AboutKidsHealth

 

 

Taking JIA medicationsTTaking JIA medicationsTaking JIA medicationsEnglishRheumatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodySkeletal systemDrug treatmentAdult (19+)NA2017-01-31T05:00:00ZJennifer Stinson RN-EC, PhD, CPNPLori Tucker, MDAdam Huber, MSc, MD, FRCPCMichael Rapoff, PhDShirley Tse, MD, FRCPCLynn Spiegel, MD, FRCPC7.6000000000000063.1000000000000698.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out about the different ways that arthritis medications can be taken. Some are taken orally as a liquid or tablet. Others are injected either under the skin (subcutaneously), into a vein (intravenously), or directly into a swollen joint.</p><p>JIA medications come in many different forms including oral liquids or tablets, or injections. It's important to remember to give your child JIA medications when they are supposed to receive them.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>JIA medications may be given by mouth or by an injection.</li> <li>IV injections and joint injections have to be given by a doctor.</li> <li>It is important for a child to always take their medication, even if they feel well.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Syringe_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg
Talking to your child about illnessTTalking to your child about illnessTalking to your child about illnessEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANASupport, services and resourcesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2012-06-13T04:00:00ZNA6.8000000000000071.3000000000000610.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn helpful tips when talking to your child about illness. </p><p>How children respond to illness, and how you can help your child cope with illness, depends on their age as well as their normal coping style.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>What children can understand and what they want to know depends on how old they are and how they cope with things.</li> <li>When talking to your child about illness, ask them questions to get a better understanding of what they know and understand.</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/talking_to_your_child_about_illness.jpg
Talking to your child about their heart conditionTTalking to your child about their heart conditionTalking to your child about their heart conditionEnglishCardiologyPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemSupport, services and resourcesAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2018-10-26T04:00:00ZAamir Jeewa, MD, FAAP, FRCP(C)7.6000000000000066.9000000000000684.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Children are not always ready to talk about their condition when you are. Look for signs for when your child might be ready to talk.</p><p>Talking to your child about their condition can be difficult. They may not be ready to discuss it right it away. When your child is ready, it's important that you're able to appropriately answer their questions.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Maintain open and honest communication with your child about their condition, and answer their questions truthfully.</li><li>How your child copes with illness and how you respond to their questions will depend on your child's age.</li></ul>
Talking with your child's schoolTTalking with your child's schoolTalking with your child's schoolEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANASupport, services and resourcesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2012-06-13T04:00:00ZNA7.3000000000000069.70000000000001096.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Having a child with a complex condition means sharing information at school. Learn how to prepare in advance when talking to your child's school. </p><p>You need to share information about your child with a complex condition and treatment if your child is:</p><ul><li>starting school for the first time </li><li>returning to school after a diagnosis</li><li>moving to a new grade or classroom setting</li><li>moving to a new school</li></ul><p>You may have some concerns about talking to your child's school. You may be worried about how they will fit in with their friends and keep up with school work. The best way to handle this is to prepare in advance.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>You should talk to your child's school if they are starting school for the first time; returning to school after a diagnosis; moving to a new grade or classroom setting; or moving to a new school.</li> <li>Make sure that your child's school understands their condition and knows what they can do to help them.</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/talking_with_your_childs_school.jpg
Talking with your doctor about your childTTalking with your doctor about your childTalking with your doctor about your childEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANASupport, services and resourcesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2013-07-08T04:00:00ZElly Berger, BA, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, MHPE6.7000000000000069.8000000000000597.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Parents with a sick child need open communication with the health-care team. Learn tips when talking with the doctor about your child.</p> <p>Your child's health-care team is there to support your family and help you <a href="/Article?contentid=1138&language=English">cope with your child's illness</a>. Remember, when talking to the doctor about your child:</p><ul><li>No question is too dumb. If something does not make sense to you, ask the doctor or nurse to explain it again.</li><li>You know your child best. Trust your instincts about what your child needs.</li><li>Be persistent in your questions and your requests.</li></ul><p>If you are finding that you have a poor rapport with your child's doctor or feel uncomfortable about the kind of care your child is receiving, discuss this openly with the doctor. If you are unable to reach agreement on how your child should be treated, then you can ask the doctor to refer your child either for a consultation, a second opinion or to another specialist.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>It is important to develop a good relationship with your child's health-care team. They are there to support you and help you cope with your child's illness.</li> <li>Make sure you prepare for your visits with the health-care team. Keep a diary of your child's symptoms, tests undergone, results of tests and other related information and write down any questions you have.</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/talking_with_your_doctor_about_your_child.jpg
TeenTTeenTeenYourTeenEnglishNATeen (13-18 years)NANANACaregivers Adult (19+)NALanding PageLearning Hub<p>The teen years can be challenging for your child, and for you. Learn how you can guide your teenager to follow nutrition guidelines, develop good sleep habits, manage their mental health and make safe lifestyle decisions.</p><p>The teen years can be challenging for your child, and for you. Learn how you can guide your teenager to follow nutrition guidelines, develop good sleep habits, manage their mental health and make safe lifestyle decisions.</p>YourTeenhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Ages_stages_teen.jpg
Teenagers and chronic painTTeenagers and chronic painTeenagers and chronic painEnglishPain/AnaesthesiaChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyCentral nervous system;Peripheral nervous system;Autonomic nervous systemSymptomsCaregivers Adult (19+)Pain2009-09-16T04:00:00ZDanielle Ruskin, PhD, Cpsych10.500000000000053.00000000000001492.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about chronic pain in teenagers and the effect that it may have. Pain management, responsibilities, drinking and drug use are discussed.</p><p>Adolescence can be challenging for any teenager. Chronic pain is an additional challenge, as it can influence relationships with family and friends and have an impact on self-image. </p> <p>Pain may also interfere with your child's school, recreation and work activities and, along with any related tests or treatments, may also delay normal developmental transitions, such as going to college or university or moving out of the home.</p> <p>But, most importantly, as your child grows into a teenager, the responsibility for coping with chronic pain will eventually shift from you to them. As your child moves through their teenage years and becomes an adult, they will gradually take on more responsibility for all aspects of managing their pain.</p><ul><li>Help your teen cope with pain by encouraging them to express their feelings and concerns without fear of criticism and teaching them problem-solving skills.</li> <li>Over time, as your teen feels comfortable, let them meet their healthcare providers alone to learn how to manage their own pain and discuss any personal medical issues in private. </li> <li>Remind your teen that any decisions about their education, career and living arrangements should be based on how their chronic pain might impact their overall health. </li> <li>Talk to your teen about the risks of mixing their pain medications with alcohol or other drugs and of giving into peer pressure to share their own medications.</li></ul>
Teenagers with diabetesTTeenagers with diabetesTeenagers with diabetesEnglishEndocrinology;AdolescentTeen (13-18 years)PancreasEndocrine systemHealthy living and preventionAdult (19+)NA2017-09-25T04:00:00ZCatherine Pastor, RN, MN, HonBScVanita Pais, RD, CDESanjukta Basak, MSc, MD CM, FRCPCRuth Slater, PhD, C. PsychJennifer Harrington, MBBS, PhD​11.400000000000045.20000000000001216.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Discover how to help your teenager manage their diabetes and how it will affect their day-to-day lives.</p><p>​​The <a href="http://mindyourmind.ca/">teen years</a> are associated with physical, mental and emotional changes and development. During this time, your teen may feel a growing desire to fit in with friends, to experiment, to test limits, and to seek independence from family. Self-image changes when a teen’s <a href="http://www.sexandu.ca/">sexuality</a> starts to emerge. <a href="/Article?contentid=1717&language=English">Diabetes</a> can affect these processes in different ways.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>For adolescents, diabetes management affects important developmental stages including independence, responsibility and self-esteem.</li> <li>The target blood sugar range for children older than 12 is a pre-meal blood sugar level between 4 and 8 mmol/L.</li> <li>Diabetes management in adolescence can also impact your teen's day-to-day life, including sleep, employment and learning to drive.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/teenagers_with_diabetes.jpg
Teens Taking Charge: Letting goTTeens Taking Charge: Letting goJuvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA): Letting goEnglishAdolescent;RheumatologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANANAAdult (19+)NA2017-01-31T05:00:00ZJennifer Stinson RN-EC, PhD, CPNP;Tonya Palermo, PhD;Miriam Granger, MSW, RSW;Neely Lerman, MSW, RSW;Lynn Spiegel, MD, FRCPC7.1000000000000071.3000000000000197.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>This page gives an overview of how to help your teen with arthritis take control of their arthritis. It leads to pages on how to help your teen learn to manage own health care.</p><p>There are many things you can do to help your teenager learn to manage their own health care. This will help them make a smooth transition to adulthood and the adult health-care system. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>There are several things you can do to help prepare your teenager to manage their own health care.</li> <li>This section will help you prepare your teenager for adulthood and help you deal with the challenges of adolescence.</li></ul>
Teens Taking Charge: Managing JIA OnlineTTeens Taking Charge: Managing JIA OnlineTeens Taking Charge: Managing JIA OnlineEnglishAdolescent;RheumatologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANANAAdult (19+)NA2017-01-31T05:00:00ZJennifer Stinson RN-EC, PhD, CPNP;Tonya Palermo, PhD;Miriam Granger, MSW, RSW;Neely Lerman, MSW, RSW;Lynn Spiegel, MD, FRCPC9.5000000000000057.8000000000000633.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>This page will tell you what to expect as you go through the parent pages of the Taking Charge: Managing JIA Online Program.</p><p>Welcome to the parents’ section of the Taking Charge: Managing JIA Online Program. This section is written mainly for the parents of teenagers who have juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The content in this section has been organized to guide you in helping your teenager to take charge of JIA management. The material in this section has been written in collaboration with members of the JIA team at The Hospital for Sick Children and various other health-care organizations.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>The Taking Charge: Managing JIA Online Program is intended to help teens take control of their own JIA management.</li> <li>JIA can have a significant impact on the family and their daily routines.</li> <li>Every teenager's situation is unique, and this information is meant only to be used as a guide.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/teens_taking_charge_managing_JIA.jpg
Teeth: Dental care for childrenTTeeth: Dental care for childrenTeeth: Dental care for childrenEnglishDentalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)TeethMouthNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-02-20T05:00:00ZMichael J. Casas, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C);Sonia Chung, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C);Edward Barrett,DDS, MSc, FRCD(C)​6.4000000000000076.40000000000002324.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to keep your child’s teeth and gums healthy and prevent tooth decay through regular cleaning, flossing and dental visits.<br></p><p>Your child’s first teeth are called primary teeth. Most of them, if not all, will be replaced by permanent teeth by the time your child reaches age 12. However, it is still important to keep your child’s baby teeth clean. Your child needs these teeth for proper eating, speaking and growth.</p><p>Dental care starts even before your <a href="/Article?contentid=304&language=English">baby’s first tooth grows in</a>. Use the following dental care advice to protect your baby’s first set of teeth and help their future permanent teeth stay healthy.</p> <br><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Tooth decay happens when bacteria on the teeth produce acid while breaking down food and drink. This acid is normal, but it can damage tooth enamel if it is not washed away regularly.</li> <li>Start cleaning your child's teeth early. Wipe with a damp cloth after every feeding, starting when your child is around three months old. When the first tooth appears, you can start using a baby toothbrush.</li> <li>To prevent early childhood caries, do not let your child fall asleep on the breast or with a bottle of juice, milk or other sweetened liquid in their mouth. Other ways to reduce cavities include limiting eating to snacks and mealtimes and keeping juice and other sugary drinks to a minimum.</li> <li>Brush your child's teeth at least twice a day and preferably after every meal. Brushing before bedtime is very important.</li> <li>If your child is not at risk of tooth decay, start using a pea-sized amount of fluoride toothpaste when they turn three. Until they are age six, supervise them while they are brushing and make sure they spit out the toothpaste.</li> <li>Flossing is important. You can start flossing your child's teeth from around age three.</li> <li>Take your child to their first dentist appointment within six months of the eruption of their first tooth or by 12 months of age. Try to have a positive attitude when taking your child to the dentist.</li> </ul><h2>When to see a doctor or dentist</h2> <p>Make an appointment with your child’s dentist if your child has:</p> <ul> <li>bouts of throbbing pain</li> <li>sharp pain triggered by chewing hot or cold foods</li> <li>pain triggered by meals, especially sweet foods.</li> </ul> <p>If your child has a cavity and it is not treated, severe pain and infection can occur. This infection can spread to your child’s face or other areas of their body, making them very sick. A serious infection can also damage the permanent teeth that are developing in the bone just below the baby teeth.</p> <p>Call a doctor or dentist <em>right away</em> if your child has:</p> <ul> <li>intense and continuous pain in the mouth</li> <li>fever</li> <li>swelling of the face.</li> </ul><h2>How to keep your child’s gums and teeth clean</h2><p>Good dental care is based on regular brushing and flossing. Some families have a particularly strong strain of mouth bacteria or higher levels of bacteria that can lead to more tooth decay. If tooth decay is a problem in your family, be extra careful when cleaning your child’s teeth.</p><h3>When to start cleaning your child’s teeth and gums</h3><ul><li>Wipe a newborn baby’s gums with a soft, clean, damp cloth after feeding.</li><li>At age three months, begin cleaning your child’s mouth after every feeding. Lay your baby in a comfortable place and gently wipe their gums with a clean, damp washcloth.</li><li>As soon as your child’s teeth poke through the gums, you and your child should clean them with a toothbrush to keep them strong and healthy.</li><li>If your child is under three years old, you will need to brush their teeth. Your child might find it fun to brush their own teeth and will be able to start. However, you should complete their toothbrushing until they are able to tie their own shoelaces or cut food with a knife and fork on their own.</li><li>If your child is aged between three and six, they can usually brush their own teeth with your help and supervision.</li></ul><p>By the time your child is three years old, teach them "2 for 2". This means brushing twice a day for two minutes each time, while you supervise them.</p><p>Download a poster that summarizes when you should start <a href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PDF_Dental_care_brush_every_night.pdf">cleaning your child's teeth and gums</a>.</p><h2>Brushing your child's teeth</h2><ul><li>Use a small toothbrush with soft rounded bristles. Hold the toothbrush so that the bristles are angled to where the gums meet the teeth.</li><li>Use gentle circles to brush the teeth. Scrubbing or brushing too hard will hurt your child’s gums.</li><li>Cavities can form on the front, back and top of teeth, so clean every surface of every tooth.</li><li>If you are supervising your child, remind them to gently brush the front, back and top of their teeth in a circular motion and point the toothbrush to where the gums meet the teeth.</li></ul><h3>How often to brush your child’s teeth</h3><ul><li>All children should have their teeth brushed at least twice a day.</li><li>The best times to brush your child’s teeth are first thing in the morning after breakfast and right before bed. Brushing before bed is very important because your child produces less saliva (spit) at night to help keep their mouth clean.</li><li>Brush your child's teeth after every meal or snack. If you cannot do this, give your child a glass of water to wash away the sugars.</li></ul><h3>Using the right toothbrush</h3><ul><li>Use a toothbrush that is the right size for your child’s mouth. The bristles should be soft and rounded. You can start using a soft baby-size toothbrush as soon as your child’s first tooth appears.</li><li>Buy a new toothbrush at least every three or four months. A toothbrush with bent or worn bristles will do a poor job and may hurt your child’s gums.</li><li>It is safe for a child to use an electric toothbrush. In fact, children often enjoy using one. Ask your dentist about the types of electric toothbrush you can buy for your child.</li></ul><h3>Using the right amount of toothpaste</h3><p>Fluoride is a mineral found in the soil, water and food. It is added to most brands of toothpaste and to the drinking water of many communities. When used in small amounts, it helps build strong teeth and prevents cavities from forming. Check with your town or city council to find out if your water has added fluoride.</p><ul><li>If your child is under three and not at risk of tooth decay, you can clean their teeth with a toothbrush moistened with water. If they are at risk of tooth decay, use only a tiny amount of fluoride toothpaste (less than the size of a grain of rice). Ask your doctor or other health professional if your child is at risk.</li><li>Between the ages of three and six, your child can use a pea-sized amount of fluoride toothpaste.</li><li>Supervise your child while they are brushing their teeth and make sure they spit out the toothpaste when they are finished. Using or swallowing too much fluoride toothpaste can cause white specks to form on your child’s permanent teeth (dental fluorosis).</li></ul><p>If your community does not add fluoride to the drinking water or if you get your water from a well system, tell your child's dentist. The dentist may recommend fluoride supplements to help prevent cavities from forming.<br></p><h2>Flossing your child's teeth</h2><p>Get your child to start flossing early. In most cases, it is a good idea to start when your child's back teeth touch each other. This usually occurs around age three. Flossing is important because a toothbrush cannot clean between teeth.</p><h3>How to floss your child’s teeth</h3><ol><li>Take a piece of floss about as long as your child's arm.</li><li>Wrap it around your middle fingers, leaving a two-inch gap between your hands.</li><li>With your index fingers, slide the floss between the teeth and wrap it into a ‘C’ shape.</li><li>Wipe the tooth from the gum to the tip at least two or three times.</li><li>Use a new part of the floss for each tooth.</li></ol><p>Floss both sides of each tooth and remember the backs of the last molars.</p><p>Your child will need help with flossing for a while. By the age of 10 or 11, they will be able to floss on their own.</p><div class="asset-video"><iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/NgnNHtbIwlY?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> </div>dentalcarehttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/teeth_dental_care_for_children.jpg
TeethingTTeethingTeethingEnglishDentalBaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years)TeethMouthConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-01-07T05:00:00ZMichael J. Casas, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C)6.9000000000000070.90000000000001081.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>​Learn the signs and symptoms to look for when your baby is teething and how you can help to soothe your baby's gums.<br></p><h2>What is teething?</h2> <p>Teething is when your baby's first set of teeth ("baby teeth" or primary teeth) start to appear. Caring for your baby's teeth begins as soon as the first tooth peeks through your child's gums. Healthy teeth are an integral part of your baby's overall health. They will help your baby chew and eat properly, learn how to speak and they hold place for the future permanent teeth.​</p> <p>Teething can be a tough period both for babies, who feel the pain, and parents, who witness it. Your baby may cry and drool more than usual, may be agitated and cranky. They may sleep poorly while teething. However, most babies seem to get through teething without any symptoms. If your baby experience symptoms, there are steps you can take that will help both you and your child can get through this stage in good health and spirits.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Healthy teeth are an important part of your baby's health.</li> <li>Treat your baby's pain with acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Never give ASA (acetylsalicylic acid) without first checking with your baby's doctor.</li> <li>You can help soothe your baby's gums with a chilled (but not frozen) washcloth or teething ring made of rubber.</li> <li>Sugary drinks such as juice and soda contribute to tooth decay. Limit your baby's intake of these drinks and never allow them to sleep with a bottle.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms</h2> <p>You may not be able to see your baby's incoming teeth, but your infant will probably feel them and show signs of teething. Signs and symptoms of teething may include:</p> <ul> <li>swollen or red gums</li> <li>a desire to chew on solid objects</li> <li>drooling, which may begin about two months before the first tooth appears</li> <li>crankiness, irritability or bad temper</li> </ul> <p>Teething does not cause <a href="/article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a> or <a href="/article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a>. If you notice your baby showing these symptoms, contact your doctor right away. In addition, do not assume that crankiness, irritability or bad temper are due to teething.</p><h2>Causes</h2> <p>Teeth pushing through the gums cause discomfort. Since your baby cannot express their soreness and tenderness in words, they may be more irritable and cranky as the teeth emerge.</p><h2>When to see a doctor</h2> <p>Contact your baby's doctor if you notice a persistent fever. Teething does not cause fever. </p> <p>Your child should have their first visit to a dentist at 12 months of age or when they get their first tooth.</p>teethinghttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/teething.jpg
Telling others about your child's ASDTTelling others about your child's ASDTelling others about your child's ASDEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years)NANervous systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-03-09T04:00:00ZJanice Mulligan MSW, RSWRadha MacCulloch, MSWWendy Roberts MD. FRCPCLee Steel9.3000000000000061.4000000000000382.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Information about what parents may want to tell other people about their child's autism.</p><br><p>Parents often worry about telling others about their child’s diagnosis. Telling people that your child has autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may have positive and/or negative effects. As a parent, you have the right to choose who you share your child’s diagnosis with and when.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>While sharing that your child has autism may result in people underestimating them, it could also lead to greater understanding and acceptance of their behaviour and enhanced access to support services.</li> <li> Many teenagers and adults with autism said that hearing a diagnosis of autism has made them feel less alone and relieved there is a cause for their behaviour.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/telling_others_about_your_childs_ASD.jpg
Telling your child about the operationTTelling your child about the operationTelling your child about the operationEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemProcedures;Non-drug treatment;Drug treatmentAdult (19+)NA2010-02-18T05:00:00ZJennifer Russell, MD, FRCPC8.4000000000000066.00000000000001025.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>When you tell your child about the operation depends on your child's age and how anxious you think your child will be. Use the ages on this page as a guideline.</p><br><p>When you tell your child about the operation depends on your child's age and how anxious you think your child will be. It is probably best to tell a young child only a few days before the operation, but older children may need more time to prepare themselves. You should use the ages noted here only as a guideline to help you to prepare your child. You may need to make some changes depending on your child's ability to understand. </p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>Infants usually separate easily from their parents and are comforted quickly by those caring for them.</li> <li> It is important to be honest with pre- and young school-aged children about where they are going on the day of the operation.</li> <li>Older children should be given plenty of time to ask questions and talk about their fears.</li> <li>Teens should be included in discussions or decisions about their care and treatment.</li> <li> Being silent may mean your child is anxious.</li> <li>Tell your doctor or nurse ahead of time how you think your child will react before the operation so they can make efforts to support your child.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/telling_your_child_about_the_operation.jpg
TemperamentTTemperamentTemperamentEnglishNABaby (1-12 months)BodyNANAAdult (19+)NA2009-09-22T04:00:00ZBrenda S. Miles, PhD, Cpsych11.400000000000045.70000000000001240.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about different characteristics and types of infant temperament. For example, mood is a temperament characteristic, and its type could be positive.</p><p>Your baby has their own characteristics and patterns of behaviour that influence the way they respond to daily events in their life. This is called their temperament; it will help to shape your baby’s world and yours, too. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Temperament is your baby's behavioural style which determines how they react to situations, and expresses and regulates emotions.</li> <li>Characteristics of temperament include activity level, distractibility, adaptability, sensitivity and quality of mood.</li> <li>The three major types of temperament are easy, slow-to-warm-up and difficult.</li> <li>Goodness of fit is a term to describe how well a baby’s temperament fits with the expectations and demands of the baby’s environment.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/temprament_baby.jpg
Temperament: What you can doTTemperament: What you can doTemperament: What you can doEnglishNABaby (1-12 months)BodyNANAAdult (19+)NA2009-09-22T04:00:00ZBrenda S. Miles, PhD, Cpsych8.1000000000000062.20000000000001899.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about managing difficult temperament characteristics in a baby or child. Helpful suggestions, such as anticipating fussy periods, are provided.</p><p>Difficult temperaments are the most likely to continue as your baby gets older. However, there are things you can do to help change your baby's temperament.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>If you have a "difficult" baby, spend lots of time with them, be consistent in routine, learn to anticipate fussy periods, offer physical comfort, remain calm, avoid labelling your baby as "bad."</li> <li>Nine criteria that make up your child’s temperament: activity level, rhythmicity, distractibility, approach/withdrawal, adaptability, attention span/persistence, intensity of reaction, sensitivity, and quality of mood.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/temprament_what_you_can_do.jpg
Temperature takingTTemperature takingTemperature takingEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANANon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)Fever2016-04-27T04:00:00ZElana Hochstadter, MD;Tania Principi, MD, FRCPC, MSc​6.2000000000000069.10000000000001488.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to correctly take your child's temperature when they have a fever.</p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/aEy9ZIzoHOc?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> </div> <p>Children often feel warm to the touch when they have a <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a>, but putting your hand to your child's forehead is not enough to find out if your child has a fever. To confirm that your child has a fever, use a thermometer to measure your child's body temperature.</p><p> <strong>A temperature of 38°C (100.4°F) or higher is a fever</strong></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Use a thermometer to find out if a child has a temperature.</li> <li>The best way to take a temperature depends on a child’s age.</li> <li>Always wash thermometers before and after taking a temperature.</li> <li>See your doctor right away if your child has a temperature that last three days or if your child has a temperature and is less than three months old.</li> </ul><h2>When to see a doctor</h2> <h3>See your child's regular doctor or go to the nearest Emergency Department right away if your child has a fever and:</h3> <ul> <li>Your child is less than three months old.</li> <li>You have recently returned from travelling abroad.</li> <li>Your child develops a rash that looks like small purple dots that do not go away when you apply pressure with your fingers (blanching).</li> <li>Your child is not able to keep down any fluids, is not peeing and appears dehydrated.</li> <li>Your child's skin looks very pale or grey, or is cool or mottled.</li> <li>Your child is in constant pain.</li> <li>Your child is lethargic (very weak) or difficult to wake up.</li> <li>Your child has a stiff neck.</li> <li>Your child has a seizure associated with fever for the first time or a long seizure associated with fever.</li> <li>Your child is looking or acting very sick.</li> <li>Your child seems confused or delirious.</li> <li>Your child does not use their arm or leg normally or refuses to stand up.</li> <li>Your child has problems breathing.</li> <li>Your child cries constantly and cannot be settled.</li> </ul> <h3>See a doctor within 24 hours if your child has a fever and:</h3> <ul> <li>Your child is between three and six months old.</li> <li>Your child has specific pain, such as ear or throat pain that may require evaluation.</li> <li>Your child has had a fever for more than three days.</li> <li>The fever went away for over 24 hours and then came back.</li> <li>Your child has a bacterial infection that is being treated with an antibiotic, but the fever is not going away after two to three days of starting the antibiotic.</li> <li>Your child cries when going to the bathroom.</li> <li>You have other concerns or questions.</li> </ul> <p>If you are unsure, call Telehealth Ontario at 1-866-797-0000 (toll-free number) if you live in Ontario.</p><h2>Use a thermometer to measure a temperature</h2> <p>The easiest way to measure your child’s temperature is with a digital thermometer. These are available at most drug stores. </p> <p>You can also use a glass thermometer. Never use glass thermometers that contain mercury because mercury is toxic. If you only have access to a glass thermometer, take very special care. If the thermometer is cracked or damaged in any way, do not use it. Even an undamaged glass thermometer can be a risk for your child. If you believe your child may bite down on the thermometer, do not use it to take a temperature in the mouth.</p> <h3>Four places to take a child’s temperature</h3> <ul> <li>in the mouth</li> <li>in the anus (or rectum)</li> <li>under the armpit</li> <li>in the ear</li> </ul> <p>Do not use a rectal thermometer in the mouth or an oral thermometer in the rectum. Always wash any thermometer with soap and warm water before and after use.</p> <h3>The best way to take a temperature depends on your child’s age</h3> <table class="akh-table"> <thead> <tr><th rowspan="2" colspan="1">Age</th><th rowspan="1" colspan="2">Where to take the temperature</th></tr> <tr><th><em>Most accurate</em></th><th><em>Alternative method</em></th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td>Newborns to 3 years</td> <td>Rectal temperature (anus)</td> <td>Axial temperature (armpit)</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Children over 3 years</td> <td>Oral temperature (mouth)</td> <td>Ear or axial temperature</td> </tr> </tbody> </table><h2>How to take an oral (in the mouth) temperature</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">How to measure an oral temperature</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_temperature_oral_EN.jpg" alt="Girl lying under a blanket while her temperature is taken by mouth" /> </figure> <p>Taking a temperature in the mouth works with children who are old enough to hold the thermometer under their tongue and who will not bite the thermometer. A mouth thermometer is the most accurate way of measuring the temperature of an older child. Make sure your child has not had cold or hot drinks in the 30 minutes before taking their temperature.</p><ul><li>To get an accurate reading, carefully place the tip of the thermometer under your child’s tongue.</li><li>Ask your child to keep the thermometer in place by forming a seal with their lips. Make sure they do not bite down on the thermometer. If they cannot breathe through their nose, use one of the other methods to measure their temperature.</li><li>If you are using a digital thermometer, leave it in the mouth until you hear it beep.</li><li>Carefully read the temperature on the thermometer.</li><li>Turn off the digital thermometer, wash the tip with soap and warm (not hot) water, and wipe it off with alcohol. Dry well.</li></ul><h2>How to take a rectal (in the anus) temperature</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">How to measure a rectal temperature</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_temperature_rectal_EN.jpg" alt="Baby lying on tummy across a lap with thermometer inserted in the baby’s rectum" /> </figure> <p>Using the rectal method works best on babies and young children. Older children may resist having something put in their bum.</p><ul><li>Before taking your child’s temperature, make sure they are relaxed. Place your child on their stomach on a comfortable surface if they can hold their head and do <a href="/Article?contentid=296&language=English">tummy time</a>. Place your child on their back if they are still unable to safely lie on their stomach.</li><li>Before inserting the thermometer, make sure it is clean. Coat the end of it with petroleum jelly (Vaseline). This will make the insertion easier.</li><li>Insert the thermometer gently into your child’s rectum about 2 cm (1 inch). If there is any resistance, pull the thermometer back a little. Never try to force the thermometer past any resistance. You could injure your child by damaging the wall of the bowel.</li><li>Hold your child still while the thermometer is in.</li><li>If you are using a digital thermometer, take it out when you hear the signal (usually a beep or a series of beeps).</li><li>Read the temperature.</li><li>Turn off the digital thermometer, wash the tip with soap and warm (not hot) water. Dry well.</li></ul><h2>How to take an armpit (axillary) temperature</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">How to measure an armpit (axillary) temperature</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_temperature_armpit_EN.jpg" alt="Baby lying on their back with a thermometer held under the armpit" /> </figure> <p>Taking the temperature under the armpit may be less accurate than in the rectum or the mouth but easier in some babies or children. To take a temperature in the armpit, your child must be able to hold their arm to the body and not move it for up to two minutes.</p><ul><li>If you are using a digital thermometer, turn it on.</li><li>Put thermometer under your child’s dry armpit. The silver tip must touch the skin.</li><li>Hold the top of thermometer with one hand and hold down your child’s arm with the other hand.</li><li>If using a digital thermometer, wait until you hear the signal (usually a beep or a series of beeps).</li><li>Turn off the thermometer, wash the tip with soap and warm (not hot) water. Dry well.</li></ul><h2>How to take an ear (tympanic) temperature</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">How to measure an ear (tympanic) temperature</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/IMD_temperature_ear_EN.jpg" alt="Child having temperature taken by ear with one hand pulling the ear up and the other holding the thermometer in the ear" /> </figure> <p>Tympanic thermometers may be less accurate than oral or rectal thermometers. Tympanic thermometers are unsuitable for children under two years of age because their ear canal may be too small to allow for a temperature reading. Always clean the thermometer tip before use and follow the manufacturer’s instructions carefully.</p><ul><li>Gently tug on the ear, pulling it up and back. This will help straighten the ear canal and make a clear path inside the ear to the eardrum.</li><li>Gently insert the thermometer until the ear canal is fully sealed off.</li><li>Squeeze and hold down the button for one second.</li><li>Remove the thermometer and read the temperature.</li></ul><h2>References:</h2><p>Richardson M, Purssell E. (2015). Who's afraid of fever? <em>Arch Dis Child</em>. 100(9):818-20. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2015-309491. Retrieved on February 10th, 2016 <a href="https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/127/3/580.full.pdf">https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/127/3/580.full.pdf</a></p><p>Sullivan JE, Farrar HC. (2011). Fever and antipyretic use in children. <em>Pediatrics</em>. 127(3):580-7. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-3852. Retrieved February 10th, 2016. <a href="https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/127/3/580.full.pdf">https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/127/3/580.full.pdf</a><br></p><p>Mistry N, Hudak A. (2014). Combined and alternating acetaminophen and ibuprofen therapy for febrile children. <em>Paediatrics & child health</em>. 19(10):531-2. Retrieved on February 10th, 2016 <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4276386/pdf/pch-19-531.pdf">https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4276386/pdf/pch-19-531.pdf</a> and Corrigendum. (2015). <em>Paediatrics & Child Health</em>, 20(8), 466–467. Retrieved on February 10th, 2016 <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4699537/">https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4699537/</a> </p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_temperature_oral_EN.jpg
Temporal lobe epilepsiesTTemporal lobe epilepsiesTemporal lobe epilepsiesEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+) EducatorsNA2010-02-04T05:00:00ZElizabeth J. Donner, MD, FRCPC11.200000000000044.70000000000001062.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about the causes and features of temporal lobe epilepsies as well as how they are treated and long-term outlook. </p><p>Temporal lobe epilepsy syndromes feature simple or complex partial seizures arising from the temporal lobe. They account for nearly two-thirds of partial epilepsies in teenagers and adults. Because the temporal lobe is involved with emotions and memory, these seizures often produce emotions such as fear, joy, or anger or memory phenomena such as déjà vu (a feeling of having seen something before, even though it is new to you) or jamais vu (a feeling that you have never seen a familiar object or place before). </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Temporal lobe epilepsy involves seizures that can produce fear, joy or anger or a sense of déjà vu or jamais vu.</li> <li>It can be caused by a build-up of scar tissue on the temporal lobe, a tumour, a tangle of blood vessels or a temporal lobe malformation, but it can sometimes be due to a genetic condition.</li> <li>Features include an aura, automatisms such as chewing, swallowing or picking at clothes and confusion or difficulty speaking after the seizure.</li> <li>Treatments include medications if there is no obvious cause for the seizures. If there is an underlying brain problem, or if medications do not work, a child may be need to have surgery to remove the area of the brain in which seizures begin.</li></ul>
Tests before blood and marrow transplantsTTests before blood and marrow transplantsTests before blood and marrow transplantsEnglishHaematology;Immunology;OncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemTestsAdult (19+)NA2010-03-05T05:00:00ZJohn Doyle, MD, FRCPC, FAAPChristine Armstrong, RN, MScN, NP Peds8.2000000000000064.3000000000000676.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the medical tests your child takes before a blood and marrow transplant.</p><p>To prepare for your child’s blood and marrow transplant​ (BMT), doctors will first run tests to assess how well your child’s organs are working. Usually, children who need a BMT have already had significant problems from their main disease. These complications along with treatment (chemotherapy) can harm important organs in the body.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Disease complications and certain treatments can cause damage to your child's organs.</li> <li>The doctor will run tests on the heart, lungs, hearing, teeth, kidney and liver.</li> <li>Teenage girls may be referred to the gynecology service.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/tests_before_blood_and_marrow_transplant.jpg
TetanusTTetanusTetanusEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2010-03-05T05:00:00ZMark Feldman, MD, FRCPC6.9000000000000062.5000000000000643.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn what to look for if you suspect your child might have tetanus. If you suspect your child has tetanus seek medical assistance right away. Also learn about how it is diagnosed and treated, and how it can be prevented.<br></p><h2>What is tetanus?</h2> <p>Tetanus is a sudden and often fatal disease. It is caused by a poison produced by bacteria. The bacteria are found in dirt and dust. It can get into the body through a wound. The poison then spreads to the central nervous system. It can cause severe muscle spasms. This can interfere with breathing. Tetanus often leads to jaw stiffness. It is sometimes called "lock-jaw."</p> <p>Tetanus can be fatal even with treatment. Children who live through tetanus can have long-term problems with speech, memory or thinking. </p> <p>There is a vaccine to prevent tetanus. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Tetanus is a rare medical emergency. See the doctor right away if you think your child may have the disease.</li> <li>The bacteria that cause tetanus are found in soil, dust or animal droppings.</li> <li>Tetanus can be fatal. It can cause long-term problems with speech, memory or thinking.</li> <li>Make sure your child's tetanus immunizations are up to date. </li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of tetanus</h2> <p>Symptoms can appear from a few days to several weeks after the bacteria enter your child's body through a wound. On average, it takes about eight days to show symptoms. Signs and symptoms may include:</p> <ul> <li>being unable to open the mouth</li> <li>trouble swallowing</li> <li>tightening of facial muscles</li> <li>muscle spasms in the neck, back or belly</li> <li>difficulty breathing</li> <li>fever</li> </ul><h2>Causes</h2> <p>The bacteria that cause tetanus are found in soil, dust or animal droppings. Children catch tetanus when bacteria enter an untreated wound. The bacteria produce a powerful poison. The poison attacks the nervous system. </p> <p>If pregnant mothers do not have enough antibodies in their blood, their newborn babies can develop tetanus. This is called neonatal tetanus. It is common in many developing countries. It is rare in Canadian children.</p> <h2>Risk factors</h2> <ul> <li>fewer than 3 doses of tetanus vaccine</li> <li>more than 10 years since last booster</li> <li>international travel without being vaccinated</li> <li>an untreated wound</li> </ul><h2>Treatment of tetanus</h2> <p>Tetanus is diagnosed by a physical exam. If your child is diagnosed with tetanus, they will be admitted to the hospital. Antibiotics will be given to kill the infection. Other drugs, such as sedatives, may be used to control the muscle spasms. Muscle relaxants may be required. A ventilator may be used to help with breathing. </p><h2>When to seek medical assistance</h2> <p>Tetanus is a medical emergency. Contact a doctor or go to the nearest Emergency Department if you think your child may have tetanus. Women who are planning a pregnancy should make sure their tetanus booster is up to date. </p>
Tethered cordTTethered cordTethered cordEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BackSpinal CordConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-10T05:00:00ZMary Douglas, RN, KRN, BScN, MN, TNCC;James Drake, BSE, MB, BCh, MSc, FRCSC;Patricia Rowe, RN, BScN, MN, NP Peds;Sheila Rowed, RN, BScN, CNN(C);Shobhan Vachhrajani, MD5.7000000000000078.00000000000001663.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Tethered cord occurs when the spinal cord gets stuck to the bottom of the spinal column and is stretched. Learn about how tethered cord is treated. </p><h2>What is a tethered cord?</h2><p>The "cord" in "tethered cord" is the spinal cord. The spinal cord is the bundle of nerves that carries messages between the brain and the body.</p><p>Before a baby is born, the spinal cord is normally the same length as the bones that surround it. These bones are called the spinal column. As the baby grows, the spinal column gets longer than the spinal cord. This means the spinal cord has to be able to move freely inside the spinal column. But in some babies, the bottom end (tail) of the spinal cord is "tethered" or tied down to the bottom end of the spinal column. This is called tethered cord.</p><p>Tethered cord means the spinal cord cannot move inside the spinal column. As the child grows taller, the spinal cord is stretched. If the nerves are stretched, they may not work properly, and this can cause problems for your child. Your child may need an operation to help the spinal cord move freely.</p><p>The information on this page will help you explain tethered cord to your child, using words your child can understand.</p> <figure class="asset-c-100"> <span class="asset-image-title">Tethered cord</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Tethered_cord_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="A normal spinal cord, a spinal cord attached to fatty growth and a spinal cord attached to scar tissue" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Tethered cord means the spinal cord cannot move freely inside the spinal column. Two of the most common causes of tethered cord are shown above: Lipomeningocele (fatty growth) and scar tissue following back surgery.</figcaption> </figure><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Tethered cord means that your child's spinal cord cannot move freely inside their spinal column. The spinal cord is stretched. </li> <li>Tethered cord can cause problems with bladder control, bowel control or walking. </li> <li>Tethered cord may be treated with surgery (an operation) to release the stretching of the spinal cord. </li> <li>Your child will probably stay in hospital for about one week. </li> <li>Call your child's surgeon if you notice any fluid leaking out of your child's surgical cut; if you see bulging, redness, swelling or smelly discharge from the cut; or if your child has a fever. </li> </ul><h2>Tethered cord can cause lack of bladder and bowel control or problems walking</h2> <p>The most common signs of a tethered cord are the following:</p> <ul> <li>Lack of bladder control: When nerves in your child's spinal cord are stretched, your child may not be able to feel when they need to pee. They may wet their pants. </li> <li>Lack of bowel control: The nerves that control the bowel may also be stretched. Your child may not be able to control their bowel movements. </li> <li>Back pain </li> <li>Curving of the spine </li> <li>Trouble walking as well as before </li> </ul><h2>What causes a tethered cord?</h2> <p>The cause of a tethered cord is not always known. We do know that:</p> <ul> <li>It is sometimes found with spina bifida. </li> <li>It is present from birth in some children. </li> </ul> <p>Tethered cord happens when something catches hold of the spinal cord and does not let it move freely. Usually, one of these things catches the cord: </p> <ul> <li>A tight ligament: There is a ligament, like a string, in your child's back called the filum terminale (say: FILL-um term-in-ALL-ay). Normally it is stretchy, but sometimes it is tight and tethers the cord. </li> <li>A scar: If your child has had back surgery, a scar can form around the bottom end of the cord. This can "catch" the spinal cord. </li> <li>Bone: Sometimes, a piece of bone can catch a part of the spinal cord. </li> <li>Fat: Sometimes, fat grows in and around the spinal cord and catches hold of it. </li> </ul><h2>Your child will need tests</h2> <p>Usually, parents notice one or more signs and bring their child to the doctor. If the doctor thinks your child has a tethered cord, they will do some tests. </p> <h3>MRI</h3> <p>In this test, a magnet and radio waves are used to take pictures of the inside of your child's body. The test does not hurt. Sometimes your child will need to take medicine through a needle for one of the following reasons: </p> <ul> <li>to help your child to stay still during the test </li> <li>to help the doctor to see the inside of the back more clearly </li> </ul> <p>MRI requires your child to stay still while the pictures are being taken. Some children need sedation medicine to help them keep still during the tests. </p> <h3>Urology consultation</h3> <p>If your child is having problems with peeing, the doctor may send you to see another doctor called a urologist. This doctor will do tests on your child's bladder. </p><h2>Tethered cord may be treated with surgery</h2> <p>When the stretching of the spinal cord causes problems, your child may need surgery (an operation). This operation involves opening the back and the spinal column in order to release the spinal cord so it can move freely. The operation is called a laminectomy. If the operation is not done, the stretching may get worse. The problems caused by the stretching may also get worse. </p> <p>If your child's spinal cord has already been damaged, surgery may not fix the damage.</p> <h3>What happens during the operation</h3> <p>Your child will have a special "sleep medicine" called a general anesthetic. This will make your child sleep through the operation. An incision (cut) is made on your child's back. </p> <p>The surgeon will cut a piece of bone from the spinal column where the cord is tethered. Then the surgeon will cut and release what is holding the cord to the spinal column. This will let the spinal cord move freely. </p> <p>The operation takes about three hours.</p> <h2>After the operation</h2> <p>After the operation, your child will spend about two to four hours in the Post Anaesthetic Care Unit (PACU). Then your child will go back to the Neurosurgical Unit. </p> <p>Your child will have a bandage on their back. The nurse will check the bandage often. The nurse will also check your child's temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, breathing and leg movements. </p> <p>Your child will have a thin tube in their arm. This is called an intravenous (IV) tube. It allows fluids and medicines to be given directly into your child's bloodstream. </p> <h3>Your child needs to lie flat for two to three days</h3> <p>For the first two to three days after the operation, your child needs to lie flat in bed. This is to prevent leakage of fluid from around the spinal cord. Do not let your child sit up until the surgeon says this is OK. </p> <p>The nurse will turn your child from side to side about every two to four hours. This will help prevent sores that may develop from lying in bed. It will also help prevent any chest problems after surgery. </p> <h3>Your child will have medicine for pain</h3> <p>Your child may feel pain at the operative site. Usually, your child will have <a href="/Article?contentid=194&language=English">morphine</a> through their intravenous line (IV) for one or two days. This should control the pain. If it does not control the pain, speak to your child's nurse. </p> <p>After one or two days, the morphine drip will be slowed down and your child will take pain medicine by mouth.</p> <p>Your child may also learn other ways to control pain, such as blowing bubbles or relaxation breathing. Ask your nurse or the Child Life specialist to help you and your child learn how to do this. </p> <h3>Your child will probably stay in hospital for about one week</h3> <p>Each child gets better at a different rate. Most children stay in hospital for about one week. After your child gets better from the operation, your child's surgeon will decide when they can go home. </p><h2>After your child goes home</h2> <p>Tell your child's surgeon if you notice any of the following things. These mean that your child's cut could be infected:</p> <ul> <li>fluid leaking out of the surgical cut </li> <li>fluid collection (bulging) at the cut </li> <li>redness </li> <li>swelling </li> <li>smelly discharge from the cut </li> <li>fever </li> </ul> <p>Also watch your child for the following:</p> <ul> <li>changes in bladder or bowel function </li> <li>back pain </li> <li>trouble walking </li> <li>changes in movement of the arms and legs </li> <li>irritability (crankiness) </li> </ul> <p>If you have any concerns, contact your child's surgeon.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Tethered_cord_MED_ILL_EN.jpg
Tetralogy of FallotTTetralogy of FallotTetralogy of FallotEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years)HeartCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-12-04T05:00:00ZFraser Golding, MD, FRCPC10.500000000000045.2000000000000423.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about Tetralogy of Fallot, a condition involving four congenital defects that occur when the heart does not develop normally.</p><p>Tetralogy of Fallot is a condition of several congenital defects that occur when the heart does not develop normally. “Tetra” is the Greek word for four, meaning that the condition involves four defects, although it is primarily influenced by two major defects. </p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>With Tetralogy of Fallot, a hole in the lower chambers of the heart results in the body receiving less oxygen than normal.</li> <li> Symptoms include a murmur and sometimes a blue spell.</li> <li> Surgical repair of this defect is usually very successful.</li></ul>
ThalassemiaTThalassemiaThalassemiaEnglishHaematologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2010-05-07T04:00:00ZSheila Jacobson, MBBCh, FRCPC9.4000000000000048.6000000000000586.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>An overview of the causes, symptoms and treatment of this blood disorder caused by a defect in the gene that controls the production of hemoglobin.</p><h2>What is thalassemia?</h2> <p>Thalassemia is a group of blood diseases caused by production of abnormal hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a protein found in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the body. Thalassemia is an inherited form of <a href="/Article?contentid=841&language=English">anemia</a>. It most commonly affects children of Mediterranean, African and Asian descent. There are many different forms of thalassemia and the degree of severity ranges from no symptoms at all to fatal disease. If you have thalassemia minor (trait), you are a carrier of the disease and your red blood cells are smaller than normal, but you are healthy. Thalassemia major can be fatal. People with alpha thalassemia major die in infancy. People with beta thalassemia major require regular blood transfusions. There are other forms of thalassemia which are not as severe.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Thalassemia is a blood disorder caused by a defect in the gene that controls the production of hemoglobin.</li> <li>It is an inherited form of anemia that most commonly affects children of Mediterranean, African and Asian descent.</li> <li>Children with thalassemia major may look pale and have shortness of breath.</li> <li>Thalassemia major is treated by monthly blood transfusions.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of thalassemia</h2><p>Children with thalassemia major may show signs and symptoms in early infancy. The symptoms are similar to children with anemia:</p><ul><li>pale skin</li><li>fatigue</li><li>weakness</li><li>shortness of breath</li></ul><p>Other symptoms may include:</p><ul><li>irritability</li><li>yellow discolouration of skin (jaundice)</li><li>slow growth</li><li>protruding abdomen</li><li>facial bone deformities</li><li>dark urine</li></ul><h2>Causes</h2><p>The blood disorder is caused by a defect in the gene that controls the production of hemoglobin. The defective gene causes an inability to produce normal hemoglobin. Children inherit this gene from one or both parents. If a child inherits the faulty gene from both parents, the child will have thalassemia major. If the faulty gene is only passed on by one parent, the child has thalassemia minor. The child then becomes a carrier of the defective gene.</p> <figure class="asset-c-100"> <span class="asset-image-title">Beta thalassemia heredity</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Beta_thal_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Chromosome distribution chart for a male and a female both carrying the beta thalassemia gene in one chromosome" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">In this example, both parents are carriers of beta thalassemia. They may have mild anemia. Their children may inherit one, two, or no copies of the beta thalassemia gene. If a baby inherits one copy of the gene, she will have thalassemia trait like her parents. If a baby inherits two copies, she will have beta thalassemia (moderate to severe anemia).</figcaption> </figure><h2>What a doctor can do to help your child with thalassemia</h2> <p>Your child's doctor will take into consideration the signs and symptoms you have observed. A diagnosis can only be confirmed by blood tests. Thalassemia minor does not require treatment. Thalassemia major is treated by monthly blood transfusions. Recurrent blood transfusions cause an overload of iron in your child's body. This can lead to heart or liver damage. Such damage can be prevented by medicine to remove the excess iron. </p><h2>Complications</h2> <p>A child with this blood disorder may have gallstones. Other children may have poor growth. Heart failure and infection are the leading causes of death among children when the disorder is left untreated. With treatment, the major complications are related to iron overload.</p><h2>When to seek medical assistance</h2> <p>If your child shows symptoms of anemia, visit your child's doctor as soon as possible. If you have a family history of thalassemia, you should be tested to see if you are a carrier.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Beta_thal_MED_ILL_EN.jpg
Thalassemia and pregnancyTThalassemia and pregnancyThalassemia and pregnancyEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)BodyReproductive systemConditions and diseasesPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-11T04:00:00Z11.600000000000043.2000000000000784.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about the symptoms of thalassemia and its effect on pregnancy. Management of thalassemia during pregnancy is discussed.</p><p>Thalassemia is a group of blood diseases caused by production of abnormal hemoglobin. If you have thalassemia and you are thinking of becoming pregnant, there are a number of important health considerations for you and your unborn baby.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>There are two types of thalassemia, alpha thalassemia and beta thalassemia.</li> <li>Children with thalassemia are usually normal at birth but soon develop symptoms including fatigue, shortness of breath, jaundice, and enlargement of the spleen. </li> <li>If you have thalassemia and your partner carries the trait for thalassemia, there is a chance that your baby may inherit the disease.</li> <li>The stress of pregnancy can make the symptoms of thalassemia worse and cause complications such as anemia and stress on the heart.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Beta_thal_MED_ILL_EN.jpg
The autologous transplant procedureTThe autologous transplant procedureThe autologous transplant procedureEnglishHaematology;Immunology;OncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemProceduresAdult (19+)NA2010-03-05T05:00:00ZJohn Doyle, MD, FRCPC, FAAPChristine Armstrong, RN, MScN, NP Peds6.9000000000000066.3000000000000462.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn what happens during your child's autologous blood and marrow transplant (BMT) procedure.</p><p>After your child’s finishes their conditioning regimen, they will be ready for the autologous blood and marrow transplant (BMT). This is usually one to two days after they finish chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. The harvested stem or bone marrow cells will be thawed in the blood bank before the transplant.</p><p>The transplant procedure is relatively straightforward and does not involve any surgery.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>The transplant procedure is similar to a blood transfusion.</li><li>Most patients do not experience side effects or pain during the procedure.</li><li>After the transplant, your child may experience side effects including nausea, an unusual taste in their mouth, and a sweet, garlicky smell in the breath.</li></ul>
The balancing actTThe balancing actThe balancing actEnglishAdolescent;RheumatologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANANAAdult (19+)NA2017-01-31T05:00:00ZJennifer Stinson RN-EC, PhD, CPNP;Lori Tucker, MD;Tonya Palermo, PhD;Miriam Granger, MSW, RSW;Laurie Horricks, FN, MN;Lynn Spiegel, MD, FRCPC7.1000000000000069.7000000000000972.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>This page describes how to balance helping your teenager while being respectful of their abilities and independence.</p><p>The teen years can become even more difficult when your teenager has a chronic illness like JIA. It is challenging because you want to step in and help. Consider how you can be helpful in ways that are respectful of your teenager's abilities. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>If your teen has a JIA flare-up, find a balance between giving them special attention and letting them live life to the fullest.</li><li>Help your teenager learn how to balance their need for independence with managing JIA.</li><li>Maintain rules at home while allowing your teenager to take on some responsibility.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/the_balancing_act.jpg
The blood and marrow transplant teamTThe blood and marrow transplant teamThe blood and marrow transplant teamEnglishHaematology;Immunology;OncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemHealth care professionalsAdult (19+)NA2010-02-12T05:00:00ZJohn Doyle, MD, FRCPC, FAAPChristine Armstrong, RN, MScN, NP Peds9.8000000000000054.3000000000000530.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the members of your child's blood and marrow transplant (BMT) health-care team.</p><p>While your child is being treated in the Blood and Marrow Transplant (BMT) Unit, she will be receiving care from a number of health-care professionals. These are very skilled and caring people who are committed to family-centred care. They also respect the individual needs of your child and your family. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>The health-care professionals who will be looking after your child work in teams to provide the best possible care for your child.</li> <li>The health-care team includes nurses, medical and surgical teams, a family support team, as well as others.</li></ul>
The brain tumour health-care teamTThe brain tumour health-care teamThe brain tumour health-care teamEnglishNeurology;OncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemHealth care professionalsAdult (19+)NA2009-07-10T04:00:00ZEric Bouffet, MD, FRCPC14.000000000000026.20000000000001025.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>An in-depth description of the many different health-care professionals that are involved in the care of a child with a brain tumour.</p><p>Brain tumours can have a significant impact on various parts of the body and on your child's activities and daily life. For this reason, many different health-care professionals are involved in the care and treatment of a child with a brain tumour.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Many health-care professionals are involved in the care of a child with a brain tumour.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/the_brain_tumour_health_care_team.jpg
The circulatory system before and after birthTThe circulatory system before and after birthThe circulatory system before and after birthEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years);Adult (19+)HeartCardiovascular systemNAAdult (19+)NA2009-12-04T05:00:00ZFraser Golding, MD, FRCPC8.6000000000000060.2000000000000796.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about blood circulation in the body, lungs, and heart, before and after birth.<br></p><p>The circulatory system refers to how the body keeps blood moving through the body (circulating). The heart, the lungs, and the veins and arteries (blood vessels) make up the circulatory system. Working together, they ensure that blood flows through the whole network that makes up the human body (systemic circulation), as well as within the lungs (pulmonary circulation) and the heart (coronary circulation). Oxygen-rich (oxygenated) blood appears red. By contrast, oxygen-poor (deoxygenated) blood is rich in carbon dioxide and seems blue.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>Blood keeps flowing (circulating) in the body through the heart, the lungs, and the veins and arteries (the blood vessels) that make up the circulatory system.</li> <li>The blood flow in the whole body is called systemic circulation; the lungs’ blood flow is the pulmonary circulation; the heart’s is the coronary circulation.</li> <li>After birth, the heart pumps blood through the whole body and through the lung, where it gets rid of carbon dioxide and collects oxygen.</li> <li>Before birth, because the unborn baby does not use their lungs. it has two "shortcuts" (called the foramen ovale and the arterial duct) that help bypass the lungs and more quickly send blood to the baby’s body.</li></ul>
The diabetes teamTThe diabetes teamThe diabetes teamEnglishEndocrinologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)PancreasEndocrine systemHealth care professionalsAdult (19+)NA2017-09-25T04:00:00ZCatherine Pastor, RN, MN, HonBScVanita Pais, RD, CDESanjukta Basak, MSc, MD CM, FRCPCRuth Slater, PhD, C. PsychJennifer Harrington, MBBS, PhD​7.1000000000000064.8000000000000702.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the diabetes care team, who is involved and what to expect during clinic visits.</p><p>Your child will be cared for by a team of <a href="/Article?contentid=1717&language=English">diabetes</a> care specialists; each member will play an important part in managing your child’s diabetes. Your team will consist of:</p><ul><li>you, your child, and your family<br></li><li>a doctor who specializes in pediatric diabetes</li><li>a diabetes nurse, who will plan and coordinate your teaching program, help you with the different skills needed to manage diabetes, and help you solve problems over the first few months and years</li><li>a dietitian, who will help you and your child with <a href="/Article?contentid=1741&language=English">meal planning</a>, taking into account ages, stages and lifestyle issues</li><li>a social worker, who will help you adjust to the various challenges that you might face at first and over the years</li><li>a psychologist, when needed.</li></ul><p>Other health-care professionals may join the team if their help is needed.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>There are many different health-care professionals who make up your child's diabetes team.</li> <li>Your child will attend routine clinic visits to make sure they are healthy and their diabetes is managed properly.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/the_diabetes_team.jpg
The donor heartTThe donor heartThe donor heartEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemProceduresAdult (19+)NA2009-12-11T05:00:00ZAnne Dipchand, MD, FRCPC8.6000000000000064.2000000000000712.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about donor hearts and what will happen to the donor heart before it is transplanted.<br></p><p>If your child is getting a heart transplant, their new heart comes from a heart donor. This page explains how your child will be matched with a donor heart.</p><h2> Key points </h2><ul><li> In Ontario, candidates for a heart transplantation are placed on a waiting list.</li><li> In Ontario, decisions about who gets the donor heart are based on factors including severity of illness and how long candidates have waited.</li><li> Children usually get hearts from donors in the same blood group.</li><li> Heart donors are "brain dead" patients whose families have decided to donate their heart and organs.</li><li>Provincial law often stipulates that information about your child's heart donor is kept private.</li></ul>
The effect of JIA on a child's healthTThe effect of JIA on a child's healthThe effect of JIA on a child's healthEnglishRheumatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodySkeletal systemNAAdult (19+)NA2017-01-31T05:00:00ZJennifer Stinson RN-EC, PhD, CPNPLori Tucker, MDAdam Huber, MSc, MD, FRCPCLynn Spiegel, MD, FRCPCLaura Schanberg, MDPatrick McGrath, OC, PhD, FRSC7.9000000000000065.0000000000000407.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>This page describes the common symptoms of arthritis in young people, and how they can affect regular activities. Symptoms can vary from person to person, and from day-to-day.</p><p>JIA symptoms will have a large impact on your child or teenager's life. This section will cover the effect and impact various JIA symptoms will have in different areas of your child's life.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Common symptoms of JIA include joint swelling and pain, stiffness, fatigue and sleep difficulties.</li> <li>JIA symptoms can impact your child or teen's daily life and activities.</li> <li>About 60% of youths with JIA will have active arthritis as adults.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/the_effect_of_JIA_on_a_childs_health.jpg
The expecting fatherTThe expecting fatherThe expecting fatherEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)NANANAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-11T04:00:00ZNicolette Caccia, MEd, MD, FRCSCRory Windrim, MB, MSc, FRCSC9.3000000000000057.3000000000000748.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>In-depth information on what the father may experience when their partner is pregnant including any possible concerns they may have.</p><p>Fathers are often the neglected partners in reproduction. People tend to forget that fathers also have valid feelings, hopes, and fears about pregnancy, childbirth, and their new babies. Until recently, the amount of information available for fathers has been quite sparse. This section of the site is dedicated to the concerns of fathers during this exciting yet scary time in their lives.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Expectant fathers should encourage their partner to eat a proper diet, get enough exercise, and stay away from alcohol and cigarettes.</li> <li>Communicate with your partner, educate yourself about pregnancy and childbirth, and attend her medical visits and childbirth classes.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/The_expecting_father.jpg
The expecting father: How to help in childbirthTThe expecting father: How to help in childbirthThe expecting father: How to help in childbirthEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)NANANAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-11T04:00:00ZNicolette Caccia, MEd, MD, FRCSCRory Windrim, MB, MSc, FRCSC7.3000000000000068.1000000000000610.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about how you, an expecting father, can help your partner when they are going through labour and delivery.</p><p>Many fathers are fearful of the delivery room. They worry that they might freeze, faint, or become sick to their stomachs if they watch the birth. They wonder if it will be a frightening and unpleasant experience to see their partner go through labour and delivery. One good way to prepare for labour and delivery is to educate yourself about what will happen. Read what your partner reads about childbirth. At your childbirth classes, watch the labour and delivery videos. Visit the hospital with your partner to learn what facilities they have available. Talk to friends about their birth experiences.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Help your partner through labour and delivery by calmly reassuring her, offering praise, distracting her, and encouraging her.</li> <li>If you really do not want to be at the birth find a family member or close friend of your partner who can be there instead, or perhaps hire a doula.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/father_how_to_help_in_childbirth.jpg
The financial impact of JIATThe financial impact of JIAThe financial impact of JIAEnglishAdolescent;RheumatologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANANAAdult (19+)NA2017-01-31T05:00:00ZJennifer Stinson RN-EC, PhD, CPNP;Tonya Palermo, PhD;Miriam Granger, MSW, RSW;Neely Lerman, MSW, RSW;Lynn Spiegel, MD, FRCPC9.7000000000000057.5000000000000553.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>This page describes the financial impact your teen's JIA can have on the family.</p><p>When your teenager has JIA, the financial impact on your family may be quite significant. The expected and visible expenses include: </p> <ul> <li>paying for medications and equipment </li> <li>expenses related to medical appointments such as transportation, parking and meals </li> <li>paying for childcare </li> <li>lost wages from work because of a teenager’s medical appointments or a flare-up. </li> </ul> <p>There are other “hidden” costs that may not initially seem financial in nature. They can cause a financial impact over the long term. For example, if you use up all of your vacation time from work to care for your teenager, you may not have vacation time left to be able to take “fun” time off for yourself or for your family. This can lead to increased stress, depression or other physical and mental health issues, which can come with their own financial costs. Other financial costs could be if your teen is missing many days of school, you may need to hire a tutor or spend extra time speaking with staff at their school to discuss and implement accommodations. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>It is important to communicate with your employer about what your situation is.</li><li>Governmental assistance for medical coverage may be available to you and your family.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/The_financial_impact_of_JIA.jpg
The first trimester: Month oneTThe first trimester: Month oneThe first trimester: Month oneEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)BodyReproductive systemNAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-11T04:00:00Z8.7000000000000056.7000000000000861.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about fetal development in the first month of pregnancy. Ovulation, fertilization, and miscarriage are discussed.</p><p>The Pregnancy & Babies resource centre counts the weeks of pregnancy starting with the date of the beginning of the woman's last menstrual period, which is estimated to be about two weeks before the date of conception. Therefore, the countdown of fetal development begins at week three after the beginning of the woman's last menstrual period. When counted this way, pregnancy will last a total of 40 weeks.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Pregnancy will last a total of 40 weeks, starting from the date of the beginning of the woman's last menstrual period.</li> <li>Fertilization happens during the third week of pregnancy.</li> <li>There is a 45% rate of miscarriage during the first two weeks after fertilization.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Implantation_week4_MED_ILL_EN.jpg
The first trimester: Month threeTThe first trimester: Month threeThe first trimester: Month threeEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)BodyReproductive systemNAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-11T04:00:00Z7.5000000000000067.8000000000000579.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>This page describes fetal development in the third month of pregnancy. The development of facial features and the placenta are discussed.</p><p>The embryo continues to develop rapidly during the third month of the first trimester. By the end of the month it will being to look distinctly like a human baby.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Starting around week 11 after the mother’s last menstrual period, the embryo is referred to as a fetus.</li> <li>Exposure to harmful substances called teratogens during this time may lead to abnormal growth and development.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Fetus_week_13_MED_ILL_EN.jpg
The first trimester: Month twoTThe first trimester: Month twoThe first trimester: Month twoEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)BodyReproductive systemNAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-11T04:00:00Z8.1000000000000064.60000000000001376.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about fetal development in the second month of pregnancy. The development of organ systems, such as the nervous system, is discussed.</p><p>During month two of the first trimester, there is dramatic development of the embryo. The baby will begin to develop different body structures, limbs and there will be rapid brain development.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>The central nervous system, the cardiovascular system and other structures begin to develop during week five.</li> <li>In week eight, sex organs start to develop into either ovaries for females or testes for males.</li> <li>Miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy and exposure to teratogens are major concerns during this month.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Embryo_week8_MED_ILL_EN.jpg
The five sensesTThe five sensesThe five sensesEnglishNeonatologyNewborn (0-28 days)BodyNANAAdult (19+)NA2009-10-18T04:00:00ZAndrew James, MBChB, MBI, FRACP, FRCPC8.1000000000000064.8000000000000886.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn all about your newborn baby's eyesight, hearing, and senses of taste, touch and smell. Trusted Answers provided by Canadian Paediatric Hospitals.</p><p>Newborn babies often have very keen senses. Even before birth babies will respond to sounds. Newborns can tell the difference between their mother's face and someone else, and can even distinguish the smell of their mother from other women.</p><p></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Although their vision is blurry at first, newborns can focus on and identify their mother's face.</li> <li>Newborn babies become quiet when they hear their mother’s voice, and they turn their heads toward their mother when she speaks.</li> <li>Newborn babies and young infants who are fed but not touched or held have problems with their physical and mental development.</li> <li>Newborns are able to detect differences in the taste of their mother’s milk.</li> <li>Breastfed babies are more keenly aware of their mother’s smell compared to babies who are bottle fed.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/the_five_senses_newborn.jpg
The future of JIATThe future of JIAThe future of JIAEnglishAdolescent;RheumatologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANANAAdult (19+)NA2017-01-31T05:00:00ZJennifer Stinson RN-EC, PhD, CPNP;Lori Tucker, MD;Tonya Palermo, PhD;Miriam Granger, MSW, RSW;Laurie Horricks, FN, MN;Lynn Spiegel, MD, FRCPC10.000000000000053.70000000000001279.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Ongoing research is being done to find out the best way to treat and manage JIA. Your teenager can help with these studies by volunteering to take part in a research study.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>There are several ongoing research studies that examine the best way to treat and manage JIA.</li><li>Your teenager can volunteer for a research study, providing new knowledge to help others with JIA in the future.</li><li>Before participating in any research study, your teenager must give informed consent.</li></ul>
The future of scoliosisTThe future of scoliosisThe future of scoliosisEnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Vertebrae;SpineMuscular system;Skeletal systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2008-06-01T04:00:00ZSandra Donaldson, BA;Reinhard Zeller, MD, ScD, FRCSC9.3000000000000051.8000000000000721.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out what researchers are exploring as possible treatments and preventative techniques for scoliosis, including genetic testing.</p><p> While sensational changes in how scoliosis is treated can’t be expected any time soon, research has come a long way in spinal surgery. Once researchers understand the genetic cause of scoliosis, they may be able to use medication to slow its progression.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>Researchers have found a few genes that are linked to scoliosis and may eventually be able to test for these genes, allowing for possible screening of scoliosis in future.</li> <li>Once researchers know the causes of scoliosis, they might be able to figure out how to prevent it.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/AdrianHeightMeasurement_12539_EN.jpg
The glycemic indexTThe glycemic indexThe glycemic indexEnglishEndocrinology;NutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)PancreasEndocrine systemHealthy living and preventionAdult (19+)NA2016-10-17T04:00:00ZCatherine Pastor RN, MN, HonBSc;Vanita Pais RD, CDE;Jennifer Harrington MBBS, PhD;Jennifer Galle MD, FRCPC​8.1000000000000061.60000000000001015.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out what the glycemic index is and how it factors in to your child's diabetes management.</p><p>The glycemic index (GI) helps diabetes patients make healthier choices. This page provides information on low GI foods and outlines some tips for following a low GI diet.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>The glycemic index (GI) ranks carbohydrate-containing foods against straight glucose in terms of how quickly the body metabolizes them.</li> <li>The higher the GI, the faster the food breaks down into sugar and can cause blood-sugar related events.</li> <li>Low GI foods are not always healthy.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMN_glycemic_index_low_food_EN.png
The health-care team for very ill newborn babiesTThe health-care team for very ill newborn babiesThe health-care team for very ill newborn babiesEnglishNeonatologyNewborn (0-28 days)BodyNANAAdult (19+)NA2009-10-18T04:00:00ZAndrew James, MBChB, MBI, FRACP, FRCPC12.600000000000036.20000000000001053.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about the various types of health care professionals who may need to treat a baby who is very ill. Answers from Canadian Paediatric Hospitals.</p><p>In rare circumstances, your baby may need specialized care to address more serious health concerns. Below is a list of the health care professionals your newborn baby might need to see if specific medical issues arise. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Your baby may need specialized care from a paediatrician, neonatologist, paediatric surgeon, registered nurse, nurse practitioner, respiratory therapist, occupational therapist, physiotherapist, a dietitian or other specialists.</li> <li>Family support at the hospital includes a social worker, chaplain or spiritual advisor, bioethics consultant and volunteers.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PP_baby_461_EN.jpg
The health-care teams for children with heart diseaseTThe health-care teams for children with heart diseaseThe health-care teams for children with heart diseaseEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemHealth care professionalsAdult (19+)NA2009-12-04T05:00:00ZJennifer Russell, MD, FRCPC8.6000000000000063.0000000000000680.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about health-care teams committed to treating children with heart conditions. The specific role of each member is discussed.<br></p><p>If your child is being treated for a heart condition, they will be receiving care from a number of health-care professionals, including those on medical and surgical, nursing, and family support teams. These people are very skilled and caring individuals, who are committed to family-centred care and respecting the individual needs of the child and the family.</p><h2>Key points </h2> <ul><li>Health-care professionals who treat children with congenital heart conditions usually work in teams: a medical and surgical team, a nursing team, various health-care professionals and some sort of family support team.</li> <li>It can be difficult to tell who each member on your health-care team is and what they do. Do not hesitate to ask any member of the team who they are and any other questions about your child's care. </li></ul>
The heart transplant operationTThe heart transplant operationThe heart transplant operationEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemProceduresAdult (19+)NA2009-12-11T05:00:00ZAnne Dipchand, MD, FRCPC6.7000000000000069.2000000000000481.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>A heart transplant operation takes four to 10 hours. Learn what happens during the transplant and the major problems that may occur.<br></p><p> This page explains how a heart transplant is carried out. </p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li> During the transplant, your child will be put on a bypass machine so the surgeon can remove their heart and connect the new one to their blood vessels. </li> <li> Sometimes a new donor heart needs special medicines or treatments to help it begin beating regularly. </li> <li> Your transplant surgeon and cardiologist will discuss with you all the potential problems that could occur, including a weak heart, low blood pressure, bleeding, kidney failure, collapsed lungs, and seizures.</li></ul>
The impact of JIA on parentsTThe impact of JIA on parentsThe impact of JIA on parentsEnglishAdolescent;RheumatologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANANAAdult (19+)NA2017-01-31T05:00:00ZJennifer Stinson RN-EC, PhD, CPNP;Tonya Palermo, PhD;Miriam Granger, MSW, RSW;Neely Lerman, MSW, RSW;Lynn Spiegel, MD, FRCPC7.8000000000000065.1000000000000756.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn strategies to cope with the stress and worry of having a child or teenager with JIA.</p><p>When your teenager is first diagnosed with JIA, you may experience many different emotions. You might feel shock, disbelief or even guilt. You may find yourself wondering if you did or didn’t do something to cause your teenager’s JIA. These types of thoughts can be common for parents, but you are not to blame. You are not the cause of your teenager’s JIA. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Parents have many things to worry about when their child has JIA including the impact it will have on their child's future, financial concerns, and how to promote their child's independence.</li> <li>There are multiple strategies parents can use to minimize or manage the impact their child's JIA will have on the parents and the rest of the family.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/the_impact_of_JIA_on_parents.jpg
The impact of JIA on siblingsTThe impact of JIA on siblingsThe impact of JIA on siblingsEnglishAdolescent;RheumatologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANANAAdult (19+)NA2017-01-31T05:00:00ZJennifer Stinson RN-EC, PhD, CPNP;Tonya Palermo, PhD;Miriam Granger, MSW, RSW;Neely Lerman, MSW, RSW;Lynn Spiegel, MD, FRCPC7.9000000000000067.1000000000000433.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>This page describes how some children might feel if they have a brother or sister with arthritis. It also gives tips on how to help your children manage their feelings toward their brother or sister who has arthritis.</p><p>Once a child or teenager is diagnosed with JIA, a lot of time will likely be spent with them at appointments, perhaps in treatment, and making sure their JIA needs are being met. This may leave siblings feeling jealous of all the extra attention their brother or sister is receiving. Siblings sometimes find it hard to understand why there is little time left for them.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Siblings of teenagers with JIA may feel various emotions ranging from guilt that they are healthy, to fear that they might also get JIA.</li><li>Talk to your other children about how they are feeling and make sure to spend time with each of them.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/the_impact_of_JIA_on_siblings.jpg
The impact of JIA on the familyTThe impact of JIA on the familyThe impact of JIA on the familyEnglishAdolescent;RheumatologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANANAAdult (19+)NA2017-01-31T05:00:00ZJennifer Stinson RN-EC, PhD, CPNP;Tonya Palermo, PhD;Miriam Granger, MSW, RSW;Neely Lerman, MSW, RSW;Lynn Spiegel, MD, FRCPC7.8000000000000065.10000000000001333.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>This page describes the impact arthritis can have on the family. When your teen has arthritis, it can affect your family activities, but there are ways to manage this impact.</p><p>JIA not only affects your teenager; JIA also impacts your entire family. The effects on your family can vary depending on the type of JIA your teenager has, the severity of their symptoms, treatments and frequency of flare-ups. The level of impact JIA has on the family can also be affected by the coping styles of parents and individual family members. You might find yourself spending extra time helping your teenager with JIA, especially during a flare. This shortens the amount of time you spend with other family members.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Family routines and plans will change sometimes because of flare-ups in your child's JIA.</li><li>Strategies to manage the impact of JIA on the family include: learning about JIA; caring for yourself; considering your parenting style; asking for help.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/the_impact_of_JIA_on_the_family.jpg
The insulin regimenTThe insulin regimenThe insulin regimenEnglishEndocrinologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)PancreasEndocrine systemDrug treatmentAdult (19+)NA2016-10-17T04:00:00ZCatherine Pastor, RN, MN, HonBSc;Vanita Pais, RD, CDE;Jennifer Harrington​, MBBS, PhD​10.100000000000050.8000000000000812.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Patients with type 1 diabetes and some with type 2 must receive insulin manually. Learn what an insulin regimen is and the different routines.</p><p>Patients with <a href="/Article?contentid=1719&language=English">type 1 diabetes</a> do not produce their own <a href="/Article?contentid=1729&language=English">insulin</a>, so they must receive it manually from an external source. Some patients with <a href="/Article?contentid=1721&language=English">type 2 diabetes</a> also need to be given insulin. Insulin can be administered using a <a href="/Article?contentid=1732&language=English">pen</a>, a <a href="/Article?contentid=1731&language=English">syringe</a>, or an <a href="/Article?contentid=1733&language=English">insulin pump​</a>.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>An insulin regimen is how much insulin your child gets (dosage) and how often they get it (frequency).</li> <li>Depending on your child's needs there are different insulin regimens including multiple daily injections (MDI), three-times-a-day (TID) insulin routine, and twice-a-day (BID) insulin routine.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/the_insulin_regimen.jpg
The leukemia health-care teamTThe leukemia health-care teamThe leukemia health-care teamEnglishOncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodySkeletal systemHealth care professionalsAdult (19+)NA2018-03-06T05:00:00ZOussama Abla, MDDanielle Weidman, MDKarin Landenberg, MD10.300000000000050.80000000000001271.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the roles of different members of your child's health-care team, including their oncologists and nurses.</p><p>After your child’s diagnosis, you will have a primary health team who will care for you and your child during treatment. The primary health-care team involves many health-care professionals.<br></p><h2> Key points </h2><ul><li>Your child's heath care team will include medical, nursing, and family support health-care professionals.</li></ul>

Thank you to our sponsors

AboutKidsHealth is proud to partner with the following sponsors as they support our mission to improve the health and wellbeing of children in Canada and around the world by making accessible health care information available via the internet.