AboutKidsHealth

 

 

MIBG scanMMIBG scanMIBG scanEnglishOtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Neck;Chest;Back;AbdomenAdrenal glands;Spinal CordTestsCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2013-12-06T05:00:00Z7.1000000000000069.7000000000000744.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn how an MIBG scan is done and how it detects tumours in the upper body.</p><h2>What is an MIBG scan?</h2><p>An MIBG scan is a scan to look for:</p><ul><li>neuroblastoma, a tumour in the adrenal glands, neck, chest or spinal cord</li><li>pheochromocytoma, a tumour in the adrenal glands. </li></ul><p>MIBG is a short name for a type of iodine that is used in the test.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>An MIBG scan is a test to look for tumours in the upper body. It is done in two parts, one day after another.</li> <li>Your child will first have an injection that includes a tiny amount of radioactive medicine, which will mix with their blood and spread around their body. The next day, they will come back for the scan.</li> <li>Your child will need to start taking Lugol's Solution the day before the injection. Your doctor will give you a prescription for this.</li> <li>A nuclear medicine doctor will send the results of the scan to your family doctor or paediatrician (child's doctor) within two working days. The person who does the scan cannot give the results.</li> </ul><h2>How long will the scan take?</h2> <p>The scan takes about 90 minutes. The injection itself is given over a few minutes. Remember to allow an extra 30 minutes before the injection if your child is having a topical anaesthetic.</p><h2>Will I be able to stay with my child during the scan?</h2><p>One parent or guardian may stay in the room with the child, but no other children are allowed.</p><h2>How is the scan done?</h2><p>The MIBG scan is done by a nuclear medicine technologist. It has two parts.</p><ol><li>Your child will have an injection (needle) into a vein in their arm or the back of their hand.</li><li>The next day, your child will return to the hospital for the scan.<br></li></ol><h3>Injection</h3><p>The injection contains a very small amount of radioactive medicine. This mixes with your child's blood and spreads throughout their body. It takes more than six hours for enough medicine to spread before the pictures are taken.</p><p>Note: The injection before the scan is not painful, but your child's hand or arm can still be numbed first with a topical anaesthetic (a special cream or cooling spray). If you would like this option, it is best to arrive at least 30 minutes before your appointment to allow the anaesthetic to take effect.</p><h3>Scan</h3><p>To have the scan, your child will lie down on a narrow table and have a safety belt across their stomach to keep them safely in place. They can usually watch a movie while the scan is being done.</p><p>In rare cases, your child may need to return to the hospital the next day for more pictures. A doctor in the nuclear medicine department will tell you if your child needs to return.</p><h2>Does my child need to do anything special to prepare for the scan?</h2> <p>Your child can eat and drink as usual, but they will need to take Lugol's Solution (a type of iodine) the day before the injection and then continue taking it for the next two days. Your doctor will give you a prescription for the Lugol's. Because it has an unpleasant taste, it is best to mix it with juice or milk before giving it to your child.</p> <p>Some children may need to be sedated (calmed with medicine) to help them stay still for the scan. If your child needs sedation, you will get other instructions.</p><h2>At SickKids</h2> <p>If you have any questions or concerns about the scan or if you need to change your appointment, please call the Nuclear Medicine Department at 416-813-6065.</p><h2>Source</h2> <p>Alliance for Radiation Safety in Pediatric Imaging (2013). <a href="http://www.imagegently.org/Roles-What-can-I-do/Parent/Nuclear-Medicine" target="_blank"><em>Image Gently: Nuclear Medicine - What can I do as a parent?</em></a></p>Main
MRI and cancer diagnosisMMRI and cancer diagnosisMRI and cancer diagnosisEnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)BodyNATestsPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z5.5000000000000081.5000000000000340.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>An MRI scan gives a clear picture of the inside of the body and can help diagnose cancer. Learn about how MRIs are done, what to expect during the scan and when you get your results.</p><figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/BT_Neuro_MRI2_MEDIMG-PHO_EN.jpg" alt="" /> </figure> <p>MRI stands for magnetic resonance imaging. These scans use a strong magnet instead of X-rays to make a picture. MRIs give a very clear picture of the inside of your body and are very useful for looking at:</p><ul><li>the brain</li><li>muscles and bones</li><li>most tumours</li></ul><p>MRIs are very noisy, but they do not hurt. There is no radiation with an MRI scan.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>An MRI uses a strong magnet to take a picture of the inside of the body.</li><li>You will need to remove any metal and tell the doctor or nurse if you have any metal inside your body.</li><li>An MRI machine will make a lot of loud banging noises. You may wamt to wear ear plugs or bring headphones to listen tp music.</li><li>An MRI can take between 30 minutes and 2 hours.</li><li>Your doctor will discuss the MRI results with you.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/BT_Neuro_MRI2_MEDIMG-PHO_EN.jpgTeens
MUGA scanMMUGA scanMUGA scanEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartHeartTestsCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-10T05:00:00Z6.0000000000000075.4000000000000957.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>A MUGA scan is a radioactive imaging technique that allows doctors to see the flow of blood through the heart. Learn how to prepare a child for a MUGA scan. </p><h2>What is a MUGA scan?</h2> <p>A MUGA scan checks how well your child's heart is pumping. MUGA is short for MUltiple Gated Acquisition.</p> <p>During a MUGA scan, a small amount of radioactive material is injected into your child's blood. This material can be seen very clearly with a special camera. The pictures taken by the camera show exactly how the blood is moving through your child's heart. </p> <p>The amount of radioactive material used in a MUGA scan is very small. It will not harm your child.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>A MUGA scan is a test that uses radioactive material to help take pictures of the blood flowing through the heart.</li> <li>The preparation and the scan are done in the hospital. The test takes about 2.5 hours in total to do. </li> <li>Because a child must stay still for about 30 minutes, some children need to be sedated for the test. </li> <li>The scan does not hurt, but children will have to get a needle. </li> <li>The amount of radioactive material used in the scan is very small and will not harm your child. </li> </ul><h2>MUGA scans are done at a hospital</h2> <p>MUGA scans take place in the Nuclear Medicine department of the hospital. A nuclear medicine technologist gives the test. The technologist is specially trained to give tests on the nuclear medicine machines in the hospital. </p> <p>This test is done in two parts. It will take about two hours to complete.</p> <h3>Write down the date and time of your child's MUGA scan here:</h3> <p> </p><h2>What happens during a MUGA scan</h2> <p>The MUGA scan has two parts. The nuclear medicine technologist will explain each part of the test to you and your child.</p> <h3>First part of a MUGA scan: drawing blood</h3> <p>The first part of the scan will take about 30 minutes. The technologist will use a needle to take a small amount of blood from your child. Usually, the technologist will leave an intravenous (IV) tube taped to your child's arm for the second part of the test. An IV is a narrow tube that gives liquids directly into your child's vein. </p> <p>After the blood is taken, you and your child can leave the Nuclear Medicine room. The technologist will tell you what time to come back. While you are waiting, the technologist will mix a small amount of radioactive material into your child's blood for the second part of the test. </p> <h3>Second part of a MUGA test: putting blood and radioactive material back into the body</h3> <p>The second part of the MUGA test is usually one hour later.</p> <p>The technologist will give your child's own blood back through the IV tube or a needle. This blood has a small amount of radioactive material mixed into it. It is safe and will not make your child feel sick or dizzy. </p> <p>The technologist will then attach three electrodes to your child's chest. Electrodes are sticky pads that connect with wires to the electrocardiogram (ECG) machine. The ECG records your child's heartbeat while the Nuclear Medicine camera is taking pictures of your child's heart. </p> <p>The test is safe and does not hurt. Your child will need to lie still for about 30 minutes. They can watch a movie while the pictures are taken. </p><h2>After the MUGA scan</h2> <p>If your child was not given a sedative, they can eat and drink as usual. If your child was given a sedative for the test, they will need some time to become fully awake again. The nurse who gave the sedative will tell you what you need to do and how long that might take. </p><h2>Preparing for a MUGA scan</h2> <p>Use the information from this page to explain to your child what will happen during the test, in language your child can understand.</p> <p>To do a MUGA scan, your child needs to be able to stay still while the pictures are taken. If your child can lie quietly for about 30 minutes while we take the pictures, no preparation is needed. If your child cannot stay still that long, they may need to have sedation. </p> <h3>MUGA scan with sedation</h3> <p>Some children who are very young or active cannot lie still for 30 minutes. These children may need a special sleep medicine called a sedative. A sedative will help your child sleep and stay still during the scan. </p> <h3>What your child can eat and drink before the sleep medicine (sedation or general anaesthetic)</h3> <table class="akh-table"> <thead> <tr><th>Time before procedure</th><th>What you need to know</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td>Midnight before the procedure</td> <td><p>No more solid food. This also means no gum or candy.</p><p></p><p>Your child can still drink liquids such as milk, orange juice and clear liquids. Clear liquids are anything you can see through, such as apple juice, ginger ale or water.</p><p></p><p>Your child can also eat Jell-O or popsicles.</p><p></p></td> </tr> <tr> <td>6 hours</td> <td>No more milk, formula, or liquids you cannot see through, such as milk, orange juice and cola.</td> </tr> <tr> <td>4 hours</td> <td>Stop breastfeeding your baby.</td> </tr> <tr> <td>2 hours</td> <td>No more clear liquids. This means no more apple juice, water, ginger ale, Jell-O or popsicles.</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2">If you were given more instructions about eating and drinking, write them down here:<br></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>When your child's scan is scheduled, ask the technologist when your child must stop eating and drinking.</p><h2>At SickKids</h2> <p>MUGA scans take place in the Nuclear Medicine department of the hospital, on the 2nd floor of the Elm Wing.</p>Main
Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS)MMacrophage activation syndrome (MAS)Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS)EnglishRheumatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NAImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2015-10-12T04:00:00Z11.100000000000046.60000000000001214.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Macrophage activation syndrome affects the immune system and causes inflammation. Learn about the signs, causes and treatment of MAS.</p><h2>What is MAS/HLH</h2> <p>The immune system is the body’s natural defense system to fight infection. It has several groups/families of cells that work together and send signals to one another to help fight against these infections. One family of cells is called macrophages, which work by destroying/ingesting infectious cells (e.g. viruses and bacteria). Macrophages can also control other cells in the immune system to help fight infection. Another family of cells in the immune system is called T cells (or T lymphocytes), which can send signals to gather and control macrophages to help fight infection as one part of their role in the immune system.</p> <p>Normally, when the immune system is activated, it fights the infection in a coordinated and controlled manner. In individuals with macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), the immune system is uncontrolled and works in overdrive, leading to too much inflammation in the entire body. The inflammation can be in any organ system including the bone marrow, liver, and spleen. This inflammation is very serious and can often make children very ill - it may also result in organ damage.</p> <p>MAS is classified as part of a group of conditions called Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (HLH for short). HLH also results in over activation of the immune system and dangerous inflammation of the body. There are two forms of HLH. Primary HLH, the genetic form (as it is caused by gene abnormalities), usually presents early in life. Secondary HLH, a ‘reactive’ form, usually presents after a trigger (i.e. infection, autoimmune/rheumatic disease, or cancers) causing the immune system to stay in a hyperactive state. MAS is part of the Secondary HLH family. The treatments of MAS and secondary HLH are similar; therefore, your health-care provider may mention the word HLH when discussing treatment options for MAS.</p> <p>MAS is equally common in girls and boys, and can happen at any age (even as early as one year old).</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>MAS is severe inflammation of the immune system and is a very serious condition.</li> <li>MAS is usually associated with known rheumatologic conditions, infections, and cancers.</li> <li>MAS, when diagnosed, will be monitored closely and treated aggressively.</li> <li>If treated appropriately, most children respond well to therapy.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of MAS</h2> <p>The following symptoms can be associated with MAS:</p> <ul> <li>Continuous fevers (persistent fevers)</li> <li>Feeling tired and low energy</li> <li>Headaches, feeling confused or ‘foggy’ (mental status changes)</li> <li>Large lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy)</li> <li>Large liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly)</li> <li>Bleeding and clotting problems (coagulopathy) seen by nose bleeds, easy bruising, vomiting blood</li> <li>Rash</li> <li>Changes in blood pressure and heart rate</li> <li>Abnormal functioning of the liver</li> <li>Low blood counts</li> </ul><h2>Causes of MAS</h2><p>We do not know the exact cause of MAS just yet, but active research is being undertaken. There have been several triggers, genes, and proteins linked to the diseases that are being studied.</p><p>MAS can be triggered by infection, cancer, changes in medications, and by rheumatic/autoimmune diseases. Rheumatic/autoimmune disease is when the immune system attacks itself accidentally. The most common rheumatic/autoimmune diseases associated with MAS include <a href="/article?contentid=920&language=English">systemic lupus erythematosus</a>, <a href="/article?contentid=918&language=English">systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis</a> and <a href="/article?contentid=915&language=English">Kawasaki disease</a>.</p><p>In certain cases, your medical team may approach you for genetic testing if your physician thinks MAS/HLH may be of a genetic (inherited) form and wishes to exclude that.</p><h2>Diagnosis of MAS</h2><p>There are different diagnostic criteria available for MAS. The symptoms and clinical signs listed above, as well as blood work abnormalities, are taken together to make the diagnosis.</p><p>Blood work may include the following:</p><ul><li>Complete blood counts (CBC)</li><ul><li>Hemoglobin or Red Blood Cells (Carries oxygen in the blood)</li><li>White Blood Cells Count (Cells that fight infection)</li><li>Platelets (Cells that help with clotting)</li></ul><li>High markers of inflammation</li><ul><li>CRP, Ferritin to name a few</li></ul><li>High Liver Markers:</li><ul><li>AST, ALT, GGT, LDH, Bilirubin (jaundice pigment)</li></ul><li>Clotting abnormalities</li><ul><li>High INR, PTT</li><li>Low Fibrinogen</li><li>High D-Dimer</li></ul><li>Lipid/Fat abnormalities<br></li><ul><li>High triglycerides, <a href="/article?contentid=891&language=English">high cholesterol</a></li></ul></ul><p>In addition to looking at the overall levels of these tests, your child’s doctor will keep an eye on the direction of these levels – whether they are increasing or decreasing, by how much, and how quickly. Your child’s doctor will monitor these values very closely. As a result, blood work may need to be done quite frequently; potentially even several times in the same day.</p><p>Bone marrow aspirate (bone marrow sampling) can also be useful in trying to find diagnoses that could be underlying triggers for MAS, and can help us to look at cells that we know are a part of MAS.</p><p>Your child may also need imaging tests to monitor their organs (e.g. X-rays, <a href="/article?contentid=1290&language=English">ultrasound</a>, <a href="/article?contentid=1272&language=English">CT scan</a> or <a href="/article?contentid=1270&language=English">MRI</a>). These additional tests are done on an as needed basis.</p><p>Your child will be seen by a team of different specialists who will work together to make this diagnosis; this team may include hematologists, rheumatologists, immunologists, infectious disease specialists, liver disease specialists and their pediatrician, among others.</p><h2>Treatment of MAS</h2><p>If your child is suspected of having MAS, they will be admitted to hospital for further monitoring and treatment.</p><p>The goals of treatment are to:</p><ul><li>Reduce body inflammation</li><li>Stop fevers</li><li>Prevent organ damage<br></li></ul><p>As mentioned above, your child’s blood work and symptoms will be monitored very closely. Blood tests will be repeated often to see if your child is responding to treatment, and to monitor for side effects of the medications listed below.<br></p><p>Since MAS is a dangerous and potentially fatal disease if not treated, we use very strong medications to try and stop the immune system over-activity. The medications normally used include:</p><ul><li>Steroids (High dose, usually through an IV initially, and then by mouth)</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=157&language=English">Intravenous immune globulin</a> (pooled antibody transfusion)</li><li>Cyclosporin (a medication that suppresses the immune system)</li><li>Biologic therapy (another class of medications that suppress different aspects of the immune system than Cyclosporin does). A common example of this type of medication that we use is called Anakinra (Kineret).</li></ul><p>In some cases, an anti-cancer drug, <a href="/Article?contentid=134&language=English">etoposide</a> has been shown to be useful when treating HLH, and may be considered in severe cases of MAS. A specialist in MAS/HLH may be consulted to help with the treatment.</p>Main
MagnesiumMMagnesiumMagnesiumEnglishNutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NADigestive systemHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+) Educators Hospital healthcare providers Community healthcare providers Remote populations First nationsNA2013-09-27T04:00:00Z9.2000000000000055.4000000000000122.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Discover the role of magnesium in the body.</p><p></p><p>Magnesium works with other minerals to control blood pressure, helps the body produce enzymes to break down food and helps regulate the levels of a range of nutrients in the body.<br></p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/INM_NRC_track1-8-6_illustration_food_magnesium.jpg" alt="Grain products and meats and alternatives containing magnesium" /> </figure><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Magnesium helps control a range of important bodily functions, including digestion and blood flow.</li><li>Good sources of magnesium include green leafy vegetables, whole grains, beans and fish.</li><li>Magnesium supplements are not needed for a healthy person who is following <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/canada-food-guides.html" target="_blank">Canada's Food Guide</a>.<br></li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/INM_NRC_track1-8-6_illustration_food_magnesium.jpgMain
Magnetic resonance enterography (MRE)MMagnetic resonance enterography (MRE)Magnetic resonance enterography (MRE)EnglishOtherPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Small IntestineSmall intestineTestsCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2013-06-19T04:00:00Z7.0000000000000070.0000000000000511.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Magnetic resonance enterography is used to take detailed images of the small intestine. Learn what to expect before, during and after the test.</p><h2>​What is an MRE?</h2> <p>MRE stands for Magnetic resonance enterography. An MRE is a special type of <a href="/Article?contentid=1270&language=English">MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)</a>, which uses a contrast material, or highlighter, to create detailed images of the small intestine. Like an MRI, an MRE uses a powerful magnet to take pictures of inside the body without using radiation.</p> <p>During an MRE, your child will be asked to lie down and remain still for 45 to 60 minutes. For this reason, an MRE is recommended for children over the age of 10. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>An MRE is a special type of MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging).</li> <li>Your child will have to lie down and remain still for 45 to 60 minutes during an MRE.</li> <li>Your child should not eat or drink six hours before the MRE.</li> <li>Your child may have an upset stomach with frequent bowel movements after the MRE. This will pass within a few hours.</li> </ul><h2>What to expect before, during and after an MRE</h2> <ol> <li>Arrive and check-in at the MRI Department. A screening form will be completed.</li> <li>Your child will be asked to remove all jewelry and clothing. A hospital gown will be given to your child to wear.</li> <li>An IV will be started and used to give your child the contrast material, or highlighter, during the MRE.</li> <li>Your child will be given a sweet drink (Sorbitol) before and during the MRE. This will make sure the small bowel is active and moving for the pictures. Sorbitol tastes like Kool-Aid and may cause your child to feel nauseous.</li> <li>An MRI technician will ask your child to lie down on a table and remain still. During the MRE, the technician may also ask your child to change positions, hold their breath, or drink more Sorbitol.</li> <li>Once the MRE is finished and you have left the MRI Department, your child can eat and/or drink.</li> <li>Your child may have an upset stomach with frequent bowel movements after the test because of the Sorbitol. This usually passes within a few hours. </li> <li>Your child may need to stay home from school and avoid physical activity the day after the MRE.</li> </ol><h2>How to prepare for an MRE</h2> <p>Your child should not eat or drink anything six hours before the MRE. Before the six hours of no food or drink, make sure you give your child a healthy snack. If your child is taking timed medications, they can continue taking the medications with a small amount of water only.</p><h2>At SickKids</h2> <p>Someone from the MRI Department will call you to set up an appointment. If you need to change or cancel your appointment, please call the MRI Department at (416) 813-5774.</p> <p>The MRI Department is located on the Service Level (one floor below the Main Floor of the hospital). Once you are on the Service Level, follow the blue line on the floor to the department.</p>Main
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)MMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI)Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)EnglishOtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyNATestsCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-17T05:00:00Z6.0000000000000076.90000000000001289.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn what happens during an MRI so your child knows what to expect.</p><h2>What is an MRI?</h2><p>Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a way of taking pictures of the inside of the body without X-rays. MRI uses a strong magnet to make the pictures. This is called an MRI scan.</p><p>An MRI scan is fairly noisy but does not hurt. A number of short MRI scans make up a complete MRI study. A complete MRI study may take as little as 30 minutes and up to two hours to complete.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>An MRI is a way of taking pictures of the inside of the body without X-rays. It does not hurt.</li> <li>Tell the MRI team ahead of time if your child has any metal in their body.</li> <li>An imaging specialist will look at the MRI study and send a report to your doctor. Your doctor will talk to you about the results of the MRI.</li> </ul><h2>What to tell your child about the MRI</h2><p>Tell your child exactly what will happen during the MRI scan. Explain what they will see, hear and feel. Here is a description of what happens during an MRI scan. Remember, MRI scans do not hurt!</p><h3>What happens before an MRI</h3><ul><li>Before your child goes into the room, the staff will ask some questions. They want to make sure your child will have no problems being near the strong magnet in the MRI scanner. There are some metal devices and implants that make it impossible to have an MRI.</li><div class="pdf-page-break"><li>Your child will have to empty their pockets completely of everything, including coins, keys, pens, cell phones, wallets and bank cards. They will also have to take off their watch. Your child cannot wear any makeup or jewellery.</li><li>Your child will change into a hospital gown.</li></div></ul><h3>What happens during an MRI</h3><ul><li>The MRI scanner is a large, round machine with a wide tunnel in the centre.</li><li>Your child will lie on the bed. The technologist will place them in the correct position for the MRI scan.</li><li>When everything is ready, the bed will be moved into the tunnel. Most of your child's body will be inside the tunnel.</li><li>Your child must lie completely still for the whole time of each MRI scan.</li><li>The scanner makes a loud knocking or drumming sound during scanning. Everyone staying in the room will wear ear plugs or headphones to protect their hearing.</li><li>The technologist will talk to your child through a speaker. When the MRI scan is complete, the technologist will help your child off the table.</li><li>In some scanners, there is an entertainment system so your child will be able to watch a movie while having the scan.</li><li>If your child does not need to be asleep during the study, you will be able to stay in the room with your child if you wish. If you wish to stay in the room, you will also need to be screened for metal implants.</li></ul><h2>Your child may need a needle for the MRI study</h2><p>Some MRI scans give the doctor more information when they are done with a special liquid called a contrast medium. This liquid is put into the vein in the hand or arm using an intravenous line (IV). The IV is put in with a small needle. If needed, the IV will be inserted before the MRI scan.</p><p>Contrast medium is normally very safe, but it may produce a reaction in rare cases. The team will watch your child very closely during and after the MRI to see if your child has a reaction. The team is trained to deal with these problems if they happen. A member of the team will discuss the risks with you before the MRI.</p><h2>Members of the MRI team</h2><p>A team of three or four people will be involved in the MRI study:</p><ul><li>A medical radiation technologist will do the MRI scans.</li><div class="pdf-page-break"><li>A nurse will prepare your child for the scans. If your child is having sedation, the nurse will give the sedation. If your child is having a general anaesthetic, the nurse will assist the anaesthesiologist.</li><li>The anaestheologist is the doctor who gives the general anaesthetic.</li><li>A doctor will check each MRI scan to make sure that the study is complete. Most of the time, this will be a radiologist. This is a doctor who specializes in diagnostic images like MRI scans.</li></div></ul><h2>What happens after the MRI study</h2> <p>After the MRI study, outpatients may go home unless they have other appointments at the hospital. If your child has had sedation or a general anaesthetic, you must stay until they are awake. This means your whole visit will usually take three to four hours.</p> <p>Your doctor will receive a report of the MRI scan. Your doctor will talk to you about the results of the MRI study.</p> <h2>Who to call if you have any questions</h2> <p>If you have any questions, call the MRI centre.</p><h2>Getting ready for the MRI</h2><h3>Tell the MRI team about any metal in your child's body</h3><p>Because MRI involves a strong magnetic field, certain metal implants could injure your child. Tell the MRI team if your child has had any surgeries, procedures or injuries that involved metal, such as metal rods, plates, screws, braces, clips or body piercing. If your child does have any implants, please give the MRI team information about the type of device and the manufacturer. In some cases, your child may need an X-ray to confirm that it is safe for them to have an MRI. If you have any questions, please contact the MRI team.</p><h3>Your child may need sedation or general anaesthetic</h3><p>If your child is old enough and able to lie completely still for about an hour (on average), they will not need to do anything special to prepare for the MRI study.</p><div class="pdf-page-break"><p>If your child is not able to lie still for the whole study, they may need a special sleep medicine. If your child is an outpatient and needs to be asleep for the procedure, the MRI unit will give you information about when to stop feeding your child before the appointment.</p><p>If your child needs to be asleep for the procedure, the nurse or <a href="/Article?contentid=1261&language=English">anaesthesiologist</a> will perform a full medical assessment to make sure it is safe for your child to have the sleep medicine. If it is not safe, your child's appointment will be delayed or cancelled.</p><p>Write the date and time of your child's study here:</p> <br> <br> <h2>What to do if you need to cancel your child's appointment</h2><p>If you have to cancel your child's MRI appointment, please call the department as soon as possible.</p><p>If your child has a bad cold and a cough, you should change the time of your child's appointment. Your child will likely be unable to lie still for the whole MRI study. Another patient will take your original appointment time. The need for MRI studies is very high.</p><p>If you are late for your child's appointment, we may have to delay or cancel your appointment. </p></div><h2>At SickKids</h2> <p>The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) patients usually have their MRI study in the MRI Centre at SickKids.</p> <p>To get to the MRI Centre, take the Atrium elevators to the 4th floor. Follow the hallway between 4A and 4D. This will link to CDIU. At the end of the hallway, turn left.</p> <p>For the MRI scans, we ask that you arrive 30 minutes before your appointment time. If your child is receiving a general anaesthetic, we ask that you arrive one hour before your appointment time.</p> <p>If your child's study is at Toronto General Hospital (TGH), the TGH staff will call you to tell you how to get there.</p>Main
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and JIAMMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and JIAMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and JIAEnglishRheumatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodySkeletal systemTestsAdult (19+)NA2017-01-31T05:00:00Z7.3000000000000069.3000000000000488.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>This page describes the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of arthritis.</p><p>Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is another type of imaging. The MRI machine uses a magnet, radio signals, and a computer to scan and produce images of the body. Each image shows a different “slice” or level of the body. A doctor called a radiologist reads these images or scans.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>An MRI is a type of imaging test that produces images of the inside of the body.</li> <li>Your child must lie still for an hour in the MRI machine, and if they cannot they may be given a medication to help them relax.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/megnetic_resonance_imaging_MRI_and_JIA.jpgMain
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before epilepsy surgeryMMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before epilepsy surgeryMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before epilepsy surgeryEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemTestsCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2017-10-10T04:00:00Z6.8000000000000076.0000000000000846.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Discover how an MRI helps identify the parts of the brain where epilepsy starts.</p><p>A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan uses a strong magnet to take pictures of your child’s brain.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>An MRI scan uses a strong magnet to take pictures of your child's brain.</li> <li>Before the scan, tell the team about any metal implants or piercings in your child to reduce any harm from the magnet in the MRI scanner.</li> <li>During the scan, your child will need to lie still in the MRI machine for about an hour. Some children may need a sedative to help them with this.</li> <li>You may discuss the results of the MRI scan with your child's doctor about four to six weeks after the test.</li></ul><p>The MRI scanner is a large, round, noisy machine with a tunnel in the centre. During the scan, your child wears a special helmet and lies on a narrow bed that slides into the MRI machine. The scan does not hurt.</p> <figure class="asset-right"> <p>Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan<br></p> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets//MRI_scanner_with_child.jpg" alt="Child undergoing MRI scan" /> </figure> <p>The MRI scan takes about one hour. However, if your child needs a sedative for the scan (see below), please allow up to three to four hours for your hospital visit. This allows enough time for the scan and for any medicine to wear off before your child goes home.</p><h2>Why does my child need an MRI scan?</h2><p>The MRI takes picture of your child’s brain. Doctors are trained to look at these pictures to identify what is the cause of the epilepsy.</p><h2>What happens when my child arrives for the scan?</h2><ol><li>An MRI team member will check if your child can lie still comfortably in the MRI machine.</li><li>Your child will empty their clothes pockets and remove any watches, purses, jewellery and makeup. They can store these in a locker during the scan.</li><li>Your child will change into a hospital gown and enter the MRI room.<br></li></ol><h2>What happens during an MRI scan?</h2><p>The technologist will place your child’s head in a head coil, which is like a helmet. Your child will also wear earplugs or headphones to help reduce the loud knocking noise from the MRI machine.</p> <figure class="asset-right"> <p>MRI scan of the brain<br></p> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/MRI_brain_coronal_scan.jpg" alt="MRI scan of the brain" /> </figure> <p>Sometimes, doctors may need to give your child a special liquid called contrast to help the MRI images show more information about the brain. This liquid is put into the vein in your child’s hand or arm through an <a>intravenous catheter</a>.</p><p>When your child is ready, they will then lie on the narrow bed that moves into the tunnel. The MRI technologist will talk to them through a speaker from outside the MRI room and remind them to stay still during the whole scan.</p><p>If your child is able to stay still without taking any medicine, they may watch a movie to pass the time.</p><h2>May I stay with my child during the MRI scan?</h2><p>You may stay in the MRI room with your child if:</p><ul><li>your child is not asleep during the study</li><li>the technologist is sure that it is safe for you to do so, for example by asking about any metal implants or piercings.</li></ul><h2>What should I expect after an MRI?</h2> <p>Once the scan is done, your child may get dressed and go home. If your child took any sedative (medicine to help them stay calm) during the MRI, they may leave the hospital only when they are alert and fully recovered.</p><h2>How do I prepare my child for an MRI scan?</h2> <ul><li>Explain what will happen during the MRI in words your child understands.</li> <li>Before the scan, tell the MRI team about any metal implants inside your child, such as metal rods, screws, braces or clips, and if your child has any body piercings. It is important to share this information to minimize the risk of harm from the strong magnet in the MRI scanner.</li></ul> <h2>Will my child need to be sedated for an MRI scan?</h2> <p>Some children may need a sedative (medicine to keep them calm) to help them lie still for about an hour during the scan.</p><p>If your doctor has told you that your child needs a sedative for the MRI, someone from the MRI department will contact you with instructions on when your child needs to stop eating and drinking before their appointment.</p> <p>If the MRI is booked without a sedative but you think your child needs it, please contact the MRI department at 416-813-5774 and choose option 3.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets//MRI_scanner_with_child.jpgMain
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for brain tumoursMMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for brain tumoursMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for brain tumoursEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemTestsAdult (19+)NA2009-07-10T04:00:00Z6.7000000000000072.20000000000001450.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>An in-depth description of what is involved in a MRI as part of the medical diagnosis of a brain tumor. fMRI and MRA are also discussed.</p><p>Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a type of diagnostic imaging. The MRI machine scans the brain in “slices” to produce images. Each image shows a different “slice” or level of the brain. They are also called cross-sectional images. These images or scans are interpreted by a specialized doctor called a radiologist. An MRI machine does not use radiation or X-rays. A magnet, radio signals, and a computer are used to create the pictures. An MRI scan is fairly noisy but does not hurt. A number of short scans make up a complete MRI study. Each scan takes from one to 10 minutes. The total time for a complete MRI study is about one to two hours. An MRI can be done on any area of the body.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>An MRI scans the brain, producing images in slices to show different levels of the brain, or cross-sectional images.</li> <li>Many children need medicine to help them sleep so they will lie still for the full one to two hours of the scan.</li> <li>Tell your child exactly what will happen when the MRI scan is being done.</li> <li>A radiologist will review the MRI study, and a report will be sent to your doctor, who will discuss the results with you.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/BT_Neuro_MRI2_MEDIMG-PHO_EN.jpgMain
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for scoliosisMMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for scoliosisMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for scoliosisEnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Vertebrae;SpineMuscular system;Skeletal systemTestsAdult (19+)NA2008-06-01T04:00:00Z6.9000000000000069.7000000000000628.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>An MRI may be used to assess spines with scoliosis. Find out more about MRI procedures as well as when and why they are used.</p><p>Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a technique that can show details of the bones of your teen’s spinal column. It shows structural abnormalities of the spine.</p><h2> Key points </h2><ul><li> Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can show details of the bones of your teen's spinal column, including structural abnormalities of the spine.</li><li> Your surgeon may order an MRI of your teen's spin if their curve is rapidly increasing, if they are under 10 years old, they have an unusual curve, or if they have neurological problems.<br></li><li> The MRI machine scans your teen's spine to produce cross-sectional images, which are interpreted by a radiologist. </li><li>An MRI does not use radiation or X-rays: a powerful magnet, radio signals and computer create the images. </li><li>The entire MRI study lasts about one hour. Each scan takes from one to five minutes, during which time your teen must stay still.</li></ul>Main
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) before epilepsy surgeryMMagnetoencephalography (MEG) before epilepsy surgeryMagnetoencephalography (MEG) before epilepsy surgeryEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemTestsCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2017-10-10T04:00:00Z6.0000000000000080.00000000000001481.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Read how a MEG scan helps identify where seizures start in the brain.</p><p>​​A magnetoencephalography (MEG) scan measures magnetic signals from the brain. The scan takes two to three hours, depending on how much activity is being mapped.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>A MEG scan measures magnetic signals in your child's brain to pinpoint where your child's seizures start.</li> <li>Your child must be sleepy for the scan to make sure it gathers the best results.</li> <li>During the scan, your child may have up to three tests, depending on whether seizures start in the part of their brain that controls sensation, sight or hearing.</li> <li>You may discuss the results of the MEG with your child's doctor about four to six weeks after the scan.</li></ul><figure> <p>Magnetoencephalography (MEG) machine</p> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/magnetoencephalography_MEG_machine.jpg" alt="MEG machine" /> </figure> <p>Your child must be sleepy for the MEG scan to make sure it gathers the best information. If your child needs a sedative for the scan (see below), please allow up to three to four hours for your hospital visit. This allows enough time for the scan and for any medicine to wear off before your child goes home.</p><h2>Why does my child need a MEG scan?</h2><p>Cells in the brain give off magnetic as well as electrical signals. A MEG scan uses special electrodes attached to your child’s scalp to measure these magnetic signals and pinpoint the abnormal brain activity where your child’s seizures start.</p> <br><h2>What happens when my child arrives for the MEG?</h2><ol class="akh-steps"><li><p>A technologist will check if your child can lie still comfortably in the MEG machine.</p></li><li><p>Your child will empty their clothes pockets and remove any watches, purses, jewellery and makeup. They can store these in a locker during the scan.</p></li><li><p>They will then change into a hospital gown and go into the MEG room.</p></li><li><p>The MEG technologist will then measure your child’s head and make small marks on the scalp with a washable marker or pen. They will also make small marks on your child’s nose and in front of their ears.</p></li><li> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/magnetoencephalography_MEG_electrodes_01.jpg" alt="Child with electrodes attached to nose and in front of ears" /> </figure> <p>They will put electrodes on your child’s nose and in front of their ears. These electrodes are connected to the MEG machine.</p></li><li> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/magnetoencephalography_MEG_electrodes_02.jpg" alt="Child with electrodes attached to scalp and forehead" /> </figure> <p>The technologist will also put EEG electrodes on your child’s scalp.</p></li></ol><h2>What happens during a MEG scan?</h2><p>When your child is ready, the technologist will place a MEG helmet on their head and your child will lie on the MEG bed.</p><p>The MEG will be turned on and the helmet will start to record your child’s brain activity. The MEG room is quiet during the scan and will also be darkened so that your child can fall asleep.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Child resting on MEG bed with their head in the MEG helmet</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/magnetoencephalography_MEG_helmet_with_child.jpg" alt="Child undergoing MEG scan" /> </figure> <p>The MEG technologist will sit just outside the MEG room and monitor your child through a video camera.<br></p><p>Your child will have to keep their head still during the scan. Depending on the specific part of their brain where your child’s seizures start, they will do one or more of the following tests:</p><ul><li>somatosensory evoked fields (SEF)</li><li>visual evoked fields (VEF)</li><li>auditory evoked fields (AEF).</li></ul><div class="akh-series"><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Somatosensory evoked fields (SEF) test</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/somatosensory_evoked_fields_SEF_test_with_child_EN.jpg" alt="Small electrical stimulator on wrist of a child undergoing SEF test with their head in a MEG machine" /> <figcaption>During the SEF test a child lies with their head in the MEG machine. A small electrical stimulator is placed on their wrist (or ankle) to gently make the thumb (or big toe) move. This helps find the part of the brain that handles sensation or feeling.</figcaption> </figure> <h3>Somatosensory evoked fields (SEF) test</h3><p>Your child will have this test if their seizures start in the area of the brain that controls sensation. It takes 20 to 30 minutes.</p><p>If your child’s seizures start in or near the area of the brain that controls arm sensation, your child will have a small stimulator placed on their wrist. The stimulator will receive a small electrical signal that will make your child’s thumb move or ‘dance’. In turn, this will send a message to the part of the brain that controls sensation. This stimulation is done on both wrists and takes about 20 minutes.</p><p>If your child’s seizures start in or near the area of the brain that controls leg sensation, the stimulator will be placed on your child’s inner ankle. This time, the small electrical signal will make the big toe ‘dance’. This stimulation is done on both ankles and takes about 30 minutes.</p></div></div></div><div class="akh-series"><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure class="asset-right"> <span class="asset-image-title">Visual evoked fields (VEF) test</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/visual_evoked_fields_VEF_test_with_child.jpg" alt="Child undergoing VEF test with their head in a MEG machine" /> <figcaption>During a VEF test a child lies with their head in the MEG machine. They looking at a screen with a moving checker board pattern above them. This is done to find the part of the brain that handles sight.</figcaption> </figure> <h3>Visual evoked fields (VEF) test</h3><p>Your child will have this test if their seizures start in or near the visual area of the brain (the part that controls sight). It takes about 30 minutes.</p><p>During the test, your child will look at a screen showing a moving black and white checker board pattern. They will be asked to focus on a dot in the centre of the screen while the black and white squares move. This will send a message to the part of the brain that processes what your child sees.</p><h3>Auditory evoked fields (AEF) test</h3><p>Your child will have this test if their seizures start in or near the auditory part of the brain (the area that controls your child’s hearing). It takes about 30 minutes.</p><p>During the test, your child will listen to beeps in one ear and white noise in the other ear while they lie still in the MEG scanner. Your child will be asked to concentrate on the sounds. This will send a message to the part of the brain that processes what your child hears. This test is done for both ears.<br></p><p>Doctors will study the scan so that they can find the area of your child’s brain that controls hearing.</p><h2>May I stay with my child during the MEG scan?</h2><p>The MEG machine is very sensitive and will pick up the brain activity of everyone in the room. As a result, your child must be in the MEG room alone. You may wait outside the MEG room and see your child on a screen.</p></div></div></div><h2>What should I expect after a MEG scan?</h2> <p>Once your child completes the SEF, VEF and/or AEF test, the technologist will remove the EEG wires and electrodes. Your child will then have a few round stickers placed on top of their nose and in front of their ears, where the electrodes were placed. They will then have a short <a href="/Article?contentid=2049&language=English">MRI scan​</a>, which will take about 10 minutes.</p> <p>Once all the tests are done, the technologist will remove the stickers from your child. Your child may then get dressed and leave. If your child took a sedative, they may leave only when they are alert and fully recovered.</p> <p>Your child’s hair may be a little sticky from the paste that was used to attach the electrodes to their scalp. You can easily wash it away with shampoo and water.</p><h2>How do I prepare my child for a MEG scan?</h2> <ul><li>Explain what will happen during the MEG in words your child understands.</li> <li>Make sure your child’s hair is freshly washed. Check for any signs of <a href="/article?contentid=795&language=English">head lice</a> and tell the nurse at the hospital if you see anything.</li> <li>Leave your child’s hair loose for the scan and remove any hair extensions.</li> <li>To help the electrodes stay in place during the test, do not use conditioner or styling products in your child's hair.</li> <li>Follow the instructions from your child’s MEG team to make sure your child is sleepy or asleep for the scan. You will be told to put your child to bed later than usual the night before the MEG and wake them up several times during the night. Even if your child is tired, do not allow them to sleep on their way to the scan.</li> <li>Give your child their medication as usual, unless your doctor tells you otherwise.</li></ul> <h2>Will my child need to be sedated for a MEG scan?</h2> <p>Yes, some children may need a sedative (medicine to help them keep calm or help them sleep).</p><p>If your doctor has told you that your child needs a sedative for the MEG, someone from the MEG team will contact you with instructions on when your child needs to stop eating and drinking before their appointment.</p> <p>If the MEG is booked without a sedative but you think your child needs it, please contact the MEG team at 416-813-5774 and choose option 3.</p> ​​Main
Maintaining a healthy body weightMMaintaining a healthy body weightMaintaining a healthy body weightEnglishTransplant;NephrologyTeen (13-18 years)KidneysRenal system/Urinary systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-ZTeens
Maintaining a healthy diet for a child with diabetesMMaintaining a healthy diet for a child with diabetesMaintaining a healthy diet for a child with diabetesEnglishEndocrinology;NutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)PancreasEndocrine systemHealthy living and preventionAdult (19+)NA2016-10-17T04:00:00Z10.700000000000047.0000000000000327.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Maintaining a healthy diet is an essential part of diabetes management. Learn why it's so important.<br></p><p>Optimal diabetes management requires healthy, balanced eating, combined when necessary with <a href="/Article?contentid=1729&language=English">insulin</a> and/or medication, and <a href="/Article?contentid=1724&language=English">blood glucose (sugar) control</a>.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Creating a meal plan provides the basis for healthy eating and safe blood sugar control.</li><li> Almost all children with diabetes need three or four regular meals to avoid low blood sugar emergencies (hypoglycemia).</li><li>Adjusting to meal planning can be difficult for some families.<br></li></ul>Main
Maintaining a healthy weightMMaintaining a healthy weightMaintaining a healthy weightEnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z7.1000000000000070.0000000000000255.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>A healthy weight is different for everyone. Find out how you can maintain the weight that is healthy for you and why this is important.</p><h2>What is a healthy weight?</h2><p>A healthy weight is not a number on a scale! Each person’s body is unique, with its own body composition: how much bone, muscle and fat it has. </p><p>How your body is composed is decided by your genetics (the code in your DNA that is passed down from your family) and your lifestyle. Just as some people are shorter and others are taller, some people naturally have more or less body fat or muscle than others. Your healthy weight is a range that is specific to you.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A person's healthy weight is a range that is unique to them and is determined by body composition, genetics and lifestyle.</li><li>Maintaining a healthy weight can be difficult while going through cancer treatment but your health-care team can help you.</li><li>Eating well and maintaining a healthy weight can help preent some types of cancer and chornic diseases.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Maintaining_a_healthy_weight_TTC_Cancer.jpgTeens
Maintaining relationships during cancer treatmentMMaintaining relationships during cancer treatmentMaintaining relationships during cancer treatmentEnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANANAPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z65.500000000000076.6000000000000571.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Maintaining relationships with family and friends can help you feel normal during a cancer treatment. Find out some suggestions to help you stay connected during treatment.</p><p>When you can, it is often helpful to try to spend time with friends and family. Having fun with other people can help you feel normal and forget about some of your worries, even if just for a short time.</p><p>At times, there will probably be things that you used to do with your friends or family that you now feel too tired or unwell to do. This can be really difficult to accept. Talk to your health-care team about activity options. With some modification, you may be able to do more than you think. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Staying connected to family and friends as you go through cancer treatment can help you stay positive and feel normal, even for just a short time.</li><li>Stay connected with friends through social media and texts, inviting friends to the hospital during visiting hours and playing video games or watching movies when at home.</li><li>For times when you can't see friends or family you can stay connected through social media, email, blogs and phone or video calls.</li><li>Cancer treatment may change your relationship with your significant other, so it is important to share your feelings with each other and find time to be together.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/AKH%20Social%20Media/Maintaining%20relationships%20during%20cancer%20treatment%20iStock-1312818494.jpgTeens
Maintaining your mental healthMMaintaining your mental healthMaintaining your mental healthEnglishAdolescent;OncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANANAAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z7.5000000000000066.5000000000000734.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>When you have a child who has cancer, it is normal for you to feel sad or worry. For some people this may develop into depression or anxiety.</p><p>Depression and anxiety are medical problems that develop due to a variety of causes, including long-term stress. Unfortunately, there is still a great deal that is unknown about them. We do know that they are not a sign of weakness or some personal flaw, and treatments are available.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>If you have thoughts of self-harm or suicide, seek help from a health-care professional immediately.</li><li>Depression and anxiety can both be treated successfully with skilled help from a professional.</li><li>Neither of these conditions means you are weak; they are medical conditions caused by the stress of caring for a child with cancer.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Maintaining_your_mental_health.jpgMain
Maintaining your treatment programMMaintaining your treatment programMaintaining your treatment program-CANEnglishRheumatology;AdolescentPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)BodySkeletal systemNAPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2017-01-31T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Now that you have completed all of the sessions, it is a good time to review your self-management goals.</p>Teens
Making a decision about treatment for a child with a heart conditionMMaking a decision about treatment for a child with a heart conditionMaking a decision about treatment for a child with a heart conditionEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemProcedures;Non-drug treatment;Drug treatmentAdult (19+)NA2009-12-11T05:00:00Z9.6000000000000055.2000000000000995.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about some of the issues involved in making a decision about treatment for your child with a heart condition.<br></p><p> This page highlights some important factors to consider when making decisions about your child's treatment for a heart condition. </p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>The final decision about your child's treatment is up to you and you are entitled to seek a second opinion from another expert.</li> <li> Seeking a second opinion may prolong the time until your child gets treatment.</li> <li>Diagnoses are a matter of judgment and doctors can disagree on how best to treat certain conditions.</li> <li> Bioethics consultants at the hospital can help parents with ethical or moral concerns about their child's treatment.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/making_a_decision_about_treatment.jpgMain
Making safe food choices when your immune system is weakerMMaking safe food choices when your immune system is weakerMaking safe food choices when your immune system is weakerEnglishTransplant;NephrologyTeen (13-18 years)KidneysRenal system/Urinary systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-ZTeens
Making sure you understand the diagnosis of congenital heart defectsMMaking sure you understand the diagnosis of congenital heart defectsMaking sure you understand the diagnosis of congenital heart defectsEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-12-14T05:00:00Z7.4000000000000064.5000000000000450.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>This page highlights how to ensure a diagnosis is completely understood. Asking questions to clarify the diagnosis is an acceptable and expected thing to do.</p><p> Receiving an official diagnosis can feel overwhelming. Doctors and members of the healthcare team are there to answer your questions and explain your child's condition in detail.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li> Doctors understand and expect that you will ask questions to clarify information about your child's condition.</li> <li>It is necessary for you to understand your child's condition in order to make decisions about their treatment.</li> <li> Write down medical information that the doctor tells you so you can refer back to it later. </li></ul>Main
Making the most of your clinic visitMMaking the most of your clinic visitMaking the most of your clinic visitEnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANANAPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z6.9000000000000072.3000000000000736.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Talking to your health-care team can be difficult, especially for teenagers. Learn tips to help you feel more comforable speaking with your health-care team.</p><p>Talking to doctors or other health-care professionals is often hard for teenagers. For this reason, Dr. John Reiss, a health psychologist in Florida, developed five tips to help teenagers feel more comfortable talking with members of their health-care team. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>It is important to be honest with your health-care team about your symptoms and how you are feeling so that they can help you manage.</li><li>Listen to the answers your health-care team gives you, and ask lots of questions. If you don't understand something, ask again.</li><li>You do not need to participate in research studies if you do not feel comfortable; this will not impact the level of care you receive.</li><li>Tell your health-care team as soon as possible if you cannot attend an apopintment.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Making_the_most_of_your_clinic_visit.jpgTeens
MalariaMMalariaMalariaEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Small Intestine;Large Intestine/Colon;BodyImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2010-03-05T05:00:00Z7.9000000000000056.0000000000000704.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>An overview of malaria and the signs, symptoms, treatment and prevention of this infection passed on by mosquitoes.</p><h2>What is malaria?</h2> <p>Malaria is an infection caused by parasites. It is passed from person to person by mosquitoes. The infection leads to chills, fever, and other flu-like symptoms. If left untreated, malaria can be deadly. Children are most at risk for malaria. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Malaria is an infection. It is passed on by mosquitoes. Malaria can be caught while travelling in some parts of the world. </li> <li>The symptoms may be similar to a terrible flu.</li><li>If your child has malaria symptoms, see a doctor right away. </li><li>If left untreated, malaria can be deadly. </li><li>If you plan to visit an area affected by malaria, you need to prepare to avoid infection.</li></ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of malaria</h2> <p>Malaria symptoms usually appear six to 30 days after infection. Symptoms may take up to 12 months to show. The symptoms are similar to a terrible flu: </p> <ul> <li>fever</li> <li>chills</li> <li>headache</li> <li>nausea</li> <li>vomiting</li> <li>diarrhea</li> <li>extreme weakness</li> <li>muscle aches</li> <li>pain in the abdomen, back and joints</li> <li>coughing</li> <li>confusion</li> </ul> <p>Malaria is a dangerous cause of fever in children who return from travelling. Fever is a symptom, not a disease. It is the body's response to infections. A fever may mean that something serious is occurring. It needs to be investigated by a doctor.</p> <p>If your child shows several of these signs, see a doctor right away. If not treated properly, they can get worse rapidly. </p> <p>Once treated, symptoms usually go away in a few days. Some children take longer to recover. </p> <p>Many other diseases share the same signs as malaria. This may delay diagnosis in children. </p><h2>Malaria is common in some parts of the world</h2><ul><li>Africa</li><li>Asia</li><li>the Middle East</li><li>South America</li><li>Central America</li></ul><p>Children may catch the infection when visiting these areas. It is important to prepare ahead of time when travelling. Carry and take the proper medication.</p> <figure class="asset-c-100"> <span class="asset-image-title">Countries where malaria is common</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Malaria_occurrence_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="World map showing areas where there is risk of contracting malaria" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">There is a risk of malaria in the countries on the map that are coloured in red. Data taken from the World Health Organization's World Malaria Report 2009.</figcaption> </figure><h2>What your child's doctor can do </h2> <p>If the doctor suspects malaria, your child may need to go to the hospital. Blood tests will help with diagnosis. Blood tests can determine what type of parasite caused the infection.</p><h2>Treatment</h2> <p>Malaria is treated with specific medicine. The type and length of treatment depends on:</p> <ul> <li>the type of parasite </li> <li>the severity of the illness</li> <li>the age of the child</li> <li>the pattern of drug resistance in the area travelled</li> </ul> <p>Your child may need to see a doctor specializing in infectious diseases or tropical medicine. Extreme cases of malaria might require a special type of blood transfusion.</p><h2>Complications</h2> <p>Severe complications include:</p> <ul> <li>brain damage</li> <li>severe anaemia</li> <li>shock</li> <li>seizure</li> <li>kidney failure</li> <li>coma</li> </ul><h2>When to seek medical assistance after treatment:</h2> <h3>See your child's regular doctor if:</h3> <ul> <li>your child's fever or other symptoms do not respond in one to two days to the medication</li> <li>your child misses days of medication</li> <li>your child has yellow eyes</li> </ul> <h3>Take your child to the nearest Emergency Department, or call 911 if necessary, if your child:</h3> <ul> <li>appears confused </li> <li>has a high fever that is not brought down by <a href="/Article?contentid=62&language=English">acetaminophen</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=153&language=English">ibuprofen</a></li> <li>has difficulty breathing</li> <li>has severe stomach pains</li> <li>is not able to tolerate medication by mouth</li> <li>has not passed urine in 8 hours or has very dark urine</li> <li>is fainting</li> <li>has had a seizure</li> <li>is lethargic </li> <li>is not looking well</li> <li>has abnormal bruising</li> <li>if you have any other concerns</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/malaria.jpgMain
Malignant hyperthermiaMMalignant hyperthermiaMalignant hyperthermiaEnglishPain/AnaesthesiaChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2015-02-09T05:00:00Z12.600000000000041.60000000000001422.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn what to do if your child is at risk for malignant hyperthermia and has to have surgery.</p><h2>What is malignant hyperthermia?</h2><p>Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare, but potentially deadly disorder of the muscles. It can be triggered with the use of <a href="/article?contentid=1261&language=English">general anaesthesia</a> during surgery. What happens to the body in patients with MH is complex. When certain individuals are exposed to anaesthetic gases and certain muscle relaxants used to put a patient to sleep during surgery, calcium levels in the muscle cells increase. This causes the muscles to have difficulty relaxing. As a result, there is a rapid increase in metabolism in the body, which leads to a rise in metabolic acids and changes to electrolytes in the patient’s bloodstream. This reaction will cause the heart to start pumping rapidly, the breathing rate to become very fast, and the core body temperature to rise very rapidly (to more than 40 degrees Celsius).<br></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare, inherited metabolic disorder that is triggered, or activated, by commonly used general anaesthetic gases or anaesthetic-related muscle relaxant.</li> <li>If you are aware of any family history of MH, please notify your surgeon and ask for a consultation with the pre-anaesthesia clinic.</li> <li>During the procedure, the anesthesiologist will avoid anesthetic gases and muscle relaxants that are known to trigger reactions. This will almost completely remove the likelihood of an MH reaction occurring.</li> <li>Your child will be closely monitored for a minimum of 2 hours in the recovery room.</li> <li>You may take your child home on the day of surgery if there have not been any problems during the anaesthesia.</li> <li>If you see any signs of a reaction, please return to hospital or head to your nearest emergency department, and asked to be assessed by a member of the anaesthesia team.</li> </ul><h2>Who is affected?</h2> <p>Malignant hyperthermia is an inherited condition that only requires one parent to pass on the gene. Not everyone who has the defective gene will develop MH when exposed to anaesthetic gases or muscle relaxants. Malignant hyperthermia is believed to occur in one in 15,000 to 30,000 children who undergo anaesthesia. Therefore, close monitoring of patients undergoing anaesthesia is essential, for quick recognition and administration of rescue medications. Most MH reactions occur in the operating room (OR); however, in rare circumstances, a reaction may occur up to 6 hours after receiving a triggering anaesthetic.</p><h2>What if I have a family history of MH and my child needs surgery?</h2><p>You may not be aware that your child is at risk for MH unless a family member has had a life-threatening event resembling MH during anaesthesia or has had a test (a muscle biopsy) that confirms they have the condition. When undergoing any procedure that involves an anaesthetic, it is important to provide a detailed family history to your anesthesiologist, including incidents of high temperature, muscle stiffness, or death in family members who have had anaesthesia.</p><p>If you are aware of any family history of MH, please notify your surgeon and ask for a consultation with the <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/Anesthesia/programsservices/preanesthesia-assessment-clinic/Preanesthesia%20Assessment%20Clinic.html">pre-anaesthesia clinic.</a> Anyone who is closely related to someone else who has experienced MH is considered susceptible (at risk) and must be managed accordingly until their status is confirmed. The consultation can be done over the phone or by appointment.</p><p>The pre-anaesthesia clinic nurses and the anaesthesiologist will review your child’s medical history. If there is a family history, a previous suspected reaction to anesthesia, or a positive muscle biopsy, then your child will be considered “malignant hyperthermia susceptible (MHS)”, meaning more at risk for developing an MH reaction. The anaesthesiologist would then use a special anaesthetic that does not contain the medications that cause the reaction.</p><p>A special type of muscle biopsy can confirm the diagnosis in suspected cases of MH. Muscle biopsy testing must be done at a hospital that is able to perform this special type of test, which is called the caffeine-halothane contracture test. Only one hospital in Canada is set up to perform this test. A significant amount of thigh muscle is required to complete the test. Due to these limitations, biopsies are rarely performed in children and a family history is usually used for an MHS diagnosis.</p><h2>Day of surgery</h2><p>On the day of surgery, your doctor will talk to you about your family history and the plan of care for your child. The surgery will be scheduled early in the day to allow the anaesthesiologist time to prepare the anaesthetic gas machines for your child’s procedure. Before the surgery, the anaesthesiologist will flush the machine with oxygen to ensure that there are no traces of the triggering anaesthetic gas from previous use. During the procedure, the anaesthesiologist will avoid anesthetic gases and muscle relaxants that are known to trigger MH reactions—this will almost completely remove the likelihood of an MH reaction from occurring. In the operating room, the anaesthesiologist will monitor your child closely for changes in breathing, heart rate, and heart rhythm, and will look for muscle stiffness. As well, the doctor will continuously monitor your child’s temperature and look for any other indications of an MH reaction.</p><h2>After surgery</h2><p>After the operation is complete, your child will be accompanied by the anaesthesiologist to the <a href="/article?contentid=1262&language=English">post-anaesthetic care unit</a> (PACU) for further monitoring for signs of an MH reaction and to recover from the procedure. The anesthesiologist will inform the nurses in the recovery room of your child’s history and what kind of monitoring is required. As recommended by the <a target="_blank" href="http://www.mhaus.org/">Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States</a> (MHAUS), your child will be closely monitored for a minimum of two hours in the recovery room, with vital signs being checked every 15 minutes. A heart rhythm monitor, temperature probe (a special thermometer), and an oxygen sensor will also be placed on your child for close observation. The anaesthesiologist will be notified by the nurse of any changes to your child’s condition. The likelihood of a reaction occurring after a trigger-free anaesthetic is very small. If no signs of a reaction develop during the first two hours of close monitoring, and your child has met the requirements for discharge, your nurse will contact the anaesthesiologist in charge of your child’s care to confirm that your child can be discharged home or be transferred to a surgical nursing unit. Transfer to a unit may be necessary for recovery from the operation or for more monitoring and nursing care. The MHAUS recommends that patients go home on the same day as surgery if they have not had problems during anaesthesia.</p><h2>Staying in hospital</h2><p>If your child is to be transferred to an inpatient ward, your nurse will give a report to the surgical unit nurse about your child’s stay in the recovery room and any further monitoring that is required. The MHAUS recommends that after the recovery room stay, a patient susceptible to MH should be monitored every hour for four hours, then every four hours for 24 hours. Your nurse will monitor your child for the signs listed above, in addition to any further instructions from the surgical team. If any concerns arise with your child, the nurse will contact the surgical team immediately. If your child’s stay is uneventful, the surgical team will discharge them when appropriate. Follow the physician’s instructions once the child is at home.</p><p>If you require any further information, please do not hesitate to contact your family doctor or surgeon.</p><h2>Further information</h2><h3>AboutKidsHealth.ca</h3><ul><li> <a href="/article?contentid=1261&language=English">General anaesthesia</a></li><li> <a href="/article?contentid=1166&language=English">Surgery: Getting ready for your child’s operation</a><br></li><li> <a href="/article?contentid=1262&language=English">Post anaesthetic care unit: Visiting your child in the PACU</a></li><li> <a href="/article?contentid=1252&language=English">Post operative and post anaesthesia: Caring for your child at home</a></li><li> <a href="/article?contentid=966&language=English">Temperature taking</a></li></ul><h3>Other online references<br></h3><ul><li> <a target="_blank" href="http://www.mhaus.org/">Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States</a></li><li> <a target="_blank" href="http://pie.med.utoronto.ca/">Toronto General Hospital</a></li></ul>Main
Malignant melanomaMMalignant melanomaMalignant melanomaEnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)SkinSkinConditions and diseasesPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z7.0000000000000069.1000000000000636.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Malignant melanoma is a type of skin cancer. Learn about the causes of melanoma, how it is diagnosed and the treatments available.</p><p>Malignant melanoma (say: muh-lig-nant mel-uh-no-ma) is cancer of the skin. It usually starts with a strange looking mole. </p><p>Your skin covers your whole body and is your main protection from infections. The skin also controls your body temperature by sweating.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Malignant melanoma is a type of skin cancer that often starts with a strange looking mole.</li><li>In older adults, melanoma is often caused by sun exposure, but this is not always the case for teenagers.</li><li>It is important to always wear sunscreen and long clothing to protect the skin from harmful UV rays.</li><li>Melanoma is diagnosed through a skin check, mole biopsy and scans.</li><li>Treatment will depend on diagnosis and whether the cancer has spread.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Malignant_melanoma.jpgTeens
Management of type 1 diabetesMManagement of type 1 diabetesManagement of type 1 diabetesEnglishEndocrinologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)PancreasEndocrine systemNon-drug treatmentAdult (19+)NA2016-10-17T04:00:00Z10.400000000000049.6000000000000835.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas stops producing insulin. Learn how this chronic condition is managed.</p><p>​Although there is no cure for diabetes, the condition can be effectively managed. You are not alone in managing your child’s diabetes. From the time of first diagnosis, you will work closely with a diabetes​ care team that includes a nurse, physician, dietician, social worker and other health-care professionals as needed.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>The first step in managing diabetes is learning the skills needed to take care of it.</li><li>The goals of treatment are to keep blood sugar levels within a healthy range, and help your child adjust well to living with diabetes.</li><li>Your child with type 1 diabetes will require insulin shots.</li><li>Healthy eating and physical exercise are important parts of diabetes management.<br></li></ul>Main
Management of type 2 diabetesMManagement of type 2 diabetesManagement of type 2 diabetesEnglishEndocrinologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)PancreasEndocrine systemNon-drug treatmentAdult (19+)NA2016-10-17T04:00:00Z8.9000000000000061.30000000000001583.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>In type 2 diabetes, the body does not produce enough insulin, or it cannot properly use what it produces. Learn how type 2 diabetes is managed.</p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=1721&language=English">Type 2​ diabetes</a> is a disease that usually runs in families. Other family members may already have diabetes or may be at risk for developing it. For this reason, it is important that everyone in the family learn about diabetes, learn how to help monitor <a href="/Article?contentid=1723&language=English">blood glucose (sugar) levels</a>, and start adopting a healthy lifestyle.​​<br></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>In children and teens with diabetes, blood sugar levels are higher than normal and must be brought down to a target level.</li> <li>Children and teens must check and record blood sugar levels in order to properly manage their diabetes.</li> <li>Maintaining a healthy diet and exercising regularly are key to managing type 2 diabetes.</li> <li>Some children and teens will require medication or insulin to manage their diabetes.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_blood_glucose_variables_EN.jpgMain
Managing and monitoring anti-epileptic drugsMManaging and monitoring anti-epileptic drugsManaging and monitoring anti-epileptic drugsEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemDrug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+) EducatorsNA2010-02-04T05:00:00Z8.0000000000000065.30000000000001205.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out how to help your child manage their AEDs.</p><p>When a child is taking an AED (anti-epileptic drug) it is important to manage medications properly and monitor your child regularly. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul>Learn about your child's medication and follow the prescription from your doctor exactly. <li>Do not give your child any new medicine before talking with your child's doctor or reviewing with a pharmacist.</li> <li>Your child's doctor will monitor your child to keep watch for drug side effects, toxicity and any build-up of tolerance.</li> <li>If your child's doctor decides it is time to reduce or stop an AED, follow their instructions carefully.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/managing_and_minitoring_anti_epileptic_drugs.jpgMain
Managing cancer and treament symptomsMManaging cancer and treament symptomsManaging cancer and treament symptomsEnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANASymptomsPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z7.7000000000000071.4000000000000161.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Both cancer and cancer treatments can cause a range of symptoms. Find out why this is and hear from other teens about their experiences.</p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe width="560" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/5F-KQ_ImV5g?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe>  <p>For more videos regarding teens and cancer, please visit the <a href="https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PLjJtOP3StIuVPUkVxvdZfVGhAY_Dj-Vb7">Teens Taking Charge Cancer playlist</a>.</p></div><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Both cancer and cancer treatments can cause a range of symptoms, which may be difficult to manage.</li><li>Treatments are meant to destroy cancer cells, but sometimes affect normal cells as well, which can cause side effects or symptoms.</li></ul>Teens
Managing concerns about a teen's wellbeingMManaging concerns about a teen's wellbeingManaging concerns about a teen's wellbeingEnglishOtherTeen (13-18 years)NANAProceduresCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2021-03-03T05:00:00Z9.5000000000000065.6000000000000709.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Children with chronic health issues may be more likely to be bullied and also have parents that are overprotective. Learn what you can do to deal with these issues.</p><p>As a parent, you probably feel that it is your job to protect your children. However, parents can sometimes become overprotective if a child has had health problems. This is understandable, but in the long run, it causes more problems for the child than it prevents.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>As a parent of a child with health issues you may sometimes be overprotective, however, this can cause more problems than it prevents.</li><li>If you have ongoing disagreements with your child, speak with someone you trust and encourage your child to do the same.</li><li>Children with chronic health conditions are more likely to be bullied. Speak with someone you trust if you think your child is being bullied.</li></ul><p> Share this teen-specific article about mental health and wellbeing with your child. It offers helpful information and resources: <a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3779&language=English&hub=chronicconditions#adolescenthealth">Adolescent Health - Supporting your mental health and wellbeing</a> </p><p></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Transplant-Managing_concerns_about_a_teens_wellbeing.jpgMain
Managing daily tasksMManaging daily tasksManaging daily tasksEnglishAdolescent;OncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANANAAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z8.1000000000000062.9000000000000471.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn strategies to help you manage daily tasks inbetween caring for your child with cancer.</p><p>No matter how devoted you are to your child and your family, you just can’t do it all. It can help to prioritize. Accept that some things, such as laundry, yard work, or nightly home-cooked meals, might not happen. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Understand and communicate your own limits with your family so they know when and where they are needed.</li><li>Prioritize and plan the tasks the need to be done, and do not be afraid to ask for help from family and friends.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Managing_daily_tasks_TTC_Cancer.jpgMain
Managing difficult conversations after transplantMManaging difficult conversations after transplantManaging difficult conversations after transplantEnglishTransplant;NephrologyTeen (13-18 years)KidneysRenal system/Urinary systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<h2>Resources</h2><h3>Kids Help Phone – <a href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/">kidshelpphone.ca</a></h3><p>Kids Help Phone is a 24/7 e-mental health service offering free, confidential support to young people.</p><p><a href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/get-info/need-to-have-a-tough-conversation-with-someone-heres-how/">Need to have a tough conversation with someone? Here’s how.</a></p>Teens
Managing medications at homeMManaging medications at homeManaging medications at homeEnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)BodyNADrug treatmentPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z9.7000000000000058.9000000000000525.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Managing medications at home can be complicated. Find out what you need to know about storing medication at home, tips for filling prescriptions and what to do with old medications.</p><h2>Storing medications at home</h2><p>Make sure you store your medications away from heat, light, and humidity (out of the kitchen and bathroom). Keep them away from people or pets that could access them accidentally. A locked box kept somewhere out of reach is the safest way to store them. This is especially important if you have younger siblings that like to put things in their mouths. The drugs you’re on are strong and people who don’t have cancer should not be exposed to them.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Always store medications according to instructions and away from pets and or children who can access them accidentally.</li><li>Keep track of refills so that you don't run out. Always have enough to last through weekends, holidays and vacations.</li><li>Never throw old or expired medications in the garbage; instead drop them off at your pharmacy for disposal.</li><li>It is important to keep taking your medications; talk to your health-care team if you have any concerns about the medications or any side effects.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Managing_medications_at_home.jpgTeens
Managing other cancer-related symptomsMManaging other cancer-related symptomsManaging other cancer-related symptomsEnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANASymptomsPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z6.4000000000000075.8000000000000727.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>There are many symptoms that you may have as a result of cancer treatment. Find out about some of the more common symptoms and how to manage them.</p><p>As you go through treatment, you may notice other symptoms that are related to your cancer treatment. These symptoms include mouth sores, thrush, skin problems and weight loss or gain.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Symptoms you may have as a result of cancer treatment include mouth sores, thrush, skin problems, weight loss or gain, and hair loss.</li><li>Talk to your health-care team if you think you have any of these symptoms as they will be able to help you manage them.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Managing_other_cancer-related_symptoms.jpgTeens
Managing pain after surgeryMManaging pain after surgeryManaging pain after surgeryEnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)BodyNANon-drug treatmentPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z8.4000000000000065.4000000000000437.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>It is normal to experience some pain and discomfort after surgery, but there are ways to manage it. Find out what you can do to help manage your pain after surgery.</p><p>After surgery, your health-care team will focus on helping you feel as comfortable and free of pain as possible. Unfortunately, being completely pain-free right after surgery is not always possible, as sometimes it can take time to find what works best for you.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>After surgery you will be given medications to help manage your pain.</li><li>Always take your medication as instructed by your health-care team, especially if you are prescribed opiates.</li><li>Pain medication is most effective when you take it early, before you start experiencing really bad pain.</li><li>If you need to cough, try splinted coughing, which helps you cough in a way that is less painful.</li><li>Try to keep your mind busy so that you don't focus on your pain, which is usually worse if you are bored, upset or worried.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Managing_pain_after_surgery.jpgTeens
Managing stress after a transplantMManaging stress after a transplantManaging stress after a transplantEnglishTransplant;NephrologyTeen (13-18 years)KidneysRenal system/Urinary systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<h2>Resources</h2><h3>Kids Help Phone – <a href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/">kidshelpphone.ca</a></h3><p>Kids Help Phone is a 24/7 e-mental health service offering free, confidential support to young people.</p><p><a href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/get-info/12-instant-stress-busters/">12 instant stress busters</a></p><p><a href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/get-info/how-calm-down-when-youre-stressed/">How to calm down when you’re stressed</a></p><p><a href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/get-info/understanding-your-window-of-tolerance-for-stress/">Understanding your window of tolerance for stress</a></p>Teens
Managing stress and anxietyMManaging stress and anxietyManaging stress and anxietyEnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANANAPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z8.1000000000000066.6000000000000715.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Once you know how to recognize when you're feeling stress or anxiety you can learn how to manage it. Find out what you can do to reduce stress, what to avoid and what to do when stress and anxiety are too much.</p><p>Now you know that stress, anxiety, and bad feelings work in a cycle. You also know how stress works and how to recognize when you’re feeling stressed or anxious. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Talking about how you're feeling with someone you trust can help you manage your stress and anxiety.</li><li>When managing stress, it is important to avoid negative coping methods such as smoking, alcohol and drugs.</li><li>Signs of overwhelming anxiety include stress and anxiety that have lasted for more than a few weeks, a racing heart or trouble breathing, or you worry that you are going to pass out.</li><li>Anxiety does not usually go away on its own so it is important to talk to a member of your health-care team so they can help you feel better.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Managing_stress_and_anxiety.jpgTeens
Managing your financesMManaging your financesManaging your financesEnglishAdolescentTeen (13-18 years)NANASupport, services and resourcesTeen (13-18 years)NA2021-03-03T05:00:00Z7.2000000000000071.30000000000001079.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to responsibly manage your money and save for the future.</p><div class="callout2"><h2>We want to hear from you!</h2><p>AboutKidsHealth is trying to improve the information and education we provide young people (aged 12-18) and families through our website. After reading this article, please take 5 minutes to complete our Adolsecent Health Learning Hub survey.</p> <button> <a class="redcap-survey" href="https://surveys.sickkids.ca/surveys/?s=XHD3EK3XD4">click here</a></button> </div><p>Having your own money and managing your finances are big steps towards independence. You may feel excited about being more self-sufficient or a bit nervous about the responsibility. Or, you may feel a bit of both! This page contains some helpful hints about managing your finances.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Set up a bank account so that you have a place to save and store your money.</li><li>The goal to managing money is to balance your income and expenses so that you have some money left over to put away in savings.</li><li>Keep track of where you spend your money so that you can adjust your expenses or income as needed.</li><li>Credit cards can be useful for building a credit score. It is important to use them responsibly by paying your whole bill each month.</li></ul>Teens
Managing your financesMManaging your financesManaging your financesEnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANASupport, services and resourcesPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z6.7000000000000072.2000000000000515.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learning to manage your own finances can be both exciting and overwhelming. This page contains some helpful hints about managing your finances.</p><p>Having your own money and managing your finances are big steps towards independence. You may feel excited about being more self-sufficient or a bit nervous about the responsibility. Or, you may feel a bit of both! This section contains some helpful hints about managing your finances.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Talk to your parents or caregivers about setting up a bank account, especially if you're planning to look for a job or start higher education.</li><li>Creating a budget can help you learn to balance your income and expenses and not spend more money than you have.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Managing_your_finances_TTC_Cancer.jpgTeens
Managing your financesMManaging your financesManaging your financesEnglishTransplant;NephrologyTeen (13-18 years)KidneysRenal system/Urinary systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-ZTeens
Managing your life while waiting for a kidneyMManaging your life while waiting for a kidneyManaging your life while waiting for a kidneyEnglishTransplant;NephrologyTeen (13-18 years)KidneysRenal system/Urinary systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-ZTeens
Managing your life while waiting for a liverMManaging your life while waiting for a liverManaging your life while waiting for a liverEnglishTransplant;GastrointestinalTeen (13-18 years)LiverDigestive systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-ZTeens
Managing your maintenance medicationsMManaging your maintenance medicationsManaging your maintenance medicationsEnglishTransplant;NephrologyTeen (13-18 years)KidneysRenal system/Urinary systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Maintenance medications are usually taken to control side effects from the transplant medications or transplant surgery itself.<br></p>Teens
Managing your medications after a transplantMManaging your medications after a transplantManaging your medications after a transplantEnglishTransplant;NephrologyTeen (13-18 years)KidneysRenal system/Urinary systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-ZTeens
Managing your stressMManaging your stressManaging Your Stress-CANEnglishRheumatology;AdolescentPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)BodySkeletal systemNon-drug treatmentPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)Joint or muscle pain;Pain2017-01-31T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Understanding the signs of stress is one of the first steps in learning how to manage your emotions. It is important to learn to recognize the signs of stress and take action to lower or get rid of your stress. Otherwise, you can get caught up in a cycle of stress and your symptoms can get worse. </p><h2>Resources</h2><h3>Kids Help Phone – <a href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/">kidshelpphone.ca</a></h3><p>Kids Help Phone is a 24/7 e-mental health service offering free, confidential support to young people.</p><p><a href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/get-info/12-instant-stress-busters/">12 instant stress busters</a></p><p><a href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/get-info/how-calm-down-when-youre-stressed/">How to calm down when you’re stressed</a></p><p><a href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/get-info/understanding-your-window-of-tolerance-for-stress/">Understanding your window of tolerance for stress</a></p> https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/managing_your_stress_JIA_US.jpgTeens
Marfan syndrome and congenital heart conditionsMMarfan syndrome and congenital heart conditionsMarfan syndrome and congenital heart conditionsEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-12-14T05:00:00Z10.400000000000046.0000000000000385.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Marfan syndrome is a rare hereditary disorder of connective tissue. About 60% to 80% of people with this syndrome have heart problems.</p><p> Children with Marfan syndrome, a rare disorder of connective tissue, often have heart conditions.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>Marfan syndrome is a rare disorder caused by a mutation to a gene on chromosome 15 that results in weak connective tissues.</li> <li> Children with Marfan syndrome develop physical problems but can lead healthy, normal lives. </li> <li> Children with Marfan syndrome often experience heart problems and will need to be monitored regularly.</li></ul>Main
Massage and nerve stimulation for pain managementMMassage and nerve stimulation for pain managementMassage and nerve stimulation for pain managementEnglishPain/AnaesthesiaChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyCentral nervous system;Peripheral nervous system;Autonomic nervous systemSymptomsCaregivers Adult (19+)Pain2009-09-18T04:00:00Z9.2000000000000056.6000000000000417.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the benefits of using massage and TENS for effective pain management.</p>Main
Mastoidectomy to treat cholesteatoma or ear infectionMMastoidectomy to treat cholesteatoma or ear infectionMastoidectomy to treat cholesteatoma or ear infectionEnglishOtolaryngologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)EarsNervous systemProceduresCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-10T05:00:00Z7.0000000000000069.20000000000001608.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>A mastoidectomy is surgery to remove a part of the bone behind a child's ear. Learn about what to expect during the operation and follow up treatment.</p><p>Your child needs an operation to take away part of the bone from behind the ear. This operation is called a mastoidectomy (say: MAST-oid-ECK-toe-mee). This operation will be performed by an otolaryngology (say OH-toe-lar-ing-olo-gee) doctor. </p><p>This brochure explains what will happen during the operation and how to care for your child at home. Use this information to explain to your child what will happen, using words they can understand. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>A mastoidectomy is an operation to take away part of the bone from behind the ear.</li> <li>A mastoidectomy is done because of an infection or cholesteatoma that spreads to the mastoid bone.</li> <li>Your child will need an operation to remove the diseased part of the mastoid bone.</li> <li>Your child will need to have an anaesthetic. Your child will need to stay overnight in the hospital after the procedure.</li> </ul><h2>When to call the doctor</h2> <p>These are signs that there is a problem:</p> <ul> <li>fever of 38.5°C (101°F) or higher</li> <li>blood or fluid leaking from the ear for more than two days </li> <li>vomiting (throwing up) that does not stop </li> <li>pain that gets worse </li> <li>redness or swelling around the ear and the incision </li> <li>the packing falls out of the ear </li> </ul> <p>If your child has any of these signs, call your child's otolaryngologist, the otolaryngology clinic, or your family doctor right away. </p> <p>If this is an emergency, or if you are concerned about your child's condition, do not wait. Take your child to the closest emergency department right away. </p><h2>Why a mastoidectomy is needed</h2><p>The bone behind the ear is called the mastoid bone (say: MAST-oid).</p><p>Your child may need a mastoidectomy because of one of these problems in the mastoid bone:</p><ul><li>infection</li><li>cholesteatoma</li></ul><h3>Infection</h3><p>The mastoid bone contains hollow spaces called air cells. The air cells are connected to the middle ear, which is the part of the ear behind the eardrum. Sometimes, infections in the middle ear can spread to the air cells in the mastoid bone.</p><p>If your child has too many infections in the mastoid bone, the bone can become soft. If this happens, that part of the bone must be taken away. Taking away the diseased part of the bone does these things:</p><ul><li>It stops the spread of infection.</li><li>Sometimes the hearing is slightly poorer after the surgery but the procedure stops any more damage to the ear and to your child's hearing.</li></ul><h3>Cholesteatoma</h3><p>A cholesteatoma (say: KOE-less-tee-uh-TOE-ma) is a growth in the middle ear. Layers of skin build up in the middle ear. If a cholesteatoma gets too big, it can damage your child's ear or their hearing.</p><p>If your child has a cholesteatoma, they may have some or all of these symptoms:</p><ul><li>bad-smelling fluid leaking from the ear</li><li>full feeling in the ear</li><li>pressure in the ear</li><li>loss of hearing</li></ul><p>These symptoms can also be caused by other problems. Your child may need to take several tests to find out what is causing the symptoms.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Cholesteatoma</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Cholesteatoma_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Identification of the cholesteatoma, middle ear and ear drum" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">A cholesteatoma is a growth of skin in the part of the ear behind the ear drum (the middle ear). This growth is like a cyst that builds up layers of skin in the middle ear.</figcaption> </figure> <p>A cholesteatoma can spread into the mastoid bone. If this happens, your child will need a mastoidectomy to stop any more damage to your child's ear or their hearing. Sometimes, removing the cholesteatoma may make the hearing slightly worse but often not enough for the child to notice.</p><figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Mastoidectomy</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Mastoidectomy_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Incision line over mastoid bone on side of head and close-up of bone with mastoid air cells and with air cells removed" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The mastoid bone is located in the skull just behind the ear. When a mastoidectomy is performed, the air cells in the mastoid bone are removed.</figcaption> </figure> <h2>The operation takes about three hours</h2><p>Your child will have a special "sleep medicine" called a <a href="/Article?contentid=1261&language=English">general anesthetic</a>. This will make sure that they sleep during the operation and do not feel any pain. </p><p>An otolaryngologist/head and neck surgeon will do the operation. An otolaryngologist (say OH-toe-lar-ing-olo-gist) is a doctor who specializes in problems with the ear, nose and throat. </p><p>The doctor makes a cut behind the ear and takes out the affected mastoid bone. Then the doctor stitches the skin closed. The doctor may put a drain behind the ear to stop fluid and blood from collecting around the cut. This drain will be taken out before your child goes home from the hospital. </p><p>The operation takes about three hours.</p><h2>After the operation</h2> <p>After the operation, we will take your child to the recovery room, also called the <a href="/Article?contentid=1262&language=English">Post Anesthetic Care Unit (PACU)</a>. This is where your child will wake up. Your child will stay in PACU for about one hour. We will then move your child to a room on the nursing unit. </p> <p>You will be able to see your child as soon as they are fully awake. A volunteer from the Surgical Waiting Room will bring you to see your child. </p> <p>Your child will have an intravenous tube (IV) in their arm. We will give your child medicine and fluids through the IV until they can drink easily. </p> <p>Your child may have a gauze bandage on their ear or around their head. Your child's doctor will take the bandage off the day after the operation. If your child has a drain, the doctor will remove it at the same time. </p> <p>Your child's ear may also be packed with a ribbon or sponge pack which will be taken out during a clinic visit after the operation.</p> <h3>Your child may feel dizzy</h3> <p>Your child may feel dizzy after the operation. You or another adult should be with your child when they get out of bed on the day of the surgery. </p> <h3>Taking care of your child's pain</h3> <p>If your child has pain after the operation, we will give them pain medicine, either through the IV tube in their arm or by a pill or liquid to swallow. You know your child best. If you think your child is in pain, tell the nurse. </p> <h3>Eating and drinking</h3> <p>Your child will probably ask for sips of water two to three hours after the operation. After your child can drink, we will start adding their usual food. </p> <h3>Your child will stay in the hospital overnight</h3> <p>You will be able to stay overnight with your child in their room.</p><h2>Before the operation</h2> <p>Several hours before the operation, your child will need to stop eating and drinking. The doctor or nurse will tell you when your child must stop eating and drinking. </p> <p>Write this information down here:</p> <ul> <li>The date and time of the operation: </li> <li>When your child must stop eating: </li> <li>When your child must stop drinking clear fluids: </li> <li>Other things to remember: </li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Cholesteatoma_MED_ILL_EN.jpgMain
Maternal & newbornMMaternal & newbornMaternal & newbornYourNewbornEnglishNANewborn (0-28 days)NANANACaregivers Adult (19+)NALanding PageLearning Hub<p>Learn about newborn nutrition, routine care and everyday health issues as well as some common physical and emotional adjustments to life after pregnancy.</p><p>Your baby's first month is an exciting, and sometimes overwhelming, time. Learn about newborn nutrition, routine care and everyday health issues as well as some common physical and emotional adjustments to life after pregnancy.<br></p><br> <div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/videoseries?list=PLjJtOP3StIuVkbNK8jgxFsr8hgmgRzQUG" frameborder="0"></iframe><br></div><p>Above is our baby-focused video playlist. To view other AboutKidsHealth videos, please visit the <a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/Aboutkidshealth">AboutKidsHealth YouTube channel</a>.</p>yournewbornhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Pregnancy_newborn_landing_page.jpgMain
Maternal conditions and pregnancyMMaternal conditions and pregnancyMaternal conditions and pregnancyEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)BodyReproductive systemConditions and diseasesPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-11T04:00:00Z11.500000000000041.9000000000000553.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>In-depth information regarding various chronic maternal conditions that can have an effect on the baby or mother during pregnancy.</p><p>Some chronic illnesses in the mother can complicate pregnancy and pose a threat to the unborn baby. It is important to get these conditions under control before becoming pregnant. In some cases, a change in treatment may be needed before pregnancy begins, because some medications are harmful to the developing baby. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Some chronic illnesses, such as asthma, epilepsy and diabetes, can complicate a pregnancy and posed threat to the unborn baby.</li> <li>Some treatments may have to be changed before pregnancy as some medications or treatments can be harmful to the baby.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/maternal_conditions_and_pregnancy.jpgMain

Thank you to our sponsors

AboutKidsHealth is proud to partner with the following sponsors as they support our mission to improve the health and wellbeing of children in Canada and around the world by making accessible health care information available via the internet.

Our Sponsors