will have sleep medicine during the procedure. </li> <li>Your child will likely stay for one day and one night in the hospital. </li> </ul><h2>Possible problems after the procedure</h2> <p>Please call your child's otolaryngologist or the otolaryngology clinic right away if your child has any of the following signs after going home: </p> <ul> <li>trouble swallowing </li> <li>trouble breathing </li> <li>fever of 38.5°C (101°F) or higher </li> <li>chest pain or throat pain that gets worse </li> <li>coughing that gets worse </li> <li>drooling that does not stop </li> <li>vomiting (throwing up) that does not stop </li> <li>bleeding from mouth or nose </li> </ul> <p>If it is an emergency or if you are worried, do not wait. Take your child to the closest emergency department right away.</p> <p>Write down the name of your child's otolaryngologist here:</p> <p>Write down the doctor's phone number here:</p> <p>Write down the otolaryngology clinic phone number here:</p> <p>Write down your family doctor's name and number here:</p><h2>Your child will not feel any pain during the procedure</h2> <p>Before the procedure starts, your child will be given a special sleep medicine called <a href="/Article?contentid=1261&language=English">general anesthetic</a>. This makes sure your child will sleep through the procedure and will not feel pain. After the procedure, your child's throat may be sore and feel dry. If your child feels pain after the procedure, they will be given pain medicine as needed. </p><h2>After the procedure</h2> <p>After the procedure, we will take your child to the recovery room, also called the <a href="/Article?contentid=1262&language=English">Post-Anesthetic Care Unit</a>. This is where your child will wake up. Your child will stay in the recovery room for one to two hours, depending on their age and symptoms. </p> <p>After your child has stayed in the recovery room, we will move them to a special room on the otolaryngology unit. This room has a nurse in it at all times. It is called the constant observation room. Your child will probably stay in this room overnight. </p> <h3>You will be able to see your child as soon as they are fully awake</h3> <p>A volunteer from the Surgical Waiting Room will bring you to see your child.</p> <p>Your child may have a mild cough or hoarse voice when they wake up. This usually will go away on its own.</p> <h2>Eating and drinking after the procedure</h2> <p>Your child will not be allowed to eat or drink for two to four hours after the procedure. Check with your child's nurse to see when your child can start eating and drinking. Your child will then start drinking clear liquids such as water or apple juice. Then your child may have soft foods such as Jell-O. After your child is able to drink, your child can start eating their usual food again. </p> <h2>One day and one night in the hospital</h2> <p>Your child will be in the hospital for the entire day of the procedure and probably overnight. This will depend on how quickly your child recovers after the procedure. One parent may stay with your child overnight in the constant observation room. </p><h2>Before the operation</h2> <p>Several hours before the operation, your child will need to stop eating and drinking. The nurse or doctor will tell you when your child must stop eating and drinking. Write this information here: </p> <p>The date and time of the operation: _____________________</p> <p>Time when your child must stop eating: __________________</p> <p>Time when your child must stop drinking clear fluids: ________________</p> <p>Other things to remember: _________________</p>
Screen time: OverviewSScreen time: OverviewScreen time: OverviewEnglishPreventionBaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2020-05-22T04:00:00Z10.000000000000056.80000000000001097.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out how much screen time your child should have each day and how screen time affects your child’s health and wellbeing.</p><h2>What is screen time?</h2><p>Screen time is the amount of time your child spends using a device that has a screen. It includes time spent watching television, browsing the internet, using a cell phone and playing video games. Screen time often limits a child’s opportunity to get active or spend time outdoors. Over time, low levels of <a href="/Article?contentid=642&language=English">physical activity</a> can negatively impact their health.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Screen time is the amount of time your child spends using a device that has a screen such as a TV, computer, games console, tablet or smartphone.</li><li>The recommended amount of screen time depends on a child's age. Children under 2 years should not have any screen time and those under 5 years should have less than two hours a day.</li><li>Spending too much time in front of a screen can negatively impact your child's physical and mental health. </li></ul><p>Visit our teen mental health website for tips on how your teen can balance their screen time:<br></p><ul><li><a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3775&language=English&hub=mentalhealthAZ#mentalhealth">Screen time for teens: Overview</a></li><li><a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3776&language=English&hub=mentalhealthAZ#mentalhealth">Setting limits and staying safe with screen time</a><br></li></ul><p>Colley et al. (2011). Physical activity of Canadian children and youth: Accelerometer results from the 2007 to 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey. Statistics Canada. Vol. 22(1)</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/screen_time_overview.jpg
Screening for complications of diabetesSScreening for complications of diabetesScreening for complications of diabetesEnglishEndocrinologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)PancreasEndocrine systemTestsAdult (19+)NA2017-11-20T05:00:00Z8.6000000000000054.4000000000000562.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn how often your child needs to be screened for diabetes complications and what you can expect from each test and screening.</p><p>Screening for risk factors and complications starts at diagnosis of <a href="/Article?contentid=1717&language=English">diabetes</a>. Even though complications rarely occur in children and in teenagers, screening is important because detecting complications at an early stage allows for actions to help slow their progression. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Your child will have regular screening tests for complications of diabetes.</li> <li>Your child will need different tests depending on how long they've had diabetes, and whether they have type 1 or type 2.</li></ul>
Screening for related conditions to diabetes (comorbidity)SScreening for related conditions to diabetes (comorbidity)Screening for related conditions to diabetes (comorbidity)EnglishEndocrinologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)PancreasEndocrine systemTestsAdult (19+)NA2017-11-20T05:00:00Z11.900000000000036.6000000000000255.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>An overview of conditions related to diabetes and how how often your child will need to be screened for each condition.</p><p>​​Related conditions are conditions that may occur in addition to diabetes. Comorbid conditions may affect the diabetes however they neither cause diabetes nor are caused by diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is more often associated with autoimmune conditions. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are more common in people with type 2 diabetes.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Your child will be screened for conditions that occur in addition to either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. These conditions are not caused by diabetes but are more common in people who have it.</li></ul>
Seafood allergySSeafood allergySeafood allergyEnglishAllergyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2021-03-08T05:00:00Z9.1000000000000058.20000000000001253.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn which foods your child should avoid if they have a seafood allergy and how you can help your child manage their allergy.</p><h2>What is a seafood allergy?</h2><p>A seafood allergy is a reaction to one or more of the proteins in crustaceans, molluscs or fish. Crustaceans include crab, lobster and shrimp. Molluscs include clams, oysters and mussels. Shellfish is a term that includes both crustaceans and molluscs.</p><h2>How serious is a seafood allergy?</h2><p>Seafood allergy reactions are different for each child, but they usually happen soon after your child consumes seafood. A seafood allergy carries the risk of <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=781&language=English">anaphylaxis</a>, a severe and life-threatening allergic reaction.</p><h2>Seafood and fish allergies</h2><p>Not all children who have a seafood allergy will have a <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=807&language=English">fish allergy</a>. However, all children who have a fish allergy are considered to have a seafood allergy, as fish is a type of seafood.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Seafoods include fish, crustaceans and molluscs. A seafood allergy can be different for each person: some people can eat one complete type of seafood but cannot eat another. Other people can tolerate some crustaceans, for example, but not others. </li><li>Most children with a seafood allergy do not outgrow it. Consult an allergist regularly to see if there is any change in your child's allergy.</li><li>Sources of seafood include coffee, fried rice, salad dressing and gelatin.</li><li>To prevent an allergic reaction, always read food product labels, avoid foods if you are not sure of the ingredients and avoid using utensils or containers that might have come in contact with seafood. </li><li>If your child's diet is limited because of a seafood allergy, a registered dietitian can offer advice on getting a balanced diet.</li></ul><h2>Possible sources of seafood</h2><p>Seafood is used in a wide range of packaged foods. Below is a list of some of the many food products that can contain seafood.</p> <table class="akh-table"><tbody><tr><td>Coffee</td><td>Deli meats (bologna, ham)</td></tr><tr><td>Fried rice<br></td><td>Gelatin</td></tr><tr><td>Hot dogs</td><td>Marshmallows</td></tr><tr><td>Salad dressing (for example Caesar dressing)</td><td>Soups and sauces</td></tr><tr><td>Spring rolls</td><td>Sushi</td></tr><tr><td>Worcestershire sauce</td><td></td></tr></tbody></table><h2>What do I do if my child has a seafood allergy?</h2><p>Your child should see an allergist (a doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating allergies) who can discuss the seafood allergy with you in more detail. The allergist can discuss whether your child needs to avoid all types of seafoods, or a specific group of seafood, such as crustaceans.</p><p>Your child’s doctor will also prescribe a medication called an epinephrine auto-injector, which can be used to treat allergic reactions, in case your child accidentally eats a food containing seafood.</p><h2>If my child has a seafood allergy, must they avoid all types of seafood?</h2><p>If your child has a specific seafood allergy, speak to an allergist before letting them try other types of seafood.</p><p>Some people may be allergic to one group of seafood, such as crustaceans, but may be able to eat other groups of seafood, such as molluscs, as long as one group has not come in contact with the other in any way. Other times, a person might be able to eat crustaceans and molluscs but still have a fish allergy.</p><p>In addition, a person might not be allergic to complete families of seafood. For example, they might be allergic to clams but not allergic to other types of molluscs.</p><p>Your child may need to avoid all seafood due to the high chance of cross-contamination (see below), as seafood products are often processed in the same facility.</p><h2>Reducing the risk of cross-contamination</h2><p>Cross-contamination occurs when one substance unintentionally comes in contact with another substance, for example a potential allergen. If the substances mix together, one substance taints the other substance, making it unsafe to eat.</p><p>Food allergens can contaminate other foods when, for example, the same containers, utensils or frying pans hold a range of foods.</p><p>Bulk food containers pose a high risk of cross-contamination because they are often used for different products.</p><p>Be sure to avoid using utensils or containers that may have come in contact with allergy-causing foods and ask about possible cross-contamination when eating out.</p><h2>How can my child get the right mix of nutrients if they must avoid seafood?</h2><p>Key nutrients in fish can include <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1444&language=English">protein</a>, omega-3 fats, vitamin A, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1446&language=English">vitamin B12</a>, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1447&language=English">vitamin D</a>, vitamin E, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1448&language=English">calcium</a>, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1450&language=English">iron</a> and <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1452&language=English">zinc</a>. Your child can still get these nutrients even if they must avoid seafood and products that contain them. </p><h3>Nutrients in seafood that are also in other foods</h3><table class="akh-table"><thead><tr><th>Nutrient</th><th>Where to find it</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>Protein</td><td>Milk, red meat, chicken, egg, beans, soy</td></tr><tr><td>Omega 3</td><td>Flaxseed oil, edamame (soybeans), radish seeds, omega-3 eggs fortified with DHA</td></tr><tr><td>Vitamin A</td><td>Sweet potato, pumpkin, liver, goat cheese, carrots, squash, spinach</td></tr><tr><td>Vitamin B12</td><td>Milk, cheese, liver, beef</td></tr><tr><td>Vitamin D</td><td>Milk, soy beverage fortified with vitamin D</td></tr><tr><td>Vitamin E</td><td>Spinach, red pepper, Swiss chard, wheat germ cereal, egg, almonds, sunflower seeds</td></tr><tr><td>Calcium</td><td>Milk, soy beverage fortified with calcium, buttermilk, cheese, yogurt, spinach, collards, beans</td></tr><tr><td>Iron</td><td>Spinach, tomato puree, edamame, lima beans, snow peas, instant oatmeal, cereal</td></tr><tr><td>Zinc</td><td>Bran cereal, wheat germ, cheese, milk, beef, pumpkin seeds, baked beans</td></tr></tbody></table><h2>When to go to the emergency room</h2><p>If your child is having a severe allergic reaction to seafood, call 911 or go to your nearest emergency department immediately. If your child’s doctor prescribed them an epinephrine autoinjector, administer this medication to your child right away. See <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=781&language=English">Anaphylaxis: How to recognize and respond to a severe allergic reaction</a> for more information.</p><h2>​Further information</h2><p>Health Canada. <a href="https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/hc-sc/documents/services/food-nutrition/reports-publications/food-safety/2017-crustaceans-crustaces-eng.pdf" target="_blank">Crustaceans and molluscs - Priority food allergens</a></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/seafood_allergy.jpg
Second-hand smokeSSecond-hand smokeSecond-hand smokeEnglishPreventionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2011-11-10T05:00:00Z7.3000000000000063.3000000000000569.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Second-hand smoke is harmful for babies and children. Learn tips on keeping your home 100% smoke-free.</p><p>Second-hand smoke is smoke that comes from:</p><ul> <li>a smoker’s exhale</li><li>a burning cigarette, cigar or pipe</li></ul><p>There are 4,000 chemicals in cigarette smoke. Fifty of these chemicals cause cancer (carcinogens). These chemicals are also linked to diseases like <a href="/Article?contentid=2474&language=English">asthma</a>, heart disease and emphysema.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Second-hand smoke comes from a smoker's exhale and from a burning cigarette, cigar or pipe.</li> <li>Children frequently exposed to second-hand smoke may develop asthma, pneumonia, bronchitis and ear infections.</li> <li>Children who commonly breathe second-hand smoke may also develop asthma-like symptoms like cough, wheezing and shortness of breath.</li> <li>The best way to reduce your family's risk is to keep your home 100% smoke-free.</li> <li>If a family member smokes, create a "smokers' corner" outside for them to use. </li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/second_hand_smoke.jpg
Secondary cancer after a brain tumourSSecondary cancer after a brain tumourSecondary cancer after a brain tumourEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2022-01-10T05:00:00Z9.4000000000000052.1000000000000640.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Read about the occurrence of secondary cancer after brain tumour treatment in your child. Find out what the risk factors are, how it will be screened and what can be done. </p><p>Some treatments for <a href="/article?contentid=113&language=english">brain tumours</a> carry a small risk that a new tumour will develop. This risk is higher than in the general population, but it is still quite low. Not all secondary brain tumours are cancer. The most common type of secondary brain tumour is called a meningioma, which is benign. Benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body but can still cause problems if they grow too big. </p><p>The risk of a new tumour or cancer depends on the type of treatment, the child’s age at treatment, the child’s sex, and the presence of genetic conditions that may increase a person’s chance of getting cancer.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Radiation therapy and chemotherapy can cause changes in normal cells which may increase the risk of a new cancer developing over time.</li><li>In some cases, certain genetic conditions can be connected to brain tumours and may also increase the chance of a second tumour developing.</li><li>After treatment for a brain tumour, children will need regular check-ups and screenings for their entire lives to detect any problems early.</li><li>A healthy lifestyle is important for preventing adult cancers. </li></ul><h2>What causes a secondary cancer?</h2><p>Several different factors can contribute to the risk of developing a new cancer.</p><ul><li><a href="/article?contentid=1353&language=english">Radiation therapy</a> can cause changes in normal cells. Over time, this may increase the risk of cancer cells developing. In general, a higher dose of radiation leads to a greater risk. The risk is higher for children treated at a younger age. </li><li><a href="/article?contentid=1357&language=english">Chemotherapy</a> can cause changes in normal cells. Over time, this may increase the risk of cancer cells developing. In particular, alkylating agents can increase the risk of developing <a href="/article?contentid=2825&language=english">leukemia</a> (cancer of the blood) in the first 10 years after completing therapy. This category of drugs includes <a href="/article?contentid=113&language=english">cyclophosphamide</a>, <a href="/article?contentid=155&language=english">ifosfamide</a>, <a href="/article?contentid=175&language=english">lomustine</a> (CCNU), <a href="/article?contentid=92&language=english">carmustine</a> (BCNU), <a href="/article?contentid=180&language=english">nitrogen mustard</a>, <a href="/article?contentid=252&language=english">thiotepa</a>, and <a href="/article?contentid=246&language=english">temozolomide</a>. Another chemotherapy agent, <a href="/article?contentid=134&language=english">etoposide</a>, also increases the risk of developing leukemia, but usually only for the first 6 years after completing therapy. In general, higher doses lead to a greater risk. </li><li>Certain genetic conditions in families are connected to brain tumours. These may increase the chance of developing a second tumour.</li></ul><h2>How will secondary cancer be screened?</h2><p>Children who have had brain tumours will need <a href="/article?contentid=1421&language=english&hub=braintumours">regular check-ups</a> throughout their lives. Although the chance of developing a new tumour is very small, this can provide reassurance and help detect any problems early. Additionally, children who have had brain tumours, especially those treated with radiation, often have periodic scans of their brain (and sometimes spine) to monitor for new tumours.</p><h2>What can be done to treat a secondary cancer?</h2><p>If a new tumour or cancer does develop, then a new treatment plan will need to be made. The plan will depend on the type of tumour or cancer.</p>
Secondary cancersSSecondary cancersSecondary CancersEnglishOncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodySkeletal systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2018-03-06T05:00:00Z10.700000000000044.1000000000000297.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p> Learn why your child is at risk of developing secondary cancers after they are treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).</p><p>Children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at risk of developing secondary cancers. Regular follow-up after treatment is important so that your child's doctor can check for any early signs of these cancers. </p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>After your child is treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), they are at risk of developing secondary leukemias or other secondary cancers, brain tumours, skin cancer or thyroid cancer.</li></ul>
Secretions and suctioning: General knowledgeSSecretions and suctioning: General knowledgeSecretions and suctioning: General knowledgeEnglishRespiratory;OtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Nose;Mouth;Lungs;Esophagus;TracheaRespiratory systemNon-drug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2020-02-20T05:00:00Z9.4000000000000060.3000000000000814.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>If a child has excess secretions, they may need to be suctioned using a suction machine. Learn more about the different types of suctioning and why a child might need it.</p><h2>What are secretions?</h2><p>Secretions (mucus) are normally produced in the nose, mouth and trachea (windpipe). Secretions are usually clear or white.</p><p>A change in the colour, amount, consistency or smell of secretions may be the first sign that your child is getting sick or that something else is wrong.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Your child may need suctioning if they are not able to clear secretions (mucus) from their airways by blowing their nose or coughing.</li><li>Most children who need suctioning need to be suctioned three or four times a day.</li><li>The main types of suctioning are nasal (in the nose), oral (mouth), nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal (throat), and deep suctioning.</li></ul>
SedationSSedationSedationEnglishPain/AnaesthesiaChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyNervous systemDrug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2019-11-13T05:00:00Z6.2000000000000076.40000000000001430.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn about sedation. Sedation is medicine to make your child sleepy or more comfortable during a hospital test or treatment.</p><h2>What is sedation?</h2> <p>Sedation is medicine to make your child sleepy or more comfortable during a hospital test or treatment.</p> <p>This information will help you prepare your child for their test or treatment. It describes what sedation is, what happens when your child gets sedation, and how to care for your child after the test or treatment. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Your child's stomach must be empty during and after sedation. If your child's stomach is not empty, your child could vomit while asleep and damage their lungs. </li><li>Eight hours before your child's test or treatment, your child should only have clear liquids such as water, ginger ale or clear apple juice. Your child should not eat or drink any solid food, gum, candy, milk or orange juice. </li><li>Two hours before the operation, test or treatment, stop giving your child anything to drink. </li><li>If possible, bring another adult with you when you take your child home from the hospital.</li> </ul><h2>Sedation is used to help your child relax</h2><p>Your child may find the test or treatment frightening or uncomfortable. Your child may need sedation to help them relax and stay still during the test or treatment. The sedation may make your child fall asleep or just feel sleepy. The sedation may also help make your child forget what happened during the treatment. </p><p>For treatments that are painful, your child will also be given medicine for pain.</p><h2>The nurse or doctor will watch your child closely during sedation</h2> <p>Before your child gets the sedation, the nurse or doctor will ask you and your child some important questions. They will do a physical exam to make sure that it is okay for your child to get the sedation. </p> <p>While your child is sedated, the nurse or doctor will monitor your child's blood pressure, heartbeat and breathing often. The nurse may use several different machines, called monitors, to check on your child. </p> <p>After the sedation, the nurse or doctor will watch your child closely until they are ready to go home.</p><h2>Sedation may cause minor side effects</h2> <p>Your child may have side effects (problems) after the sedation is given. Usually these side effects are minor. They may include:</p> <ul> <li>throwing up </li><li>upset mood, feeling grumpy or tearful </li><li>feeling sleepy</li> <li>dizziness or instability</li> </ul> <p>Sometimes, instead of making your child sleepy, the sedation may make your child overly active and upset. If this happens, the nurse or doctor will stay with your child until they calm down, but the test or treatment may have to be arranged for another day. </p> <p>There is also a very small chance that your child may have an allergic reaction to the sedation. There is an even smaller chance that your child may need help with their breathing because of the sedation. This is why we watch your child very closely during and after the sedation. </p> <h2>The nurse will let you know when you can be with your child</h2> <p>For most tests or treatments, you will be allowed to be with your child. In some cases, you may have to wait in the waiting area during your child's test or treatment. Your child's nurse will let you know more about this. </p> <p>When the test or treatment is over, you can be with your child while they recover from the sedation.</p> <h2>Your child will be asleep for a short time after sedation</h2> <p>The amount of time that your child is asleep after sedation depends on the type of sedation, the drug and the dose. In most cases, your child will be asleep for one to two hours. Your child's nurse will let you know how long to expect. </p> <p>We will try to keep the amount of time your child is asleep as short as possible. This will allow them to recover quickly when the test or treatment is over. </p> <h2>Going home</h2> <h3>Your child will be ready to go home when they are awake</h3> <p>Your child will be ready to go home when they are awake and able to drink clear fluids. This may take one or two hours. </p> <h3>Taking your child home from the hospital</h3> <p>Bring another adult with you when you take your child home from the hospital.</p> <p>If you are driving home, it is strongly recommended that the second adult is available to sit beside and watch your child in the car. Please make sure your child wears their seat belt. </p> <p>If your child uses a stroller, bring it with you to the hospital. Your child may be dizzy and unable to walk on their own.</p> <p>You will get written instructions from your nurse before leaving the hospital. These notes will tell you what you need to know once you are at home. </p> <p>For more information, please read <a href="/Article?contentid=1251&language=English">Sedation: Caring for your child at home</a>.</p><h2>Before sedation</h2><h3>A nurse or doctor will decide if your child needs sedation</h3><p>After you come to the hospital for your child's test or treatment, a nurse or doctor will check your child. Then, you and the nurse or doctor will decide if your child should have sedation. </p><h3>A nurse or doctor will give your child sedation</h3><p>A nurse or doctor at the hospital will give your child sedation. This person will also watch your child closely while they are sedated. </p><p>Do not give your child any other medicine that may calm, relax or make them sleepy before coming to the hospital.</p><h2>There are different ways your child can get sedation</h2><p>Sedation can be given in the following ways:</p><ul><li>as a drink </li><li>as a pill to swallow </li><li>through a mask </li><li>through an intravenous line (IV), a small tube that is placed in a vein in an arm or leg using a small needle</li></ul><p>The doctor or nurse will decide and discuss with you which type of sedation is best for your child for the procedure. If your child is having sedation through an IV, ask for cream to numb the area where the <a href="/Article?contentid=990&language=English">needle goes in so it does not hurt your child</a>. You should ask for the cream as soon as you arrive on the day of your appointment. </p><h2>What to feed your child before sedation</h2><p>Your child's stomach must be empty before sedation. If your child has even a small amount of food or drink in the stomach, your child could <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">throw up</a> (vomit) and damage their lungs. An empty stomach lowers the chance that your child will vomit. </p><p>Follow these instructions to make sure your child's stomach is empty. If you do not follow these instructions, your child's procedure will be delayed or cancelled. </p><ul><li>Eight hours before the sedation, your child must stop eating solid food, gum, candy, milk or orange juice. Your child can still drink clear liquids, which means liquids you can see through like a window. Clear liquids include water, ginger ale and clear apple juice. </li><li>Two hours before the sedation, your child must stop drinking clear liquids. Your child should not take anything by mouth until after they wake up. </li><li>If your child needs to take prescription medicine, talk to the doctor who prescribed the medicine before giving it.</li></ul><p>Your child is having the sedation at this time: ___________________________________</p><p>Your child should stop drinking clear fluids at this time: ____________________________</p><h3>For babies</h3><p>If your baby is breastfeeding, stop breastfeeding your baby four hours before the sedation.</p><p>If your baby drinks formula, stop giving formula six hours before the sedation.</p><h3>Summary: Eating and drinking before the sedation</h3><table class="akh-table"><thead><tr><th>Time</th><th>What your child can eat and drink</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>8 hours before the sedation</td><td><p>No more solid food, gum, candy, milk or orange juice.</p><p>Your child can only drink clear liquids, including water, ginger ale and clear apple juice.</p></td></tr><tr><td>6 hours before the sedation</td><td>Stop giving your baby formula.</td></tr><tr><td>4 hours before the sedation</td><td>Stop breastfeeding your baby.</td></tr><tr><td>2 hours before the sedation</td><td>No more clear liquids. Your child should not eat or drink anything until they wake up.</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2">If your child takes prescription medicine, ask your child's doctor when and how to give the medicine.</td></tr></tbody></table><h2 class="pdf-page-break">Tell your child what will happen</h2><p>It is important to tell your child what will happen during the test or treatment. Tell your child who will be staying with them, what kinds of things will happen, and how they may feel during and after the test or treatment. </p><p>Your nurse can help you explain the test or treatment to your child. It is important to be honest. Children feel less anxious and scared when they know what to expect. </p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/sedation.jpg

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