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MIBG scanMMIBG scanMIBG scanEnglishOtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Neck;Chest;Back;AbdomenAdrenal glands;Spinal CordTestsCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2013-12-06T05:00:00ZMandy Kohli, Clinical Co-ordinator, Nuclear Medicine7.0000000000000072.0000000000000675.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn how an MIBG scan is done and how it detects tumours in the upper body.</p><h2>What is an MIBG scan?</h2><p>An MIBG scan is a scan to look for:</p><ul><li>neuroblastoma, a tumour in the adrenal glands, neck, chest or spinal cord</li><li>pheochromocytoma, a tumour in the adrenal glands. </li></ul><p>MIBG is a short name for a type of iodine that is used in the test.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>An MIBG scan is a test to look for tumours in the upper body. It is done in two parts, one day after another.</li> <li>Your child will first have an injection that includes a tiny amount of radioactive medicine, which will mix with their blood and spread around their body. The next day, they will come back for the scan.</li> <li>Your child will need to start taking Lugol's Solution the day before the injection. Your doctor will give you a prescription for this.</li> <li>A nuclear medicine doctor will send the results of the scan to your family doctor or paediatrician (child's doctor) within two working days. The person who does the scan cannot give the results.</li> </ul><h2>How long will the scan take?</h2> <p>The scan takes about 90 minutes. The injection itself is given over a few minutes. Remember to allow an extra 30 minutes before the injection if your child is having a topical anaesthetic.</p><h2>Will I be able to stay with my child during the scan?</h2><p>One parent or guardian may stay in the room with the child, but no other children are allowed.</p><h2>How is the scan done?</h2><p>The MIBG scan is done by a nuclear medicine technologist. It has two parts.</p><ol><li>Your child will have an injection (needle) into a vein in their arm or the back of their hand.</li><li>The next day, your child will return to the hospital for the scan.<br></li></ol><h3>Injection</h3><p>The injection contains a very small amount of radioactive medicine. This mixes with your child's blood and spreads throughout their body. It takes more than six hours for enough medicine to spread before the pictures are taken.</p><p>Note: The injection before the scan is not painful, but your child's hand or arm can still be numbed first with a topical anaesthetic (a special cream or cooling spray). If you would like this option, it is best to arrive at least 30 minutes before your appointment to allow the anaesthetic to take effect.</p><h3>Scan</h3><p>To have the scan, your child will lie down on a narrow table and have a safety belt across their stomach to keep them safely in place. They can usually watch a movie while the scan is being done.</p><p>In rare cases, your child may need to return to the hospital the next day for more pictures. A doctor in the nuclear medicine department will tell you if your child needs to return.</p><h2>Does my child need to do anything special to prepare for the scan?</h2> <p>Your child can eat and drink as usual, but they will need to take Lugol's Solution (a type of iodine) the day before the injection and then continue taking it for the next two days. Your doctor will give you a prescription for the Lugol's. Because it has an unpleasant taste, it is best to mix it with juice or milk before giving it to your child.</p> <p>Some children may need to be sedated (calmed with medicine) to help them stay still for the scan. If your child needs sedation, you will get other instructions.</p><h2>At SickKids</h2> <p>If you have any questions or concerns about the scan or if you need to change your appointment, please call the Nuclear Medicine Department at 416-813-6065.</p><h2>Source</h2> <p>Alliance for Radiation Safety in Pediatric Imaging (2013). <a href="http://www.imagegently.org/Roles-What-can-I-do/Parent/Nuclear-Medicine" target="_blank"><em>Image Gently: Nuclear Medicine - What can I do as a parent?</em></a></p>
MUGA scanMMUGA scanMUGA scanEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartHeartTestsCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-10T05:00:00ZMaria Green, MRT(N);Jennifer Russell, MD, FRCPC;Carrie Heffernan, RN, BScN, MN;Jennifer Kilburn, BScN, MN6.0000000000000075.4000000000000957.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>A MUGA scan is a radioactive imaging technique that allows doctors to see the flow of blood through the heart. Learn how to prepare a child for a MUGA scan. </p><h2>What is a MUGA scan?</h2> <p>A MUGA scan checks how well your child's heart is pumping. MUGA is short for MUltiple Gated Acquisition.</p> <p>During a MUGA scan, a small amount of radioactive material is injected into your child's blood. This material can be seen very clearly with a special camera. The pictures taken by the camera show exactly how the blood is moving through your child's heart. </p> <p>The amount of radioactive material used in a MUGA scan is very small. It will not harm your child.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>A MUGA scan is a test that uses radioactive material to help take pictures of the blood flowing through the heart.</li> <li>The preparation and the scan are done in the hospital. The test takes about 2.5 hours in total to do. </li> <li>Because a child must stay still for about 30 minutes, some children need to be sedated for the test. </li> <li>The scan does not hurt, but children will have to get a needle. </li> <li>The amount of radioactive material used in the scan is very small and will not harm your child. </li> </ul><h2>MUGA scans are done at a hospital</h2> <p>MUGA scans take place in the Nuclear Medicine department of the hospital. A nuclear medicine technologist gives the test. The technologist is specially trained to give tests on the nuclear medicine machines in the hospital. </p> <p>This test is done in two parts. It will take about two hours to complete.</p> <h3>Write down the date and time of your child's MUGA scan here:</h3> <p> </p><h2>What happens during a MUGA scan</h2> <p>The MUGA scan has two parts. The nuclear medicine technologist will explain each part of the test to you and your child.</p> <h3>First part of a MUGA scan: drawing blood</h3> <p>The first part of the scan will take about 30 minutes. The technologist will use a needle to take a small amount of blood from your child. Usually, the technologist will leave an intravenous (IV) tube taped to your child's arm for the second part of the test. An IV is a narrow tube that gives liquids directly into your child's vein. </p> <p>After the blood is taken, you and your child can leave the Nuclear Medicine room. The technologist will tell you what time to come back. While you are waiting, the technologist will mix a small amount of radioactive material into your child's blood for the second part of the test. </p> <h3>Second part of a MUGA test: putting blood and radioactive material back into the body</h3> <p>The second part of the MUGA test is usually one hour later.</p> <p>The technologist will give your child's own blood back through the IV tube or a needle. This blood has a small amount of radioactive material mixed into it. It is safe and will not make your child feel sick or dizzy. </p> <p>The technologist will then attach three electrodes to your child's chest. Electrodes are sticky pads that connect with wires to the electrocardiogram (ECG) machine. The ECG records your child's heartbeat while the Nuclear Medicine camera is taking pictures of your child's heart. </p> <p>The test is safe and does not hurt. Your child will need to lie still for about 30 minutes. They can watch a movie while the pictures are taken. </p><h2>After the MUGA scan</h2> <p>If your child was not given a sedative, they can eat and drink as usual. If your child was given a sedative for the test, they will need some time to become fully awake again. The nurse who gave the sedative will tell you what you need to do and how long that might take. </p><h2>Preparing for a MUGA scan</h2> <p>Use the information from this page to explain to your child what will happen during the test, in language your child can understand.</p> <p>To do a MUGA scan, your child needs to be able to stay still while the pictures are taken. If your child can lie quietly for about 30 minutes while we take the pictures, no preparation is needed. If your child cannot stay still that long, they may need to have sedation. </p> <h3>MUGA scan with sedation</h3> <p>Some children who are very young or active cannot lie still for 30 minutes. These children may need a special sleep medicine called a sedative. A sedative will help your child sleep and stay still during the scan. </p> <h3>What your child can eat and drink before the sleep medicine (sedation or general anaesthetic)</h3> <table class="akh-table"> <thead> <tr><th>Time before procedure</th><th>What you need to know</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td>Midnight before the procedure</td> <td><p>No more solid food. This also means no gum or candy.</p><p></p><p>Your child can still drink liquids such as milk, orange juice and clear liquids. Clear liquids are anything you can see through, such as apple juice, ginger ale or water.</p><p></p><p>Your child can also eat Jell-O or popsicles.</p><p></p></td> </tr> <tr> <td>6 hours</td> <td>No more milk, formula, or liquids you cannot see through, such as milk, orange juice and cola.</td> </tr> <tr> <td>4 hours</td> <td>Stop breastfeeding your baby.</td> </tr> <tr> <td>2 hours</td> <td>No more clear liquids. This means no more apple juice, water, ginger ale, Jell-O or popsicles.</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2">If you were given more instructions about eating and drinking, write them down here:<br></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>When your child's scan is scheduled, ask the technologist when your child must stop eating and drinking.</p><h2>At SickKids</h2> <p>MUGA scans take place in the Nuclear Medicine department of the hospital, on the 2nd floor of the Elm Wing.</p>
Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS)MMacrophage activation syndrome (MAS)Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS)EnglishRheumatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NAImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2015-10-12T04:00:00ZEvelyn Rozenblyum MD, FRCPC;Andrea Human MD, FRCPC;Shirley Tse MD, FRCPC;Sheila Weitzman, MB ChB, FRCPC;James Whitlock, MD;Ahmed Naqvi MBBS, MRCP;Rayfel Schneider MBBCH, FRCPC;Ronald Laxer MDCM, FRCPC11.100000000000046.60000000000001214.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Macrophage activation syndrome affects the immune system and causes inflammation. Learn about the signs, causes and treatment of MAS.</p><h2>What is MAS/HLH</h2> <p>The immune system is the body’s natural defense system to fight infection. It has several groups/families of cells that work together and send signals to one another to help fight against these infections. One family of cells is called macrophages, which work by destroying/ingesting infectious cells (e.g. viruses and bacteria). Macrophages can also control other cells in the immune system to help fight infection. Another family of cells in the immune system is called T cells (or T lymphocytes), which can send signals to gather and control macrophages to help fight infection as one part of their role in the immune system.</p> <p>Normally, when the immune system is activated, it fights the infection in a coordinated and controlled manner. In individuals with macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), the immune system is uncontrolled and works in overdrive, leading to too much inflammation in the entire body. The inflammation can be in any organ system including the bone marrow, liver, and spleen. This inflammation is very serious and can often make children very ill - it may also result in organ damage.</p> <p>MAS is classified as part of a group of conditions called Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (HLH for short). HLH also results in over activation of the immune system and dangerous inflammation of the body. There are two forms of HLH. Primary HLH, the genetic form (as it is caused by gene abnormalities), usually presents early in life. Secondary HLH, a ‘reactive’ form, usually presents after a trigger (i.e. infection, autoimmune/rheumatic disease, or cancers) causing the immune system to stay in a hyperactive state. MAS is part of the Secondary HLH family. The treatments of MAS and secondary HLH are similar; therefore, your health-care provider may mention the word HLH when discussing treatment options for MAS.</p> <p>MAS is equally common in girls and boys, and can happen at any age (even as early as one year old).</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>MAS is severe inflammation of the immune system and is a very serious condition.</li> <li>MAS is usually associated with known rheumatologic conditions, infections, and cancers.</li> <li>MAS, when diagnosed, will be monitored closely and treated aggressively.</li> <li>If treated appropriately, most children respond well to therapy.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of MAS</h2> <p>The following symptoms can be associated with MAS:</p> <ul> <li>Continuous fevers (persistent fevers)</li> <li>Feeling tired and low energy</li> <li>Headaches, feeling confused or ‘foggy’ (mental status changes)</li> <li>Large lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy)</li> <li>Large liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly)</li> <li>Bleeding and clotting problems (coagulopathy) seen by nose bleeds, easy bruising, vomiting blood</li> <li>Rash</li> <li>Changes in blood pressure and heart rate</li> <li>Abnormal functioning of the liver</li> <li>Low blood counts</li> </ul><h2>Causes of MAS</h2><p>We do not know the exact cause of MAS just yet, but active research is being undertaken. There have been several triggers, genes, and proteins linked to the diseases that are being studied.</p><p>MAS can be triggered by infection, cancer, changes in medications, and by rheumatic/autoimmune diseases. Rheumatic/autoimmune disease is when the immune system attacks itself accidentally. The most common rheumatic/autoimmune diseases associated with MAS include <a href="/article?contentid=920&language=English">systemic lupus erythematosus</a>, <a href="/article?contentid=918&language=English">systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis</a> and <a href="/article?contentid=915&language=English">Kawasaki disease</a>.</p><p>In certain cases, your medical team may approach you for genetic testing if your physician thinks MAS/HLH may be of a genetic (inherited) form and wishes to exclude that.</p><h2>Diagnosis of MAS</h2><p>There are different diagnostic criteria available for MAS. The symptoms and clinical signs listed above, as well as blood work abnormalities, are taken together to make the diagnosis.</p><p>Blood work may include the following:</p><ul><li>Complete blood counts (CBC)</li><ul><li>Hemoglobin or Red Blood Cells (Carries oxygen in the blood)</li><li>White Blood Cells Count (Cells that fight infection)</li><li>Platelets (Cells that help with clotting)</li></ul><li>High markers of inflammation</li><ul><li>CRP, Ferritin to name a few</li></ul><li>High Liver Markers:</li><ul><li>AST, ALT, GGT, LDH, Bilirubin (jaundice pigment)</li></ul><li>Clotting abnormalities</li><ul><li>High INR, PTT</li><li>Low Fibrinogen</li><li>High D-Dimer</li></ul><li>Lipid/Fat abnormalities<br></li><ul><li>High triglycerides, <a href="/article?contentid=891&language=English">high cholesterol</a></li></ul></ul><p>In addition to looking at the overall levels of these tests, your child’s doctor will keep an eye on the direction of these levels – whether they are increasing or decreasing, by how much, and how quickly. Your child’s doctor will monitor these values very closely. As a result, blood work may need to be done quite frequently; potentially even several times in the same day.</p><p>Bone marrow aspirate (bone marrow sampling) can also be useful in trying to find diagnoses that could be underlying triggers for MAS, and can help us to look at cells that we know are a part of MAS.</p><p>Your child may also need imaging tests to monitor their organs (e.g. X-rays, <a href="/article?contentid=1290&language=English">ultrasound</a>, <a href="/article?contentid=1272&language=English">CT scan</a> or <a href="/article?contentid=1270&language=English">MRI</a>). These additional tests are done on an as needed basis.</p><p>Your child will be seen by a team of different specialists who will work together to make this diagnosis; this team may include hematologists, rheumatologists, immunologists, infectious disease specialists, liver disease specialists and their pediatrician, among others.</p><h2>Treatment of MAS</h2><p>If your child is suspected of having MAS, they will be admitted to hospital for further monitoring and treatment.</p><p>The goals of treatment are to:</p><ul><li>Reduce body inflammation</li><li>Stop fevers</li><li>Prevent organ damage<br></li></ul><p>As mentioned above, your child’s blood work and symptoms will be monitored very closely. Blood tests will be repeated often to see if your child is responding to treatment, and to monitor for side effects of the medications listed below.<br></p><p>Since MAS is a dangerous and potentially fatal disease if not treated, we use very strong medications to try and stop the immune system over-activity. The medications normally used include:</p><ul><li>Steroids (High dose, usually through an IV initially, and then by mouth)</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=157&language=English">Intravenous immune globulin</a> (pooled antibody transfusion)</li><li>Cyclosporin (a medication that suppresses the immune system)</li><li>Biologic therapy (another class of medications that suppress different aspects of the immune system than Cyclosporin does). A common example of this type of medication that we use is called Anakinra (Kineret).</li></ul><p>In some cases, an anti-cancer drug, <a href="/Article?contentid=134&language=English">etoposide</a> has been shown to be useful when treating HLH, and may be considered in severe cases of MAS. A specialist in MAS/HLH may be consulted to help with the treatment.</p>
MagnesiumMMagnesiumMagnesiumEnglishNutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NADigestive systemHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+) Educators Hospital healthcare providers Community healthcare providers Remote populations First nationsNA2013-09-27T04:00:00ZTheresa Couto, RD;Elly Berger, BA, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, MHPE;Francy Pillo-Blocka RD, FDC000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Discover the role of magnesium in the body.</p><p></p><p>Magnesium works with other minerals to control blood pressure, helps the body produce enzymes to break down food and helps regulate the levels of a range of nutrients in the body.<br></p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/INM_NRC_track1-8-6_illustration_food_magnesium.jpg" alt="Grain products and meats and alternatives containing magnesium" /> </figure><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Magnesium helps control a range of important bodily functions, including digestion and blood flow.</li><li>Good sources of magnesium include green leafy vegetables, whole grains, beans and fish.</li><li>Magnesium supplements are not needed for a healthy person who is following <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/canada-food-guides.html" target="_blank">Canada's Food Guide</a>.<br></li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/INM_NRC_track1-8-6_illustration_food_magnesium.jpg
Magnetic resonance enterography (MRE)MMagnetic resonance enterography (MRE)Magnetic resonance enterography (MRE)EnglishOtherPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Small IntestineSmall intestineTestsCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2013-06-19T04:00:00ZJoley Johnstone, RN, BSN, MN, NP7.0000000000000070.0000000000000511.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Magnetic resonance enterography is used to take detailed images of the small intestine. Learn what to expect before, during and after the test.</p><h2>​What is an MRE?</h2> <p>MRE stands for Magnetic resonance enterography. An MRE is a special type of <a href="/Article?contentid=1270&language=English">MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)</a>, which uses a contrast material, or highlighter, to create detailed images of the small intestine. Like an MRI, an MRE uses a powerful magnet to take pictures of inside the body without using radiation.</p> <p>During an MRE, your child will be asked to lie down and remain still for 45 to 60 minutes. For this reason, an MRE is recommended for children over the age of 10. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>An MRE is a special type of MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging).</li> <li>Your child will have to lie down and remain still for 45 to 60 minutes during an MRE.</li> <li>Your child should not eat or drink six hours before the MRE.</li> <li>Your child may have an upset stomach with frequent bowel movements after the MRE. This will pass within a few hours.</li> </ul><h2>What to expect before, during and after an MRE</h2> <ol> <li>Arrive and check-in at the MRI Department. A screening form will be completed.</li> <li>Your child will be asked to remove all jewelry and clothing. A hospital gown will be given to your child to wear.</li> <li>An IV will be started and used to give your child the contrast material, or highlighter, during the MRE.</li> <li>Your child will be given a sweet drink (Sorbitol) before and during the MRE. This will make sure the small bowel is active and moving for the pictures. Sorbitol tastes like Kool-Aid and may cause your child to feel nauseous.</li> <li>An MRI technician will ask your child to lie down on a table and remain still. During the MRE, the technician may also ask your child to change positions, hold their breath, or drink more Sorbitol.</li> <li>Once the MRE is finished and you have left the MRI Department, your child can eat and/or drink.</li> <li>Your child may have an upset stomach with frequent bowel movements after the test because of the Sorbitol. This usually passes within a few hours. </li> <li>Your child may need to stay home from school and avoid physical activity the day after the MRE.</li> </ol><h2>How to prepare for an MRE</h2> <p>Your child should not eat or drink anything six hours before the MRE. Before the six hours of no food or drink, make sure you give your child a healthy snack. If your child is taking timed medications, they can continue taking the medications with a small amount of water only.</p><h2>At SickKids</h2> <p>Someone from the MRI Department will call you to set up an appointment. If you need to change or cancel your appointment, please call the MRI Department at (416) 813-5774.</p> <p>The MRI Department is located on the Service Level (one floor below the Main Floor of the hospital). Once you are on the Service Level, follow the blue line on the floor to the department.</p>
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)MMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI)Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)EnglishOtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyNATestsCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-17T05:00:00ZJoti Thind, MRT;Lars Grosse-Wortman, MD;Shi-Joon Yoo, MD, PhD;Albert Aziza, MHSc, MRT;Stephanie Holowka, MRT;Andrea Young, MRT;Tami Ralston, RN6.0000000000000072.0000000000000843.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn what happens during an MRI so your child knows what to expect.</p><h2>What is an MRI?</h2><p>Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a way of taking pictures of the inside of the body without X-rays. MRI uses a strong magnet to make the pictures. This is called an MRI scan.</p><p>An MRI scan is fairly noisy but does not hurt. A number of short MRI scans make up a complete MRI study. A complete MRI study may take as little as 30 minutes and up to two hours to complete.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>An MRI is a way of taking pictures of the inside of the body without X-rays. It does not hurt.</li> <li>Tell the MRI team ahead of time if your child has any metal in their body.</li> <li>An imaging specialist will look at the MRI study and send a report to your doctor. Your doctor will talk to you about the results of the MRI.</li> </ul><h2>What to tell your child about the MRI</h2><p>Tell your child exactly what will happen during the MRI scan. Explain what they will see, hear and feel. Here is a description of what happens during an MRI scan. Remember, MRI scans do not hurt!</p><h3>What happens before an MRI</h3><ul><li>Before your child goes into the room, the staff will ask some questions. They want to make sure your child will have no problems being near the strong magnet in the MRI scanner. There are some metal devices and implants that make it impossible to have an MRI.</li><div class="pdf-page-break"><li>Your child will have to empty their pockets completely of everything, including coins, keys, pens, cell phones, wallets and bank cards. They will also have to take off their watch. Your child cannot wear any makeup or jewellery.</li><li>Your child will change into a hospital gown.</li></div></ul><h3>What happens during an MRI</h3><ul><li>The MRI scanner is a large, round machine with a wide tunnel in the centre.</li><li>Your child will lie on the bed. The technologist will place them in the correct position for the MRI scan.</li><li>When everything is ready, the bed will be moved into the tunnel. Most of your child's body will be inside the tunnel.</li><li>Your child must lie completely still for the whole time of each MRI scan.</li><li>The scanner makes a loud knocking or drumming sound during scanning. Everyone staying in the room will wear ear plugs or headphones to protect their hearing.</li><li>The technologist will talk to your child through a speaker. When the MRI scan is complete, the technologist will help your child off the table.</li><li>In some scanners, there is an entertainment system so your child will be able to watch a movie while having the scan.</li><li>If your child does not need to be asleep during the study, you will be able to stay in the room with your child if you wish. If you wish to stay in the room, you will also need to be screened for metal implants.</li></ul><h2>Your child may need a needle for the MRI study</h2><p>Some MRI scans give the doctor more information when they are done with a special liquid called a contrast medium. This liquid is put into the vein in the hand or arm using an intravenous line (IV). The IV is put in with a small needle. If needed, the IV will be inserted before the MRI scan.</p><p>Contrast medium is normally very safe, but it may produce a reaction in rare cases. The team will watch your child very closely during and after the MRI to see if your child has a reaction. The team is trained to deal with these problems if they happen. A member of the team will discuss the risks with you before the MRI.</p><h2>Members of the MRI team</h2><p>A team of three or four people will be involved in the MRI study:</p><ul><li>A medical radiation technologist will do the MRI scans.</li><div class="pdf-page-break"><li>A nurse will prepare your child for the scans. If your child is having sedation, the nurse will give the sedation. If your child is having a general anaesthetic, the nurse will assist the anaesthesiologist.</li><li>The anaestheologist is the doctor who gives the general anaesthetic.</li><li>A doctor will check each MRI scan to make sure that the study is complete. Most of the time, this will be a radiologist. This is a doctor who specializes in diagnostic images like MRI scans.</li></div></ul><h2>What happens after the MRI study</h2> <p>After the MRI study, outpatients may go home unless they have other appointments at the hospital. If your child has had sedation or a general anaesthetic, you must stay until they are awake. This means your whole visit will usually take three to four hours.</p> <p>Your doctor will receive a report of the MRI scan. Your doctor will talk to you about the results of the MRI study.</p> <h2>Who to call if you have any questions</h2> <p>If you have any questions, call the MRI centre.</p><h2>Getting ready for the MRI</h2><h3>Tell the MRI team about any metal in your child's body</h3><p>Because MRI involves a strong magnetic field, certain metal implants could injure your child. Tell the MRI team if your child has had any surgeries, procedures or injuries that involved metal, such as metal rods, plates, screws, braces, clips or body piercing. If your child does have any implants, please give the MRI team information about the type of device and the manufacturer. In some cases, your child may need an X-ray to confirm that it is safe for them to have an MRI. If you have any questions, please contact the MRI team.</p><h3>Your child may need sedation or general anaesthetic</h3><p>If your child is old enough and able to lie completely still for about an hour (on average), they will not need to do anything special to prepare for the MRI study.</p><div class="pdf-page-break"><p>If your child is not able to lie still for the whole study, they may need a special sleep medicine. If your child is an outpatient and needs to be asleep for the procedure, the MRI unit will give you information about when to stop feeding your child before the appointment.</p><p>If your child needs to be asleep for the procedure, the nurse or <a href="/Article?contentid=1261&language=English">anaesthesiologist</a> will perform a full medical assessment to make sure it is safe for your child to have the sleep medicine. If it is not safe, your child's appointment will be delayed or cancelled.</p><p>Write the date and time of your child's study here:</p> <br> <br> <h2>What to do if you need to cancel your child's appointment</h2><p>If you have to cancel your child's MRI appointment, please call the department as soon as possible.</p><p>If your child has a bad cold and a cough, you should change the time of your child's appointment. Your child will likely be unable to lie still for the whole MRI study. Another patient will take your original appointment time. The need for MRI studies is very high.</p><p>If you are late for your child's appointment, we may have to delay or cancel your appointment. </p></div><h2>At SickKids</h2> <p>The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) patients usually have their MRI study in the MRI Centre at SickKids.</p> <p>To get to the MRI Centre, take the Atrium elevators to the 4th floor. Follow the hallway between 4A and 4D. This will link to CDIU. At the end of the hallway, turn left.</p> <p>For the MRI scans, we ask that you arrive 30 minutes before your appointment time. If your child is receiving a general anaesthetic, we ask that you arrive one hour before your appointment time.</p> <p>If your child's study is at Toronto General Hospital (TGH), the TGH staff will call you to tell you how to get there.</p>
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and JIAMMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and JIAMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and JIAEnglishRheumatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodySkeletal systemTestsAdult (19+)NA2017-01-31T05:00:00ZJennifer Stinson RN-EC, PhD, CPNPLori Tucker, MDAdam Huber, MSc, MD, FRCPC7.3000000000000069.3000000000000488.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>This page describes the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of arthritis.</p><p>Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is another type of imaging. The MRI machine uses a magnet, radio signals, and a computer to scan and produce images of the body. Each image shows a different “slice” or level of the body. A doctor called a radiologist reads these images or scans.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>An MRI is a type of imaging test that produces images of the inside of the body.</li> <li>Your child must lie still for an hour in the MRI machine, and if they cannot they may be given a medication to help them relax.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/megnetic_resonance_imaging_MRI_and_JIA.jpg
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before epilepsy surgeryMMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before epilepsy surgeryMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before epilepsy surgeryEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemTestsCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2017-10-10T04:00:00Z​​Elysa Widjaja, MD, MPH ​000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Discover how an MRI helps identify the parts of the brain where epilepsy starts.</p><p>A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan uses a strong magnet to take pictures of your child’s brain.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>An MRI scan uses a strong magnet to take pictures of your child's brain.</li> <li>Before the scan, tell the team about any metal implants or piercings in your child to reduce any harm from the magnet in the MRI scanner.</li> <li>During the scan, your child will need to lie still in the MRI machine for about an hour. Some children may need a sedative to help them with this.</li> <li>You may discuss the results of the MRI scan with your child's doctor about four to six weeks after the test.</li></ul><p>The MRI scanner is a large, round, noisy machine with a tunnel in the centre. During the scan, your child wears a special helmet and lies on a narrow bed that slides into the MRI machine. The scan does not hurt.</p> <figure class="asset-right"> <p>Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan<br></p> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets//MRI_scanner_with_child.jpg" alt="Child undergoing MRI scan" /> </figure> <p>The MRI scan takes about one hour. However, if your child needs a sedative for the scan (see below), please allow up to three to four hours for your hospital visit. This allows enough time for the scan and for any medicine to wear off before your child goes home.</p><h2>Why does my child need an MRI scan?</h2><p>The MRI takes picture of your child’s brain. Doctors are trained to look at these pictures to identify what is the cause of the epilepsy.</p><h2>What happens when my child arrives for the scan?</h2><ol><li>An MRI team member will check if your child can lie still comfortably in the MRI machine.</li><li>Your child will empty their clothes pockets and remove any watches, purses, jewellery and makeup. They can store these in a locker during the scan.</li><li>Your child will change into a hospital gown and enter the MRI room.<br></li></ol><h2>What happens during an MRI scan?</h2><p>The technologist will place your child’s head in a head coil, which is like a helmet. Your child will also wear earplugs or headphones to help reduce the loud knocking noise from the MRI machine.</p> <figure class="asset-right"> <p>MRI scan of the brain<br></p> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/MRI_brain_coronal_scan.jpg" alt="MRI scan of the brain" /> </figure> <p>Sometimes, doctors may need to give your child a special liquid called contrast to help the MRI images show more information about the brain. This liquid is put into the vein in your child’s hand or arm through an <a>intravenous catheter</a>.</p><p>When your child is ready, they will then lie on the narrow bed that moves into the tunnel. The MRI technologist will talk to them through a speaker from outside the MRI room and remind them to stay still during the whole scan.</p><p>If your child is able to stay still without taking any medicine, they may watch a movie to pass the time.</p><h2>May I stay with my child during the MRI scan?</h2><p>You may stay in the MRI room with your child if:</p><ul><li>your child is not asleep during the study</li><li>the technologist is sure that it is safe for you to do so, for example by asking about any metal implants or piercings.</li></ul><h2>What should I expect after an MRI?</h2> <p>Once the scan is done, your child may get dressed and go home. If your child took any sedative (medicine to help them stay calm) during the MRI, they may leave the hospital only when they are alert and fully recovered.</p><h2>How do I prepare my child for an MRI scan?</h2> <ul><li>Explain what will happen during the MRI in words your child understands.</li> <li>Before the scan, tell the MRI team about any metal implants inside your child, such as metal rods, screws, braces or clips, and if your child has any body piercings. It is important to share this information to minimize the risk of harm from the strong magnet in the MRI scanner.</li></ul> <h2>Will my child need to be sedated for an MRI scan?</h2> <p>Some children may need a sedative (medicine to keep them calm) to help them lie still for about an hour during the scan.</p><p>If your doctor has told you that your child needs a sedative for the MRI, someone from the MRI department will contact you with instructions on when your child needs to stop eating and drinking before their appointment.</p> <p>If the MRI is booked without a sedative but you think your child needs it, please contact the MRI department at 416-813-5774 and choose option 3.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets//MRI_scanner_with_child.jpg
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for brain tumoursMMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for brain tumoursMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for brain tumoursEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemTestsAdult (19+)NA2009-07-10T04:00:00ZEric Bouffet, MD, FRCPCUte Bartels, MD8.0000000000000066.00000000000001121.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>An in-depth description of what is involved in a MRI as part of the medical diagnosis of a brain tumor. fMRI and MRA are also discussed.</p><p>Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a type of diagnostic imaging. The MRI machine scans the brain in “slices” to produce images. Each image shows a different “slice” or level of the brain. They are also called cross-sectional images. These images or scans are interpreted by a specialized doctor called a radiologist. An MRI machine does not use radiation or X-rays. A magnet, radio signals, and a computer are used to create the pictures. An MRI scan is fairly noisy but does not hurt. A number of short scans make up a complete MRI study. Each scan takes from one to 10 minutes. The total time for a complete MRI study is about one to two hours. An MRI can be done on any area of the body.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>An MRI scans the brain, producing images in slices to show different levels of the brain, or cross-sectional images.</li> <li>Many children need medicine to help them sleep so they will lie still for the full one to two hours of the scan.</li> <li>Tell your child exactly what will happen when the MRI scan is being done.</li> <li>A radiologist will review the MRI study, and a report will be sent to your doctor, who will discuss the results with you.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/BT_Neuro_MRI2_MEDIMG-PHO_EN.jpg
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for scoliosisMMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for scoliosisMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for scoliosisEnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Vertebrae;SpineMuscular system;Skeletal systemTestsAdult (19+)NA2008-06-01T04:00:00ZSandra Donaldson, BA;James G. Wright, MD, MPH, FRCSC6.9000000000000069.7000000000000628.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>An MRI may be used to assess spines with scoliosis. Find out more about MRI procedures as well as when and why they are used.</p><p>Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a technique that can show details of the bones of your teen’s spinal column. It shows structural abnormalities of the spine.</p><h2> Key points </h2><ul><li> Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can show details of the bones of your teen's spinal column, including structural abnormalities of the spine.</li><li> Your surgeon may order an MRI of your teen's spin if their curve is rapidly increasing, if they are under 10 years old, they have an unusual curve, or if they have neurological problems.<br></li><li> The MRI machine scans your teen's spine to produce cross-sectional images, which are interpreted by a radiologist. </li><li>An MRI does not use radiation or X-rays: a powerful magnet, radio signals and computer create the images. </li><li>The entire MRI study lasts about one hour. Each scan takes from one to five minutes, during which time your teen must stay still.</li></ul>
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) before epilepsy surgeryMMagnetoencephalography (MEG) before epilepsy surgeryMagnetoencephalography (MEG) before epilepsy surgeryEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemTestsCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2017-10-10T04:00:00Z​Elysa Widjaja, MD, MPH;Rohit Sharma, RET, REPT6.0000000000000080.00000000000001481.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Read how a MEG scan helps identify where seizures start in the brain.</p><p>​​A magnetoencephalography (MEG) scan measures magnetic signals from the brain. The scan takes two to three hours, depending on how much activity is being mapped.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>A MEG scan measures magnetic signals in your child's brain to pinpoint where your child's seizures start.</li> <li>Your child must be sleepy for the scan to make sure it gathers the best results.</li> <li>During the scan, your child may have up to three tests, depending on whether seizures start in the part of their brain that controls sensation, sight or hearing.</li> <li>You may discuss the results of the MEG with your child's doctor about four to six weeks after the scan.</li></ul><figure> <p>Magnetoencephalography (MEG) machine</p> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/magnetoencephalography_MEG_machine.jpg" alt="MEG machine" /> </figure> <p>Your child must be sleepy for the MEG scan to make sure it gathers the best information. If your child needs a sedative for the scan (see below), please allow up to three to four hours for your hospital visit. This allows enough time for the scan and for any medicine to wear off before your child goes home.</p><h2>Why does my child need a MEG scan?</h2><p>Cells in the brain give off magnetic as well as electrical signals. A MEG scan uses special electrodes attached to your child’s scalp to measure these magnetic signals and pinpoint the abnormal brain activity where your child’s seizures start.</p> <br><h2>What happens when my child arrives for the MEG?</h2><ol class="akh-steps"><li><p>A technologist will check if your child can lie still comfortably in the MEG machine.</p></li><li><p>Your child will empty their clothes pockets and remove any watches, purses, jewellery and makeup. They can store these in a locker during the scan.</p></li><li><p>They will then change into a hospital gown and go into the MEG room.</p></li><li><p>The MEG technologist will then measure your child’s head and make small marks on the scalp with a washable marker or pen. They will also make small marks on your child’s nose and in front of their ears.</p></li><li> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/magnetoencephalography_MEG_electrodes_01.jpg" alt="Child with electrodes attached to nose and in front of ears" /> </figure> <p>They will put electrodes on your child’s nose and in front of their ears. These electrodes are connected to the MEG machine.</p></li><li> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/magnetoencephalography_MEG_electrodes_02.jpg" alt="Child with electrodes attached to scalp and forehead" /> </figure> <p>The technologist will also put EEG electrodes on your child’s scalp.</p></li></ol><h2>What happens during a MEG scan?</h2><p>When your child is ready, the technologist will place a MEG helmet on their head and your child will lie on the MEG bed.</p><p>The MEG will be turned on and the helmet will start to record your child’s brain activity. The MEG room is quiet during the scan and will also be darkened so that your child can fall asleep.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Child resting on MEG bed with their head in the MEG helmet</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/magnetoencephalography_MEG_helmet_with_child.jpg" alt="Child undergoing MEG scan" /> </figure> <p>The MEG technologist will sit just outside the MEG room and monitor your child through a video camera.<br></p><p>Your child will have to keep their head still during the scan. Depending on the specific part of their brain where your child’s seizures start, they will do one or more of the following tests:</p><ul><li>somatosensory evoked fields (SEF)</li><li>visual evoked fields (VEF)</li><li>auditory evoked fields (AEF).</li></ul><div class="akh-series"><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Somatosensory evoked fields (SEF) test</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/somatosensory_evoked_fields_SEF_test_with_child_EN.jpg" alt="Small electrical stimulator on wrist of a child undergoing SEF test with their head in a MEG machine" /> <figcaption>During the SEF test a child lies with their head in the MEG machine. A small electrical stimulator is placed on their wrist (or ankle) to gently make the thumb (or big toe) move. This helps find the part of the brain that handles sensation or feeling.</figcaption> </figure> <h3>Somatosensory evoked fields (SEF) test</h3><p>Your child will have this test if their seizures start in the area of the brain that controls sensation. It takes 20 to 30 minutes.</p><p>If your child’s seizures start in or near the area of the brain that controls arm sensation, your child will have a small stimulator placed on their wrist. The stimulator will receive a small electrical signal that will make your child’s thumb move or ‘dance’. In turn, this will send a message to the part of the brain that controls sensation. This stimulation is done on both wrists and takes about 20 minutes.</p><p>If your child’s seizures start in or near the area of the brain that controls leg sensation, the stimulator will be placed on your child’s inner ankle. This time, the small electrical signal will make the big toe ‘dance’. This stimulation is done on both ankles and takes about 30 minutes.</p></div></div></div><div class="akh-series"><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure class="asset-right"> <span class="asset-image-title">Visual evoked fields (VEF) test</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/visual_evoked_fields_VEF_test_with_child.jpg" alt="Child undergoing VEF test with their head in a MEG machine" /> <figcaption>During a VEF test a child lies with their head in the MEG machine. They looking at a screen with a moving checker board pattern above them. This is done to find the part of the brain that handles sight.</figcaption> </figure> <h3>Visual evoked fields (VEF) test</h3><p>Your child will have this test if their seizures start in or near the visual area of the brain (the part that controls sight). It takes about 30 minutes.</p><p>During the test, your child will look at a screen showing a moving black and white checker board pattern. They will be asked to focus on a dot in the centre of the screen while the black and white squares move. This will send a message to the part of the brain that processes what your child sees.</p><h3>Auditory evoked fields (AEF) test</h3><p>Your child will have this test if their seizures start in or near the auditory part of the brain (the area that controls your child’s hearing). It takes about 30 minutes.</p><p>During the test, your child will listen to beeps in one ear and white noise in the other ear while they lie still in the MEG scanner. Your child will be asked to concentrate on the sounds. This will send a message to the part of the brain that processes what your child hears. This test is done for both ears.<br></p><p>Doctors will study the scan so that they can find the area of your child’s brain that controls hearing.</p><h2>May I stay with my child during the MEG scan?</h2><p>The MEG machine is very sensitive and will pick up the brain activity of everyone in the room. As a result, your child must be in the MEG room alone. You may wait outside the MEG room and see your child on a screen.</p></div></div></div><h2>What should I expect after a MEG scan?</h2> <p>Once your child completes the SEF, VEF and/or AEF test, the technologist will remove the EEG wires and electrodes. Your child will then have a few round stickers placed on top of their nose and in front of their ears, where the electrodes were placed. They will then have a short <a href="/Article?contentid=2049&language=English">MRI scan​</a>, which will take about 10 minutes.</p> <p>Once all the tests are done, the technologist will remove the stickers from your child. Your child may then get dressed and leave. If your child took a sedative, they may leave only when they are alert and fully recovered.</p> <p>Your child’s hair may be a little sticky from the paste that was used to attach the electrodes to their scalp. You can easily wash it away with shampoo and water.</p><h2>How do I prepare my child for a MEG scan?</h2> <ul><li>Explain what will happen during the MEG in words your child understands.</li> <li>Make sure your child’s hair is freshly washed. Check for any signs of <a href="/article?contentid=795&language=English">head lice</a> and tell the nurse at the hospital if you see anything.</li> <li>Leave your child’s hair loose for the scan and remove any hair extensions.</li> <li>To help the electrodes stay in place during the test, do not use conditioner or styling products in your child's hair.</li> <li>Follow the instructions from your child’s MEG team to make sure your child is sleepy or asleep for the scan. You will be told to put your child to bed later than usual the night before the MEG and wake them up several times during the night. Even if your child is tired, do not allow them to sleep on their way to the scan.</li> <li>Give your child their medication as usual, unless your doctor tells you otherwise.</li></ul> <h2>Will my child need to be sedated for a MEG scan?</h2> <p>Yes, some children may need a sedative (medicine to help them keep calm or help them sleep).</p><p>If your doctor has told you that your child needs a sedative for the MEG, someone from the MEG team will contact you with instructions on when your child needs to stop eating and drinking before their appointment.</p> <p>If the MEG is booked without a sedative but you think your child needs it, please contact the MEG team at 416-813-5774 and choose option 3.</p> ​​
Maintaining a healthy dietMMaintaining a healthy dietMaintaining a healthy dietEnglishEndocrinology;NutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)PancreasEndocrine systemHealthy living and preventionAdult (19+)NA2016-10-17T04:00:00ZCatherine Pastor RN, MN, HonBSc;Vanita Pais RD, CDE;Jennifer Harrington MBBS, PhD;Jennifer Galle MD, FRCPC​000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Maintaining a healthy diet is an essential part of diabetes management. Learn why it's so important.<br></p><p>Optimal diabetes management requires healthy, balanced eating, combined when necessary with <a href="/Article?contentid=1729&language=English">insulin</a> and/or medication, and <a href="/Article?contentid=1724&language=English">blood glucose (sugar) control</a>.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Creating a meal plan provides the basis for healthy eating and safe blood sugar control.</li><li> Almost all children with diabetes need three or four regular meals to avoid low blood sugar emergencies (hypoglycemia).</li><li>Adjusting to meal planning can be difficult for some families.<br></li></ul>
Making a decision about treatment for a child with a heart conditionMMaking a decision about treatment for a child with a heart conditionMaking a decision about treatment for a child with a heart conditionEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemProcedures;Non-drug treatment;Drug treatmentAdult (19+)NA2009-12-11T05:00:00ZJennifer Russell, MD, FRCPC9.6000000000000055.2000000000000995.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about some of the issues involved in making a decision about treatment for your child with a heart condition.<br></p><p> This page highlights some important factors to consider when making decisions about your child's treatment for a heart condition. </p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>The final decision about your child's treatment is up to you and you are entitled to seek a second opinion from another expert.</li> <li> Seeking a second opinion may prolong the time until your child gets treatment.</li> <li>Diagnoses are a matter of judgment and doctors can disagree on how best to treat certain conditions.</li> <li> Bioethics consultants at the hospital can help parents with ethical or moral concerns about their child's treatment.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/making_a_decision_about_treatment.jpg
Making sure you understand the diagnosis of congenital heart defectsMMaking sure you understand the diagnosis of congenital heart defectsMaking sure you understand the diagnosis of congenital heart defectsEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-12-14T05:00:00ZRobert Hamilton, MD, FRCPC7.4000000000000064.5000000000000450.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>This page highlights how to ensure a diagnosis is completely understood. Asking questions to clarify the diagnosis is an acceptable and expected thing to do.</p><p> Receiving an official diagnosis can feel overwhelming. Doctors and members of the healthcare team are there to answer your questions and explain your child's condition in detail.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li> Doctors understand and expect that you will ask questions to clarify information about your child's condition.</li> <li>It is necessary for you to understand your child's condition in order to make decisions about their treatment.</li> <li> Write down medical information that the doctor tells you so you can refer back to it later. </li></ul>
MalariaMMalariaMalariaEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Small Intestine;Large Intestine/Colon;BodyImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2010-03-05T05:00:00ZSheila Jacobson, MBBCh, FRCPC7.9000000000000056.0000000000000704.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>An overview of malaria and the signs, symptoms, treatment and prevention of this infection passed on by mosquitoes.</p><h2>What is malaria?</h2> <p>Malaria is an infection caused by parasites. It is passed from person to person by mosquitoes. The infection leads to chills, fever, and other flu-like symptoms. If left untreated, malaria can be deadly. Children are most at risk for malaria. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Malaria is an infection. It is passed on by mosquitoes. Malaria can be caught while travelling in some parts of the world. </li> <li>The symptoms may be similar to a terrible flu.</li><li>If your child has malaria symptoms, see a doctor right away. </li><li>If left untreated, malaria can be deadly. </li><li>If you plan to visit an area affected by malaria, you need to prepare to avoid infection.</li></ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of malaria</h2> <p>Malaria symptoms usually appear six to 30 days after infection. Symptoms may take up to 12 months to show. The symptoms are similar to a terrible flu: </p> <ul> <li>fever</li> <li>chills</li> <li>headache</li> <li>nausea</li> <li>vomiting</li> <li>diarrhea</li> <li>extreme weakness</li> <li>muscle aches</li> <li>pain in the abdomen, back and joints</li> <li>coughing</li> <li>confusion</li> </ul> <p>Malaria is a dangerous cause of fever in children who return from travelling. Fever is a symptom, not a disease. It is the body's response to infections. A fever may mean that something serious is occurring. It needs to be investigated by a doctor.</p> <p>If your child shows several of these signs, see a doctor right away. If not treated properly, they can get worse rapidly. </p> <p>Once treated, symptoms usually go away in a few days. Some children take longer to recover. </p> <p>Many other diseases share the same signs as malaria. This may delay diagnosis in children. </p><h2>Malaria is common in some parts of the world</h2><ul><li>Africa</li><li>Asia</li><li>the Middle East</li><li>South America</li><li>Central America</li></ul><p>Children may catch the infection when visiting these areas. It is important to prepare ahead of time when travelling. Carry and take the proper medication.</p> <figure class="asset-c-100"> <span class="asset-image-title">Countries where malaria is common</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Malaria_occurrence_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="World map showing areas where there is risk of contracting malaria" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">There is a risk of malaria in the countries on the map that are coloured in red. Data taken from the World Health Organization's World Malaria Report 2009.</figcaption> </figure><h2>What your child's doctor can do </h2> <p>If the doctor suspects malaria, your child may need to go to the hospital. Blood tests will help with diagnosis. Blood tests can determine what type of parasite caused the infection.</p><h2>Treatment</h2> <p>Malaria is treated with specific medicine. The type and length of treatment depends on:</p> <ul> <li>the type of parasite </li> <li>the severity of the illness</li> <li>the age of the child</li> <li>the pattern of drug resistance in the area travelled</li> </ul> <p>Your child may need to see a doctor specializing in infectious diseases or tropical medicine. Extreme cases of malaria might require a special type of blood transfusion.</p><h2>Complications</h2> <p>Severe complications include:</p> <ul> <li>brain damage</li> <li>severe anaemia</li> <li>shock</li> <li>seizure</li> <li>kidney failure</li> <li>coma</li> </ul><h2>When to seek medical assistance after treatment:</h2> <h3>See your child's regular doctor if:</h3> <ul> <li>your child's fever or other symptoms do not respond in one to two days to the medication</li> <li>your child misses days of medication</li> <li>your child has yellow eyes</li> </ul> <h3>Take your child to the nearest Emergency Department, or call 911 if necessary, if your child:</h3> <ul> <li>appears confused </li> <li>has a high fever that is not brought down by <a href="/Article?contentid=62&language=English">acetaminophen</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=153&language=English">ibuprofen</a></li> <li>has difficulty breathing</li> <li>has severe stomach pains</li> <li>is not able to tolerate medication by mouth</li> <li>has not passed urine in 8 hours or has very dark urine</li> <li>is fainting</li> <li>has had a seizure</li> <li>is lethargic </li> <li>is not looking well</li> <li>has abnormal bruising</li> <li>if you have any other concerns</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/malaria.jpg
Malignant hyperthermiaMMalignant hyperthermiaMalignant hyperthermiaEnglishPain/AnaesthesiaChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2015-02-09T05:00:00ZKelly Shackell, RN;Mark F. Levine, MBBCh, FRCPC;Sheila Riazi, MSc, MD, FRCPC;Helen Forrest, ANPE12.000000000000041.00000000000001404.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn what to do if your child is at risk for malignant hyperthermia and has to have surgery.</p><h2>What is malignant hyperthermia?</h2><p>Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare, but potentially deadly disorder of the muscles. It can be triggered with the use of <a href="/article?contentid=1261&language=English">general anaesthesia</a> during surgery. What happens to the body in patients with MH is complex. When certain individuals are exposed to anaesthetic gases and certain muscle relaxants used to put a patient to sleep during surgery, calcium levels in the muscle cells increase. This causes the muscles to have difficulty relaxing. As a result, there is a rapid increase in metabolism in the body, which leads to a rise in metabolic acids and changes to electrolytes in the patient’s bloodstream. This reaction will cause the heart to start pumping rapidly, the breathing rate to become very fast, and the core body temperature to rise very rapidly (to more than 40 degrees Celsius).<br></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare, inherited metabolic disorder that is triggered, or activated, by commonly used general anaesthetic gases or anaesthetic-related muscle relaxant.</li> <li>If you are aware of any family history of MH, please notify your surgeon and ask for a consultation with the pre-anaesthesia clinic.</li> <li>During the procedure, the anesthesiologist will avoid anesthetic gases and muscle relaxants that are known to trigger reactions. This will almost completely remove the likelihood of an MH reaction occurring.</li> <li>Your child will be closely monitored for a minimum of 2 hours in the recovery room.</li> <li>You may take your child home on the day of surgery if there have not been any problems during the aanesthesia.</li> <li>If you see any signs of a reaction, please return to hospital or head to your nearest emergency department, and asked to be assessed by a member of the anaesthesia team.</li> </ul><h2>Who is affected?</h2> <p>Malignant hyperthermia is an inherited condition that only requires one parent to pass on the gene. Not everyone who has the defective gene will develop MH when exposed to anaesthetic gases or muscle relaxants. Malignant hyperthermia is believed to occur in one in 15,000 to 30,000 children who undergo anaesthesia. Therefore, close monitoring of patients undergoing anaesthesia is essential, for quick recognition and administration of rescue medications. Most MH reactions occur in the operating room (OR); however, in rare circumstances, a reaction may occur up to 6 hours after receiving a triggering anaesthetic.</p><h2>What if I have a family history of MH and my child needs surgery?</h2><p>You may not be aware that your child is at risk for MH unless a family member has had a life-threatening event resembling MH during anaesthesia or has had a test (a muscle biopsy) that confirms they have the condition. When undergoing any procedure that involves an anaesthetic, it is important to provide a detailed family history to your anesthesiologist, including incidents of high temperature, muscle stiffness, or death in family members who have had anaesthesia.</p><p>If you are aware of any family history of MH, please notify your surgeon and ask for a consultation with the <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/Anesthesia/programsservices/preanesthesia-assessment-clinic/Preanesthesia%20Assessment%20Clinic.html">pre-anaesthesia clinic.</a> Anyone who is closely related to someone else who has experienced MH is considered susceptible (at risk) and must be managed accordingly until their status is confirmed. The consultation can be done over the phone or by appointment.</p><p>The pre-anaesthesia clinic nurses and the anaesthesiologist will review your child’s medical history. If there is a family history, a previous suspected reaction to anesthesia, or a positive muscle biopsy, then your child will be considered “malignant hyperthermia susceptible (MHS)”, meaning more at risk for developing an MH reaction. The anaesthesiologist would then use a special anaesthetic that does not contain the medications that cause the reaction.</p><p>A special type of muscle biopsy can confirm the diagnosis in suspected cases of MH. Muscle biopsy testing must be done at a hospital that is able to perform this special type of test, which is called the caffeine-halothane contracture test. Only one hospital in Canada is set up to perform this test. A significant amount of thigh muscle is required to complete the test. Due to these limitations, biopsies are rarely performed in children and a family history is usually used for a MHS diagnosis.</p><h2>Day of surgery</h2><p>On the day of surgery, your doctor will talk to you about your family history and the plan of care for your child. The surgery will be scheduled early in the day to allow the anaesthesiologist time to prepare the anaesthetic gas machines for your child’s procedure. Before the surgery, the anaesthesiologist will flush the machine with oxygen to ensure that there are no traces of the triggering anaesthetic gas from previous use. During the procedure, the anaesthesiologist will avoid anesthetic gases and muscle relaxants that are known to trigger MH reactions—this will almost completely remove the likelihood of an MH reaction from occurring. In the operating room, the anaesthesiologist will monitor your child closely for changes in breathing, heart rate, and heart rhythm, and will look for muscle stiffness. As well, the doctor will continuously monitor your child’s temperature and look for any other indications of an MH reaction.</p><h2>After surgery</h2><p>After the operation is complete, your child will be accompanied by the anaesthesiologist to the <a href="/article?contentid=1262&language=English">post-anaesthetic care unit</a> (PACU) for further monitoring for signs of an MH reaction and to recover from the procedure. The anesthesiologist will inform the nurses in the recovery room of your child’s history and what kind of monitoring is required. As recommended by the <a target="_blank" href="http://www.mhaus.org/">Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States</a> (MHAUS), your child will be closely monitored for a minimum of two hours in the recovery room, with vital signs being checked every 15 minutes. A heart rhythm monitor, temperature probe (a special thermometer), and an oxygen sensor will also be placed on your child for close observation. The anaesthesiologist will be notified by the nurse of any changes to your child’s condition. The likelihood of a reaction occurring after a trigger-free anaesthetic is very small. If no signs of a reaction develop during the first two hours of close monitoring, and your child has met the requirements for discharge, your nurse will contact the anaesthesiologist in charge of your child’s care to confirm that your child can be discharged home or be transferred to a surgical nursing unit. Transfer to a unit may be necessary for recovery from the operation or for more monitoring and nursing care. The MHAUS recommends that patients go home on the same day as surgery if they have not had problems during anaesthesia.</p><h2>Staying in hospital</h2><p>If your child is to be transferred to an inpatient ward, your nurse will give a report to the surgical unit nurse about your child’s stay in the recovery room and any further monitoring that is required. The MHAUS recommends that after the recovery room stay, a patient susceptible to MH should be monitored every hour for four hours, then every four hours for 24 hours. Your nurse will monitor your child for the signs listed above, in addition to any further instructions from the surgical team. If any concerns arise with your child, the nurse will contact the surgical team immediately. If your child’s stay is uneventful, the surgical team will discharge them when appropriate. Follow the physician’s instructions once the child is at home.</p><p>If you require any further information, please do not hesitate to contact your family doctor or surgeon.</p><h2>Further information</h2><h3>AboutKidsHealth.ca</h3><ul><li> <a href="/article?contentid=1261&language=English">General anaesthesia</a></li><li> <a href="/article?contentid=1166&language=English">Surgery: Getting ready for your child’s operation</a><br></li><li> <a href="/article?contentid=1262&language=English">Post anaesthetic care unit: Visiting your child in the PACU</a></li><li> <a href="/article?contentid=1252&language=English">Post operative and post anaesthesia: Caring for your child at home</a></li><li> <a href="/article?contentid=966&language=English">Temperature taking</a></li></ul><h3>Other online references<br></h3><ul><li> <a target="_blank" href="http://www.mhaus.org/">Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States</a></li><li> <a target="_blank" href="http://pie.med.utoronto.ca/">Toronto General Hospital</a></li></ul>
Management of type 1 diabetesMManagement of type 1 diabetesManagement of type 1 diabetesEnglishEndocrinologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)PancreasEndocrine systemNon-drug treatmentAdult (19+)NA2016-10-17T04:00:00ZCatherine Pastor, RN, MN, HonBSc;Vanita Pais, RD, CDE;Danielle van der Kaay, MD, PhD​​​​10.400000000000049.6000000000000835.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas stops producing insulin. Learn how this chronic condition is managed.</p><p>​Although there is no cure for diabetes, the condition can be effectively managed. You are not alone in managing your child’s diabetes. From the time of first diagnosis, you will work closely with a diabetes​ care team that includes a nurse, physician, dietician, social worker and other health-care professionals as needed.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>The first step in managing diabetes is learning the skills needed to take care of it.</li><li>The goals of treatment are to keep blood sugar levels within a healthy range, and help your child adjust well to living with diabetes.</li><li>Your child with type 1 diabetes will require insulin shots.</li><li>Healthy eating and physical exercise are important parts of diabetes management.<br></li></ul>
Management of type 2 diabetesMManagement of type 2 diabetesManagement of type 2 diabetesEnglishEndocrinologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)PancreasEndocrine systemNon-drug treatmentAdult (19+)NA2016-10-17T04:00:00ZCatherine Pastor, RN, MN, HonBSc;Vanita Pais, RD, CDE;Jennifer Harrington​, MBBS, PhD​8.9000000000000061.30000000000001583.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>In type 2 diabetes, the body does not produce enough insulin, or it cannot properly use what it produces. Learn how type 2 diabetes is managed.</p><p><a href="/Article?contentid=1721&language=English">Type 2​ diabetes</a> is a disease that usually runs in families. Other family members may already have diabetes or may be at risk for developing it. For this reason, it is important that everyone in the family learn about diabetes, learn how to help monitor <a href="/Article?contentid=1723&language=English">blood glucose (sugar) levels</a>, and start adopting a healthy lifestyle.​​<br></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>In children and teens with diabetes, blood sugar levels are higher than normal and must be brought down to a target level.</li> <li>Children and teens must check and record blood sugar levels in order to properly manage their diabetes.</li> <li>Maintaining a healthy diet and exercising regularly are key to managing type 2 diabetes.</li> <li>Some children and teens will require medication or insulin to manage their diabetes.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_blood_glucose_variables_EN.jpg
Managing and monitoring anti-epileptic drugsMManaging and monitoring anti-epileptic drugsManaging and monitoring anti-epileptic drugsEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemDrug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+) EducatorsNA2010-02-04T05:00:00ZAleksandra Bjelajac Mejia, BSPharm, PharmD, RPh;Elizabeth J. Donner, MD, FRCPC8.0000000000000065.30000000000001205.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out how to help your child manage their AEDs.</p><p>When a child is taking an AED (anti-epileptic drug) it is important to manage medications properly and monitor your child regularly. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul>Learn about your child's medication and follow the prescription from your doctor exactly. <li>Do not give your child any new medicine before talking with your child's doctor or reviewing with a pharmacist.</li> <li>Your child's doctor will monitor your child to keep watch for drug side effects, toxicity and any build-up of tolerance.</li> <li>If your child's doctor decides it is time to reduce or stop an AED, follow their instructions carefully.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/managing_and_minitoring_anti_epileptic_drugs.jpg
Marfan syndrome and congenital heart conditionsMMarfan syndrome and congenital heart conditionsMarfan syndrome and congenital heart conditionsEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-12-14T05:00:00ZFraser Golding, MD, FRCPC10.000000000000046.0000000000000291.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Marfan syndrome is a rare hereditary disorder of connective tissue. About 60% to 80% of people with this syndrome have heart problems.</p><p> Children with Marfan syndrome, a rare disorder of connective tissue, often have heart conditions.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>Marfan syndrome is a rare disorder caused by a mutation to a gene on chromosome 15 that results in weak connective tissues.</li> <li> Children with Marfan syndrome develop physical problems but can lead healthy, normal lives. </li> <li> Children with Marfan syndrome often experience heart problems and will need to be monitored regularly.</li></ul>
Massage and nerve stimulation for pain managementMMassage and nerve stimulation for pain managementMassage and nerve stimulation for pain managementEnglishPain/AnaesthesiaChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyCentral nervous system;Peripheral nervous system;Autonomic nervous systemSymptomsCaregivers Adult (19+)Pain2009-09-18T04:00:00ZAnne Ayling-Campos, BScPT9.2000000000000056.6000000000000417.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the benefits of using massage and TENS for effective pain management.</p>
Mastoidectomy to treat cholesteatoma or ear infectionMMastoidectomy to treat cholesteatoma or ear infectionMastoidectomy to treat cholesteatoma or ear infectionEnglishOtolaryngologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)EarsNervous systemProceduresCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-10T05:00:00ZDenise Kipling, RN, BScN;Charlotte Cormack-Jones, RN, BScN;Tomka George, RN;Pauline Lackey, RN;Blake Papsin, MSc, MD, FRCSC, FACS, FAAP7.0000000000000069.20000000000001608.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>A mastoidectomy is surgery to remove a part of the bone behind a child's ear. Learn about what to expect during the operation and follow up treatment.</p><p>Your child needs an operation to take away part of the bone from behind the ear. This operation is called a mastoidectomy (say: MAST-oid-ECK-toe-mee). This operation will be performed by an otolaryngology (say OH-toe-lar-ing-olo-gee) doctor. </p><p>This brochure explains what will happen during the operation and how to care for your child at home. Use this information to explain to your child what will happen, using words they can understand. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>A mastoidectomy is an operation to take away part of the bone from behind the ear.</li> <li>A mastoidectomy is done because of an infection or cholesteatoma that spreads to the mastoid bone.</li> <li>Your child will need an operation to remove the diseased part of the mastoid bone.</li> <li>Your child will need to have an anaesthetic. Your child will need to stay overnight in the hospital after the procedure.</li> </ul><h2>When to call the doctor</h2> <p>These are signs that there is a problem:</p> <ul> <li>fever of 38.5°C (101°F) or higher</li> <li>blood or fluid leaking from the ear for more than two days </li> <li>vomiting (throwing up) that does not stop </li> <li>pain that gets worse </li> <li>redness or swelling around the ear and the incision </li> <li>the packing falls out of the ear </li> </ul> <p>If your child has any of these signs, call your child's otolaryngologist, the otolaryngology clinic, or your family doctor right away. </p> <p>If this is an emergency, or if you are concerned about your child's condition, do not wait. Take your child to the closest emergency department right away. </p><h2>Why a mastoidectomy is needed</h2><p>The bone behind the ear is called the mastoid bone (say: MAST-oid).</p><p>Your child may need a mastoidectomy because of one of these problems in the mastoid bone:</p><ul><li>infection</li><li>cholesteatoma</li></ul><h3>Infection</h3><p>The mastoid bone contains hollow spaces called air cells. The air cells are connected to the middle ear, which is the part of the ear behind the eardrum. Sometimes, infections in the middle ear can spread to the air cells in the mastoid bone.</p><p>If your child has too many infections in the mastoid bone, the bone can become soft. If this happens, that part of the bone must be taken away. Taking away the diseased part of the bone does these things:</p><ul><li>It stops the spread of infection.</li><li>Sometimes the hearing is slightly poorer after the surgery but the procedure stops any more damage to the ear and to your child's hearing.</li></ul><h3>Cholesteatoma</h3><p>A cholesteatoma (say: KOE-less-tee-uh-TOE-ma) is a growth in the middle ear. Layers of skin build up in the middle ear. If a cholesteatoma gets too big, it can damage your child's ear or their hearing.</p><p>If your child has a cholesteatoma, they may have some or all of these symptoms:</p><ul><li>bad-smelling fluid leaking from the ear</li><li>full feeling in the ear</li><li>pressure in the ear</li><li>loss of hearing</li></ul><p>These symptoms can also be caused by other problems. Your child may need to take several tests to find out what is causing the symptoms.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Cholesteatoma</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Cholesteatoma_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Identification of the cholesteatoma, middle ear and ear drum" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">A cholesteatoma is a growth of skin in the part of the ear behind the ear drum (the middle ear). This growth is like a cyst that builds up layers of skin in the middle ear.</figcaption> </figure> <p>A cholesteatoma can spread into the mastoid bone. If this happens, your child will need a mastoidectomy to stop any more damage to your child's ear or their hearing. Sometimes, removing the cholesteatoma may make the hearing slightly worse but often not enough for the child to notice.</p><figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Mastoidectomy</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Mastoidectomy_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Incision line over mastoid bone on side of head and close-up of bone with mastoid air cells and with air cells removed" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The mastoid bone is located in the skull just behind the ear. When a mastoidectomy is performed, the air cells in the mastoid bone are removed.</figcaption> </figure> <h2>The operation takes about three hours</h2><p>Your child will have a special "sleep medicine" called a <a href="/Article?contentid=1261&language=English">general anesthetic</a>. This will make sure that they sleep during the operation and do not feel any pain. </p><p>An otolaryngologist/head and neck surgeon will do the operation. An otolaryngologist (say OH-toe-lar-ing-olo-gist) is a doctor who specializes in problems with the ear, nose and throat. </p><p>The doctor makes a cut behind the ear and takes out the affected mastoid bone. Then the doctor stitches the skin closed. The doctor may put a drain behind the ear to stop fluid and blood from collecting around the cut. This drain will be taken out before your child goes home from the hospital. </p><p>The operation takes about three hours.</p><h2>After the operation</h2> <p>After the operation, we will take your child to the recovery room, also called the <a href="/Article?contentid=1262&language=English">Post Anesthetic Care Unit (PACU)</a>. This is where your child will wake up. Your child will stay in PACU for about one hour. We will then move your child to a room on the nursing unit. </p> <p>You will be able to see your child as soon as they are fully awake. A volunteer from the Surgical Waiting Room will bring you to see your child. </p> <p>Your child will have an intravenous tube (IV) in their arm. We will give your child medicine and fluids through the IV until they can drink easily. </p> <p>Your child may have a gauze bandage on their ear or around their head. Your child's doctor will take the bandage off the day after the operation. If your child has a drain, the doctor will remove it at the same time. </p> <p>Your child's ear may also be packed with a ribbon or sponge pack which will be taken out during a clinic visit after the operation.</p> <h3>Your child may feel dizzy</h3> <p>Your child may feel dizzy after the operation. You or another adult should be with your child when they get out of bed on the day of the surgery. </p> <h3>Taking care of your child's pain</h3> <p>If your child has pain after the operation, we will give them pain medicine, either through the IV tube in their arm or by a pill or liquid to swallow. You know your child best. If you think your child is in pain, tell the nurse. </p> <h3>Eating and drinking</h3> <p>Your child will probably ask for sips of water two to three hours after the operation. After your child can drink, we will start adding their usual food. </p> <h3>Your child will stay in the hospital overnight</h3> <p>You will be able to stay overnight with your child in their room.</p><h2>Before the operation</h2> <p>Several hours before the operation, your child will need to stop eating and drinking. The doctor or nurse will tell you when your child must stop eating and drinking. </p> <p>Write this information down here:</p> <ul> <li>The date and time of the operation: </li> <li>When your child must stop eating: </li> <li>When your child must stop drinking clear fluids: </li> <li>Other things to remember: </li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Cholesteatoma_MED_ILL_EN.jpg
Maternal & newbornMMaternal & newbornMaternal & newbornYourNewbornEnglishNANewborn (0-28 days)NANANACaregivers Adult (19+)NALanding PageLearning Hub<p>Learn about newborn nutrition, routine care and everyday health issues as well as some common physical and emotional adjustments to life after pregnancy.</p><p>Your baby's first month is an exciting, and sometimes overwhelming, time. Learn about newborn nutrition, routine care and everyday health issues as well as some common physical and emotional adjustments to life after pregnancy.</p>YourNewbornhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Pregnancy_newborn_landing_page.jpg
Maternal conditions and pregnancyMMaternal conditions and pregnancyMaternal conditions and pregnancyEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)BodyReproductive systemConditions and diseasesPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-11T04:00:00ZNicolette Caccia, MEd, MD, FRCSCRory Windrim, MB, MSc, FRCSC11.500000000000041.9000000000000553.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>In-depth information regarding various chronic maternal conditions that can have an effect on the baby or mother during pregnancy.</p><p>Some chronic illnesses in the mother can complicate pregnancy and pose a threat to the unborn baby. It is important to get these conditions under control before becoming pregnant. In some cases, a change in treatment may be needed before pregnancy begins, because some medications are harmful to the developing baby. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Some chronic illnesses, such as asthma, epilepsy and diabetes, can complicate a pregnancy and posed threat to the unborn baby.</li> <li>Some treatments may have to be changed before pregnancy as some medications or treatments can be harmful to the baby.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/maternal_conditions_and_pregnancy.jpg
MathematicsMMathematicsMathematicsEnglishDevelopmentalToddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years)NANANAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZVirginia Frisk, Ph.D., C. Psych10.400000000000045.0000000000000839.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Difficulties with math are among the most common educational problems for children who were born prematurely. However, at least one study has shown that early educational intervention improves math performance in these children.</p><p>Difficulties with math are among the most common educational problems for children who were born prematurely. However, at least one study has shown that early educational intervention improves math performance in these children.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Math comprehension involves sorting things into categories, solving problems using patterns, solving spatial problems, and using logic.</li> <li>Impairments in visuospatial abilities, working memory, or language can affect math development in children.</li> <li>There are certain mathematic milestones children should reach during each school year.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/mathematics_premature_babies.jpg
Mathematics milestonesMMathematics milestonesMathematics milestonesEnglishDevelopmentalSchool age child (5-8 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZVirginia Frisk, Ph.D., C. Psych8.9000000000000051.6000000000000789.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn the math skills expected of your child by Grade 1.</p><p>Math comprehension is more than just numbers. Math is also about sorting things into categories such as big, bigger, and biggest; solving problems using patterns; solving spatial problems; and using logic. Skills such as these are very important beyond the classroom.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Math skills depend on skills such as visuospatial abilities, working memory and language.</li><li>Math skills are divided into five different areas: number sense and numeration; measurement; geometry and spatial sense; patterning and algebra; data management and probability.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/mathematics_milestones.jpg
Mathematics problems: How to help your childMMathematics problems: How to help your childMathematics problems: How to help your childEnglishDevelopmentalPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZVirginia Frisk, Ph.D., C. Psych6.8000000000000068.0000000000000874.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>For all strands of the mathematics curriculum, workbooks are available that can be used to supplement school activities. When using workbooks, be sure to reward your child with stickers and/or praise after completing tasks and at the end of the session.</p><p>For all strands of the mathematics curriculum, workbooks are available that can be used to supplement school activities. When using workbooks, be sure to reward your child with stickers and/or praise after completing tasks and at the end of the session. Use the workbooks at the same time each day to build a routine. </p><p>There are also computer programs that can help your child learn different aspects of math. Many of these programs can be used by children of different ages and abilities. These programs teach key concepts and provide drills. Use the software with your child, and then have them use it by themselves.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>​Workbooks and computer programs are available that can be used to supplement school activities.</li><li>​Some children have difficulty learning automatic math facts, number sense and numeration.</li><li>​Children with visuospatial difficulties may have trouble with geometry and spatial sense.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/mathematics_problems_how_to_help.jpg
Mathematics resourcesMMathematics resourcesMathematics resourcesEnglishDevelopmentalPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years)NANASupport, services and resourcesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZVirginia Frisk, Ph.D., C. Psych8.4000000000000053.8000000000000294.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>There are many mathematics books, games, computer programs and other resources available for parents to help their child learn math skills.</p><p>There are many mathematics books, games, computer programs and other resources available for parents to help their child learn math skills. Here are just a few. Contact your local board of education for more information.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Use books, games, computer programs and other resources to help your child learn math skills.​</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/mathematics_resources.jpg
Mathematics: How to help your childMMathematics: How to help your childMathematics: How to help your childEnglishDevelopmentalToddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years)NANANAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZVirginia Frisk, Ph.D., C. Psych6.7000000000000068.1000000000000838.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>For all strands of the mathematics curriculum, workbooks are available that can be used to supplement school activities. When using workbooks, be sure to reward your child with stickers and/or praise after completing tasks and at the end of the session.</p><p>For all strands of the mathematics curriculum, workbooks are available that can be used to supplement school activities. Use the workbooks at the same time each day to build a routine. There are also computer programs that can help your child learn different aspects of math. Many of these programs can be used by children of different ages and abilities. These programs teach key concepts and provide drills. Use the software with your child, and then have them use it by themselves. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>For each math category, there are workbooks and computer programs to help your child develop their mathematical skills.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Hundreds_board_MISC_FLA_EN.jpg
Mathematics: When to worryMMathematics: When to worryMathematics: When to worryEnglishDevelopmentalSchool age child (5-8 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZVirginia Frisk, Ph.D., C. Psych8.2000000000000052.7000000000000306.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Math skills are divided into different categories. Within these categories, learn about the specific signs that indicate your child may be having difficulty.</p><p>Math skills are divided into different categories. Within these categories, here are some specific signs that your child may be having difficulty.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Math skills are divided into five different areas: number sense and numeration; measurement; geometry and spatial sense; patterning and algebra; data management and probability.</li><li>There are specific signs in each of the categories to look for that indicate your child may be having difficulty.​</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/mathematics_when_to_worry.jpg
Meal planning for children with diabetesMMeal planning for children with diabetesMeal planning for children with diabetesEnglishEndocrinology;NutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)PancreasEndocrine systemHealthy living and preventionAdult (19+)NA2016-10-17T04:00:00ZCatherine Pastor RN, MN, HonBSc;Vanita Pais RD, CDE;Jennifer Harrington MBBS, PhD;Jennifer Galle MD, FRCPC​8.5000000000000055.70000000000001136.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Your child's meal plan must be flexible and realistic. Find out what you need to know before setting up a healthy meal plan.</p><p>Your child's meal plan must be flexible and realistic, while taking into account your child's lifestyle, likes and dislikes.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>The main goals of a meal plan are to satisfy appetite, promote normal growth and development, balance carbohydrates with insulin, be easy to follow.</li> <li>Learning about how much sugar different foods contain is an important part of diabetes nutrition.</li> <li>It is important to know how to read food labels, especially for carbohydrate counting.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMN_fat_saturated_foods_EN.png
Meal planning with changing carbohydrate intakesMMeal planning with changing carbohydrate intakesMeal planning with changing carbohydrate intakesEnglishEndocrinology;NutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)PancreasEndocrine systemHealthy living and preventionAdult (19+)NA2016-10-17T04:00:00ZCatherine Pastor RN, MN, HonBSc;Vanita Pais RD, CDE;Jennifer Harrington MBBS, PhD;Jennifer Galle MD, FRCPC​11.000000000000048.8000000000000395.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read the story of 13-year-old Sara and how her meal plan with changing carbohydrate intakes works for her.</p><p>Optimal diabetes management requires healthy, balanced eating, combined when necessary with <a href="/Article?contentid=1729&language=English">insulin</a> and/or medication, and blood glucose (sugar) control. The best way to manage your child's diet is to create a meal plan. Your child's meal plan provides the basis for healthy eating and safe <a href="/Article?contentid=1724&language=English">blood sugar control</a>. The meal plan discussed below features changing carbohydrate intakes.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Meal planning with changing carbohydrate intakes involves taking the amount of insulin necessary to match the amount of carbohydrates eaten.</li><li>The insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio is the amount carbohydrates that one unit of rapid-acting insulin makes available to the body cells to consume.<br></li></ul>
Meal planning with consistent carbohydrate intakesMMeal planning with consistent carbohydrate intakesMeal planning with consistent carbohydrate intakesEnglishEndocrinology;NutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)PancreasEndocrine systemHealthy living and preventionAdult (19+)NA2016-10-17T04:00:00ZCatherine Pastor RN, MN, HonBSc;Vanita Pais RD, CDE;Jennifer Harrington MBBS, PhD;Jennifer Galle MD, FRCPC​9.5000000000000058.9000000000000831.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read the story of 12-year-old Pino and how his meal plan with consistent carbohydrate intakes works for him.</p><p>Optimal diabetes management requires healthy, balanced eating, combined when necessary with <a href="/Article?contentid=1729&language=English">insulin</a> and/or medication, and blood glucose (sugar) control. The best way to manage your child's diet is to create a meal plan. Your child's meal plan provides the basis for healthy eating and safe <a href="/Article?contentid=1724&language=English">blood sugar control</a>. The meal plan discussed below features consistent carbohydrate intakes.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>This approach to meal planning considers the total amount of carbohydrates eaten at each meal and snack and sets an amount of carbohydrates to be eaten in each meal and snack.</li> <li>While on this type of insulin regimen, children must eat similar amounts and types of foods for meals and snacks at the same time each day.</li></ul>
MeaslesMMeaslesMeaslesEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)SkinImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Cough;Eye discomfort and redness;Fever;Rash;Runny nose2014-06-17T04:00:00ZShawna Silver, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, Peng8.0000000000000061.3000000000000943.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn the symptoms and causes of measles and how to care for your child if they are infected. </p><p>Measles is an infection caused by a virus. It occurs most often in the late winter and spring. When someone with the virus coughs or sneezes, contaminated droplets spread through the air and land on nearby surfaces. Your child can catch the virus by inhaling these droplets or by touching them and then touching their face, mouth, eyes or ears.</p> <p>Your child is more likely to develop measles if they do not have the measles vaccination and if they travel to other countries without being vaccinated.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Measles is an infection caused by a virus. It is very contagious and has no specific treatment.</li> <li>Usually, measles causes fever, coughing, conjunctivitis and a rash.</li> <li>Complication rates are highest among young children and include pneumonia, blindness, brain damage and death.</li> <li>Measles can be prevented with immunization.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of measles</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Measles rash</span> <img alt="Torso of child with measles rash" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Measles_torso_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.jpg" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The measles rash starts on the face, and spreads down the body towards the feet.</figcaption> </figure> <p>Common symptoms of measles include:</p><ul><li>a fever that lasts for a couple of days</li><li>a cough, runny nose, and red and watery eyes (<a href="/Article?contentid=782&language=English">conjunctivitis</a>) that follow the fever</li><li>a rash that starts on the face and upper neck and spreads down the body before spreading to the arms, hands, legs and feet.</li></ul><p>After about five days, the rash fades in the same order it appeared.</p><h2>How measles is diagnosed</h2> <p>Measles is diagnosed by a physical examination of your child. The doctor may also order blood tests or viral swabs from the nose or throat. If you think your child has measles, call your doctor before going to see them so the infection is not passed on to other patients at the doctor's office.</p><h2>Complications of measles</h2> <p>Complications are dangerous and rates are highest in young children. About a quarter of children under five years of age with measles will require admission to hospital. Some children with a measles infection will also get an <a href="/Article?contentid=8&language=English">ear infection</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a> or even <a href="/Article?contentid=784&language=English">pneumonia</a>.</p> <p>Rarely, some children who have measles also get a swelling of the brain called encephalitis. Severe cases of encephalitis can lead to seizures, hearing loss, brain damage or death.</p> <p>Children with vitamin A deficiency who get measles can become blind.</p><h2>When to see a doctor</h2> <p>Call your child's regular doctor if:</p> <ul> <li>your child's fever does not lessen four days after the rash starts</li> <li>your child's coughing gets worse</li> <li>your child develops ear pain.</li> </ul> <p>Take your child to the nearest Emergency Department or call 911 if your child:</p> <ul> <li>becomes short of breath or develops persistently noisy breathing</li> <li>shows a change in behaviour or movement problems</li> <li>has a seizure</li> <li>develops a severe headache or persistent vomiting</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Measles_closeup_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.jpg
Measuring blood sugar levelsMMeasuring blood sugar levelsMeasuring blood sugar levelsEnglishEndocrinologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)PancreasEndocrine systemTestsAdult (19+)NA2016-10-17T04:00:00ZCatherine Pastor, RN, MN, HonBSc;Vanita Pais, RD, CDE;Danielle van der Kaay, MD, PhD​​​​7.5000000000000067.0000000000000950.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn how people with diabetes measure their blood sugar levels and why it is important to do so.</p><p></p><p>Blood glucose (sugar) levels are continuously rising and falling throughout the day. People who have diabetes have to measure their blood sugar levels throughout the day, especially before they eat or exercise.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>People with diabetes must balance their blood sugar otherwise because their pancreas does not release enough insulin or their insulin is inefficient.</li> <li>To test blood sugar levels at home you will need a lancing device, a new lancet, a test strip.</li> <li>A control solution will help ensure the test strips and blood sugar meter are giving accurate results.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_blood_glucose_meters_EN.jpg
Meat and alternativesMMeat and alternativesMeat and alternativesEnglishNutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NADigestive systemHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+) Educators Hospital healthcare providers Community healthcare providers Remote populations First nationsNA2013-09-27T04:00:00ZTheresa Couto, RD;Elly Berger, BA, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, MHPE;Francy Pillo-Blocka RD, FDC000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the nutrients in and recommended serving sizes for meat and alternatives, one of the four food groups in Canada's Food Guide.</p><ul><li>Source of protein and fat</li><li>Good source of B vitamins, iron, zinc and magnesium</li></ul><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Meat and alternatives are a source of protein and a good source of B vitamins, iron, zinc and magnesium. </li><li>To limit fat intake, trim visible fat from red meat, remove skin from poultry, choose lean alternatives and try roasting, baking or poaching meat and fish.<br></li><li>Eat at least two servings of fish a week, taking care to remove bones from children's servings.</li><li>Eat meat alternatives such as beans, lentils, tofu, eggs and nuts regularly. </li></ul>
Mechanical ventilation and supplemental oxygen for premature babiesMMechanical ventilation and supplemental oxygen for premature babiesMechanical ventilation and supplemental oxygen for premature babiesEnglishNeonatology;RespiratoryPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)LungsRespiratory systemNon-drug treatmentPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZAndrew James, MBChB, MBI, FRACP, FRCPCJaques Belik, MD, FRCPC11.800000000000046.2000000000000967.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about mechanical ventilation and supplemental oxygen. Premature babies with lung complications often require supplemental oxygen.</p><p>Premature babies with lung complications will often require supplemental oxygen. There are several different ways to provide oxygen, each with its own benefits and risks.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>The simplest and least invasive method to provide oxygen is by providing a more oxygen rich environment for the baby.</li> <li>Giving a baby oxygen levels that are too high can damage the lungs or cause retinopathy of prematurity.</li> <li>Mechanical ventilation includes continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), conventional mechanical ventilation, high frequency oscillation, and high frequency jet ventilation. Each of these methods has its own benefits and risks.<br></li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/preemie_with_cpap3_EN.jpg
Meconium and meconium-related conditionsMMeconium and meconium-related conditionsMeconium and meconium-related conditionsEnglishGastrointestinalNewborn (0-28 days)Small Intestine;Large Intestine/Colon;RectumSmall intestine;Large intestine;Rectum;AnusConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2013-07-06T04:00:00ZElly Berger, MD, FRCPC, MHPE;Jonathan Hellman, MBBCh, FCP, FRCPC9.9000000000000054.8000000000000823.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn what meconium is and why it is important that your baby pass their meconium in the first 24 hours of life.</p><h2>Meconium</h2><p>Meconium is the thick, black substance that fills the baby's intestines before birth. For the first few days, when babies pass stool, the meconium is passed out of their body. Around day three to five, a baby's bowel movements turn to yellow, seedy stools.</p><ul><li>Babies should have their first meconium bowel movement within the first 24 hours of life. Some babies will pass their meconium in the delivery room. You should either observe this yourself or ask the nurse if the baby passed meconium.</li><li>If a baby does not have a bowel movement in the first 24 hours, a doctor needs to see the baby.</li><li>If a baby does not have a bowel movement in the first 24 hours, this may be due to an illness such as hypothyroidism, <a href="/Article?contentid=882&language=English">cystic fibrosis</a>, blockage of the intestines or <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=830&language=English">Hirschprung disease</a>.</li></ul> ​<h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>A baby should pass meconium in the first 24 hours of life. </li> <li>If your baby does not pass meconium in the first 24 hours, speak to your doctor. </li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/meconium_related_conditions.jpg
Medical and surgical teams for blood and marrow transplantsMMedical and surgical teams for blood and marrow transplantsMedical and surgical teams for blood and marrow transplantsEnglishHaematology;Immunology;OncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemHealth care professionalsAdult (19+)NA2010-02-12T05:00:00ZJohn Doyle, MD, FRCPC, FAAPChristine Armstrong, RN, MScN, NP Peds9.0000000000000052.0000000000000415.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the members of your child's blood and marrow transplant (BMT) medical and surgical teams.</p><p>During your child’s blood and marrow transplant (BMT), they will meet the medical and surgical BMT team.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Your child's medical and surgical team may include a haematologist/oncologist, an immunologist, a staff transplant physician, and doctors in training such as residents, medical students and fellows.</li></ul>
Medical and surgical teams for premature babiesMMedical and surgical teams for premature babiesMedical and surgical teams for premature babiesEnglishNeonatologyPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)NANAHealth care professionalsPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZAndrew James, MBChB, MBI, FRACP, FRCPC12.000000000000035.0000000000000826.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the medical and surgical teams that work with premature babies. These might include a neonatologist and a paediatric surgeon.</p><p>There are two kinds of specialists who will look after your premature baby: neonatologists and paediatric surgeons. After medical school they spend about six to eight years in specialty training, depending on their area of focus. Each role involves varying degrees of training and research. Your baby will also be cared for by a clinical nurse specialist/neonatal nurse practitioner as well as doctors in training.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>A neonatologist specializes in the care of new born babies, while a paediatric surgeon specializes in operations on newborns, babies and children.</li> <li>If your premature baby is being treated at a teaching hospital, you and your baby will encounter doctors in training including medical students, interns, residents and fellows.</li> <li>A clinical nurse specialist/neonatal nurse practitioner provide medical and holistic care to newborn babies in hospital.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Andrew-James-with-preemie-B_EN.jpg
Medical care for your child with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)MMedical care for your child with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)Medical care for your child with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)EnglishGeneticsChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Eyes;SkinSkin;NervesConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2010-01-27T05:00:00ZElena Pope, MD, MSc, FRCPC;Patricia Parkin, MD, FRCPC;Stephen Meyn, MD, PhD, FRCPC, FACMG;Andrea Shugar, MS, CGC, CCGC8.3000000000000059.8000000000000793.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>A child with neurofibromatosis type 1 must have consistent medical care. Parents can use this checklist to ensure their child receives all the care they need.</p><p>All people with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) (say: noor-oh-fie-broh-muh-TOE-sis) should receive regular medical care at every age. Many complications of NF1 happen before the age of six, so the health of babies and young children should be watched most closely. </p> <p>This page has general guidelines for the care of children with NF1. Remember that your child will have their own unique needs. Talk to your child's doctor if you have concerns. This will ensure your child receives the best care possible. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>People with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) should receive regular care and monitoring throughout life. </li><li>Parents should talk to their child's doctor if they have any concerns about new or concerning symptoms. </li></ul><h2>Medical care from birth to one year old</h2> <p>Your child's doctor will:</p> <ul> <li>Track how your baby grows and develops. This includes their weight, height and the size of their head. </li> <li>Check your baby's skin for café-au-lait spots and neurofibromas. </li> <li>Check your baby for signs of plexiform (deep) neurofibromas </li> <li>Refer your baby to an ophthalmologist (eye doctor) for an eye exam to look for signs of optic nerve involvement. </li> <li>Perform a neurological exam to look for signs of brain or spinal cord involvement (neurological problems). </li> <li>Perform a careful physical exam for bone problems, especially in your baby's spine and legs. </li> <li>Refer your baby for early intervention services or to medical specialists, if needed.</li> </ul> <p>Routine brain imaging such as a computerized tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is not advised for babies that do not have any symptoms. The doctor may order an MRI if they suspect that the brain or spine are affected. </p> <h2>Medical care from one to five years old</h2> <p>Your child's doctor will:</p> <ul> <li>Check your child's skin for neurofibromas, café au lait spots, and armpit or groin freckling.</li> <li>Check your child for signs of plexiform neurofibromas </li> <li>Perform a neurological exam to look for signs of brain or spinal cord involvement. The doctor may order a MRI if they suspect that the brain or spine are affected. </li> <li>Assess your child's development, including gross motor, fine motor, speech and language, and social skills </li> <li>Assess your child's growth </li> <li>Measure your child's blood pressure each year. </li> <li>Check your child's vision and refer your child for eye exams once a year to look for signs of optic nerve involvement. </li> <li>Check your child for scoliosis (curving of the spine). </li> <li>Refer your child for counselling, specialized medical care or other services as needed. </li> </ul> <h2>Medical care from five to 13 years old</h2> <p>Your child's doctor will:</p> <ul> <li>Check your child for neurofibromas. </li> <li>Check your child for signs of plexiform neurofibromas </li> <li>Perform a neurological exam to look for signs of brain or spinal cord involvement. The doctor may order a MRI if they suspect that the brain or spine are affected. </li> <li>Check your child's height and weight growth. </li> <li>Check your child's growth for signs of puberty: children with NF1 may have precocious (early) or delayed (late) puberty. If your child has precocious puberty, they will need further medical care or exams.</li> <li>Check your child for scoliosis. </li> <li>Ensure regular eye exams every two to three years to look for signs of optic nerve involvement. </li> <li>Evaluate your child for signs of learning problems, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or other behaviour problems.</li> <li>Assess your child's social and emotional development. </li> <li>Measure your child's blood pressure each year. If your child has high blood pressure, the doctor will need to investigate and treat it.</li> <li>Refer your child for counselling, specialized medical care or other services as needed. </li> </ul> <h2>Medical care from 13 years to adulthood</h2> <p>Your child's doctor will:</p> <ul> <li>Ensure regular eye exams every two to three years to look for signs of optic nerve involvement. </li> <li>Perform a neurological exam to look for signs of brain or spinal cord movement. The doctor may order imaging (such as an MRI) if they suspect that the brain or spine are affected.</li> <li>Check your teen's height and weight growth </li> <li>Check your teen's growth for signs of puberty: children with NF1 may have precocious (early) or delayed (late) puberty. </li> <li>Measure your teen's blood pressure each year. If your teen has high blood pressure, the doctor will need to investigate and treat it. </li> <li>Offer to refer your teen to genetic counselling. Counselling will explain the genetics of NF1 and options for prenatal diagnosis and molecular testing. </li> <li>If your teen is a girl, counsel her about how pregnancy will affect NF1: symptoms of NF1 can worsen or increase during pregnancy. </li> <li>Refer your teen for counselling, specialized medical care or other services as needed. </li> <li>Help your young adult move to adult medical care. </li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Medical_care_for_your_child_with_neurofibromatosis_type_1.jpg
Medical diagnostic testsMMedical diagnostic testsMedical diagnostic testsEnglishNeonatologyPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)BodyNATestsPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZKim Dionne, RN, MN, NNP11.900000000000041.4000000000000241.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about various medical diagnostic tests available to diagnose premature babies. They range from simple and visual to complex and invasive.</p><p>Diagnostic tests for premature babies range from simple and visual to complex and invasive, depending on the condition and area of the body being tested.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>There are many ways to diagnose medical problems in a premature baby ranging from a simple visual inspection of the bay to more complex and invasive diagnostic techniques.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/side-view-baby-NICU-BRAND-P_EN.jpg
Medication reconciliation: Preventing medication errors in the hospitalMMedication reconciliation: Preventing medication errors in the hospitalMedication reconciliation: Preventing medication errors in the hospitalEnglishPharmacyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyNADrug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2011-03-30T04:00:00ZAlastair Hodinott, MCAP;Anne Matlow, MD, FRCPC;Beverley Hales, BScPhm, MHSc;Cathy Daniels, RN, MS, ACNP;Helen Edwards, RN, BA, MN;Sheila Rowed, RN, BScN, CNN(c);Tessie Gilhooly, RN, MN;Valerie Langlois, MD, FRCP(C);Stanley Zlotkin, MD PhD;Renu Roy, BSP, R9.2000000000000061.3000000000000700.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>This page provides advice on how to keep track of your child's medicines.</p><h2>Medication errors can be serious</h2> <p>If your child takes medication at home, it is important that you learn what the medications are and what they are for. Taking the wrong medication or the wrong dose (amount) of a medication could make your child very ill or make the medication not work as well. You can help keep your child safe by preventing these mistakes from happening.</p><h2>Medication reconciliation: Making sure your child has the right medication</h2><p>While your child is in the hospital, your health-care team needs to know what medications your child takes at home and then compare them to the medications ordered for them in the hospital. This process is called medication reconciliation. Reconciliation is a different way of saying "matching and comparing."</p><p>While in the hospital, your child's health-care team may also make changes to the medications your child takes. You need to know the medications your child was taking at home and what changes have been made while your child was in the hospital.</p><h3>Medication reconciliation is important because:</h3><ul><li>It reduces the chance of your child having a bad reaction to medication.</li><li>It gives health-care providers like your doctor, nurse practitioner, nurse, and pharmacist a list of the drugs your child is taking.</li><li>It gives you a chance to make sure that you know about your child's medications and ask questions if you do not understand something.​</li></ul><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Medication errors can be serious.</li><li>Keep a list of all of your child's medications in your wallet or purse.</li><li>Bring all of your child's medications to the hospital or doctor's office.</li></ul><h2>MyHealth Passport </h2><p>MyHealth Passport is a website created at SickKids to help you and your child create an online Medication Record. Anyone can use this tool, no matter which hospital you go to. You can print your medication record in a wallet-friendly format at: <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/myhealthpassport/" target="_blank">www.sickkids.ca/myhealthpassport/</a></p><h2>MedsCheck</h2><p>MedsCheck is a program that allows all people in Ontario who have a chronic condition and are taking three or more prescription drugs to meet with a pharmacist to review the medications and make sure the medications are being taken correctly. Parents and caregivers of children who are eligible may also have the appointment to review their child's medications. </p><p>For more information, contact your local pharmacy. </p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/medication_reconciliation_preventing_errors.jpg
Medications and alcohol in breastfeedingMMedications and alcohol in breastfeedingMedications and alcohol in breastfeedingEnglishNeonatologyNewborn (0-28 days)BodyNAHealthy living and preventionAdult (19+)NA2009-10-18T04:00:00ZDebbie Stone, RN, RLC Joyce Touw, BScN, PNC(C), RN, IBCLC, RLCAndrew James, MBChB, MBI, FRACP, FRCPC10.700000000000048.5000000000000584.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn which medications are considered harmful to a baby during breastfeeding, and the harmful effects that alcohol has on breastmilk.</p><p>If you need to take medication, you should still be able to breastfeed as the amount of medication passed to your baby will be very small. However, alcohol passes to the baby in higher concentrations and should only be consumed infrequently and in moderation.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Make sure to check with your doctor or lactation consultant before you take any medications, including herbal products, while breastfeeding.</li> <li>Drinking moderate amounts of alcohol while breastfeeding have been known to cause problems in babies including changes in sleep patterns and hypoglycaemia.</li> <li>If you do decide to drink, do so in moderation because the alcohol will enter your breast milk.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/medications_alcohol_in_breastfeeding.jpg
Medications for JIAMMedications for JIAMedications for JIAEnglishRheumatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodySkeletal systemDrug treatmentAdult (19+)NA2017-01-31T05:00:00ZJennifer Stinson RN-EC, PhD, CPNPLori Tucker, MDAdam Huber, MSc, MD, FRCPCMichael Rapoff, PhDShirley Tse, MD, FRCPCLynn Spiegel, MD, FRCPC7.7000000000000064.0000000000000597.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out what arthritis medications can do, what the doctor needs to consider before prescribing medication, how the dose is determined and why it is important to take arthritis medication regularly and as prescribed.</p><p>There is no known cure for JIA. However, there are safe and effective medications to help control the disease. In this section of the JIA resource centre, you will learn about the medications that may be prescribed for JIA.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>JIA medications can help decrease inflammation, pain and swelling; make it easier to stay active; prevent or lessen damage to the joints.</li> <li>Do not change the dosage of medication without talking to the doctor first.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Medications_for_JIA.jpg
Medications for JIA painMMedications for JIA painMedications for JIA painEnglishRheumatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodySkeletal systemDrug treatmentAdult (19+)NA2017-01-31T05:00:00ZJennifer Stinson, RN-EC, PhD,CPNPLori Tucker, MDTonya Palermo, PhDNeely Lerman. MSW, RSWKristi Whitney, BSc PT, MScJudy McKague, PT​9.4000000000000049.7000000000000635.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the various medications that are used to treat pain. These include acetaminophen, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), opioids, and local and topical anaesthetics.</p><p>JIA medications to reduce inflammation can also help to reduce JIA pain. In this page, you will learn about other common pain medicines that can help control pain. It is important for you to learn about medications that can help reduce pain. Speak to the doctor about these options and decide together if they are something to try.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Some medications for joint inflammation can help to reduce JIA pain.</li> <li>There are three types of pain medications: opioids, non-opioids, and local and topical anaesthetics.</li> <li>The most common mistake people make when taking painkillers is not taking them soon enough.</li> <li>Medicine should always be taken according to the directions on the bottle or the way the doctor has indicated.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Pain_ladder_CHART_IMG_EN.jpg
Medications for epilepsyMMedications for epilepsyMedications for epilepsyEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemDrug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+) EducatorsNA2010-02-04T05:00:00ZAleksandra Bjelajac Mejia, BSPharm, PharmD, RPh;Elizabeth J. Donner, MD, FRCPC10.000000000000055.0000000000000800.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about various anti-epileptic drug therapies available for your child.</p><p>The main mode of treatment for epilepsy is with medication called anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). They are also referred to as anticonvulsant drugs.</p> <p>Despite their name, AEDs do not "cure" epilepsy or seizures. They do not change the brain's underlying susceptibility to produce seizures. Most AEDs also do not change the child's EEG, except for a few specific conditions. They only treat the symptoms of epilepsy by reducing the frequency of seizures. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Anti-epilepsy drugs (AEDs) treat the symptoms of epilepsy by reducing the frequency of seizures.</li> <li>AEDs are most effective in children who began seizures before age 12, who have normal intelligence and who had fewer seizures before starting treatment.</li> <li>The choice and dose of AED very much depends on your child's weight, age and symptoms and epilepsy history, but it can take some time to see if an AED is effective.</li> <li>Always follow the medication instructions from your child's doctor.</li></ul>
Medications for heart conditionsMMedications for heart conditionsMedications for heart conditionsEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemDrug treatmentAdult (19+)NA2009-12-14T05:00:00ZBeverley Hales, BScPhm, MHScAndrew James, MBChB, MBI, FRACP, FRCPC8.3000000000000062.00000000000001658.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about medication for children with heart conditions. A doctor will prescribe a drug when it's clear that medication will improve a child's condition.<br></p><p> This page explains why doctors may prescribe heart medications for your child and how to administer them safely.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li> Doctors can prescribe medication to ease discomfort, treat symptoms, and improve the heart before surgery and after surgery.</li> <li>Some children may need to take medication for life.</li> <li>The pharmacist can give instructions on how to take prescribed medications.</li></ul>
Medicines and side effects of a blood and marrow transplantMMedicines and side effects of a blood and marrow transplantMedicines and side effects of a blood and marrow transplantEnglishHaematology;Immunology;OncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemDrug treatmentAdult (19+)NA2010-03-05T05:00:00ZJohn Doyle, MD, FRCPC, FAAPChristine Armstrong, RN, MScN, NP Peds8.0000000000000058.0000000000000375.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the medicines your child may take during a blood and marrow transplant.</p><p>Your child will take different medicines before, during, and after their blood and marrow transplant (BMT). For example, many of these will be chemotherapy medicines at high doses during the conditioning regimen.<br></p><p>You can find information on the main medicines your child may take during their transplant experience. Here are some points to keep in mind when handling your child’s medicines.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>It is important to give your child medications as instructed by their doctor and pharmacist.</li><li>To prepare for chemotherapy, your child may take a chemotherapeutic medicine called busulfan.</li></ul>
Medicines for leukemiaMMedicines for leukemiaMedicines for leukemiaEnglishOncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodySkeletal systemDrug treatment;Non-drug treatmentAdult (19+)NA2018-03-06T05:00:00ZOussama Abla, MDDanielle Weidman, MDKarin Landenberg, MD000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p> Learn which medicines children with leukemia should avoid and what you should discuss with their doctor or pharmacist about medication.</p><p>While being treated for leukemia, your child will take many different medications, during different stages of chemotherapy.</p> <p>Chemotherapeutic drugs work by targeting the leukemic cells inside your child’s blood, bone marrow or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). While they are effective at killing the cancer cells, they may also cause side effects. Not all children will experience every side effect listed for each medicine.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>Chemotherapeutic drugs may cause side effects in some children and not others. </li><li> Talk to your doctor or pharmacist to ensure you are giving your child the right medication and to check before giving any other medicines.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/medicines_for_leukemia.jpg

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