AboutKidsHealth

 

 

BMT: Transitioning into adulthoodBBMT: Transitioning into adulthoodBMT: Transitioning into adulthoodEnglishHaematology;Immunology;OncologyTeen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemNATeen (13-18 years) Adult (19+)NA2010-03-12T05:00:00Z9.8000000000000054.6000000000000982.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to help your child transition into adult care, after surviving a transplant.</p><p>Each age and stage of life brings a different set of challenges. Parenting an infant or toddler blood and marrow transplant (BMT) survivor can be very different from parenting a school-aged child. Likewise, being a teenage survivor is different from being nine or ten years old. As teenagers reach adulthood, they are faced with new challenges, both physical and social, that further affect their care.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>When your child turns 18 they will transition to adult care, meaning they will have a new oncologist and health-care team.</li><li>It is important to prepare for the transition to adult care early on, and ensure your child and family are communicating with the paediatric and adult health-care providers.</li></ul><p></p>Resources for teens with information and tools to help them understand what to expect when transitioning to adult care: <a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/adolescenthealth?topic=adulthealthcare">Adolescent Health - Transition to Adult Care</a><a></a><br> <p></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/BMT_transitioning_into_adulthood.jpgMain
Babbling with your childBBabbling with your childBabbling with your childEnglishDevelopmentalBaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months)NANANAAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2020-11-03T05:00:00ZFlat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn how you can communicate with your child who is babbling and how to respond to them.</p><p>When your child is babbling, they are often trying to tell you something. Even if you don’t know what your child wants to say, there are ways to respond so they feel their communication is meaningful. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A child who is babbling may be trying to say something or they may be praticing making sounds.</li><li>When your child babbles, you can copy their sounds to show you are listening and interested.</li><li>If you think your child is trying to tell you something, you can respond by putting their babbles into words.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Babbling_with_your_child.jpgMain
Babies: How can you tell if your baby is ill?BBabies: How can you tell if your baby is ill?Babies: How can you tell if your baby is ill?EnglishNAPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months)BodyNAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)Diarrhea;Fever;Rash;Vomiting2019-01-07T05:00:00Z9.0000000000000059.3000000000000728.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Discover the physical and behavioural signs that your baby may be ill and learn when to take your baby to a doctor.<br></p><p>A change in behaviour is often a sign of illness in babies. If your baby is ill, they may cry more or have a change in activity level. </p><h2>Key points<br></h2> <ul> <li>Fever is usually a sign that your baby’s body is fighting an infection.</li> <li>One of the first signs of illness in babies is a change in behaviour such as being more sleepy or more fussy.​</li> <li>In newborn babies and young infants three months of age or under, fever may be the first and only sign of a serious infection.​ All babies less than three months of age with a fever should see a doctor right away.<br></li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/how_can_you_tell_baby_ill.jpgMain
Babies: Phasing out nighttime feedingsBBabies: Phasing out nighttime feedingsBabies: Phasing out nighttime feedingsEnglishDevelopmentalBaby (1-12 months)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2010-05-19T04:00:00Z6.9000000000000070.3000000000000607.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>An overview on how to make nighttime feedings easier on mother and child, and eventually to do away with them completely.</p><p>Typically, newborn babies have one long four- to five-hour sleep period per 24 hours. This may or may not occur at night. Babies are not born with a "circadian rhythm." The circadian rhythm is when the body knows to sleep at night and stay awake during the day. This rhythm begins at around eight weeks of age. Until then, you should follow your baby’s cues for feeding and sleeping.</p> <p>In general, babies will sleep through the night by six months of age. Night sleeping may occur much sooner for some. Even if your baby sleeps through the night earlier than other babies, illnesses, teething, or separation anxiety may cause your baby’s sleep routine to change.</p><p>Each baby has different feeding and sleeping behaviours. During the first few weeks, most breastfed babies wake up every 2 to 3 hours, day or night, to feed.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Babies are not born knowing that they should sleep at night and be awake during the day.</li> <li>In the early months, allow the baby to decide their own schedule of feedings.</li> <li>Adjust activity and noise levels at feeding time so that there are more during the day, less at night.</li> <li>Mothers’ available milk volume and baby’s feeding behavior determine the number of nighttime feedings.</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/babies_phasing_out_nighttime_feeding.jpgMain
BabyBBabyBabyYourBabyEnglishNABaby (1-12 months)NANANACaregivers Adult (19+)NALanding PageLearning Hub<p>Your baby will go through many changes in their first year of life. Find out how their nutrition needs change and how you can support their physical development, communication and transition to other caregivers.</p><p>Your baby will go through many changes in their first year of life. Find out how their nutrition needs change as they start on textured foods and how you can support their physical development, communication and transition to other caregivers.<br></p><br> <div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/videoseries?list=PLjJtOP3StIuWOvloIPqSD72Z6cgMZKba1" frameborder="0"></iframe><br></div><p>Above is our baby-focused video playlist. To view other AboutKidsHealth videos, please visit the <a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/Aboutkidshealth">AboutKidsHealth YouTube channel</a>.</p>yourbabyhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/baby_landing_Page.jpgMain
Baby blues and postpartum depressionBBaby blues and postpartum depressionBaby blues and postpartum depressionEnglishPregnancy;PsychiatryAdult (19+)NANANAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-11T04:00:00Z9.6000000000000055.10000000000001492.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about baby blues and postpartum depression after giving birth. The causes and management of both baby blues and depression are discussed.</p><p>The first emotions that you will probably experience after giving birth are elation and an all-encompassing love for your newborn baby. Soon after, your elation may start to dissipate and lead into other emotions such as the "baby blues" and possibly even postpartum depression. Know that you are not alone; many women experience feelings of sadness, mood swings and depression after childbirth. If your feelings do not go away or are interfering with your life, talk to your health-care provider.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>The "baby blues" affect about 80% of women, causing feelings of irritability, indecision, anxiety and mood swings.</li> <li>Postpartum depression is a pronounced and continuing sadness that disrupts normal functioning after a woman gives birth.</li> <li>Symptoms of postpartum depression include feeling out of control, overwhelming sense of worthlessness, withdrawal from your baby or a feeling you may harm yourself or your baby.</li> <li>If you experience any of the symptoms of postpartum depression, with or without anxiety, see your doctor right away.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/baby_blues_postpartum_depression.jpgMain
Baby's first breathBBaby's first breathBaby's first breathEnglishNeonatologyNewborn (0-28 days)NARespiratory systemNAAdult (19+)NA2009-10-18T04:00:00Z9.3000000000000062.8000000000000493.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about the most profound and difficult change in a newborn baby's body at birth: their first breath.</p><p>The most profound change at birth is your baby’s first breath. The first few breaths your baby takes may be shallow and irregular but they will soon become deeper and regular as you baby adjusts to breathing on their own.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Hormonal and other changes during birth, as well as physical stimulation and handling during delivery will encourage your baby to breathe.</li> <li>The first few breaths your baby takes will be shallow and irregular until they accumulate more air in their lungs making it easier to breathe.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/babys_first_breath.jpgMain
Back in the classroomBBack in the classroomBack in the classroomEnglishDevelopmentalPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANANAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00Z8.5000000000000064.4000000000000803.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Discover general strategies that you can use to help make sure that your child has a successful experience in school.</p><p>Whether your child has been identified with a disability or not, uneven development due to their condition could affect their school performance, their behaviour, their friendships, and other activities that revolve around school. <br></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Discuss with your child whether they want their classmates and their parents to know about their disability.</li> <li>Inviting a responsible peer to support your child sets an example for classmates.</li> <li>Balance concerns about your child's success with the fact that they need to have a normal childhood experience of attending school.</li> <li>Monitor your child's progress at school and talk to your child and their teacher if you have concerns.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/back_in_the_classroom.jpgMain
Back in the classroom after brain tumour treatmentBBack in the classroom after brain tumour treatmentBack in the classroom after brain tumour treatmentEnglishNeurology;DevelopmentalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemNAAdult (19+)NA2009-07-10T04:00:00Z7.7000000000000068.60000000000002014.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Detailed information on the steps required to re-introduce your child back into the classroom after brain tumour treatment.</p><p>There are many things you can do to make sure that your child has a successful experience in school. It is important to keep in touch with your child’s teacher to see how they are doing in schoolwork, but also how they are keeping up with their friendships and readjusting to school. For example, some children may show more emotions than they did before, while others may become more quiet and withdrawn. Children with brain tumours can feel very tired, and this can affect their experience in school. Let the treatment team know if there are any changes that you are concerned about, because they can help find solutions. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>When your child is returning to school get in touch with school staff to explain your child's needs and determine any accessibility issues.</li> <li>Work with your child's teacher to make sure your child is well supported and receiving the best education possible.</li></ul>Main
Back to schoolBBack to schoolBack to schoolEnglishNAPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2018-01-19T05:00:00Z000Landing PageLearning Hub<p>From homework tips to keeping kids active, our back to school tips will help you prepare for a fun and successful year ahead.</p><p>To most parents, September means one thing: time to send kids back to school. From homework tips, to dealing with bullying, to keeping kids active and healthy, our back to school tips will help you and your child prepare for a fun and successful year ahead.<br></p><br> <div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/videoseries?list=PLjJtOP3StIuVCTv-RpVyY6npRdMfPNg1_" frameborder="0"></iframe><br></div><p>Above is our mental health video playlist. To view other AboutKidsHealth videos, please visit the <a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/Aboutkidshealth">AboutKidsHealth YouTube channel</a>.</p>backtoschoolhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/back_to_school_learning_hub.jpgMain
Bacterial infections in pregnancyBBacterial infections in pregnancyBacterial infections in pregnancyEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)BodyReproductive systemConditions and diseasesPrenatal Adult (19+)Pain;Fever;Painful urination2009-09-11T04:00:00Z11.100000000000043.10000000000001745.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about bacterial infections in pregnancy. Group B strep, listeria, urinary tract infections, and sexually transmitted diseases are discussed.</p><p>When you are pregnant, you need to careful about infections and infectious diseases. Unborn and newborn babies have weak immune systems compared with older children and adults, and therefore are very susceptible to infection. </p> <p>Infections in pregnancy can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or other organisms called protozoa. Below is a description of the numerous bacterial infections that can affect the growing baby during pregnancy. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Unborn and newborn babies have weak immune systems and are highly susceptible to infection.</li> <li>Group B streptococcus infections are the most common cause of life-threatening infections in newborn babies.</li> <li>Seek medical attention if you feel unwell or suspect you have a bacterial infection.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/bacterial_infections_in_pregnancy.jpgMain
Balancing blood sugar levelsBBalancing blood sugar levelsBalancing blood sugar levelsEnglishEndocrinologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)PancreasEndocrine systemNon-drug treatmentAdult (19+)NA2016-10-17T04:00:00Z10.200000000000049.1000000000000755.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Although there is no cure for diabetes, the condition can be effectively managed. Learn how to properly test and manage blood sugar levels.<br></p><p>The key to managing diabetes is balancing blood sugar levels. There are several ways to control and manage blood sugar, starting with how to measure blood sugar levels.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>To effectively manage your child's blood sugar levels, you will need to learn how to measure them and how often to do so.<br></li><li>Taking the correct amount of insulin required, maintaining a healthy diet, and getting enough exercise are the best ways to manage diabetes.<br><br></li></ul>Main
Balancing your family's diet and fitting in treats BBalancing your family's diet and fitting in treats Balancing your family's diet and fitting in treats EnglishNutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NADigestive systemHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+) Educators Hospital healthcare providers Community healthcare providers Remote populations First nationsNA2020-06-05T04:00:00Z7.8000000000000067.0000000000000692.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to help your family eat a balanced diet and how to incorporate treats in a healthy way.</p><h2>What is a balanced diet?</h2><p>A balanced diet is one that provides all the nutrients that your body needs to function properly. To practice eating a healthy balanced diet, focus on including <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1437&language=English">vegetables and fruit</a>, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1438&language=English">whole grains</a>, and lean protein foods, and limit your intake of highly processed foods. Processed foods can contain excess sodium (salt), sugar and saturated fat that may displace other more nutritious foods, and they should be eaten less often. However, there is room in a healthy diet for foods that provide extra enjoyment (i.e., treats) even if they have little to no nutritional value.</p><p>In general, it is often helpful to think of eating a balanced diet over the course of a week instead of trying to aim for perfection every day.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A balanced diet includes all foods, with a focus on nutritious options.</li><li>Moderation is important.</li><li>Limit the amount of processed, high sugar, high sodium (salt) foods in your house.</li><li>Try to avoid banning treats or making children feel guilty about eating treats.</li><li>Limit sugary drinks. Encourage water.</li><li>Make healthy treats fun.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/developing_positive_eating_habits.jpgMain
Balloon angioplastyBBalloon angioplastyBalloon angioplastyEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemProceduresAdult (19+)NA2009-12-11T05:00:00Z8.3000000000000059.3000000000000372.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Balloon angioplasty, also known as balloon dilation, is used to expand narrowed blood vessels. Read more about angioplasty.<br></p><p> Balloon angioplasty expands narrowed blood vessels. This page explains how this procedure will help your child with a heart condition. </p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>During this procedure, a balloon is inflated to open narrow blood vessels and improve blood flow.</li> <li>This procedure can be used in coarctation of the aorta, pulmonary stenosis, and narrowing of veins such as the superior or inferior vena cava.</li> <li>Your child will be under a general anaesthetic during a balloon angioplasty.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Coarctation_aorta_balloon_angio_MED_ILL_EN.pngMain
Balloon atrial septostomyBBalloon atrial septostomyBalloon atrial septostomyEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemProceduresAdult (19+)NA2016-07-11T04:00:00Z10.300000000000051.5000000000000823.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Balloon atrial septostomy is a procedure to expand an atrial septal defect and improve oxygenation of the blood. It is often performed for children with transposition of the great arteries.<br></p><p>Almost all babies with <a href="/Article?contentid=1611&language=English">transposition of the great arteries</a> (TGA) will need to undergo a procedure called balloon atrial septostomy.</p><h2>Key Points</h2><ul><li>A balloon atrial septostomy is a procedure that will help your baby’s body get oxygen-rich blood.</li><li>A balloon atrial septostomy enlarges the foramen ovale (the hole between the left and right atrium). This allows blood from both sides of the heart to mix together.</li><li>A balloon atrial septostomy is usually performed at the child's bedside, guided by ultrasound, or in a special procedure room called the cardiac catheterization laboratory.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_TGA_balloon_septostomy_EN.jpgMain
Balloon valvuloplastyBBalloon valvuloplastyBalloon valvuloplastyEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemProceduresAdult (19+)NA2009-12-11T05:00:00Z8.4000000000000060.0000000000000566.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Valve dilation uses heart catheterization to open a narrowed valve in the heart. Read about valve dilation, possible complications and recovery.</p><p> A balloon valvuloplasty uses an inflated balloon to open up a heart valve. This page explains what the procedure entails and how it will help your child's heart condition.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li> A balloon valvuloplasty opens a heart valve that is abnormally obstructed or narrow (stenotic).</li> <li> Your child will be under a general anaesthetic during this procedure.</li> <li> Complications include a leaky pulmonary or aortic valve.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Valve_dilation_MED_ILL_EN.pngMain
Basic yoga posesBBasic yoga posesBasic yoga poses-CANEnglishRheumatology;AdolescentPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)BodySkeletal systemNon-drug treatmentPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2017-01-31T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>These are basic yoga poses that you can try to help relieve JIA symptoms. These poses will teach you how to relax as well as introduce you to the postures that the other yoga poses will build on. </p>Teens
Bath time for babiesBBath time for babiesBath time for babiesEnglishNABaby (1-12 months)NANANAAdult (19+)NA2009-10-18T04:00:00Z6.2000000000000079.5000000000000853.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>How to effectively give a baby a bath, either in the baby tub or the "big" tub. Considerations for bathtub safety are provided.</p><p>When it comes to normal baby care, nothing is as scary to new parents as bath time. Don't worry about putting baby in a tub for the first couple of weeks, until the umbilical stump has fallen off. During these early days, a sponge bath will do. After your baby's umbilical cord stump has fallen off and the area has healed, you can start to put them into the baby tub for baths. Your baby will not be ready to use the "big" bathtub until they are three to six months old, when they can hold their head up properly. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Once your baby's umbilical cord stump has fallen off and the area has healed, you can start to put them into the baby tub for baths.</li> <li>Once your baby is able to sit up by themselves or with minimal help (around three to six months), you may want to switch them to the family tub.</li> <li>Remain within arm's reach of your baby — never leave them alone in the tub and remember that hot water can burn your baby's fragile skin.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/bath_time_for_babies.jpgMain
Bath time for newborn babiesBBath time for newborn babiesBath time for newborn babiesEnglishNeonatologyNewborn (0-28 days)NANANAAdult (19+)NA2009-10-18T04:00:00Z6.5000000000000077.3000000000000864.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>How to effectively make bath time easier for your newborn. Information on giving a newborn baby a sponge bath is provided, as well as safety tips.</p><p>When it comes to normal newborn baby care, nothing is as scary for new parents as bath time. Don’t worry about putting baby in a tub for the first couple of weeks, until the umbilical cord stump has fallen off and the navel area has healed. During these early days, a sponge bath will do. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>A newborn baby only needs a sponge bath two or three times per week.</li> <li>Always make sure to hold your newborn baby when they are in the bathtub and never leave them alone or in the care of another child while they are being bathed.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/bathtime_for_newborn_babies.jpgMain
Becoming a better communicatorBBecoming a better communicatorBecoming a better communicatorEnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANANAPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z5.3000000000000076.1000000000000591.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Communication skills are something you can constantly improve on. Find out how you can become a better communicator.</p><p>Being a good communicator is a skill for life. How you communicate depends on your personality. Each person has their own style, but the following tips can help you improve your communication skills.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Everyone has a different communication style that works for them; there is no 'best' way to communicate.</li><li>It is important that you know exactly what you are trying to say and why.</li><li>When communicating, consider timing, body language, be specific and remember to listen.</li><li>After you've communicated what you wanted to, think about how it went and if there is anything you would do differently next time.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Becoming_a_better_communicator.jpgTeens
Becoming a parent after a transplantBBecoming a parent after a transplantBecoming a parent after a transplantEnglishTransplant;NephrologyTeen (13-18 years)KidneysRenal system/Urinary systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-ZTeens
Becoming aware of your thoughtsBBecoming aware of your thoughtsBecoming aware of your thoughts-CANEnglishRheumatology;AdolescentPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)BodySkeletal systemNAPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2017-01-31T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/KYcLfBf-T9c" frameborder="0"></iframe> <br></div><br>Teens
Becoming independentBBecoming independentBecoming independentEnglishDevelopmentalPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years)NANANAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00Z11.000000000000053.4000000000000407.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about how a premature baby may develop into a toddler, through separating themselves from their parents and gaining more autonomy and independence.</p><p>Parents of premature babies may find it difficult to allow their child to be independent as they grow. They may be overprotective of their children; however, this is not always a good thing.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>It is important for parents to find a balance between protecting their child and allowing them to take risks and explore.</li> <li>Overindulging and overprotecting can be detrimental to a child and can have profound and long lasting negative consequences.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/becoming_independent_premature_babies.jpgMain
Bed-wetting (nocturnal enuresis)BBed-wetting (nocturnal enuresis)Bed-wetting (nocturnal enuresis)EnglishUrologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BladderBladderConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-10-06T04:00:00Z8.2000000000000063.4000000000000838.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Find information about how old most children are when they develop good bladder control at night. Also learn about some of the causes of bed-wetting and what you can do to help your child.</p><h2>What is bed-wetting?</h2><p>Bed-wetting, also known as nocturnal enuresis, is urination (peeing) at night that your child cannot control. It is a very different condition from diurnal enuresis (daytime wetting).</p> ​<h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Bed-wetting is common in young children.</li><li>Every child develops bladder control at a different pace.</li><li>Speak to a doctor if your child suddenly wets the bed after an extended dry period or has difficulty controlling their bladder during the day and night after six years of age.</li><li>Help your child by reassuring them and offering gentle reminders about bathroom routine.</li><li>Punishing or humiliating a child will not help them develop better bladder control.</li></ul><h2>Causes of bed-wetting</h2> <p>In most cases, bed-wetting occurs because your child is simply a deep sleeper and does not wake up when their bladder is full.</p> <p>Often, the tendency to wet the bed can run in families. If you were a bed-wetter, your child is more likely to do the same.</p> <p>In very rare cases, bed-wetting can be caused by type 1 diabetes or a congenital (from birth) defect of the urinary tract. However, these conditions also cause daytime symptoms too. If your child does not experience daytime wetting, you can rest assured that they are likely to be completely healthy.</p> <p>Some children can start to wet the bed when they had previously been dry at night as a response to changes in their lives. These changes may include moving to a new home, the birth of a brother or sister or new child-care arrangements. If your child has suddenly started to wet the bed after an extended dry period, talk to them about what is bothering them and try to help them cope with the change.</p> <h2>How common is bed-wetting?</h2> <p>Bed-wetting is common in young children. It is found in about 20 per cent of five-year-olds but falls to about two per cent of fifteen-year-olds.</p> <p>Very few children have dry nights before they are three years old. Most children start to stay dry at night between ages three and eight. Until your child achieves this milestone, they will benefit from your patience and understanding.</p> <p>Unintentional and unconscious urination at night is a normal stage in your child's development. Most children will be toilet trained for the daytime long before they are able to be toilet trained for night time. Do not look at bed-wetting as failed toilet training. Each child matures and develops good bladder control at a different pace.</p> <h2>How bed-wetting is treated</h2><p>If your child is experiencing bed-wetting, your child's doctor may prescribe a hormone called <a href="/Article?contentid=122&language=English">desmopressin</a> (DDAVP). However, this is only for temporary use for sleepovers or overnight camp.</p><p>If your child's doctor finds a physical cause for daytime wetting, such as a <a href="/article?contentid=935&language=English">urinary tract infection</a>, they may prescribe medication such as <a href="/Article?contentid=1120&language=English">antibiotics</a>.</p><h2>When to see a doctor about bed-wetting</h2> <p>Your child should see a doctor if there is a sudden onset of bed-wetting following a six-month, completely dry period. Although some cases of sudden bed-wetting are caused by life changes, a doctor should also check your child for any underlying medical condition or illness. </p> <p>Your child may also need to see a doctor if:</p> <ul> <li>enuresis occurs during the day and night after the age of six</li> <li>the bed-wetting bothers your child and prevents them from going to sleepover parties or staying overnight at camp. </li> </ul> <p>Your child's doctor will advise you about treatment options.</p> https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/bed-wetting.jpgMain
Before the heart transplantBBefore the heart transplantBefore the heart transplantEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemProceduresAdult (19+)NA2009-12-11T05:00:00Z7.3000000000000070.3000000000000886.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>It is important to keep your child as healthy as possible before a heart transplant. Learn about what happens while you are waiting for a donor heart to become available.<br></p><p> This page explains what to expect while you wait for a donor heart. </p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>Keeping your child as healthy as possible before the heart transplant is very important.</li> <li>Your child may need to stay in hospital while they wait for a heart if their condition is very severe.</li> <li>There is no way of knowing how long your child may have to wait for a donor heart.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/before_the_heart_transplant.jpgMain
Behaviour changes and brain tumoursBBehaviour changes and brain tumoursBehaviour changes and brain tumoursEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemNAAdult (19+)NA2022-01-10T05:00:00Z9.8000000000000051.7000000000000485.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>In-depth information concerning behavior changes you might see in your child during brain tumour treatment.</p><p>Many children who have a serious illness such as a <a href="/article?contentid=1306&language=english&hub=braintumours">brain tumour</a> learn to adjust to their situation over time and with support. Similar to adults, children can show variability in <a href="/article?contentid=1412&language=english&hub=braintumours">how they cope</a>. Younger children often focus on their immediate suffering, while older children and teenagers may have a broader view of the impact of illness. </p><p>If your child is having a bad day, it can be difficult to tell if changes in your child's behaviour are due to the tumour, the treatment, or an emotional response to both. Sadness, anger, fussiness, acting out, tantrums, or withdrawing can all be normal behaviours for children. Some children may show more serious behaviours, such as low mood, anxiety, sleep difficulties, relationship difficulties, school challenges, or refusing to have treatments. More serious behaviour changes need to be addressed quickly. Talk to your treatment team if you are concerned.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>It can be difficult to tell if changes in your child's behaviour are due to the tumour, the treatment, or an emotional response to both.</li><li>More serious behaviour changes need to be attended to quickly and should be discussed with the treatment team.</li><li>There are several approaches you can implement at home to address behaviours.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/behaviour_changes_and_brain_tumours.jpgMain
Behaviour changes and congenital heart diseaseBBehaviour changes and congenital heart diseaseBehaviour changes and congenital heart diseaseEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-12-14T05:00:00Z10.500000000000050.0000000000000562.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>If your child has a heart condition, you may notice changes in their behaviour or that they display behavioural problems from time to time.</p><p>This page explains why a child with congenital heart disease may display behavioural problems.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>If your child has a heart condition and you are concerned about their behaviour, their doctor, nurse, social worker, or a child psychiatrist can work to find and address the cause of the behaviour.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/behaviour_changes_and_congenital_heart_disease.jpgMain
Behaviour changes in babiesBBehaviour changes in babiesBehaviour changes in babiesEnglishNeonatologyNewborn (0-28 days)BodyNANAAdult (19+)Fatigue2009-10-18T04:00:00Z10.200000000000048.9000000000000517.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about behaviour changes your infant might display, such as lethargy and irritability. These mood changes may indicate that your baby is ill.</p><p>One of the first signs of illness in babies is a change in behaviour. The baby may cry more or have a change in activity level. Generally, if your baby is active when awake, feeding well, and can be comforted when crying, small differences in activity level or crying are normal. However, if your baby becomes lethargic or irritable, it may be time to see a doctor. Lethargy or irritability may be signs that an illness is present. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Change in behaviour, such as lethargy or irritability, can be a sign of illness in babies.</li> <li>Lethargy may be a sign of a common infection such as a cold, or a serious type of infection such as influenza or meningitis.</li> <li>Irritability may be a sign that your baby has constipation, abdominal pain, an earache, or a viral or bacterial infection. </li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/behaviour_changes_in_babies.jpgMain
Behaviour changes in childrenBBehaviour changes in childrenBehaviour changes in childrenEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANASupport, services and resourcesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2012-06-13T04:00:00Z7.7000000000000060.9000000000000297.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Parents can learn helpful tips on how to manage behaviour changes in children who are ill. </p><p>Behaviour changes in children who are ill are normal. Talk to your child's nurse, <a href="/Article?contentid=1168&language=English">social worker</a>, or child life specialist if you are concerned about your sick child's behaviour changes. They may be able to suggest strategies to help you.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>It can be normal for a child who is ill to have behaviour changes.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/behaviour_changes_in_children.jpgMain
Behaviour rehearsalBBehaviour rehearsalBehaviour rehearsalEnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANANon-drug treatmentPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z5.8000000000000075.9000000000000693.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Behaviour rehearsal is a distraction technique that can help you prepare for a stressful event. Learn practice tips to help you improve this technique.</p><p>Behaviour rehearsal helps you to prepare for an event that you think will be stressful before it even happens. Since most young people know what situations will cause them stress, preparing ahead of time helps to reduce that stress. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>You can use behaviour rehearsal to imagine an event before it happens and use relaxation methods to help you prepare for it.</li><li>Learn to do behaviour rehearsal by breaking a situation into different parts, imaging how you feel at each point and practising the relaxation techniques you can use to cope.</li><li>It's OK if a fearful or unhelpful thought comes to mind while you practise.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Behaviour_rehearsal_TTC_Cancer.jpgTeens
Behaviour rehearsalBBehaviour rehearsalBehaviour rehearsal-CANEnglishRheumatology;AdolescentPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)BodySkeletal systemNon-drug treatmentPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)Joint or muscle pain;Pain2017-01-31T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Behaviour rehearsal helps you to prepare for an event that you think will be stressful, before it even happens. Since most young people know ahead of time what situations will cause them stress, preparing for these events helps to reduce that stress. Behaviour rehearsal involves imagining the event before it happens, and then using relaxation methods you’ve learned to help you relax while imagining the event. </p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/behavior_rehearsal_JIA_US.jpgTeens
Behavioural and learning issuesBBehavioural and learning issuesBehavioural and learning issuesEnglishDevelopmentalPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)NANANAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00Z14.400000000000031.4000000000000572.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about various behavioral problems that premature babies may develop as they grow. In general, the most premature babies are more at risk.</p><p>As they grow, some premature babies will develop behavioural problems. While it can be difficult to predict which premature babies will have lasting issues of this nature, in general, the most premature and the lowest birth weight babies are most at risk. Disabilities that affect the brain are also likely to have an effect on learning and education. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>On average, extremely and moderately premature babies are more likely to have behavioural issues.</li> <li>Each child is different and not all children born prematurely will grow up to have behavioural issues or learning disabilities.</li> <li>Behavioural problems that may affect a child include ADHD, internalizing and externalizing behaviours and autism spectrum disorder.</li> <li>Knowing a premature baby is more at risk to have a learning disability as a child allows parents, health professionals, and educators to take steps to diminish the effect of the disability.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/behavioural_and_learning_issues_premature_babies.jpgMain
Behavioural disorders: How to help your child at homeBBehavioural disorders: How to help your child at homeBehavioural disorders: How to help your child at homeEnglishPsychiatryPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANANon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2017-06-20T04:00:00Z11.300000000000044.8000000000000552.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to manage your child's difficult behaviour.</p><p>A healthy parent-child relationship is the starting point for managing any behavioural difficulties. The main features of a healthy relationship include:</p><ul><li>maintaining a positive nurturing relationship with your child</li><li>providing consistent rules and expectations</li><li>knowing what your child likes to do and with whom they spend their time</li></ul><p>It is important to have these firmly in place before you introduce anything to manage any problematic behaviour.</p> <h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>A healthy parent/child relationship is positive and nurturing, includes consistent rules and expectations and is based on knowing what a child likes to do and with whom they spend their time.</li> <li>If your child shows signs of a possible behavioural disorder, try some behaviour modification strategies. These approaches are intended to change your child’s behaviour over time.</li> <li>Behaviour modification strategies include setting clear and consistent rules, expectations and consequences, explaining your values, understanding your child’s point of view and praising positive behaviour.</li> <li>If your child’s behaviour does not improve, consider seeing your child’s doctor and, if needed, seek support for your own wellbeing.</li> </ul><h2>Further information</h2> <p>For more information on behavioural disorders, please see the following pages:</p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=1924&language=English">Behavioural disorders: Overview</a></p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=1925&language=English">Behavioural disorders: Signs and symptoms</a></p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=2000&language=English">Behavioural disorders: Treatment with psychotherapy and medications</a></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/PST_MH_Behavioural_Help.jpgMain
Behavioural disorders: OverviewBBehavioural disorders: OverviewBehavioural disorders: OverviewEnglishPsychiatryPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2017-06-20T04:00:00Z12.500000000000029.7000000000000674.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Discover the causes of behavioural disorders and when to seek help about a child's behaviour.</p><h2>What is a behavioural disorder?</h2><p>It is common for children and teens to get into trouble and be irritable or aggressive from time to time, especially during the toddler and early teen years. For instance, a young child may have a temper tantrum or a teenager may talk back or argue with you now and then. </p><p>Disordered behaviour is different from typical developmental behaviour because it happens more often than not and causes problems in more than one setting. For example, the behaviour not only affects school and home life but can make friendships and other peer relationships difficult.</p><p>There are two main types of behavioural disorder: oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Your child may have <a href="/Article?contentid=1925&language=English">symptoms of one of these disorders</a> if:</p><ul><li>they have frequent outbursts, often at unexpected times (for example not just when tired or hungry)</li><li>have great difficulty following rules and expectations</li><li>their behaviour causes a lot of distress or trouble at home and school</li></ul><p>If you are concerned about your child or teen’s behaviour, consider if the frequency, duration and intensity of the behaviour are different than what would be expected for their particular developmental stage.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Challenging behaviour becomes a concern when it is frequent and unexpected and leads to trouble at home, at school and with peers.</li> <li>Behavioural disorders generally fall into two categories: oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder.</li> <li>Behavioural disorders can be associated with a family history of challenging behaviour, family stresses and a poor ability to manage emotions and activity levels.</li> <li>See your child’s doctor if your child’s behaviour changes suddenly or if their behaviour is more challenging than expected for their developmental stage.</li> </ul><h2>What causes behavioural disorders?</h2> <p>Behavioural disorders can be caused by:</p> <ul> <li>biological factors</li> <li>social and environmental factors</li> <li>psychological factors.</li> </ul> <h3>Biological factors</h3> <p>Some traits seen in behavioural disorders can run in families. Children with a family history of behaviour problems, learning problems, <a href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">anxiety</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">depression</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=279&language=English">bipolar disorder</a> may be more likely to have a behaviour problem.</p> <h3>Social and environmental factors</h3> <p>Children who come from families that regularly experience a lot of stress may be more likely to show signs of a behavioural disorder. Some common family stressors might include:</p> <ul> <li>financial difficulties</li> <li>exposure to violence</li> <li>family breakup</li> <li>harsh or inconsistent parenting</li> <li>inconsistent supervision, for example due to a parent’s mental health challenges or different styles of caregiving from a number of people</li> </ul> <h3>Psychological factors</h3> <p>Children with behavioural disorders often have other mental health conditions (see below). How a child manages their emotions, activity level and attention may suggest vulnerability to certain behavioural disorders.</p> <h2>How common are behavioural disorders in children?</h2> <p>Behavioural disorders are common, occurring in 16 to 24 per cent of children and youth, from pre-schoolers through to teens.</p><h2>When to seek help about your child’s behaviour</h2> <p>Consider speaking to a guidance counsellor or social worker in your child’s school about your child or teen’s behaviour if:</p> <ul> <li>you notice sudden or unexpected behavioural changes (increased irritability or aggression with no known cause)</li> <li>your child’s behaviour is more challenging than expected based on their developmental stage</li> <li>your child’s behaviour continually prevents them from succeeding at school or maintaining positive relationships at home or in the community</li> </ul> <p>See a doctor if you would like to request a referral to a mental health professional such as an educational psychologist.</p><h2>Further information</h2> <p>For more information on behavioural disorders, please see the following pages:</p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=1925&language=English">Behavioural disorders: Signs and symptoms</a></p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=2000&language=English">Behavioural disorders: Treatment with psychotherapy and medications</a></p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=2001&language=English">Behavioural disorders: How to help your child at home</a></p> <h2>​​Resources</h2> <p>Greene, R. (2014). <i>The Explosive Child: A New Approach for Understanding and Parenting Easily Frustrated, Chronically Inflexible Children.</i> Fifth edition. New York, NY: HarperCollins.</p> <p>Phelan, T. (2014). <i>1-2-3 Magic: Effective Discipline for Children 2-12.</i> Sixth edition. Naperville, IL: Sourcebooks, Inc.​<br></p><p><strong>Virtual care services for children:</strong><br></p><p>Boomerang Health was opened by SickKids to provide communities in Ontario with greater access to community-based services for children and adolescents. For more information on virtual care services in Ontario to support behavioural disorders, visit <a href="http://www.boomeranghealth.com/services/child-psychology/">Boomerang Health</a> powered by SickKids. <br></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/behavioural_disorders_overview.jpgMain
Behavioural disorders: Signs and symptomsBBehavioural disorders: Signs and symptomsBehavioural disorders: Signs and symptomsEnglishPsychiatryPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2017-06-20T04:00:00Z12.900000000000031.1000000000000932.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the main symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder.</p><h2>What are the main symptoms of a behavioural disorder?</h2><p>Symptoms depend on the type of <a href="/Article?contentid=1924&language=English">behavioural disorder</a> a child or teen is experiencing:</p><ul><li> <a href="#opposite">oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)</a></li><li> <a href="#conduct">conduct disorder (CD)</a></li></ul> <h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder include anger or irritability, being argumentative or defiant and spitefulness.</li> <li>Symptoms of conduct disorder include aggression to people and animals, property damage, deception and intentionally breaking rules.</li> <li>Ask your child’s doctor to connect you with the right resources for assessment and treatment.</li> <li>Behavioural disorders are diagnosed through a thorough assessment by an experienced mental health professional.</li> </ul><h2 id="opposite">Oppositional defiant disorder </h2> <p>The behaviour associated with oppositional defiant disorder leads to struggles at school, at home and in the community for the child or teen or for the people that they interact with.</p> <p>ODD has a number of symptoms under the following three main categories:</p> <ul> <li>anger or irritability</li> <li>argumentative or defiant behaviour</li> <li>spitefulness</li> </ul> <p>A child or teen with ODD must experience four symptoms from across these categories and demonstrate them with at least one person who is not a brother or sister.</p> <h3>Anger or irritability</h3> <p>A person with ODD may, for example:</p> <ul> <li>lose their temper often</li> <li>be frequently touchy or easily annoyed</li> <li>be frequently angry and resentful</li> </ul> <h3>Argumentative or defiant behaviour</h3> <p>A child or teen with ODD:</p> <ul> <li>often argues with authority figures such as teachers, parents or other adults</li> <li>refuses to follow rules or comply with authority figures</li> <li>often sets out to deliberately annoy others</li> <li>often blames others for their mistakes or misbehaviour</li> </ul> <h3>Spitefulness</h3> <p>A child or teen with ODD might demonstrate spitefulness on at least two occasions within the previous six months. If they felt betrayed or hurt, for example, their actions might focus on feeling better about themselves at another person’s expense rather than correcting the negative behaviour.</p> <h2 id="conduct">Conduct disorder</h2> <p>Conduct disorder is a pattern of behavioural and emotional problems that is beyond what is considered to be typical child or teenage behaviour. A child with conduct disorder usually shows little or no concern for the rights of others. Many also do not understand, or feel any guilt about, how their actions affect others.</p> <p>The symptoms associated with conduct disorder fall into four categories:</p> <ul> <li>aggression to people and animals</li> <li>property damage</li> <li>deception (lying)</li> <li>intentionally breaking rules</li> </ul> <h3>Aggression to people and animals</h3> <p>A person with conduct disorder can show aggression by, for example:</p> <ul> <li>bullying, threatening or intimidating others</li> <li>starting physical fights</li> <li>being physically cruel to people or animals</li> <li>mugging or otherwise stealing from a victim while confronting them</li> <li>using a weapon to cause serious physical harm</li> <li>forcing someone to engage in sexual activity</li> </ul> <h3>Destruction of property</h3> <p>Someone with conduct disorder may, for example, deliberately destroy or set fire to property.</p> <h3>Deception, lying or stealing</h3> <p>For a child or teen with conduct disorder, deception, lying or stealing can include:</p> <ul> <li>breaking into a building, house or car</li> <li>lying to get what they want or avoid obligations</li> <li>stealing items without confronting a victim (shoplifting)</li> </ul> <h3>Intentionally breaking rules</h3> <p>When someone has conduct disorder, they have little respect for rules set by others. As a result, it is not unusual for them to, for example:</p> <ul> <li>stay out at night against parents’ wishes</li> <li>run away from home</li> <li>skip school</li> </ul><h2>How behavioural disorders are diagnosed</h2> <p>Behavioural disorders are diagnosed through a thorough assessment by an experienced mental health professional, usually a psychiatrist or psychologist.</p> <p>The professional will talk to you, your child or teen and, sometimes, your child's school teachers. They will take your child's medical history and family history into account and look at all factors that might contribute to your child's behaviour, such as:</p> <ul> <li>any other mental health problems</li> <li>learning difficulties</li> <li>family stressors</li> </ul> <p>It may take a few appointments for the psychiatrist or psychologist to gather this information. Once they do, they will decide if your child's behaviour fits within the criteria for a diagnosis of a specific behavioural disorder. They may diagnose a behavioural disorder if your child's challenging behaviours persist after other factors are addressed.</p><h2>What your child's doctor can do for a behavioural disorder</h2> <p>Your child's doctor can help identify if your child's behaviour is normal for their developmental stage, if they are acting out in response to another stressor in their life or if their behaviour indicates a behavioural disorder. When requested, your child's doctor will be able to help connect you with the most appropriate treatment for your child or teen.</p> <p>Your doctor may sometimes need to refer your child for a more detailed assessment by a mental health professional. A thorough assessment can help you obtain a clear diagnosis and an <a href="/Article?contentid=2000&language=English">appropriate treatment</a> plan for your child or teen.</p><h2>Further information</h2><p>For more information on behavioural disorders, please see the following pages:</p><p> <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=1924&language=English">Behavioural disorders: Overview</a></p><p> <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=2000&language=English">Behavioural disorders: Treatment with psychotherapy and medications</a></p><p> <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=2001&language=English">Behavioural disorders: How to help your child at home</a></p><h2>Resources</h2><p>Stringaris, A. et al (2010). <a href="https://www.jaacap.org/article/S0890-8567%2810%2900206-6/abstract" target="_blank">What’s in a Disruptive Disorder? Temperamental Antecedents of Oppositional Defiant Disorder: Findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study</a>. <em>Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry</em>. 49 (5): 474-483. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2010.01.021.</p><p>Stringaris, A. & Goodman, R. (2009). Three dimensions of oppositionality in youth. <em>Journal</em><em> of Child Psychology and Psychiatry</em>. 50: 216-223. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01989.x.</p><p>Stringaris, A. & Goodman, R. (2009). <a href="https://www.jaacap.org/article/S0890-8567%2809%2960048-4/fulltext" target="_blank">Longitudinal Outcome of Youth Oppositionality: Irritable, Headstrong, and Hurtful Behaviours Have Distinctive Predictions</a>. <em>Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.</em> 48 (4): 404-412. doi:10.1097/chi.0b013e3181984f30.</p><p>Pardini, D. (2013). <a href="https://www.cacap-acpea.org/wp-content/uploads/Multiple-Developmental-Pathways-Pardini.pdf" target="_blank">Multiple Developmental Pathways to Conduct Disorder: Current Conceptualizations and Clinical Implications</a>. <em>Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry</em>. 22 (1): 20-24.<br></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/behavioural_disorders_signs_and_symptoms.jpgMain
Behavioural disorders: Treatment with psychotherapy and medicationsBBehavioural disorders: Treatment with psychotherapy and medicationsBehavioural disorders: Treatment with psychotherapy and medicationsEnglishPsychiatryPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANANon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2017-06-20T04:00:00Z14.900000000000021.7000000000000425.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Find out which treatments are most effective for behavioural disorders.</p><p>For children diagnosed with a <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1924&language=English">behavioural disorder</a>, appropriate treatment at the right time can make the difference between "outgrowing" the disorder and being more likely to exhibit more challenging behaviours when they are older.</p><p>Often, treatments for behavioural disorders can be accessed through an accredited children's mental health agency or a private therapist such as a psychologist or social worker.</p> <h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Behavioural treatment through parent management training or individual and family therapy can be very effective for managing behavioural disorders.</li> <li>Medication may be helpful in treating underlying or co-occurring disorders.</li> <li>If left untreated, behavioural disorders can make it difficult to adjust to the responsibilities of adulthood, such as holding down a job, maintaining relationships or obeying the law.</li> </ul><h2>What treatments are available for behavioural disorders?</h2> <p>Treatments for behavioural disorders focus mainly on:</p> <ul> <li>behavioural treatments</li> <li>medications</li> </ul> <h3>Behavioural treatment</h3> <p>There are two main types of behavioural treatment: parent management training and psychotherapy.</p> <p>Parent management training has been shown to work very well for children and teens with behavioural disorders. It is most effective when started early in childhood or the pre-teen years, but it is never too late to change the way you handle your child or teen's behaviour. In many cases, you can access parent management training through a children's mental health agency, a parenting group or a private therapist.</p> <p>Individual therapy or family therapy can also be effective in helping to manage behavioural disorders. Therapy can help change how a family functions and support parents and children or teens with figuring out the causes of challenging behaviour and talking about other ways of handling them.</p> <p>Sometimes more intensive behavioural treatment is required. School-based treatment programs or residential therapy programs can be effective for some children or teens.</p> <h3>Medications for behavioural disorders</h3> <p>Medication treatment for behavioural disorders is targeted towards treating underlying or co-occurring disorders such as <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1922&language=English">attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)</a>, <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=19&language=English">depression</a> or <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=18&language=English">anxiety</a>.</p><h2>Further information</h2> <p>For more information on behavioural disorders, please see the following pages:</p> <p><a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=1924&language=English">Behavioural disorders: Overview</a></p> <p><a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=1925&language=English">Behavioural disorders: Signs and symptoms</a><br></p> <p><a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=2001&language=English">Behavioural disorders: How to help your child at home</a><br></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/PST_MH_Behavioural_Treatment.jpgMain
Behavioural resources for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)BBehavioural resources for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)Behavioural resources for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)EnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years)NANervous systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-03-09T04:00:00Z13.600000000000032.3000000000000389.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Provides resources that parents can access to help their child with autism who has behavioural problems.</p><br><p>Behavioural intervention services can be provided to children on the autism spectrum under certain conditions.</p><h2> Key points</h2> <ul><li>Your child can be referred to an Autism Intervention Program if they live within the geographic boundaries of the program area and have been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by a doctor or psychologist.</li> <li> Staff working with your regional ASD service provider will then assess your child to determine if intensive behavioural intervention (IBI) services will be provided. </li></ul>Main
Behavioural strategies for pain managementBBehavioural strategies for pain managementBehavioural strategies for pain managementEnglishPain/AnaesthesiaChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyCentral nervous system;Peripheral nervous system;Autonomic nervous systemSymptomsCaregivers Adult (19+)Pain2009-09-15T04:00:00Z10.500000000000051.10000000000001246.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about behavioural strategies such as biofeedback and CBT. These strategies can be used for effective pain management for children.</p><p>Many behavioural strategies have been shown to reduce pain and disability. Many of these strategies have positive effects on parents as well as children. Behavioural strategies can calm both parent and child, and reduce the need for restraint during procedures such as injections. </p>Main
Being part of your baby's health-care teamBBeing part of your baby's health-care teamBeing part of your baby's health-care teamEnglishNeonatologyPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)NANASupport, services and resourcesPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00Z10.100000000000055.90000000000001188.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>How parents can effectively participate in the care of a baby in the NICU. In most cases, parents can do more than they imagine.</p><p>How much parents can participate in the care of their baby and interact withthem depends on several things, not the least of which is the condition of the baby. In most cases, parents can do more than they imagine.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>How involved parents can be in the care of their baby will depend on the condition of their baby as well as the amount of time they are able to spend in the NICU.</li> <li>Some ways parents can help care for their child include through kangaroo care (skin-to-skin contact) and breastfeeding.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/mom-looking-up-cuddling-bab_EN.jpgMain
Bell's palsyBBell's palsyBell's palsyEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Eyes;Mouth;MandibleNervesConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2010-05-07T04:00:00Z7.1000000000000066.7000000000000693.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>An overview of the symptoms, causes and treatment of this sudden partial facial paralysis.</p><h2>What is Bell's palsy?</h2> <p>Bell's palsy is sudden loss of feeling and muscle control on one side of the face. While this condition is more common in adults, children and adolescents can have Bell's palsy. Usually, Bell's palsy goes away by itself within a few weeks or months. A very small number of children will have the symptoms for life. </p> <p>Bell's palsy can be mistaken for a stroke.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Bell's palsy is sudden partial facial paralysis. Usually the symptoms improve within a few weeks or months.</li> <li>If your child starts showing symptoms of Bell's palsy, see your child's doctor right away. </li> <li>Bell's palsy occurs when the nerve controlling facial muscles becomes inflamed or swollen. </li> <li>The cause of the swelling is a viral infection. </li> <li>Most children with Bell's palsy recover fully, with or without treatment.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of Bell's palsy</h2> <p>The signs and symptoms of Bell's palsy come on unexpectedly. The most obvious sign of Bell's palsy is facial paralysis on one side of the face. In rare cases, both sides of the face are affected. Other signs and symptoms may include:</p> <ul> <li>mild weakness to total paralysis on one side of the face</li> <li>difficulty smiling or closing the eye on the affected side</li> <li>face appears to droop</li> <li>pain around the jaw</li> <li>pain near the ear on the affected side</li> <li>headache</li> <li>cannot taste food</li> <li>drooling</li> </ul> <p>If your child is showing some of these signs or symptoms, contact your child's doctor right away.</p><h2>Causes</h2> <p>Doctors believe Bell's palsy occurs when the nerve controlling facial muscles becomes inflamed or swollen. The inflamed nerve cannot do its job of sending messages to your child's facial muscles. Nerves that control tears, saliva and taste are also affected.</p> <p>The cause of the swelling is a viral infection. Most doctors believe the herpes simplex virus, the same infection that causes cold sores, triggers Bell's palsy. </p> <h2>Risk factors</h2> <p>Bell's palsy occurs more often in children who have diabetes or have a flu or cold.</p> <p>What a doctor can do to help your child </p> <p>Your child's doctor will examine your child and try to find out the cause of the facial paralysis. Your child's doctor may suggest medications or physical therapy. Most children with Bell's palsy recover fully, even without treatment.</p><h2>Treatment</h2> <p>Your child's doctor may prescribe corticosteroids to reduce the swelling of the facial nerve. The doctor may also prescribe an antiviral drug to stop the progress of the infection that caused the Bell's palsy. If your child cannot close their eye on the affected side, your doctor may prescribe an eye patch or eye drops.</p> <p>Surgery is rarely used to treat this condition.</p><h2>When to seek medical assistance</h2> <p>If your child is showing some of the signs or symptoms of Bell's palsy, contact your child's doctor right away. </p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/bells_palsy.jpgMain
Belly breathingBBelly breathingBelly breathingEnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANANon-drug treatmentPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z7.2000000000000068.4000000000000333.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Belly breathing is a deep breathing exercise that can help you relax and manage symptoms. Discover practice tips to help you learn this relaxation technique.</p><h2>What is belly breathing?<br></h2><p>Belly breathing is one of the best and easiest ways to <a href="/Article?contentid=3540&language=English">relax</a>. It can help you manage pain and nausea and also distract you from unpleasant situations. </p><p>Belly breathing is also called abdominal or diaphragmatic (say: dye-a-frag-MAT-ik) breathing because you are using muscles at the bottom of your lungs and in your abdomen (belly) to breathe deeply. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Belly breathing uses the muscles at the bottom of your lungs and in your abdomen to help you breathe deeply.</li><li>Chest breathing is shallow and can be fast paced, while belly breathing is about deep and slow breaths.</li><li>Practising belly breathing will help you relax when you are stressed, in pain or feeling nauseous.</li></ul>Teens
Benign partial epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS)BBenign partial epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS)Benign partial epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS)EnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years)BrainNervous systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+) EducatorsNA2010-02-04T05:00:00Z9.7000000000000055.50000000000001435.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about the causes and symptoms of benign partial epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) as well as treatments and long-term outlook.</p><p>Benign partial epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is one of the most common forms of epilepsy in children. Most seizures occur from sleep. The child has partial seizures with a characteristic EEG pattern in the centrotemporal region of the brain.</p> <p>The outlook for a child with BECTS is very good. It is usually easy to control with medications, and in most cases it goes away by age 16. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>BECTS is one of the most common childhood epilepsy syndromes and usually begins between the age of two and 13.</li> <li>Seizures start in a specific area of the brain, mostly while a child is asleep, and may involve gurgling sounds, trouble swallowing or speaking, numbness in the tongue or jaw, facial twitches or sensory problems on one side of the body.</li> <li>Treatment depends on the severity of the syndrome, but seizures are usually easy to control with medications.</li> <li>BECTS seizures nearly always disappear by age 16.</li></ul>Main
Bi-directional cavopulmonary anastomosis (Glenn procedure)BBi-directional cavopulmonary anastomosis (Glenn procedure)Bi-directional cavopulmonary anastomosis (Glenn procedure)EnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemProceduresAdult (19+)NA2009-12-11T05:00:00Z10.300000000000047.2000000000000251.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>The Glenn procedure is done when not enough blood is getting to the lungs. Learn about this procedure and the risks associated with it.</p><p> The Glenn procedure is formally known as the bi-directional cavopulmonary anastomosis.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>The Glenn procedure is performed when only one ventricle works properly and not enough blood is getting to the lungs.</li><li> This procedure allows deoxygenated blood to flow directly to both lungs.</li><li> This procedure is usually one in a series of operations and tends to be done as an open-heart procedure.</li></ul>Main
Bicuspid aortic valveBBicuspid aortic valveBicuspid aortic valveEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-12-04T05:00:00Z9.4000000000000052.1000000000000281.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about bicuspid aortic valve; a defect of the valve between the left pumping chamber of the heart and the main artery that delivers blood to the body.</p><p>Bicuspid aortic valve is a defect of the valve between the left pumping chamber of the heart (the left ventricle) and the main artery that delivers blood to the body (the aorta). The valve has only two leaflets instead of the usual three. </p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>Bicuspid aortic valve occurs when one leaflet does not develop when the heart is forming before birth.</li> <li> This condition may be diagnosed by a heart murmur. </li> <li> Most children do not require any treatment as generally this condition does not noticeably effect the heart during childhood.</li></ul>Main
Binge eating disorder (BED): OverviewBBinge eating disorder (BED): OverviewBinge eating disorder (BED): OverviewEnglishPsychiatryTeen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2019-03-25T04:00:00Z9.4000000000000054.9000000000000709.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<h2>What is binge eating disorder?</h2><p>Binge eating disorder is an eating disorder that affects males and females. It usually starts when someone is dieting but starts having binge episodes in which they eat large amounts of food within a short time. With treatment, though, people with binge eating disorder get better. It is usually easier to treat than other eating disorders such as bulimia.</p><h2>Resources</h2><p> <a href="http://www.nedic.ca/">NEDIC – National Eating Disorder Information Centre</a> (Canada)</p><p> <a href="https://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/">NEDA – National Eating Disorder Association</a> (United States)</p><p>American Academy of Pediatrics – <em> <a href="https://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/emotional-problems/Pages/Is-Your-Teen-at-Risk-for-Developing-an-Eating-Disorder.aspx">Eating Disorders in Children</a> </em></p><p> <a href="https://www.beateatingdisorders.org.uk/">B-EAT – Beating Eating Disorders</a> (United Kingdom)</p><p> <a href="https://keltyeatingdisorders.ca/">Kelty Eating Disorders</a> (Kelty Mental Health Resource Centre, BC Children's Hospital)</p><h2>References</h2><p>Practice Parameters for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Eating Disorders - J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2015;54(5):412–425.</p>Teens
Binge eating disorder (BED): Treatment and long-term outcomesBBinge eating disorder (BED): Treatment and long-term outcomesBinge eating disorder (BED): Treatment and long-term outcomesEnglishPsychiatryTeen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2019-03-25T04:00:00Z7.6000000000000065.6000000000000489.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<h2>How is binge eating disorder treated?</h2><p><a href="/Article?contentid=3791&language=English">Binge eating disorder (BED)</a> is treated with therapy, the most common method being cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). CBT involves working with a therapist and learning to eat regularly, identify what might trigger binges and manage your emotions. Sometimes the therapy will also involve your family, as they can help you regulate your eating and offer support. It can be really hard to receive treatment on your own.</p><p>The main goals of treatment for BED are to:</p><ul><li>reduce the binges</li><li>address the emotions that occur with or just before a binge</li><li>help you eat regularly </li><li>help you feel more in control of your eating</li></ul><p>No medication is regularly prescribed for BED. If you have other mental health issues, such as depression or anxiety, your doctor may suggest medication to treat those.</p><h2>Resources</h2><p> <a href="http://www.nedic.ca/">NEDIC – National Eating Disorder Information Centre</a> (Canada)</p><p> <a href="https://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/">NEDA – National Eating Disorder Association</a> (United States)</p><p>American Academy of Pediatrics – <em><a href="https://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/emotional-problems/Pages/Is-Your-Teen-at-Risk-for-Developing-an-Eating-Disorder.aspx">Eating Disorders in Children</a> </em></p><p> <a href="https://www.beateatingdisorders.org.uk/">B-EAT – Beating Eating Disorders</a> (United Kingdom)</p><p> <a href="https://keltyeatingdisorders.ca/">Kelty Eating Disorders</a> (Kelty Mental Health Resource Centre, BC Children's Hospital)<br></p><h3>Kids Help Phone – <a href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/">kidshelpphone.ca</a></h3><p>Kids Help Phone is a 24/7 e-mental health service offering free, confidential support to young people.</p><p> <a href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/get-info/write-a-letter-to-the-eating-disorder/">Write a letter to the eating disorder</a></p><p> <a href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/get-info/eating-disorders-tips-recovery/">Eating disorders: Tips for recovery</a></p><p> <a href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/get-info/body-image-how-love-what-you-see-mirror/">What is body image and why is it important?</a></p><h2>References</h2><p>Practice Parameters for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Eating Disorders - J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2015;54(5):412–425.</p>Teens
Binge eating disorder: How to help your childBBinge eating disorder: How to help your childBinge eating disorder: How to help your childEnglishPsychiatryTeen (13-18 years)BodyNAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2016-02-02T05:00:00Z8.9000000000000061.5000000000000796.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the steps you can take to help your child as they recover from binge eating disorder.</p><p>As a parent, you know your child best. If you suspect your child has a <a href="/Article?contentid=277&language=English">binge eating disorder (BED) </a> , there are a number of steps that you can take to support their recovery.</p>​<h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>It is important to seek treatment for binge eating disorder as soon as you suspect it. Treatment can include therapy to help bring more structure to a person's eating habits and help them feel more in control with food.</li> <li>Other ways to help your child include being a healthy role model, sharing healthy messages about food and creating structured mealtimes and snacks.</li> <li>You may also need to make smaller but more frequent shopping trips and improve your child's sleep routine to help support their recovery.</li> </ul><h2>Seek treatment</h2> <p>It is important to seek treatment as soon as you suspect BED. ​​Early treatment is the best possible way to recovery.</p> <p>The three main goals of treatment for binge eating disorder are to:</p> <ul> <li>reduce binges</li> <li>create structure and stability around your child's meals and snacks</li> <li>help someone with the disorder feel more in control of their eating</li> </ul> <p>Different types of therapy are available for binge eating disorder. The most common one is <a href="/Article?contentid=702&language=English">cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)</a>. Through therapy, a child or teen can learn to regulate their eating patterns and identify possible emotional triggers for binge episodes.</p><h2>Further information</h2><p>For more information on binge eating disorder (BED), please see the following pages:</p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=277&language=English">BED: Overview</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=278&language=English">BED: Signs and symptoms</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=640&language=English">Obesity: Medical complications</a></p><h2>Resources</h2><p> <a href="http://www.nedic.ca/" target="_blank">NEDIC – National Eating Disorder Information Centre</a> (Canada)<br></p><p> <a href="https://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/" target="_blank">NEDA – National Eating Disorder Association</a> (United States)</p><p>American Academy of Pediatrics – <em> <a href="https://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/emotional-problems/Pages/Eating-Disorders-in-Children.aspx" target="_blank">​Eating Disorders in Children</a> ​</em></p><p> <a href="http://www.b-eat.co.uk/" target="_blank">B-EAT – Beating Eating Disorders</a> (United Kingdom)</p><p> <a href="http://www.keltyeatingdisorders.ca/" target="_blank">Kelty Eating Disorders​</a> (Kelty Mental Health Resource Centre, BC Children's Hospital)</p><p>Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario – <a href="https://www.cheo.on.ca/en/eating_disorder_info" target="_blank"> <em>Eating Disorders​</em></a></p> ​​​​​ <h3>Kids Help Phone – <a href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/">kidshelpphone.ca</a></h3><p>Kids Help Phone is a 24/7 e-mental health service offering free, confidential support to young people.</p><p> <a href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/get-info/tips-to-support-young-people-with-body-image/">Tips to support young people with body image</a></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/binge_eating_disorder_how_to_help_your_child.jpgMain
Binge eating disorder: OverviewBBinge eating disorder: OverviewBinge eating disorder: OverviewEnglishPsychiatryTeen (13-18 years)BodyNAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2016-02-02T05:00:00Z10.300000000000045.0000000000000560.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Discover the main features and causes of binge eating disorder and who is most likely to be affected by it.</p><h2>What is binge eating disorder?</h2><p>Binge eating disorder occurs when someone has recurring episodes of binge-eating and related psychological distress.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Binge eating disorder involves repeated episodes of eating a larger than usual amount of food in a limited time and feeling psychological distress as a result. It is not the same as overeating.</li><li>People who experience binge eating disorder often feel out of control. However, they do not compensate for their binge episodes through purging or excessive exercise.</li><li>Binge eating disorder is usually caused by social and psychological factors and/or genetics.</li><li>Binge eating usually starts in late adolescence or early adulthood. Teens with depression or anxiety might be at increased risk of developing BED.</li></ul><h2>What causes binge eating disorder?</h2><p>The exact causes of binge eating disorder are unknown, but a number of factors are thought to contribute.</p><h3>Social factors</h3><p>Some studies have shown that social pressures or messages to be thin can contribute to emotional eating.</p><h3>Psychological factors</h3><p>Emotional eating, poor self-esteem and body dissatisfaction are all associated with binge eating disorder. It is unclear if these activities or feelings cause BED, but someone who starts to diet to manage these feelings may be at risk of developing BED.</p><p>Teens who struggle with <a href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">depression</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">anxiety</a> may also be at increased risk of developing BED.</p><h3>Genetics </h3><p>A family history of eating disorders may make someone more vulnerable to developing binge eating disorder.</p><h2>Who is affected by binge eating disorder?</h2><p>Binge eating most commonly starts in a person's late teens or early adulthood. It usually follows a period of extreme dieting or weight loss. </p><p>Psychiatric disorders that are often linked with binge eating disorder include:</p><ul><li><a href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">depression</a></li><li><a href="/Article?contentid=279&language=English">bipolar disorder</a></li><li><a href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">anxiety​</a><br></li><li>substance use disorders.</li></ul><h2>Further information</h2><p>For more information on binge eating disorder (BED), please see the following pages:</p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=278&language=English">BED: Signs and symptoms</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=640&language=English">Obesity: Medical complications</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=276&language=English">BED: How to help your child at home</a><br></p><p>Please visit our teen mental health hub for teen-specific resources on <a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3791&language=English&hub=mentalhealthAZ#mentalhealth">binge eating disorder (BED)</a>.<br></p><h2>Resources</h2><p> <a href="http://www.nedic.ca/" target="_blank">NEDIC – National Eating Disorder Information Centre</a> (Canada)<br></p><p> <a href="https://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/" target="_blank">NEDA – National Eating Disorder Association</a> (United States)</p><p>American Academy of Pediatrics – <em> <a href="https://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/emotional-problems/Pages/Is-Your-Teen-at-Risk-for-Developing-an-Eating-Disorder.aspx" target="_blank">​Eating Disorders in Children</a> ​</em></p><p> <a href="https://www.beateatingdisorders.org.uk/" target="_blank">BEAT – Beating Eating Disorders</a> (United Kingdom)</p><p> <a href="https://keltyeatingdisorders.ca/" target="_blank">Kelty Eating Disorders​</a> (Kelty Mental Health Resource Centre, BC Children's Hospital)</p><p>Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario – <a href="https://www.cheo.on.ca/en/eating_disorder_info" target="_blank"> <em>Eating Disorders​</em></a></p><strong>Virtual care services for children: ​​​​​</strong><div><b><span style="font-size:9px;"></span><br></b><strong></strong><div>Boomerang Health was opened by SickKids to provide communities in Ontario with greater access to community-based services for children and adolescents. For more information on virtual care services in Ontario to support eating disorders, visit <a href="http://www.boomeranghealth.com/services/nutrition/">Boomerang Health</a> powered by SickKids.<br></div></div>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/chocolate_chip_cookies.jpgMain
Binge eating disorder: Signs and symptomsBBinge eating disorder: Signs and symptomsBinge eating disorder: Signs and symptomsEnglishPsychiatryTeen (13-18 years)BodyNAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2016-02-02T05:00:00Z8.0000000000000065.2000000000000419.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Discover the main signs of a binge eating disorder.</p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=277&language=English">Binge eating disorder (BED)</a> has a range of signs and symptoms. Below are some of the most common physical and behavioural signs that a child or teen may be bingeing.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>If someone has binge eating disorder, they may eat very quickly, eat until uncomfortably full or eat alone.</li> <li>BED is also linked with feeling out of control with eating, depression and problems at school and with friends.</li> <li>Because binge eating is often done in secret, the only physical sign may be rapid weight gain.</li> <li>It is important to seek help for binge eating as soon as you suspect it. If left untreated, it can lead to obesity, which carries a range of complications.</li> </ul><h2>​​Behavioural symptoms of binge eating disorder</h2><p>People with binge eating disorder may:</p><ul><li>eat very quickly</li><li>eat regardless of hunger cues, even if they are already full</li><li>eat until uncomfortably or painfully full</li><li>eat alone due to embarrassment about the type and quantity of food they are consuming</li><li>experience feelings of self-disgust, guilt and <a href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">depression​</a></li><li>have problems at school, with their personal life or in social situations</li><li> feel out of control with their eating</li></ul> <br> <p>Related signs of this behaviour include:</p><ul><li>taking food from the kitchen or pantry</li><li>hiding wrappers around the house</li><li>eating separately from the family or in secret</li><li>eating in the middle of the night</li><li>avoiding social situations</li></ul><h2>Physical signs of binge eating disorder</h2><p>People who have BED are typically overweight or obese. One physical sign that binge eating is occurring is rapid weight gain that is out of keeping with a child's or teen's expected growth curve. Because binge eating may be done in secret, parents may see very few other signs that it is happening.</p><p>If left untreated, binge eating disorder can lead to significant weight gain. This can cause a range of psychological and <a href="/Article?contentid=640&language=English">medical complications​</a>. Because of this, it is important to seek help for binge eating disorder as soon as you suspect it in your child or teen.</p><h2>Further information</h2><p>For more information on binge eating disorder (BED), please see the following pages:</p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=277&language=English">BED: Overview</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=640&language=English">Obesity: Medical complications</a></p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=276&language=English">BED: How to help your child at home</a></p><h2>Resources</h2><p> <a href="http://www.nedic.ca/" target="_blank">NEDIC – National Eating Disorder Information Centre</a> (Canada)<br></p><p> <a href="https://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/" target="_blank">NEDA – National Eating Disorder Association</a> (United States)</p><p>American Academy of Pediatrics – <em> <a href="https://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/emotional-problems/Pages/Is-Your-Teen-at-Risk-for-Developing-an-Eating-Disorder.aspx" target="_blank">​Eating Disorders in Children</a> ​</em><br></p><p> <a href="https://www.beateatingdisorders.org.uk/" target="_blank">BEAT – Beating Eating Disorders</a> (United Kingdom)</p><p> <a href="https://keltyeatingdisorders.ca/" target="_blank">Kelty Eating Disorders​</a> (Kelty Mental Health Resource Centre, BC Children's Hospital)</p><p>Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario – <a href="https://www.cheo.on.ca/en/eating_disorder_info" target="_blank"> <em>Eating Disorders​</em></a></p> ​​​ ​https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Binge_eating_disorder_signs_symptoms.jpgMain
Biofeedback to help your child's bladder control problemsBBiofeedback to help your child's bladder control problemsBiofeedback to help your child's bladder control problemsEnglishUrologySchool age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BladderBladderNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-06T05:00:00Z6.9000000000000069.60000000000001081.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Biofeedback is a system that helps children identify and control certain muscles while urinating. Read about biofeedback for bladder control problems.</p><h2>What are bladder control problems?</h2> <p>Bladder control problems mean that a child has trouble holding their urine (pee). A child with bladder control problems may have some of the following problems: </p> <ul> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=935&language=English">urinary tract infections</a></li> <li>peeing before reaching the toilet </li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=16&language=English">wetting the bed at night</a></li> </ul> <p>Bladder control problems can happen once in a while or very often. They can have several different causes.</p> <p>Several different treatments can help children learn to hold their pee until they get to the toilet. Which treatment might help a child depends in part on the cause of the problem. </p> <p>If a child's bladder problem has to do with the <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=bladder-child">muscles of the bladder</a>, biofeedback may be useful. Biofeedback can help the child learn to better control the muscles that are used for bladder control. </p> <h2>What is biofeedback?</h2> <p>Biofeedback is a system that monitors changes in a person's body and displays them to the person. Biofeedback can help people become more aware of body functions that are normally automatic, such as peeing. As a result, people can sometimes get more control over those functions. </p> <p>Biofeedback for bladder control problems uses a special computer game to help your child learn to control the muscles that are used for holding urine and peeing. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Children can have bladder control problems for several reasons. </li> <li>If the cause of the problem has to do with the bladder muscles and the sphincter, biofeedback sessions may help the child. </li> <li>A flow rate test with EMG will help doctors decide if biofeedback may be useful. </li> <li>Biofeedback uses electrodes and video games to help your child learn to control the muscles needed for bladder control. </li> <li>Your child should practice pelvic floor muscle exercises between biofeedback sessions. </li> </ul><h2>After the test, the doctor may recommend biofeedback</h2> <p>After the flow test with EMG, you will meet with the doctor in the clinic. They will talk to you about the results of your child's test. </p> <p>Depending on the results of the test and your child's medical history, the doctor may recommend biofeedback for your child.</p> <p>Biofeedback can help the urinary symptoms of children who have one or more of the following:</p> <ul> <li>Squeeze their pelvic floor muscles instead of relaxing when urinating. </li> <li>Have had more than one urinary tract infection. </li> <li>Do not get better after a lot of <a href="/Article?contentid=49&language=English">bladder retraining</a>. </li> <li>Are not able to control their bladder during the day and do not get better from other therapies. </li> </ul> <h2>How biofeedback works</h2> <p>Biofeedback uses electrodes placed on your child's buttocks and hip. These electrodes are connected to a special computer game that your child will play. The game will help your child learn to relax her pelvic floor muscles. </p> <p>At the end of each session, your child will be sent home with pelvic floor exercises. These exercises will help her practice what she learns during the biofeedback sessions. </p> <p>It usually takes several biofeedback visits for a child to learn the skills needed to urinate properly. Some children need several weeks or even a few months of biofeedback sessions to learn the skills. </p><h2>Flow rate test with electromyography (EMG)</h2> <p>A <a href="/Article?contentid=1269&language=English">flow rate test</a> with EMG will help doctors decide whether biofeedback may be a good therapy for your child to try.</p> <p>A flow rate test is a test that checks how your child urinates. Electromyography (EMG) is a test that looks at how muscles and nerves work together. </p> <p>Your child will have electrodes gently applied on the buttocks and hip. Electrodes are like stickers. They are connected to the EMG machine with wires. These electrodes let doctors check what your child's pelvic floor muscles are doing while they are peeing. The sphincter is part of the pelvic floor. </p> <p>Your child will pee into a special toilet.</p> <h3>Preparing for the test with a full bladder</h3> <p>Your child will need to have a full bladder and will really need to urinate. Please make sure your child has something to drink before the test, such as water. It can take between 20 to 30 minutes for liquid to get down to the bladder. Your child can eat before the test if they are hungry. </p> <p>When your child's bladder is full, the test will take about 10 minutes.</p><h2>At SickKids</h2> <p>Your child will need to register in the Urology Clinic. The Urology Clinic is located on 6B in the Atrium.</p> <p>The unit clerks will let the nurses know when you have arrived at the clinic.</p> <h3>Useful websites</h3> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.sickkids.ca/">www.sickkids.ca</a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="/">www.aboutkidshealth.ca</a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.cua.org/">www.cua.org</a></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Urinary_female_MED_ILL_EN.jpgMain

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