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G tubes: Balloon G tubesGG tubes: Balloon G tubesG tubes: Balloon G tubesEnglishGastrointestinal;OtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Abdomen;StomachDigestive systemProceduresAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2022-04-12T04:00:00Z6.5000000000000075.30000000000002843.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>A balloon G tube is a type of feeding tube that has a balloon on the end to help prevent the tube from being accidentally pulled out. Learn how to care for your child’s balloon G tube and change it at home.</p><p>Gastrostomy tubes (G tubes) are feeding devices that provide liquid nutrition, medications, and other fluids directly into the stomach. G tubes are placed through a surgical opening in your child's abdomen (tummy) called a stoma. The tunnel from the outside into the stomach is called the tract. </p><p>Balloon G tubes have a balloon on the end that sits inside the stomach to keep the tube in place. These tubes may be non low-profile or low-profile. </p><p>This information in this article does not apply to GJ tubes, combination G/GJ tubes or non-balloon G tubes. </p><h2>Key points </h2><ul><li>A balloon G tube is a type of feeding tube that has a balloon on the end that sits inside the stomach to prevent it from being pulled out. </li><li>A non low-profile balloon G tube extends further out of the stomach and has a disk on the outside to keep the tube from moving too far into the stomach. </li><li>A low-profile balloon G tube sits close to the skin and is easy to conceal. </li><li>Balloon G tubes should be changed at least every six to eight months to prevent the balloon from leaking or breaking, which can cause the G tube to accidentally fall out. </li><li>The G tube feeding extension set should be changed every month. </li><li>Whenever you change or re-insert a G tube, always check the pH of the fluids that come from the tube to make sure it is in the stomach before using it for feeds and medications. </li><li>You do not need to go to the emergency department if your child’s balloon is broken, blocked, or the tube accidentally falls out, and you are able to replace the tube or insert a Foley catheter. </li><li>You will only need to go the emergency department if you cannot insert a replacement tube or an emergency Foley catheter and there is nothing in the tract. </li></ul><h2>What to do if your child’s balloon G tube is pulled out or becomes blocked</h2><h3>If the tube is accidentally pulled out</h3><p>It is possible that the G tube may accidentally fall out or be pulled out. This may happen if the balloon is broken or does not have enough water in it. </p><p>To check if the balloon is broken, fill it with 5 mL of water. If you do not see a leak, remove the water from the balloon, wash the G tube with soap and water and reinsert it into the stoma as described above. Fill the balloon with the amount of water you normally use. Check the balloon every two to three days to be sure there are no further problems. </p><p>If the balloon is broken, replace it with a new tube as described above. </p> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">Foley catheter</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/GTubes_FoleyCatheter.jpg" alt="Foley catheter showing feeding tube, feeding port, balloon port and balloon" /> </figure> <p>If you cannot replace the G tube, insert a temporary Foley catheter. To learn how to insert the Foley catheter, please see the article "<a href="/Article?contentid=2910&language=English">What to do if your child’s feeding tube is pulled out</a>". You can use the Foley catheter for feeds and medication until a new G tube is inserted if placement is confirmed by checking the pH. </p><p>Remember to always carry an emergency kit that includes: </p><ul><li>Back-up balloon G tube or Foley catheter </li><li>Water-based lubricant gel </li><li>Slip tip syringes </li><li>Water </li><li>pH strips and colour reference guide </li><li>Tape in case of unexpected tube changes </li><li>Kangaroo extension </li></ul><p><strong>You do not need to go to the emergency department if the tube falls out or becomes blocked and you replace the tube or insert a Foley catheter.</strong> You will only need to go the emergency department if you cannot insert a Foley catheter and there is nothing in the tract, or if after inserting a Foley catheter, you cannot verify that it is in the stomach. </p><h3>If the tube becomes blocked</h3><p>To learn what to do if your child’s G tube becomes blocked, please see the article "<a href="/Article?contentid=3039&language=English">What to do if your child’s feeding tube is blocked</a>".<br></p><h3>G tube migration</h3><p>Balloon G tubes such as Foley catheters are at high risk of migrating from the stomach into the small bowel. The tube must be secured to the abdomen with tape to prevent tube migration. </p><p>Signs and symptoms of G tube migration include: </p><ul><li>Increased vomiting  </li><li>Gagging and retching  </li><li>Abdominal discomfort or pain  </li><li>Bloated stomach  </li><li>Diarrhea </li></ul><p>If you are concerned that your child’s Foley catheter feeding tube has migrated, gently pull back on the tube until you feel the balloon against the stomach wall. Tape the tube in place in this position. If these signs and symptoms continue or you are concerned about your child, stop using the tube and contact your G tube specialist during regular business hours or go to the emergency department. </p><h2>Caring for your child’s balloon G tube</h2><p>Keep the tube and stoma as dry and clean as possible, washing with soap and water daily. Your child’s stoma will not need a dressing. </p><p>Flush the tube with at least 5 to 10 mL of water before and after each feed and medication dose, and every four hours during continuous feeds. This helps prevent the tube from becoming blocked. </p><h3>The balloon</h3> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Balloon port</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Gtube_balloonport_labels.jpg" alt="Balloon and balloon inflation port at the end of a G tube" /> </figure> <p>The balloon at the end of your child’s tube is what keeps the tube in place and prevents it from being accidentally pulled out. The balloon is inflated with sterile or distilled water. You may also use tap water that has been boiled and cooled down. The water is inserted through the hard plastic port, which may be marked "BAL". Do not fill the balloon with saline or air. Do not give feeds into the balloon port. </p><p>The doctor who inserts the tube may fill the balloon with less than the recommended balloon volume. If this is the case, you will need guidance from your health-care team before you increase the balloon volume. </p><p>If you are unsure how much water your child’s balloon tube can safely hold or you are not sure how much water the balloon was originally filled with, ask your G tube specialist (at SickKids this is the G Tube Resource Nurse) or refer to the chart below. </p><table class="akh-table"><thead><tr><th>  </th><th colspan="2">Non-low profile<br></th><th colspan="2">Low-profile</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td></td><td>Mic-G</td><td>Kangaroo</td><td>Mic-Key</td><td>AMT miniONE</td></tr><tr><td>12FR</td><td>3 to 5 mL (max 7 mL)</td><td>5 mL</td><td>3 to 5 mL</td><td>2 to 3 mL</td></tr><tr><td>14FR</td><td>3 to 5 mL (max 7 mL)</td><td>5 mL</td><td>5 to 10 mL</td><td>3 to 5 mL</td></tr></tbody></table><h3>Checking the volume of water in the balloon<br></h3><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/f0s7WSF_6pw?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> </div><p>It is important to check the amount of water in the balloon at least once a week. This will help you to know if there is a problem with the balloon. Use a slip-tip syringe to check the balloon.</p><ol><li>Insert an empty syringe into the balloon port.</li><li>Remove all the water from the balloon. Throw away the old water. It is normal for the water to become discoloured (brown or yellow). </li><li>Re-inflate the balloon with new sterile or distilled water.</li></ol><p>It is normal for less water to be removed from the balloon than you originally put in. This is because some of the water might have evaporated. It is normal for there to be a difference of up to 0.5 mL. </p><p>If there is a difference of more than 0.5 mL of water from what you put in and what you remove, the balloon may be damaged, and the tube may need to be replaced. If this happens: </p><ul><li>Re-inflate the balloon with the amount of water you normally put in and check the volume again in three to four hours. </li><li>If you get all the water back, the water may have simply evaporated quicker than usual. Re-inflate the balloon with the amount of water you normally put in and check the balloon volume every three to four days to be sure there are no further problems. </li><li>If you get less water back again after three to four hours, the balloon is likely damaged, and the tube will need to be replaced. </li><li>If you get more fluid than what you originally put in the balloon, and it looks like stomach contents or food, this means the balloon is broken and the tube will need to be replaced. </li></ul><p>If the balloon is broken, there is a risk that the tube may be accidentally pulled out. Tape the tube in place to the abdomen until you can change the tube yourself or book an appointment with your G tube specialist to help you change the tube. </p><p>Meanwhile, the tube is still in the stomach so you can continue to use the tube for feeding and medications. There is no need to go the emergency department if the balloon is broken.</p><h3>Fit of balloon tube </h3><p>For low profile balloon tubes, filling the balloon with more or less water can affect the fit of the tube to the skin. Leaking and stoma issues may occur if the tube does not fit properly. Less water in the balloon makes the tube sit looser and stick out from the skin. More water in the balloon makes the tube sit tighter and closer to the skin. </p><h3>Adjusting the balloon for a tighter/looser fit </h3><p>If the tube is so tight you can see an indent in your child’s skin, you can decrease the amount of water in the balloon.</p><p>If the tube sticks out too much and is dangling from the stoma or leaking, increase the amount of water in the balloon. If adjusting the balloon volume does not help with the fit of your child’s tube, you may need to have the tract re-measured by your G tube specialist.</p><p>For non low-profile balloon tubes, the retention disk may be adjusted to manage the fit of the tube. Ensure the balloon is in a good position against the stomach wall before adjusting the disk. You can achieve this by pulling the tube upward until you feel resistance, which represents the balloon against the stomach wall. You can then slide the retention disk down the tube shaft, flush against the abdominal wall. </p><h2>Feeding extension set for a low-profile balloon G tube</h2><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/nhrbisdk_zQ?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> </div><p>The feeding port for a low-profile balloon G tube is where your child’s feeds will enter the tube and then go into their stomach. The feeding port has a one-way valve to prevent stomach contents, feeds, water, and medications from flowing back out of the tube. To open this one-way valve, and give feeds and medications, you must use a feeding extension set. Each brand of a low-profile balloon G tube has their own extension set. You will receive one in the box with a newly purchased low-profile balloon G tube. Replacement extension sets are purchased separately when needed. </p><div class="asset-2-up"> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Extension set detached from tube</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Gtube_extensionset_separate_labels.jpg" alt="Parts of an extension set detached from G tube" /> </figure> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Extension set attached to tube</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Gtube_extensionset_attached_labels.jpg" alt="Parts of an extension set attached to G tube" /> </figure> </div><h3>Connecting the extension set to the tube</h3><ol><li>Open the plastic cover on the feeding tube. </li><li>Make sure the clamp on the extension set is closed. </li><li>Match the line on the extension to the line on the tube and push the extension into the valve. </li><li>Holding the button tube in place, turn the extension clockwise until you feel the extension lock into place. There is an arrow on the extension to show you which direction to turn it. </li><li>Attach your feeds, fluids, and medications to the appropriate port at the end and open the clamp. </li><li>When you have finished using the extension, flush it and remove it from the tube.</li></ol><h3>Removing the extension from the tube</h3><ol><li>Clamp the extension. </li><li>Holding the tube in place, turn the extension counter clockwise (opposite to the arrow on the extension). </li><li>Match the line on the extension to the line on the tube and remove the extension. </li><li>Close the plastic cover on the feeding tube. </li></ol><p>The extension set should be changed once every month, or if you notice the plastic is becoming stiff or there is formula, food or medications built up inside. It is important to flush the extension set with water between each use and clean it with soap and water once daily. Remove the extension set from the tube when it is not in use to prevent pulling. </p><h2>How to change the balloon G tube<br></h2><p><strong><a href="/article?contentid=3886&language=english&hub=tubefeeding">Primary balloon G tubes</a> (i.e., surgical tubes) should not be changed in the first 8 weeks from insertion. These instructions do not apply to GJ tubes or combination G/GJ tubes.</strong></p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/XhPb9UdJqK0?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> <br></div><h3>Supplies</h3><ul><li>New balloon G tube</li><li>Soap</li><li>Warm water<br></li><li>Washcloth</li><li>Sterile or distilled water</li><li>Four 5-mL slip-tip syringes</li><li>Water-based lubricant or jelly</li><li>Feeding extension set (for low-profile G tubes)</li><li>pH strips and colour reference guide</li></ul><h3>Procedure</h3><ol><li>Wash your hands with soap and water and prepare your equipment and supplies. </li><li>Draw up the amount of water recommended to fill the balloon of your child’s tube into one syringe. Draw 5 mL of water into another syringe to flush the tube. Leave the other two syringes empty. You will use these to remove the old water from the balloon and check the pH. </li><li>Prepare your washcloth with soap and water on one half of the cloth and non-soapy water on another part. </li><li>Remove the sterile or distilled water from the balloon of the old G tube using one of the empty syringes. Throw the water and syringe away. </li><li>Remove the old G tube. It is normal for the inner part of the tube to be brown or black. This is caused by acidic stomach contents. Throw away the old tube.</li><li>This is a great time to assess the stoma for any changes, such as redness, drainage, rash, or hypergranulation tissue. Wash the stoma with soap and water and rinse it with non-soapy water. Then let it air dry. </li><li>Lubricate the tip of the new balloon G tube and, at a slight angle, insert it into the stoma, following the existing tract. The tube may be slightly resistant, so it is OK to exert light force. Try to time insertion with when your child breaths in, as they are most relaxed at that time. </li><li>Once the tube is in place, check that the tube is in the stomach by checking the pH as described below. </li><li>Once you know that the tube is in the stomach, by getting a pH of less than 6.0, inflate the balloon with the amount of sterile or distilled water you usually put in. </li><li>For non low-profile balloon tubes, gently pull the tube until you feel resistance. This indicates that the balloon has reached the inside of the stomach wall. Adjust the outer disk so that it sits snug against the skin. </li><li>Flush the tube with 5 mL of water. If your child has a low-profile tube you can use the feeding extension to do this. </li><li>You may now use the tube for feeding and medications. </li></ol><h2>Checking that the newly changed balloon tube is in the right spot</h2><p>Before inflating the balloon, flushing the tube, or using the newly changed tubes for feeds and medications, you will need to check that it is in the stomach by checking the pH of the contents that are pulled from the tube. </p><h3>How to check the pH</h3><p>You will need:</p><ul><li>One empty slip tip syringe</li><li>The feeding extension set for a low-profile balloon G tube</li><li>pH strips</li><li>pH colour reference guide</li></ul><p>What to do:</p><ol><li>Once you have inserted the new tube, insert the empty syringe into the feeding extension feeding (for a low-profile balloon G tube) or directly into the tube’s feeding port and pull back a small amount of stomach contents. If you cannot get stomach contents, move your child side to side or sit them up while holding the tube in place. </li><li>Empty the stomach contents from the syringe onto the pH strip. </li><li>Compare the colours on the pH strip to the colours on the reference guide. </li></ol><p> <strong>If the pH is less than 6.0</strong>, this means the tube is in the stomach and you can flush the tube and use it for feeding and medications.</p><p> <strong>If the pH is 6.0 or higher</strong>the tube may not be in the stomach. Medications and recent feedings can affect the pH. If your child recently had medications or feeds and their stomach contents look like the photos in the video, you may continue to use the tube. <strong>If you get a high reading and your child has not had recent feeds or medications, do not use the tube and check the pH again one hour later. </strong> If the reading is still 6.0 or higher, do not use the tube and contact your G tube specialist during business hours or go to the Emergency Department after hours to have the position checked by fluoroscopy.t. In the meantime, you can tape your child’s tube to their stomach as shown in the photo above. </p><h2>Resources</h2><p>For more information about the Mic-Key, visit <a href="https://www.mic-key.com/">www.mic-key.com</a>.</p><p>For more information about the AMT miniONE, visit <a href="https://www.appliedmedical.net/enteral/minione/balloon/">www.appliedmedical.net/enteral/minione/balloon/</a>.</p>balloonghttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Gtube_non_lowprofile_Kanga_labels.jpgMain
G tubes: Corflo PEG tubeGG tubes: Corflo PEG tubeG tubes: Corflo PEG tubeEnglishGastrointestinal;OtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Abdomen;StomachDigestive systemProceduresAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2022-06-29T04:00:00Z8.2000000000000066.60000000000001271.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>A Corflo PEG tube is a type of feeding tube. Discover how to care for your child's Corflo PEG tube and what to do if it is accidentally pulled out.</p><figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/PMD_corpak_corflo_PEG_G_tube_0_EN.jpg" alt="" /> </figure> <p>Gastrostomy tubes (G tubes) are feeding devices that provide liquid nutrition, medication, fluids or blended diet directly into the stomach. G tubes are placed through a surgical opening in your child's belly (abdomen) called a stoma. The tunnel from the outside into the stomach is called the tract. A Corflo PEG tube is one type of G tube.</p><div class="pdf-page-break"></div><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A Corflo PEG tube provides liquid nutrition, medication, fluids or blended diet directly into the stomach.</li><li>The tube will be placed by an interventional radiologist. Your child will be given a general anaesthetic before the tube insertion procedure.</li><li>The Corflo PEG Y-adaptor, attached to the end of your child's feeding tube, allows access for tube feeding, fluids, medication and blended diet administration. It can be changed if needed.</li><li>If your child's tube is accidentally pulled out, insert a Foley catheter and contact your child's G tube specialist.​​​​​​​​​​​​​</li></ul><h2>Inserting the Corflo PEG tube</h2> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">T-bar/crossbar fixation device</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/PMD_corpak_corflo_PEG_G_tube_02_EN.jpg" alt="Y-adaptor, crossbar and round bolster on a T-bar/crossbar fixation device" /></figure> <p>TThe Corflo PEG tube is placed by an interventional radiologist using image guidance. There is a round bolster on the inside of the stomach that helps prevent the tube from being pulled out. A T-bar/crossbar fixation device on the outside of the stomach helps prevent the tube from moving into the stomach. </p><h2>At SickKids</h2><p>For SickKids patients, to replace a Corflo PEG tube, an appointment must be made in the Image Guided Therapy (IGT) Department. Contact the G Tube Resource Nurse to schedule an appointment.</p><h3>G Tube Resource Nurse contact info: </h3><p>Phone 416-813-7177 </p><p>g.tubenurse@sickkids.ca </p><p>On the weekend/afterhours, you may need to come to the Emergency Department for an alternate method of feed/fluids/medication administration.</p>corflopeghttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/PMD_corpak_corflo_PEG_G_tube_01_EN.jpgMain
G tubes: MIC Gastric-Enteric feeding tubeGG tubes: MIC Gastric-Enteric feeding tubeG tubes: MIC Gastric-Enteric feeding tubeEnglishGastrointestinal;Other(diagnostic imaging, bloodwork, picc line, procedures�.)Child (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Abdomen;Small Intestine;StomachDigestive systemNon-drug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2022-05-03T04:00:00Z8.5000000000000062.90000000000002033.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>A MIC Gastric-Enteric is a combination G/GJ feeding tube that provides fluids, nutrition, and medications directly into the small intestine. Learn about how to care for a child who has this type of combination tube.</p><h2>What is a MIC Gastric-Enteric feeding tube?</h2><p>A MIC Gastric-Enteric feeding tube is a type of feeding tube that provides fluids, nutrition, and medications directly into the small intestine (jejunum) through the jejunal feeding port. There is a second port that gives access to the stomach for venting and a third port for balloon inflation. The balloon keeps the MIC Gastric-Enteric tube in place and a disk sits on the outside of the stomach to prevent it from moving into the stomach. This tube is placed by an interventional radiologist using image guidance.</p><p>The MIC Gastric-Enteric tube is placed through an opening in your child's abdomen called a stoma. The tunnel from the outside through the stoma is called the tract.</p><p>Feeds are given by attaching an adaptor to the "Jejunal" port. The "Gastric" port is used for venting the stomach. The port marked "BAL" is the balloon port and is used for inflating the balloon with water.</p><p>The port labelled "Gastric" is used to access the stomach. This port is usually used for venting, although it is possible to give medications and feeds through it if instructed to do so by your health-care team.</p><p>The port labelled "Jejunal" is used to access the small intestine. This port is usually used for feeding, medications, and fluids.</p><p>A MIC Gastric-Enteric feeding tube is not used for primary tube insertion. This means that your child will have a different type of feeding tube first and may then transition to a MIC Gastric-Enteric feeding tube after a few months.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A MIC Gastric-Enteric is a combination G/GJ feeding tube that provides liquid nutrition, medication, and other fluids directly into the small intestine (jejunum). It also gives access to the stomach for venting. </li><li>Combination tubes pass through the stomach before entering the small intestine and are placed by an interventional radiologist.</li><li>Check the volume of water in the balloon at least once per week.</li><li>It requires a purple Kangaroo adaptor to access the stomach and small intestine ports. These adaptors can be replaced as needed.</li><li>Keep the stoma and surrounding skin clean and dry, and check for signs of infection, irritation, granulation tissue, or leakage.</li><li>If your child’s MIC Gastric-Enteric feeding tube has been pulled out or moved out of place, contact the G tube specialist, or take your child to the emergency department.</li></ul><h2>When to seek medical attention</h2><p>Contact the G tube specialist for non-urgent issues by phone or email if you notice any of the following signs and symptoms:</p><ul><li>There is hypergranulation tissue, which is pink to bright red, bloody, raw, moist, and/or painful.</li><li>There is ongoing leakage of stomach contents.</li><li>Your child's stoma site appears infected. Signs of infection include redness, edema (swelling) and odorous discharge. If your child is unwell, please contact your family doctor or take them to the emergency department.</li><li>The tube appears to be damaged or broken but is still able to be used.</li></ul> <p>If the MIC Gastric-Enteric feeding tube has moved out of the small intestine and into the stomach, your child may experience:</p> <ul><li>increased vomiting</li><li>vomiting formula</li><li>gagging and retching</li><li>abdominal discomfort or pain</li><li>bloated stomach</li><li>diarrhea</li><li>leaking of formula from the gastric port or stoma</li></ul> <p>The position of the tip of the combination G/GJ tube will need to be confirmed by an interventional radiologist using image guidance. During office hours (at SickKids, Monday to Friday 8:30-4:00 PM) page the G tube specialist. After hours and on weekends bring the child to the emergency department. Do not use the tube for feeding until the tube position is confirmed.</p> <h3>Intussusception</h3> <p><a href="/article?contentid=958&language=english">Intussusception</a> may occur around the tube. Intussusception is when one part of the small intestine slides into the next part. This can happen at the tip of the combination G/GJ tube. Large combination G/GJ tubes and/or normal movements of the bowels may cause intussusception.</p> <p>A child with intussusception will experience:</p> <ul><li>discomfort and feeding intolerance (vomiting when fed)</li><li>vomiting bile (green fluid)</li><li>diarrhea or blood in the stool</li></ul> <p>If you think that your child’s tube has intussuscepted, page your G tube specialist during business hours. After hours, on weekends or on holidays, take your child to the emergency department.</p> <div class="caution"><p>If there are urgent issues with the tube that you cannot manage after hours or on weekends, go to the emergency department. During regular business hours page your G tube specialist. If the page is not returned or you are clinically concerned about the child, go to the emergency department. These issues may include:</p><ul><li>The tube appears to be damaged, broken or dislodged.</li><li>Your child experiences abdominal pain, abdominal distension (swelling), discomfort, vomiting and/or other signs of feeding intolerance.</li><li>Your child has signs of respiratory distress (i.e., higher breathing rate or difficulty breathing).</li><li>You are concerned the tube has moved into the stomach or your child has intussusception.</li></ul></div> <h3>What to do if your child's tube is accidentally pulled out</h3> <p>If your child’s MIC Gastric-Enteric feeding tube is partially pulled out but remains in the stoma, tape the tube to your child’s stomach to prevent it from completely dislodging. Do not try to push the tube back in. </p> <p>If the tube has been pulled out <5cm and the child is tolerating feeds, you can continue to use the tube and monitor closely for symptoms. call the G tube specialist during regular business hours to arrange a tube exchange. If the tube has been pulled out >5cm or your child has any issues with tolerating feeds, do not continue to use the tube. Call the G tube specialist during regular business hours or come to the emergency department after hours, on weekends or on holidays. </p> <p>If your child’s MIC Gastric-Enteric feeding tube is accidentally completely pulled out of the stoma, please follow the instructions in the linked article below for: <a href="/Article?contentid=2910&language=English">Inserting the Foley catheter after a GJ tube has been accidently pulled out</a>.</p> <p>Do not use the Foley for medications, feeds, or fluids. Do not inflate the balloon. </p> <h2>Giving feeds, liquids, and medication through the MIC Gastric-Enteric feeding tube</h2><p>Your child's tube feeds will be the same as with previous GJ or combination G/GJ tube exchanges.</p><p>A purple Kangaroo extension needs to be attached to the jejunal port to give feeds and medications. It is often helpful to attach a purple extension to the gastric port when venting the stomach. Both extensions can be connected at the same time to allow you to vent the stomach during feeds.</p><p>The extension should be replaced as needed (i.e., broken, rigid, stained).</p><p>Using the extension, flush the jejunal port with at least 5 to 10 mL of water before and after each feed and medication dose, and every four hours during continuous feeds. This helps to prevent the tube from becoming blocked. Some children may also require flushing into the stomach, using the gastric port. Only do this if your health-care team has told you to.</p><h2>At SickKids</h2><p>G Tube Resource Nurse Contact info:</p><ul><li>Phone: 416-813-7177</li><li>Email: g.tubenurse@sickkids.ca</li></ul><p>On weekend/afterhours, your child may need to come to the Emergency Department for an alternate method of feed/fluids/medications administration.</p>Main
G/GJ tubes: Corflo PEG J tubeGG/GJ tubes: Corflo PEG J tubeG/GJ tubes: Corflo PEG J tubeEnglishGastrointestinal;OtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Abdomen;Stomach;Small IntestineDigestive systemProceduresAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2019-05-10T04:00:00Z8.4000000000000065.40000000000001410.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>A Corflo PEG Jejunal (J) tube is a type of feeding tube. Find out how it is inserted, how to care for it and what to do if it is accidentally pulled out.</p><p>A Corflo PEG J tube is a type of feeding tube that provides fluids, nutrition, and medication directly into the small intestine (jejunum). The Corflo PEG J tube is made up of two separate tubes: a Corflo PEG tube (a type of G tube) and a Silastic (silicon rubber) tube. The Silastic tube is threaded through the Corflo PEG tube, into the jejunum.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A Corflo PEG J tube provides liquid nutrition, medication and other fluids directly into the small intestine (jejunum). It is made from a Corflo PEG tube that is in the stomach and a silicon rubber tube that is advanced through it into the jejunum.</li><li>The tube is placed by an interventional radiologist. Your child will be given a general anaesthetic before the primary tube insertion procedure.</li><li>If your child’s silicon rubber J tube has been pulled out or moved out of place, contact the G tube specialist or take your child to the Emergency Department.</li></ul><h2>When to seek medical attention</h2><p>Contact your G tube specialist or go to the nearest Emergency Department if you notice any of the following signs and symptoms:</p><ul><li>Your child's stoma site appears infected with redness, edema (swelling) and odorous discharge.</li><li>There is hypergranulation tissue at the stoma, which is pink to bright red, bloody, raw, moist, oozing yellow sticky discharge and/or painful.</li><li>The stoma site is leaking intestinal or stomach contents and /or formula.</li><li>Your child experiences abdominal pain, distension, discomfort, vomiting and/or other signs of feeding intolerance.</li><li>Your child has signs of respiratory distress (i.e. higher breathing rate or difficulty breathing).</li><li>The tube appears to be damaged, broken, or dislodged.</li></ul><h2>Inserting the Corflo PEG J tube</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Corflo PEG J tube</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Corflo_Jtube_full_labels.jpg" alt="Parts of the Corflo PEG J Tube" /> </figure> <h3>Corflo PEG tube insertion — G tube</h3><p>The <a href="/Article?contentid=2536&language=English">Corflo PEG tube</a> is placed by an interventional radiologist using image guidance. </p><p>The interventional radiologist will create an opening in your child's tummy (abdomen) called a stoma. The tunnel from the outside of the body into the stomach is called the tract.</p><p>The Corflo PEG tube will be placed through the mouth, into the stomach and out through the stoma. There is a round bolster on the inside of the stomach that helps prevent the tube from being pulled out. A fixation device on the outside of the stomach helps prevent the tube from moving too far into the stomach. The fixation device will be either a T-bar/crossbar or a white elbow fixation. The Corflo PEG tube ends in the stomach.</p><h3>Silastic tube insertion — J tube</h3><p>A Silastic tube is then used as a J tube. It is advanced through the Corflo PEG tube to access the jejunum. The tube passes through the Corflo PEG tube and continues through the stomach, duodenum and the first part of the small intestine. The tip of the Silastic tube ends in the first part of the small intestine, called the jejunum.</p><p>Together, the Corflo PEG tube and the Silastic J tube make up the Corflo PEG J tube.</p><h2>At SickKids</h2><h3>G Tube Resource Nurse Contact info </h3><p>Phone 416-813-7177 </p><p>Email: g.tubenurse@sickkids.ca </p><p>On weekend/afterhours, your child may need to come to the Emergency Department for an alternate method of feed/fluids/medications administration.</p>corflopegjhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Corflo_Jtube_full_labels.jpgMain
G/GJ tubes: Frequently asked questionsGG/GJ tubes: Frequently asked questionsG/GJ tubes: Frequently asked questionsEnglishGastrointestinal;Other(diagnostic imaging, bloodwork, picc line, procedures�.)Child (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Stomach;Abdomen;Small IntestineDigestive systemSupport, services and resourcesAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2019-08-01T04:00:00Z7.1000000000000071.1000000000000962.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find answers to some of the most frequently asked questions about feeding tubes and how to care for them.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Gastrostomy tubes (G tubes) and gastrojejunostomy tubes (GJ tubes) are feeding devices used to give liquid nutrition, medication and other fluids directly into the stomach or small intestine (jejunum).</li><li>There are many different reasons your child may need a G or GJ tube.<br></li></ul>Main
G/GJ tubes: Hypergranulation tissueGG/GJ tubes: Hypergranulation tissueG/GJ tubes: Hypergranulation tissueEnglishGastrointestinal;OtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Stomach;Abdomen;Small IntestineDigestive systemNon-drug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2019-05-22T04:00:00Z6.7000000000000067.4000000000000648.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn what hypergranulation tissue is, why it forms and how to treat it if you notice it around your child's stoma.</p><p>Granulation tissue is the new tissue that forms when a wound is healing. It is also the extra tissue that grows around the feeding tube. Hypergranulation tissue is an excess of granulation tissue that is usually bumpy or swollen tissue that is shiny or wet, bleeds easily and can be painful. Hypergranulation tissue is the most common skin issue that occurs in children with <a href="/article?contentid=2536&language=English">G or GJ tubes</a>.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Granulation tissue is the new tissue that forms when a wound is healing, and it’s also the extra tissue that forms around the feeding tube; hypergranulation tissue is bumpy or swollen tissue that is wet and bleeds easily.</li><li>Hypergranulation tissue typically looks pink to dark red, it appears open, shiny or wet, appears puffy and can be painful.</li><li>Causes of hypergranulation tissue include too much movement of the feeding tube, the stoma is wet, too much pressure on the stoma, trauma to the stoma, or an infection.</li><li>To prevent hypergranulation tissue from forming, tape the feeding tube to the skin to prevent movement, make sure your child’s tube is the correct size, keep the stoma clean and dry, and prevent infections.</li><li>Hypergranulation tissue can be treated with hypertonic salt water soaks, hydrocortisone cream, antimicrobial foam dressing or silver nitrate.</li></ul><h2>Signs of hypergranulation tissue</h2> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">Hypergranulation tissue</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Granulation_tissue.jpg" alt="hypergranulation tissue around a G tube" /> </figure> <p>Granulation tissue generally appears as follows. </p><ul><li>Usually pink to dark red tissue, but it does not spread like an infection</li><li>Can appear open, wet looking or shiny</li><li>Bleeds easily</li><li>Appears bubbly and puffy</li><li>Can be painful<br><br></li></ul><h2>Causes of hypergranulation tissue</h2><p>Hypergranulation tissue can form for several different reasons.</p><ul><li>The feeding tube moves in and out of stoma. This can happen when a <a href="/article?contentid=2908&language=english">low-profile tube</a> is incorrectly sized</li><li>The stoma is wet. This coud be from excessive leaking or because the stoma is covered with a dressing, so it is not able to dry completely</li><li>There is too much pressure on the stoma. This may be because a low-profile tube is too tight, the tube has been accidentally pulled out or there was a recent tube change</li><li>There has been trauma to the stoma</li><li>Hypergranulation tissue may form when there is an <a href="/article?contentid=2906&language=english">infection</a>. Hypergranulation tissue is <strong>not</strong> the same as an infection</li><li>The stoma will usually look worse and hypergranulation tissue may form when a child is sick, for example with a respiratory illness or gastroenteritis, of if they are recovering from surgery</li></ul><h2>Treatment of hypergranulation tissue</h2><ul><li>Apply <a href="/article?contentid=2907&language=english">hypertonic salt water soaks</a> up to four times a day.</li><li>Use hydrocortisone cream for a week to help with skin inflammation. Hydrocortisone 0.5% cream is available over the counter. You may be able to find hydrocortisone 1% cream over the counter but usually it is only available by prescription. Hydrocortisone is a short-term treatment so only use it for one week at time.</li><li>Use an antimicrobial foam dressing on the stoma. At SickKids, you can purchase AMD foam dressing from the Specialty Food Shop.</li><li>Use <a href="/article?contentid=2909&language=english">silver nitrate</a> to burn away the extra tissue and promote healing. You will be taught in the clinic first and then you can continue to apply the silver nitrate at home. Do not apply hypertonic salt water soaks while using silver nitrate.</li><li>Silver dressings may also help manage hypergranulation tissue.</li></ul><p>Speak to your G tube specialist if the stoma does not improve or if the hypergranulation tissue gets worse.</p><h3>How to keep a healthy stoma</h3> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">Healthy stoma</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/GTube_Stoma_HealthyStoma.jpg" alt="healthy stoma with feeding tube" /> </figure> <p>To keep your child’s stoma healthy, you should:</p><ul><li> <a href="/article?contentid=2536&language=English">Wash the stoma</a> daily with soap and water.</li><li>Allow the stoma to be open to the air.</li><li>Secure the tube well.</li><li>Avoid too much movement of the tube in the tract.</li><li>Address stoma leakage as soon as possible.</li><li>For a <a href="/article?contentid=2908&language=English">low profile tube</a>.</li><ul><li>Make sure your child’s tube is a proper fit.</li><li>Check the volume of the tube’s balloon weekly.<br></li></ul></ul><h2>At SickKids</h2><p>If your child is a SickKids patient, contact the G Tube Resource Nurse with any concerns.</p><h3>G Tube Resource Nurse contact info:</h3><p>Phone: 416-813-7177</p><p>Email: g.tubenurse@sickkids.ca</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Granulation_tissue.jpgMain
G/GJ tubes: Hypertonic salt water soaksGG/GJ tubes: Hypertonic salt water soaksG/GJ tubes: Hypertonic salt water soaksEnglishGastrointestinal;OtherAdult (19+);Teen (13-18 years)Abdomen;Stomach;Small IntestineDigestive systemNon-drug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2019-09-17T04:00:00Z5.0000000000000084.5000000000000470.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn about hypertonic salt water soaks, when they can be used and how to make your own.<br></p><p>A hypertonic salt water soak is a gauze that has been saturated with extra salty water.</p><p>If you are having problems with your child’s stoma, such as <a href="/Article?contentid=2906&language=English">redness or swelling</a>, or if there is <a href="/Article?contentid=3019&language=English">hypergranulation tissue</a>. Hypergranualtion tissue is bumpy or swollen tissue that is wet and often bleeds easily. It can also be painful. Applying hypertonic salt water soaks to hypergranulation tissue might help it heal. </p><p>The extra salt in a hypertonic salt water soak helps to pull moisture away from the tissue, dry the skin, and reduce the swelling and redness. This is the first step to prevent or treat hypergranulation tissue.</p><p>Some people refer to these as “saline soaks,” but this is not correct because saline solution is not salty enough. If you see saline in a store for purchase, do not buy or use it to treat hypergranulation tissue — it does not have the correct salt concentration.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A hypertonic salt water soak is a gauze that has been saturated with extra salty water.</li><li>Hypertonic salt water soaks may help reduce redness and swelling, and help with hypergranulation tissue.</li><li>Do not use saline solution as the salt concentration is too low.</li><li>You can apply hypertonic salt water soaks up to four times a day when your child is having problems with their stoma.</li></ul><h2>Making your own hypertonic salt water soak</h2><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/4jQt2WKj28w?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> </div><p>Here’s how to make your own hypertonic salt water soak:</p><ol class="akh-steps"><li>Mix 2 teaspoons of table salt with 1 cup of warm water in a clean cup or bowl until the salt dissolves.</li><li> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/G_tube_dressing_application_01_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Cutting a y-shape into a square of gauze" /> </figure> <p>Cut the shape of a “Y” into a piece of gauze.</p></li><li>Soak the gauze in the salt water, then squeeze out some of the water so the gauze is not dripping wet. </li><li>Place the wet gauze on the skin around the feeding tube and leave it there until the gauze cools. This will take about 5 to 10 minutes. Do not let the gauze dry. If the gauze is too dry, it may pull at the stoma and cause pain when being removed.</li><li>Once the gauze is cool, remove it and leave the stoma open to the air to dry. You do not need to wash the salt off the skin afterward.</li></ol><p>You can apply hypertonic salt water soaks up to four times per day when your child is having problems with their stoma.</p><p>If there are signs of infection such as redness, swelling or pain at the site, call or visit your doctor for assessment.</p><p>Your child does not need to go to the emergency department to be treated for hypergranulation tissue.</p><h2>At SickKids</h2><p>If your child is a SickKids patient, contact the G Tube Resource Nurse with any concerns.</p><h3>G Tube Resource Nurse contact info:</h3><p>Phone 416-813-7177</p><p>g.tubenurse@sickkids.ca</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/G_tube_dressing_application_01_MED_ILL_EN.jpgMain
G/GJ tubes: Low-profile combination G/GJ tubeGG/GJ tubes: Low-profile combination G/GJ tubeG/GJ tubes: Low-profile combination G/GJ tubeEnglishGastrointestinal;Other(diagnostic imaging, bloodwork, picc line, procedures�.)Child (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Stomach;Abdomen;Small IntestineDigestive systemNon-drug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2019-11-21T05:00:00Z8.3000000000000064.50000000000001765.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>A low-profile combination G/GJ tube provides fluids, nutrition and medications directly into the small intestine. Learn about how to care for a child who has a low-profile combination tube.</p><h2>What is a low-profile combination G/GJ tube?</h2><p>A low-profile combination G/GJ tube is a type of feeding tube that provides fluids, nutrition and medications directly into the small intestine (jejunum) through the jejunal feeding port. There is a second port that gives access to the stomach for <a href="/Article?contentid=3827&language=english&hub=tubefeeding">venting</a> and a third port for balloon inflation. The balloon keeps the low-profile combination G/GJ tube in place. It is called "low-profile" because it sits close to the skin and is very discreet. Low-profile combination G/GJ tubes are placed by an interventional radiologist using image guidance.</p><p>The low-profile combination G/GJ tube is placed through an opening in your child's abdomen called a stoma. The tunnel from the outside through the stoma is called the tract.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Low-profile combination G/GJ tube</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/GTubes_MicKey_LowProfile_ComboTube.jpg" alt="Low-profile combination tube with gastric port, jejunal port and balloon port" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Feeds are given by attaching an extension set to the "Jejunal" port. The "Gastric" port is used for venting the stomach. The port marked "BAL" is the balloon port, and is used for inflating the balloon with water.</figcaption> </figure> <p>The port labelled "Gastric" on the side of the tube, is used to access the stomach. This port is usually used for venting.</p><p>The port labelled "Jejunal", on the top of the tube, is used to access the small intestine. This port is usually used for feeding, medications and fluids.</p><p>Inside both ports is a one-way valve. This valve helps prevent stomach and jejunal content from flowing back out through the tube. </p><p>A low-profile combination G/GJ tube is not used for primary tube insertion. This means that your child will have a different type of feeding tube first, and may then transition to a low-profile combination G/GJ tube after a few months.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A low-profile combination G/GJ tube is a type of feeding tube that provides fluids, nutrition, and medication directly to the small intestine (jejunum). It also gives access to the stomach for venting. </li><li>A low-profile combination G/GJ tube is different than a surgical J tube, as the combination tube passes through the stomach before entering into the small intestine.</li><li>It requires two feeding extension sets – one for the jejunum and one for the stomach. The feeding extension sets should be cleaned between each use and replaced as needed.</li><li>Check the volume of water in the balloon at least once per week.</li><li>Keep the stoma and surrounding skin clean and dry, and check for signs of infection, irritation, granulation tissue or leakage.</li><li>Contact the G tube team if the stoma site is infected or leaking, your child has abdominal pain or signs of respiratory distress, or if the tube is damaged.</li></ul><h2>When to seek medical attention</h2><p>Contact the G tube specialist if you notice any of the following signs and symptoms:</p><ul><li>Your child's stoma site appears infected. Signs of infection include redness, edema (swelling) and odorous discharge.</li><li>There is hypergranulation tissue, which is pink to bright red, bloody, raw, moist, oozing yellow sticky discharge and/or painful.</li><li>The stoma site is leaking intestinal or stomach contents and/or formula.</li><li>The gastric port is leaking stomach contents.</li><li>Your child experiences abdominal pain, distension, discomfort, vomiting and/or other signs of feeding intolerance.</li><li>Your child has signs of respiratory distress (i.e. higher breathing rate or difficulty breathing).</li><li>The tube appears to be damaged, broken or dislodged.</li></ul><h3>If the tube has moved into the stomach</h3><p>If the low-profile combination G/GJ tube has moved out of the small intestine and into the stomach, your child may experience:</p><ul><li>increased vomiting</li><li>vomiting formula</li><li>gagging and retching</li><li>abdominal discomfort or pain</li><li>bloated stomach</li><li>diarrhea</li><li>leaking of formula from the gastric port or stoma</li></ul><p>The position of the tip of the combination G/GJ tube will need to be confirmed by an interventional radiologist using image guidance. Do not use the tube for feeding until the tube position is confirmed.</p><h3>Intussusception</h3><p><a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=958&language=English">Intussusception</a> may occur around the tube. Intussusception is when one part of the small bowel slides into the next part. This can happen at the tip of the combination G/GJ tube. Large combination G/GJ tubes and/or normal movements of the bowels may cause intussusception. </p><p>A child with intussusception will experience:</p><ul><li>discomfort and feeding intolerance (vomiting when fed)</li><li>vomiting bile (green fluid)</li><li>diarrhea or blood in the stool</li></ul><p>If you think that your child’s tube has intussuscepted, contact your G tube specialist during business hours. After hours, on weekends or on holidays, take your child to the Emergency Department.</p><h2>Giving feeds, liquids and medication through the low-profile combination G/GJ tube</h2><p>Your child's tube feeds are to remain the same as with previous GJ or combination G/GJ tube exchanges.</p><p>A Mic-Key low-profile combination G/GJ tube extension set needs to be attached to the jejunal feeding port to administer feeds and medications. As well, an extension set needs to be attached to the gastric port to vent the stomach. Both extension sets can be connected at the same time to allow you to vent the stomach during feeds. A slip-tip syringe can be attached directly to either port; however, this is not recommended as the one-way valve can break with frequent access by syringes.</p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/nhrbisdk_zQ?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> </div><p>It is important to clean the extension sets between each use and remove them from the low-profile combination G/GJ tube when they are not in use. The extension sets should be replaced as needed (i.e. broken, rigid, stained).</p><p>Using the extension, flush the jejunal port with at least 5 to 10 mL of water before and after each tube feed and medication dose, and every 4 hours during continuous feeds to help prevent the tube from becoming blocked. To ensure this flush volume is safe for your child, discuss with your child's health-care team. Some children may also require flushing into the stomach, using the gastric port. Only do this if your health-care team has told you to. </p>mickeycombohttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/GTubes_MicKey_LowProfile_ComboTube.jpgMain
G/GJ tubes: Making the decision to get a feeding tubeGG/GJ tubes: Making the decision to get a feeding tubeG/GJ tubes: Making the decision to get a feeding tubeEnglishGastrointestinalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Abdomen;Small Intestine;StomachDigestive systemProceduresAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2018-03-12T04:00:00Z6.2000000000000075.30000000000001401.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Making the decision to get a feeding tube for your child is a personal and difficult choice. This page will provide you with information to help you decide if a feeding tube is the right choice for your child and your family.</p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/ySWq2pJI1NE?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> </div><h2>What are G and GJ tubes?<br></h2><p>Gastrostomy tubes (G tubes) and gastrojejunostomy tubes (GJ tubes) are feeding devices. A G tube gives liquid nutrition, medication and other fluids directly into the stomach. A GJ tube gives liquid nutrition, medication and other fluids directly into the small intestine (the jejunum). Both G tubes and GJ tubes are placed through a small opening in the stomach. This opening is called a "stoma". The tunnel from the outside of the body to the stomach is called the "tract".</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul> <li>The most common reason a child may need a feeding tube is to get the nutrition that they need to grow or get better if they are ill, because they cannot eat and drink enough or at all on their own.</li><li>It is your decision as the parent or caregiver to get a feeding tube for your child. Make sure you understand what you will need to do to care for your child’s tube, and whether it is the right decision for you and your family.</li><li>The G tube team will provide support and education to parents and caregivers who choose to proceed with a G or GJ tube.</li></ul>Main
G/GJ tubes: Managing a leaking stomaGG/GJ tubes: Managing a leaking stomaG/GJ tubes: Managing a leaking stomaEnglishGastrointestinal;OtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Stomach;Abdomen;Small IntestineDigestive systemNon-drug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2018-03-26T04:00:00Z6.8000000000000071.2000000000000633.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn the difference between discharge and stoma leakage, and what to do if your child's stoma is leaking.</p><p>It is normal for the stoma to produce small amounts of thin, yellow-green discharge that gets crusty and sticks to the tube. This is not considered stoma leakage.</p><p>You may occasionally see small amounts of stomach contents, water or formula leaking from the stoma. This is especially common after tube changes.</p><p>If your child has a cold or another infection, their stoma may look redder or may leak more than usual. This should get better once your child is feeling better. </p><p>While small amounts of leakage are okay, too much leakage can cause <a href="/article?contentid=3018&language=English">skin irritation</a>, skin breakdown and enlargement of the stoma.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>It is normal for the stoma to produce small amounts of thin, yellow-green discharge that sticks to the tube.</li><li>Small amounts of stomach contents, water or formula leaking from the stoma are common but too much leakage can cause skin irritation, breakdown and enlargement of the stoma.</li><li>Leakage may be caused by tube movement, hypergranulation tissue, a cracked tube, infection, and conditions that increase pressure in the stomach.</li><li>Prevent leakage by limiting movement of the stoma.</li></ul><h2>Causes of leakage</h2><p>Leakage can be caused by:</p><ul><li>Too much movement of the tube</li><li> <a href="/article?contentid=3019&language=English">Hypergranulation tissue</a></li><li>A cracked tube (you will see formula leaking from the stoma)</li><li> <a href="/article?contentid=2906&language=English">Infection</a></li><li>Conditions that increase pressure in the stomach, such as <a href="/article?contentid=817&language=English">GERD</a>, <a href="/article?contentid=6&language=English">constipation</a>, <a href="/article?contentid=822&language=English">gas</a>, poor digestion, and chronic <a href="/article?contentid=774&language=English">coughing</a> or <a href="/article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a></li></ul><h2>When to see a doctor</h2><p>If your child’s leakage does not stop or gets worse, contact your child's health-care team or the G tube team. If the leakage becomes severe, contact the G tube team.</p><p>Speak to your child’s health-care team if your child experiences leaking and has one or more conditions that increase pressure in the stomach, such as GERD, constipation, gas, poor digestion, and chronic coughing or vomiting.</p> <h2>At SickKids</h2><p>If your child is a SickKids patient, contact the G Tube Resource Nurse with any concerns.</p><h3>G Tube Resource Nurse contact info:</h3><p>Phone: 416-813-7177</p><p>Email: g.tubenurse@sickkids.ca</p><p>On weekends/afterhours, you may need to come to the Emergency Department for an alternate method of feed/fluids/medication administration.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/GTube_Stoma_SkinBreakdown_fromLeakage.jpgMain
G/GJ tubes: Mic-Key low-profile GJ tubeGG/GJ tubes: Mic-Key low-profile GJ tubeG/GJ tubes: Mic-Key low-profile GJ tubeEnglishGastrointestinal;OtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Stomach;Small IntestineDigestive systemProceduresAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2019-05-22T04:00:00Z7.8000000000000066.40000000000001161.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>A low-profile GJ tube is a type of feeding tube. Learn how to care for your child's GJ tube and how to give feeds and medication.</p><figure><span class="asset-image-title">Low-profile GJ tube</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/GTubes_LowProfile_JTube.jpg" alt="low-profile GJ tube showing balloon, balloon port, and feeding port" /> </figure> <p>A low-profile GJ tube is a type of feeding tube that provides fluids, nutrition and medications directly to the small intestine (jejunum). It is called "low-profile" because it sits close to the skin and is very discreet. Low-profile GJ tubes are placed by an interventional radiologist using image guidance.<br></p><p>A Mic-Key low-profile GJ tube is not used for primary tube insertion, instead it is a transition tube. This means that your child will have had a different type of feeding tube before transitioning to the low-profile GJ tube.</p><p>The low-profile GJ tube is placed through an opening in your child's abdomen called a stoma. The tunnel from the outside through the stoma is called the tract.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A low-profile GJ tube is a type of feeding tube that provides fluids, nutrition, and medication directly to the small intestine (jejunum). It is different than a surgical J tube, which is also inserted into the small intestine.</li><li>The feeding extension set should be cleaned between each use. It should be replaced as needed.</li><li>Check the volume of water in the balloon at least once per week.</li><li>Keep the stoma and surrounding skin clean and dry, and check for signs of infection, irritation, hypergranulation tissue or leakage.</li><li>Contact the G tube team if the stoma site is infected or leaking, your child has abdominal pain or signs of respiratory distress, or if the tube is damaged.</li></ul><h2>When to seek medical attention</h2><p>Contact the G tube specialist if you notice any of the following signs and symptoms:</p><ul><li>Your child's stoma site appears infected with redness, edema (swelling) and odorous discharge.</li><li>There is hypergranulation tissue, which is pink to bright red, bloody, raw, moist, oozing yellow sticky discharge and/or painful.</li><li>The stoma site is leaking intestinal or stomach contents and /or formula.</li><li>Your child experiences abdominal pain, distension, discomfort, vomiting and/or other signs of feeding intolerance.</li><li>Your child has signs of respiratory distress (i.e. higher breathing rate or difficulty breathing).</li><li>The tube appears to be damaged, broken, or dislodged.</li></ul><h2>If the tube has moved into the stomach</h2><p>If the Mic-Key low-profile GJ tube has moved out of the small intestine and into the stomach, your child may experience:</p><ul><li>increased vomiting</li><li>vomiting formula</li><li>gagging and retching</li><li>abdominal discomfort or pain</li><li>bloated stomach</li><li>diarrhea</li><li>leaking of formula from the stoma</li></ul><p>The position of the tip of GJ tube will need to be confirmed by an interventional radiologist using image guidance. Do not use the tube for feeding until the tube position is confirmed.</p><h3>Intussusception </h3><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=958&language=English">Intussusception</a> may occur around the tube. Intussusception refers to when one part of the small bowel slides into the next part. This may lead to a bowel obstruction at the tip of the GJ tube. Large GJ tubes and/or normal movements of the bowels may cause intussusception. </p><p>A child with intussusception will experience:</p><ul><li>discomfort and feeding intolerance (vomiting when fed)</li><li>vomiting bile (green fluid)</li><li>diarrhea or blood in the stool</li></ul><p>If your child’s tube has intussuscepted, contact your G tube specialist during business hours. After hours, on weekends or on holidays, take your child to the Emergency Department.</p><h2>Giving feeds, liquids and medication through the low-profile GJ tube</h2><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/nhrbisdk_zQ?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> </div><p>Your child's tube feeds are to remain the same as with previous GJ tube exchanges.</p><p>A Mic-Key low-profile GJ tube extension set needs to be attached to the feeding port to administer feeds and medications. A slip-tip syringe can be attached directly to the feeding port; however, this is not recommended as the one-way valve can break with frequent access. The one-way valve is built inside the GJ tube and prevents the stomach contents from flowing back out through the tube.</p><h3>Connecting the extension set to the tube</h3> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">Low-profile GJ tube with feeding extension set</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/PMD_j_tube_mic_key_01_EN.jpg" alt="" /> </figure> <ol><li>Open the plastic cover on the feeding tube.</li><li>Make sure the clamp on the extension set is closed.</li><li>Match the line on the extension to the line on the tube and push the extension into the valve.</li><li>Holding the button tube in place, turn the extension clockwise until you feel the extension lock into place. There is an arrow on the extension to show you which direction to turn it.</li><li>Attach your feeds, fluids and medications to the appropriate port at the end and open the clamp.</li><li>When you have finished using the extension, flush it with water and remove it from the tube.</li></ol><h3>Removing the extension from the tube</h3><ol><li>Clamp the extension.</li><li>Holding the tube in place, turn the extension counter-clockwise (opposite to the arrow on the extension).</li><li>Match the line on the extension to the line on the tube and remove the extension.</li><li>Close the plastic cover on the feeding tube.</li></ol><p>It is important to clean the extension set between each use and remove it from the low-profile GJ tube when it is not in use. The low-profile GJ tube's extension set should be replaced as needed (i.e. broken, rigid, stained).</p><p>Flush the tube with at least 5 to 10 mL of water before and after each tube feed and medication dose, and every 4 hours during continuous feeds to help prevent the tube from becoming blocked. To ensure this flush volume is safe for your child, discuss with your child's health-care team. You may use <a href="/Article?contentid=3039&language=English">pancreatic enzymes</a> to unblock a low-profile GJ tube. This can be done at home.</p><p>For more information on what to do if your child's low-profile GJ tube is blocked, please see "<a href="/Article?contentid=3039&language=English">What to do if your child's feeding tube is blocked</a>".</p><h2>At SickKids</h2><p>If your child is a SickKids patient, contact the G Tube Resource Nurse with any concerns.</p><h3>G Tube Resource Nurse contact info:</h3><p>Phone 416-813-7177</p><p>g.tubenurse@sickkids.ca</p><p>On weekends/afterhours, you may need to come to the Emergency Department for an alternate method of feed/fluids/medication administration.</p>mickeygjhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/PMD_j_tube_mic_key_01_EN.jpgMain
G/GJ tubes: Permanent feeding tube removalGG/GJ tubes: Permanent feeding tube removalG/GJ tubes: Permanent feeding tube removalEnglishGastrointestinal;OtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Stomach;Abdomen;Small IntestineDigestive systemProceduresAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2022-05-03T04:00:00Z6.4000000000000076.8000000000000884.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to remove the feeding tube at home, if appropriate, and care for your child's tract after the permanent feeding tube removal.</p><p>A G, GJ or combination G/GJ tube may be a permanent way to feed some children. For others, it is temporary and may be removed in the future. You and your child’s health-care team will decide when to remove the feeding tube according to your child’s history.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>If your child has a balloon-type G tube, you may remove the tube yourself.</li><li>Once the tube is removed, stomach contents will leak from the stoma and will continue to do so until the tract closes completely.</li><li>It may take up to two weeks for the feeding tube tract to heal and close, and it will leak during this time.</li><li>If the stoma is still leaking two weeks after the tube has been removed, call your G tube specialist for further assessment.</li><li>After tube removal, it is important to wash the stoma with soap and water daily to prevent infection. </li><li>Do not submerge your child’s stoma in water until the feeding tube tract has stopped leaking. </li></ul><h2>When to see a doctor</h2><p>Always watch for signs of <a href="/article?contentid=2906&language=english">infection</a>, such as redness, swelling, pain, and fever. See your primary care provider if your child is experiencing these symptoms.</p><p>If the stoma is still leaking two weeks after the tube has been removed, call your G tube specialist (at SickKids this is the G Tube Resource Nurse) for further assessment. Your child may need stitches to close the tract.</p><h2>Tube removal </h2><p>If your child has a balloon-type G tube, you may remove the tube yourself or have a health-care professional remove it. There are several different balloon-type G tubes:</p><ul><li>Halyard Mic-G or Kangaroo G tube</li><li>Foley catheter</li><li>Low-profile G tube (also known as a "button" tube), such as a Mic-Key, Nutriport, and AMT Mini One)</li></ul><p>If possible, remove your child’s feeding tube before bedtime. This will allow the stoma to heal for several hours without feedings and with minimal movement from your child while they sleep.</p><p>Once the tube is removed, stomach contents will leak from the stoma and will continue to do so until the tract closes completely.</p><h3>Removing a non low-profile tube (such as a Mic-G, Kangaroo or Foley catheter) </h3><p>Insert a slip-tip syringe into the hard plastic port and withdraw all the water from the balloon. Remove the tube. You may need to pull with a small amount of force to dislodge the tube.</p><h3>Removing a low-profile G tube (such as a Mic-Key, Nutriport, and AMT Mini One)</h3><p>Insert a slip-tip syringe into the balloon port – marked "BAL" – and withdraw all the water from the balloon. Remove the tube. You may need to pull with a small amount of force to dislodge the tube. </p><h3>The following tubes should not be removed at home: </h3><ul><li>Corflo PEG tubes require a general anaesthetic to be removed and will be removed in Image Guided Therapy (IGT)</li><li>Mac Loc tubes can be removed by your G tube specialist in clinic</li><li>GJ or combination G/GJ balloon tubes can be removed by your G tube specialist in clinic</li></ul><h2>After the feeding tube is permanently removed</h2> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">Stoma after tube removal</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/GTube_Stoma_FreshlyRemovedGtube.jpg" alt="stoma after g tube is removed" /> </figure> <h3>Stoma and feeding tube tract healing process</h3><p>Your child’s tract will start to heal and close within hours of removing the feeding tube, but it can take more than two weeks to close completely. It will leak during this time. After the tract closes, your child will have a small scar that may look like a dimple or a healed earring hole.</p><h3>How to protect your child’s skin</h3><p>To protect the skin from the acidic stomach contents, apply a zinc oxide barrier cream around the stoma and continue to apply a gauze dressing over the site, secured to the tummy with tape for as long as it leaks. This dressing should be changed daily or when it is soaked. Do not be alarmed if you see some of the food and drink your child is eating on the gauze. This is normal. There are no food or drink restrictions for your child while their tract is healing. They can continue to eat and drink all of their regular food and beverages by mouth.</p><h3>Keeping the stoma clean</h3><p>Do not submerge your child in water until the tract is fully closed. This means no baths or swimming until leakage has stopped. It is OK to sit in the bath if the water is below the stoma. Swimming can be considered if a waterproof bandage is covering the stoma. Sponge baths and showers are OK during this time.</p><p>It is important to wash the stoma with soap and water daily to prevent <a href="/article?contentid=2906&language=english">infection</a>. Be gentle; do not rub the stoma. Allow the soap, shampoo and water to lightly wash over the site.</p><p>Once the leaking stops, the stoma will scab over and your child will no longer need a gauze dressing.</p><p>If your child is a SickKids patient, contact the G Tube Resource Nurse with any concerns.</p><h3>G Tube Resource Nurse contact info:</h3><p>Phone: 416-813-7177</p><p>Email: g.tubenurse@sickkids.ca</p>Main
G/GJ tubes: Preventing and managing infectionGG/GJ tubes: Preventing and managing infectionG/GJ tubes: Preventing and managing infectionEnglishGastrointestinal;OtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Abdomen;Stomach;Small IntestineDigestive systemNon-drug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2019-09-17T04:00:00Z6.4000000000000066.8000000000000588.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to keep your child's stoma healthy, and what to do if the stoma or surrounding area become infected.</p><h2>What is a G tube</h2><p>Gastrostomy tubes (G tubes) are feeding devices that provide liquid nutrition, medication and other fluids directly into the stomach. G tubes are placed through a surgical opening in your child's tummy (abdomen) called a stoma. The tunnel from the outside into the stomach is called the tract.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Signs of infection include: redness, foul smelling discharge, green thick or white discharge, swelling around the feeding tube, abscess formation, pinpoint rash, pain and fever.</li><li>Always wash your hands before handling the feeding tube and the stoma.</li><li>Mild infections may be treated with over-the-counter antibiotics, while a prescription may be needed for more serious infections.</li></ul><h2>Signs of infection</h2> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">Abscess</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/GTube_Stoma_Infection_Abcess.jpg" alt="abscess caused by g tube" /> </figure> <p>Your child may have a stoma infection if you see any of these signs:</p><ul><li>Increased and/or spreading redness of the skin around the feeding tube</li><li>Thick green or white <a href="/article?contentid=3020&language=english">discharge</a> coming from the stoma and around the feeding tube</li><li>Foul smelling discharge from the stoma</li><li>Swelling around your child’s feeding tube</li><li>The skin around your chid's stoma feels warmer than the rest of their skin</li><li> <a href="/article?contentid=792&language=english">Abscess</a> formation (collection of pus under the skin)</li><li>Pinpoint rash (may be due to a fungal infection)</li><li>Pain</li><li> <a href="/article?contentid=30&language=english">Fever</a></li></ul><p>Infected stomas can develop hypergranualtion tissue. However, it is important to note that hypergranulation tissue is not the same thing as infection. Not all hypergranulation tissue is infected. When the hypergranulation tissue appears without the above signs of infection, it does not need antibiotic treatment. Learn more about <a href="/article?contentid=3019&language=english">hypergranulation tissue</a>.</p><h2>Treatment of infection</h2><p>For mild infections with a small increase in redness and discharge, you may apply an over-the-counter antibiotic ointment or cream, such as Polysporin, to the stoma.</p><p>If your child has any other signs of infection (spreading redness, fever and pain), your child needs to be assessed for a more serious infection. Your child’s health-care provider may need to prescribe a stronger antibiotic.</p><p>Prescription antibiotics that are used to treat the most common stoma infections are:</p><ol><li>A topical antibiotic such as fusidic acid. This is a cream that you will apply directly to the stoma.</li><li>An oral antibiotic such as <a href="/article?contentid=96&language=english">cephalexin</a>. This is a medication that your child will take by mouth or through the tube.</li></ol><p>If the antibiotics are not working, your child may need to be sent for a swab of the stoma and the antibiotics they are taking may need to change. An <a href="/article?contentid=1290&language=english">ultrasound</a> may be necessary to diagnose an abscess.</p><h2>How to keep a healthy stoma</h2> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">Healthy stoma</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/GTube_Stoma_HealthyStoma.jpg" alt="healthy stoma with feeding tube" /> </figure> <p>To keep your child’s stoma healthy, you should:</p><ul><li>Wash the stoma daily with soap and water.</li><li>Allow the stoma to be open to the air (do not cover it with a bandage or gauze).</li><li>Secure the tube to the abdomen.</li><li>Avoid too much movement of the tube in the tract.</li><li>Manage stoma leakage as soon as possible.</li><li>For a <a href="/article?contentid=2908&language=english">low profile tube</a>:</li><ul><li>Make sure your child’s tube fits properly.</li><li>Check the volume of the tube’s balloon weekly.</li></ul></ul><p>Despite your best efforts to keep your child’s stoma and the skin around it dry and clean, you may encounter some stoma issues, including infection.</p><h2>At SickKids</h2><p>If your child is a SickKids patient, contact the G Tube Resource Nurse with any concerns.</p><h3>G Tube Resource Nurse contact info:</h3><p>Phone: 416-813-7177</p><p>Email: g.tubenurse@sickkids.ca</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/GTube_Stoma_Infection_Abcess.jpgMain
G/GJ tubes: Primary tube insertion by image guidanceGG/GJ tubes: Primary tube insertion by image guidanceG/GJ tubes: Primary tube insertion by image guidanceEnglishGastrointestinal;Other(diagnostic imaging, bloodwork, picc line, procedures�.)Child (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Abdomen;Stomach;Small IntestineDigestive systemProceduresAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2021-09-01T04:00:00Z8.2000000000000064.30000000000002523.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Discover how gastrostomy (G) and gastrojejunostomy (GJ) tubes are placed, how to prepare your child for the procedure and what to expect once the procedure is complete. The majority of this page is specific to children who are patients at SickKids.</p><h2>What are gastrostomy (G) and gastrojejunostomy tubes?</h2><p>Gastrostomy tubes (G tubes) and gastrojejunostomy tubes (GJ tubes) are feeding devices. </p><p>A G tube gives liquid nutrition, medication and other fluids directly into the stomach. A GJ tube gives liquid nutrition, medication and other fluids into the small intestine (the jejunum). </p><p>Both G tubes and GJ tubes are placed through a small opening in the stomach. This opening is called a "stoma". The tunnel from the outside of the body to the stomach is called the "tract". </p><p>Most primary G or GJ tubes at SickKids are placed by an interventional radiologist using image guidance. The radiologist uses images produced by X-rays and ultrasounds to guide the placement of the tube in your child’s belly (abdomen). In some cases, the G or GJ tube will be <a href="/article?contentid=3886&language=english&hub=tubefeeding">inserted in the operating room</a> by a general surgeon.</p><p>Please review the information on this page before your child’s admission for the G or GJ tube insertion.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>At SickKids, most gastrostomy (G) or gastrojejunostomy (GJ) tubes are placed by an interventional radiologist using image guidance. </li><li>All children receive general anesthesia and are intubated (a breathing tube will be placed) for the procedure. </li><li>Possible complications of G or GJ tube insertion include bleeding, abdominal organ perforation, peritonitis, blood infection, and anaesthesia-related complications.</li><li>All patients and families will have a consultation with a nurse practitioner or paediatrician prior to going ahead with G or GJ tube insertion.</li><li>If your child becomes ill before the G or GJ tube insertion, or if they do not follow fasting guidelines for the general anaesthetic, the procedure may be cancelled.</li><li>Your child will need to stay in the hospital for at least 3 days and will be discharged when their vital signs are stable, they can tolerate feeds, there are no signs of complications and you have learned how to care for their tube and stoma. </li></ul><h2>How is a G or GJ tube inserted?</h2><p>Most children receive a <a href="/Article?contentid=1261&language=English">general anaesthetic</a> to keep them asleep during the procedure and make sure they do not feel any pain. The general anaesthesia will be given to your child by an anaesthesiologist.</p><p>Under general anaesthesia, your child may have a breathing tube put in the throat to help them breathe while asleep.</p><p>The procedure to insert a G or GJ tube is a short one. The interventional radiologist and anaesthesiologist are always with your child during the procedure. </p><h2>What can I expect after the G or GJ tube insertion? </h2><p>After the procedure, you can expect to see:</p><ul><li>The new G or GJ tube going inside your child’s body. </li><li>An <a href="/Article?contentid=2451&language=English">intravenous (IV) line</a>: This is a small tube that is put into a vein in your child's arm, neck or leg to give medications or fluids. The IV delivers water and essential electrolytes to your child. This ensures your child stays hydrated. The IV will also deliver pain medications. </li><li>Possible oxygen: Oxygen can be delivered to your child either by mask over the mouth or prongs in the nose. The breathing tube will be gone. Your child may need oxygen until they are fully awake. </li></ul><h2>What care will my child get during the hospital stay?</h2><p>Monitoring: </p><ul><li>Your child will be monitored for complications. </li><li>Children with more complex medical histories may need to spend a night or two in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) for closer monitoring.</li><li>In addition to the doctors and nurses on your child’s team, members of the interventional radiology team will check your child every day after the tube insertion, up until your child is able to tolerate full feeds through the new tube. Your child’s primary health-care team will arrange any further imaging or procedures in interventional radiology if your child needs. </li><li>Your child’s vital signs will be checked frequently after the G or GJ tube insertion, and less frequently as your child recovers. Vital signs include temperature, heart rate, breathing rate, blood pressure and <a href="/article?contentid=1640&language=english">oxygen saturation levels</a>. </li><li>Your child’s pain will be monitored as often as their vital signs are monitored.</li><li>Your child’s blood sugar levels will be checked frequently after the G or GJ tube insertion.</li><li>Your child’s team will listen to your child’s bowel sounds with a stethoscope. After a general anaesthetic for a G tube or GJ tube insertion, the bowel sounds are absent or quiet. Once bowel sounds are heard, your child’s gut is ready for fluid and nutrition and the new G or GJ tube can be used.</li></ul><p>Fluids/Nutrition:</p><ul><li>Your child will have an intravenous (IV) line through which your child will get fluids. The IV fluid contains sugar and essential electrolytes. If your child’s blood sugar level is too low, your child will receive IV fluid to normalize the blood sugar. </li><li>Your child’s new G or GJ tube will not be used for the first 4- 8 hours after its insertion , except for essential medication that cannot be given by IV.</li><li>After at least 4 hours of the G or GJ tube insertion, and only if bowel sounds are heard, an oral electrolyte solution (OES) can be administered through your child’s new G or GJ tube. The volumes will be small at first but will gradually increase if your child tolerates the increases. Signs of feeding ‘intolerance’ include vomiting, retching, gagging, pain or breathing issues that are out of your child’s baseline (norm) and more than what is expected after this procedure.</li><li>If your child tolerates the OES through their new tube, formula will then be administered through the new tube. </li><li>A dietitian will guide the administration of fluids and nutrition through the new G or GJ tube.</li><li>Your child cannot have anything to eat or drink by mouth until they are able to tolerate full feeds through the new tube. This usually takes about 1-2 days. </li><li>Your child may be permitted ice chips, sponges or sips of water after 8 hours of the G or GJ tube insertion. Speak to your child’s team about this. </li></ul><p>Tube and stoma care:</p><ul><li>G tubes remain open to straight drainage for minimum of 4 hours.</li><li>The G port of a GJ or combination tube will remain open to straight drainage for minimum of 4 hours. </li><li>It is important to prevent the tube from pulling or tugging at the stoma. The tube can be taped to the abdomen for further securement. </li><li>The stoma may be washed with soap and water 24 hours after the tube insertion. </li><li>Your child may bathe 48 hours after the tube insertion. </li></ul><p>Managing pain:</p><ul><li>Your child may have <a href="/article?contentid=62&language=english">acetaminophen</a> or <a href="/article?contentid=2999&language=english">morphine</a> for pain. The pain is at the stoma (the hole created through the abdomen to the stomach) and should improve as each day passes. Please tell your child’s health-care team if your child’s pain worsens as days pass. </li><li>Using distraction or comfort items is an effective way to help children cope with pain. For example, <a href="/article?contentid=3635&language=english&hub=acutepain#pain">babies</a> and <a href="/article?contentid=3637&language=english&hub=acutepain#pain">toddlers</a> may be comforted by music, books or cuddling toys. <a href="/article?contentid=3661&language=english&hub=acutepain#pain">Children</a> and <a href="/article?contentid=3642&language=english&hub=acutepain#pain">teenagers</a> may benefit from video games, reading or music. </li></ul><p>Education and learning how to use the new G or GJ tube:</p><ul><li>You will receive education on how to care for your child’s tube and stoma. This one-to-one education session is with a nurse who will help you better understand how to care for your child’s G or GJ tube. They will also teach you how to manage tube issues (i.e. dislodgement, migration, blockage, breakage) and stoma issues (i.e. <a href="/article?contentid=2906&language=english&hub=tubefeeding">infection</a>, <a href="/article?contentid=3019&language=english&hub=tubefeeding">granulation tissue</a>, <a href="/article?contentid=3020&language=english&hub=tubefeeding">leakage</a>). This education session happens before your child goes home. </li><li>You will have opportunities to practice what you have learned at the bedside during your child’s hospital stay. Your child’s nursing and medical teams will be a source of information and support. </li><li>You will receive a phone call or email from the G Tube Resource Nurse two to four weeks after your child’s G or GJ tube insertion. This is another opportunity to ask questions or express any concerns you might have. </li></ul><p>Supplies/Equipment:</p><ul><li>You will need to purchase the supplies and equipment needed for G or GJ tube feeds care. Your team will guide you through this.</li><li>Your child’s team will help you complete forms for any financial support for which your family may be eligible.</li></ul><h2>How to get a G or GJ tube insertion booking for your child </h2><p> Your child’s paediatrician, or nurse practitioner (NP) will need to send a referral for a consultation.</p><p> You will meet the G tube team for a G or GJ tube primary insertion consultation.</p><p>You will have a consultation with the G Tube Feeding Program NP or paediatrician to help you and your family make the decision to insert a G or GJ tube.</p><h3>You will provide consent for a G or GJ tube insertion</h3><p>You will need to give an informed consent in order to proceed with the G or GJ tube insertion. At the time of consultation, you will discuss: </p><ul><li>Tube insertion technique (how they place the tube)</li><li>Risks and benefits of tube insertion</li><li>Alternative treatment and risks/benefits of alternative treatment</li><li>Risks and benefits of non-treatment</li></ul><p>If you provide your consent to proceed, the G or GJ tube insertion will be planned.</p><h2>How to prepare your child for a G or GJ tube insertion</h2><p>Your child may require an anaesthesia consult. This appointment is with an anesthesiologist (a doctor who manages and gives general anesthesia), to discuss anesthesia benefits, risks and plan. The G Tube NP will organize this appointment at the time of the G Tube Consult. Contact the G Tube Feeding Program, if you are unsure whether your child requires an anesthesia consult. </p><p>Your child may need to have tests prior to the G or GJ tube insertion. This will be communicated to you prior to the procedure date. </p><p>If your child has a NG tube at the time of the G or GJ tube insertion, you do not need to remove it for the procedure. It will be removed during the G or GJ tube insertion by the interventional radiologist.</p><p>It is important to follow strict rules about eating and drinking before the procedure. For your child’s safety, your child must have an empty stomach for the procedure. Your child must follow the fasting guidelines below (called NPO guidelines) before the procedure. </p><p>To ensure your child is safe during the tube insertion, these rules must be followed. If they are not, your child’s procedure may be cancelled. </p><table class="akh-table"><thead><tr><th>Time</th><th>What your child can eat and drink</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>Midnight on the day of the procedure</td><td><p>Stop giving your child solid food, milk, candy and orange juice. Your child must eat nothing until they wake up from the anaesthesia.</p><p>Your child may drink clear fluids such as clear apple juice, water, ginger ale and rehydration solution.</p></td></tr><tr><td>6 hours before the procedure</td><td>Stop giving your baby formula.</td></tr><tr><td>4 hours before the procedure</td><td>Stop giving your baby breast milk.</td></tr><tr><td>3 hours before the procedure</td><td>Stop giving your child clear fluids. Your child must drink nothing until they wake up from the anaesthesia.</td></tr></tbody></table><p>If your child takes prescription medicine, ask their doctor or NP when and how to give the medication. You may need to change your child’s usual medication schedule, or the medication may need to be given by a different method (for example, by IV rather than by mouth). This is especially important for essential medications such as heart or seizure medications.</p><h3>If your child becomes sick before the G or GJ tube insertion</h3><p>If your child is sick at the time of the procedure, general anesthesia may be unsafe. Your child’s tube insertion may need to be postponed. Contact the G Tube Nurse Practitioner if your child has:</p><ul><li>cough</li><li>runny nose</li><li>a <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a></li><li>wheezing</li><li>is vomiting</li><li>is generally feeling unwell</li></ul><h2>The day of the tube insertion</h2><ul><li>Arrive at the Image Guided Therapy Department (IGT) 2 hours before the scheduled tube insertion time. For example, if your child’s G or GJ tube insertion is scheduled for 9:30 am, arrive to IGT at 7:30 am.</li><li>An interventional radiologist and anesthesiologist will speak to you before the procedure to review your child’s history and ensure your child is safe to proceed with the tube insertion. </li><li>You will wait in a waiting room while your child has the procedure.</li><li>When the procedure is complete, someone will speak to you about how it went. If there were complications that occurred during the procedure, you will be made aware of them.</li><li>You will be able to see your child in the Post Anaesthetic Care Unit (PACU) room after your child has awakened safely from the anaesthetic.</li><li>Your child will be transferred to a unit for further recovery. Your child will need to stay in the hospital for at least 3 days. If there are complications, your child may need to stay longer. </li></ul><h2>At SickKids</h2><p>Interventional Radiology at SickKids is called Image Guided Therapy (IGT).</p><p>Education and learning about how to use the tube and troubleshooting is done through Connected Care.</p><p>For SickKids patients and families:</p><ul><li>If you are preparing for your child's G or GJ tube insertion and you have questions or concerns, contact the G Tube Feeding Program nurse practitioners at <a href="mailto:g.tubenp@sickkids.ca">g.tubenp@sickkids.ca</a>.</li><li>If your child already has a G or GJ tube and you have questions or concerns about the tube or stoma, contact the G Tube Resource Nurse at <a href="mailto:g.tubenurse@sickkids.ca">g.tubenurse@sickkids.ca</a>.</li></ul>Main
G/GJ tubes: Sensitivity and irritationGG/GJ tubes: Sensitivity and irritationG/GJ tubes: Sensitivity and irritationEnglishGastrointestinal;OtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Stomach;Abdomen;Small IntestineDigestive systemNon-drug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2018-03-26T04:00:00Z8.3000000000000063.2000000000000591.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to prevent sensitivity or irritation around your child's stoma, and what to do if irritation does occur.</p><p>Despite your best efforts to keep your child’s stoma and the skin around it dry and clean, you may encounter some stoma issues with your child’s G or GJ tube, including sensitivity and irritation.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Your child’s skin may be sensitive or irritated if it is red, scaly, dry or itchy.</li><li>Common irritants include a sensitivity to the tape that holds the G or GJ tube to the skin, acidic stomach contents leaking from the stoma, feeding tube movement, and infection.</li><li>Removing the cause of the skin irritation will help your child’s skin get better.</li></ul><h2>Signs of sensitivity and irritation</h2> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">Skin irritation</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/GTube_Stoma_SkinIrritation.jpg" alt="skin irritation around low-profile feeding tube" /> </figure> <p>Some children have sensitive skin and may be more likely to experience irritation around the stoma than other children. Your child's skin may be irritated if you notice:</p><ul><li>break outs around the stoma (tiny bumps or pimples)</li><li>rashes</li><li>blotches</li><li>the skin becomes itchy when exposed to an irritant</li></ul><h2>Causes of sensitivity or irritation</h2> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">Skin irritation from tape</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/GTube_Stoma_SkinIrriation_fromTape.jpg" alt="irritated red skin around feeding tube" /> </figure> <p>Your child’s skin may get sore and red because it touches an irritant. The following are common irritants:</p><ul><li>A sensitivity or allergy to the tape that holds the G or GJ tube to the skin of the stomach</li><li>Acidic stomach contents leaking onto your child’s skin around the feeding tube</li><li>The feeding tube moving around too much in the stoma</li><li>The plastic of the feeding tube — this is rare.</li></ul><h2>Protection of your child’s skin</h2><p>The most effective way to treat irritation and sensitivity around the stoma is to make sure your child's skin is protected from irritants.</p><ul><li>If the irritation is caused by the tape used to secure your child’s tube to their tummy, change the type of tape you use.</li><li>Use a barrier tape. This is a layer of soft, spongy, flexible, waterproof tape that acts like a second skin. Stick the original tape that may be causing the sensitivity on top of the barrier tape to prevent it from hurting your child’s skin.</li><li>Use unscented skin care and laundry products geared toward sensitive skin. Look out for changes to your child’s skin if you change laundry products.</li><li>If you have trouble taking the tape off your child’s skin, put a wet face cloth over the tape for a few minutes before removing it or use adhesive-remover products (available at your local pharmacy).</li><li>If the irritation is caused by <a href="/article?contentid=3020&language=English">stoma leakage</a>, use barrier creams such as zinc oxide or other diaper rash creams to protect the skin around the stoma.</li><li>To help with skin inflammation, <a href="/article?contentid=790&language=English">dryness</a> and/or rash, Hydrocortisone 0.5% cream is available over-the counter at your local pharmacy. A stronger concentration (1%) can be prescribed.</li><li>You may use a foam or G tube pad in-between the stoma.</li></ul><h3>How to keep a healthy stoma</h3> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">Healthy stoma</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/GTube_Stoma_HealthyStoma.jpg" alt="healthy stoma with feeding tube" /> </figure> <p>To keep your child’s stoma healthy, you should:</p><ul><li> <a href="/article?contentid=2536&language=English">Wash</a> the stoma daily with soap and water.</li><li>Allow the stoma to be open to the air.</li><li>Secure the tube well.</li><li>Avoid too much movement of the tube in the tract.</li><li>Address stoma leakage as soon as possible.</li><li>For a <a href="/article?contentid=2908&language=English">low profile tube</a>:</li><ul><li>Make sure your child’s tube is a proper fit.</li><li>Check the volume of the tube’s balloon weekly.</li></ul></ul><h2>At SickKids</h2><p>If your child is a SickKids patient, contact the G Tube Resource Nurse with any concerns.</p><p> <strong>G Tube Resource Nurse contact info:</strong></p><p>Phone: 416-813-7177</p><p>Email: g.tubenurse@sickkids.ca</p><p>On weekends/afterhours, you may need to come to the Emergency Department for an alternate method of feed/fluids/medication administration.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/GTube_Stoma_SkinIrritation.jpgMain
G/GJ tubes: The decision to permanently remove a feeding tubeGG/GJ tubes: The decision to permanently remove a feeding tubeG/GJ tubes: The decision to permanently remove a feeding tubeEnglishGastrointestinal;Other(diagnostic imaging, bloodwork, picc line, procedures�.)Child (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Stomach;Small Intestine;AbdomenDigestive systemProceduresAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2022-05-03T04:00:00Z9.8000000000000061.6000000000000655.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn what is considered when deciding to permanently remove your child's G, GJ, or combination G/GJ tube.</p><p>A G or GJ tube may be a permanent way to feed some children. For others, it is temporary and may be <a href="/article?contentid=3036&language=english&hub=tubefeeding">removed in the future</a>. You and your child’s health-care team will decide when to remove the feeding tube according to your child’s history. This is typically the team who knows your child best and follows their feeding, nutrition, and growth. At SickKids, the G tube team does not make the decision on whether a feeding tube should be permanently removed.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>The decision to permanently remove a feeding tube is made by your child’s health-care team or primary care provider in partnership with you.</li><li>It is typically recommended that your child must be able to take all their nutrition, fluids, and medications by mouth for at least three months before their G tube or GJ tube is removed.</li><li>If your child is scheduled for surgery or a procedure in the future that may affect their ability to take nutrition, fluids, or medication by mouth, you should consider delaying the removal of the tube.</li></ul>Main
G/GJ tubes: Troubleshooting tube feedingGG/GJ tubes: Troubleshooting tube feedingG/GJ tubes: Troubleshooting tube feedingEnglishGastrointestinal;Other(diagnostic imaging, bloodwork, picc line, procedures�.)Child (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Abdomen;Stomach;Small IntestineDigestive systemNon-drug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2019-08-01T04:00:00Z8.6000000000000059.2000000000000771.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about some of the problems that may occur with your child's feeding tube, why this is happening and what you can do to fix it.</p><h2>What are G and GJ tubes?</h2><p>Gastrostomy tubes (G tubes) and gastrojejunostomy tubes (GJ tubes) are feeding devices. A G tube gives liquid nutrition, medication and other fluids directly into the stomach. A GJ tube gives liquid nutrition, medication and other fluids directly into the small intestine (the jejunum). Both G tubes and GJ tubes are placed in a surgical opening in your child's tummy (abdomen) called the stoma. The tunnel from the outside of the body into the stomach is called the tract.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>You may encounter problems with when using a feeding tube, including problems with the tube, giving feeds or health concerns with your child.</li><li>If you cannot resolve the problem, contact the G tube resource nurse or your child’s doctor.</li></ul><h2>At SickKids</h2><p>If your child is a SickKids patient, contact the G tube resource nurse with any questions or concerns.</p><p>G Tube Resource Nurse contact info:</p><p>Phone 416-813-7177</p><p>g.tubenurse@sickkids.ca</p><p>On the weekend/afterhours, you may need to come to the Emergency Department for an alternate method of feed/fluids/medication administration.</p>Main
G/GJ tubes: Using silver nitrate to treat granulation tissueGG/GJ tubes: Using silver nitrate to treat granulation tissueG/GJ tubes: Using silver nitrate to treat granulation tissueEnglishGastrointestinal;OtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Abdomen;Stomach;Small IntestineDigestive systemNon-drug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2019-07-30T04:00:00Z8.6000000000000057.7000000000000489.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Silver nitrate can be used to help remove granulation tissue around your child's stoma. Learn more about silver nitrate and how to apply it to your child.<br></p><h2>What are G and GJ tubes?</h2><p>Gastrostomy tubes (G tubes) and gastrojejunostomy tubes (GJ tubes) are feeding devices. A G tube gives liquid nutrition, medication and other fluids directly into the stomach. A GJ tube gives liquid nutrition, medication and other fluids directly into the small intestine (the jejunum). Both G tubes and GJ tubes are placed in a surgical opening in your child's tummy (abdomen) called the stoma. The tunnel from the outside into the stomach is called the tract.</p><p>Despite your best efforts to keep your child’s skin around the stoma healthy, some common skin problems may occur. </p><p>If your child has issues with <a href="/Article?contentid=3019&language=English">persistent granulation tissue</a> around the stoma, your health-care team may suggest applying silver nitrate to the area. The first application should be done in a clinic or your doctor’s office, but you can continue the treatment on your own at home once you know how to apply the silver nitrate.</p><p>Silver nitrate is a more invasive treatment for granulation tissue; other treatment options, such as salt water soaks, are typically used before trying silver nitrate.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Silver nitrate sticks are used to help treat and remove granulation tissue around your child’s stoma.</li><li>Do not use silver nitrate if your child has a sensitivity to silver.</li><li>Applying silver nitrate may be painful. Giving your child acetaminophen or ibuprofen before application may help your child stay comfortable.</li><li>Always protect your child’s healthy skin with a barrier cream before applying silver nitrate to the stoma.</li><li>Avoid using hypertonic saline soaks and antibiotic creams on the stoma if you are applying silver nitrate.</li><li>Contact your G tube specialist or doctor to check the stoma after two weeks of applying silver nitrate. </li></ul><h2>What are silver nitrate sticks?</h2><p>Silver nitrate sticks (also called silver nitrate applicators) have rounded tips covered in silver and are used to remove granulation tissue. Once activated by water, the silver burns the tissue, causing the granulation tissue to die and fall off. This will help heal your child’s skin.</p><p>Do not use this product if your child has a sensitivity or allergy to silver.</p><h2>Where can I get silver nitrate sticks?</h2><p>You can buy silver nitrate sticks at many pharmacies without a prescription. Call your local pharmacy ahead of time so they can order them for you.</p><h2>How to apply silver nitrate to a child’s stoma</h2><ol><li>Always wash your hands with soap and water before touching your child’s skin.</li><li>Clean the stoma with soap and water, and pat or let air dry.</li><li>Protect the healthy skin around the stoma by applying a barrier cream (for example, zinc oxide, diaper rash cream, or petroleum jelly).</li><li>Dip the silver nitrate stick into a small amount of sterile or distilled water. The water will activate the silver. Do not use salt water, or saline, because it will deactivate the silver and stop it from working. </li><li>Roll the tip of the stick only over the granulation tissue—avoid applying it to healthy skin. One stick is usually enough for each application. The tissue may turn a grayish-black colour—this is normal. This colour will disappear slowly over time.</li><li>If you accidentally get silver nitrate on healthy skin, wash that portion of skin with saline solution right away to stop its effects.</li><li>Wash your hands with soap and water when you are finished. </li></ol><p>Because antibiotic creams or ointments can reduce the effectiveness of silver nitrate, you should avoid using silver nitrate and antibiotic creams at the same time.</p><p>Applying silver nitrate to your child’s stoma may be painful. Give your child acetaminophen or ibuprofen before applying silver nitrate to help keep your child comfortable.</p><h2>At SickKids</h2><p>If your child is a SickKids patient, contact the G Tube Resource Nurse with any concerns.</p><h3>G Tube Resource Nurse contact info:</h3><p>Phone: 416-813-7177</p><p>Email: g.tubenurse@sickkids.ca</p><p>On weekends/afterhours, you may need to come to the Emergency Department for an alternate method of feed/fluids/medication administration.</p>Main
G/GJ tubes: What to do if your child’s feeding tube is blockedGG/GJ tubes: What to do if your child’s feeding tube is blockedG/GJ tubes: What to do if your child’s feeding tube is blockedEnglishGastrointestinalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Abdomen;Small Intestine;StomachDigestive systemNon-drug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2019-09-17T04:00:00Z7.0000000000000071.90000000000001554.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn what to do if your child's feeding tube becomes blocked.</p><p>If your child has a G or GJ tube, and it becomes blocked by formula or medications, it is important to try to unblock the tube as soon as possible. The longer the tube is blocked, the harder it may be to unblock. If you delay unblocking your child’s tube, this may prevent your child from receiving feeds, fluids or medications.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>If your child’s tube becomes blocked, it is important to try to unblock the tube right away.</li><li>If your child’s tube has an adaptor, remove it first to check if it is the cause of the blockage.</li><li>Use a pulsating push-and-pull motion with warm water to try to unblock your child’s feeding tube. If this does not work, contact your G tube specialist.</li><li>If you have a prescription for pancreatic enzymes and sodium bicarbonate, try this method if warm water does not work.</li><li>If your child has a low-profile G tube, first try to flush the tube via the feeding port. If this does not work, remove the tube and try to unblock it manually. You may need to change the low-profile tube or insert a Foley type catheter.</li><li>Prevent tube blockage by flushing with 5 to 10 mL of water, or the amount recommended by your health-care team before and after you give a tube feed or medication, and every four hours during continuous feeds.</li></ul><h2>How to unblock a feeding tube</h2><div class="asset-video">https://www.youtube.com/embed/lM2oOG03zE4</div><p>There are two different ways to unblock a feeding tube at home. Try using warm water first. If that doesn’t work, you can use activated pancreatic enzymes.</p><h3>Using warm water</h3><p>To unblock your child’s G tube or GJ tube, you will need a 1 mL and a 5 mL slip-tip syringe and warm water.</p><ol><li>Fill the 1 mL and 5 mL slip-tip syringes with warm water.</li><li>If your child’s tube has an adaptor attached to the end of the tube, remove it.</li><li>Connect the 1 mL syringe directly to the feeding tube.</li><li>Using a pulsating push-and-pull motion, insert as much water into the tube as possible. This pulsating motion will help clear out any formula or medication that has built up inside the tube. You may have to try this a few times to unblock the tube.</li><li>When the tube is no longer blocked, flush with at least 5 mL of warm water, or the amount recommended by your health-care team.</li><li>If you removed the adaptor to attach the 1mL syringe directly to the tube, re-attach it to the tube to continue giving feeds, fluids and medications.</li></ol><h3>Using activated pancreatic enzymes</h3><p>If you cannot unblock the feeding tube with warm water, you can try using pancrelipase (a combination of pancreatic enzymes) and sodium bicarbonate. This mixture works very well when the tube becomes blocked with formula. You will need a prescription from your doctor or nurse practitioner to get the pancreatic enzymes from a pharmacy. Your G tube specialist may provide you a prescription as well. </p><p>When using the pancreatic enzymes, please consider the following:</p><ol><li>Pancrelipase is made from pork products. Cultural, personal and dietary considerations must be considered.</li><li>If your child has an allergy to pork products, do not use pancreatic enzymes.</li><li>Pancreatic enzymes can be irritating and cause redness to the skin. Use gloves when handling the pancreatic enzyme capsule. If the enzymes comes into contact with your skin, wash the area with soap and water right away.</li></ol><p>To use the pancreatic enzymes, you will need one pancrelipase capsule, one sodium bicarbonate 325 mg tablet, sterile or distilled water, and two 5 mL syringes (one to mix the medications and one to flush).</p><p>Follow these instructions:</p><ol><li>Wash your hands and then put on a pair of gloves.</li><li>Open the pancreatic enzyme capsule. Pour the powder contents into a medication cup. Discard the outer capsule.</li><li>Crush the sodium bicarbonate tablet until it is a powder. Add it to pancreatic powder in the medication cup.</li><li>Add 5-10 mL of warm sterile or distilled water and mix the solution in the medication cup. </li><li>Draw up the solution into the 5 mL syringe. Push as much of the solution into the tube as possible. Be careful not to get it into your eyes or your child’s eyes.</li><li>Let the solution sit in the tube for 30 minutes.</li><li>Attempt to flush the tube with at least 5 mL of sterile or distilled water, or the amount recommended by your health-care team.</li><ul><li>If your child is younger than 1 year, only try this procedure once.</li><li>If your child is older than 1 year, you can repeat the procedure twice. If you are unsuccessful in unblocking the tube, you may repeat this procedure immediately after the first attempt. Try to remove the first dose of the pancreatic enzyme solution from your child’s tube before pushing the second dose. If you cannot remove the first dose, proceed with the second dose. </li></ul><li>If the tube has become unblocked, flush with at least 5 mL of sterile or distilled water (or the amount recommended to you) and continue with your feeds and medications.</li></ol><p>If warm water or activated pancreatic enzymes do not unblock the feeding tube, contact your child’s G tube specialist to have your child’s tube replaced in hospital. If your child has a blocked low profile tube or any balloon type tube, see below. </p><h2>If your child’s low-profile tube is blocked</h2><div class="asset-video">https://www.youtube.com/embed/lM2oOG03zE4</div><p>Low-profile balloon type G tubes, such as the Mic-Key button or AMT MiniONE, rarely block because they are much shorter than other types of G tubes. Make sure the extension tubing is not blocked by flushing it with 5 to 10 mL of warm sterile water, or the amount recommended by your health-care team. If the extension tubing is blocked, replace it with new extension tubing. If you have been trained to change your child’s low-profile balloon type G tube, you may replace the feeding tube with a new one.</p> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Foley catheter</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/GTubes_FoleyCatheter.jpg" alt="Foley catheter showing feeding tube, feeding port, balloon port and balloon" /> </figure> <p>To unblock your child's low-profile G tube, do the following. </p><ol><li>Wash your hands with soap and water.</li><li>Use a slip tip syringe to deflate the balloon of the tube. Throw this water away.</li><li>Remove the tube from the stoma.</li><li>You may see a physical blockage in the tube. Use your index finger and thumb to squeeze the tube at the site of the blockage. Flush the tube with at least 5 mL of water to attempt to remove the blockage, or the amount recommended to you.</li><li>If you successfully unblock the low-profile G tube, and the tube is not broken, wash the low-profile G tube with soap and water, rinse it, and lubricate the tip of the low-profile G tube. Re-insert it back into the stoma. Once inserted, inflate the balloon with the amount of sterile or distilled water you normally use.</li><li>Confirm that the tube is in the stomach by checking the pH of the stomach contents. A pH of 6.0 or less means the tube is correctly in the stomach. To learn how to check the pH, please see the article <a href="/article?contentid=2908&language=english">Balloon G tubes</a>.</li><li>If you are unsuccessful at unblocking the low-profile tube, or the tube is broken, insert a new low-profile G tube or a Foley catheter. If you have inserted the Foley catheter, contact your G tube specialist to arrange for the low-profile tube to be replaced.</li></ol><h2>If your child’s low-profile GJ or combination tube is blocked</h2><p>If your child has a <a href="/article?contentid=2535&language=english&hub=tubefeeding">low profile GJ</a> or <a href="/article?contentid=3843&language=english&hub=tubefeeding">combination tube</a> that you cannot unblock, contact your G tube specialist to arrange for it to be replaced. You may need to go to the emergency department if it is after hours or during weekends or holidays. </p><h2>How do you know if a feeding tube is blocked?</h2><p>If your child receives a feed continuously via the feeding pump, the feeding pump may beep, saying there is an occlusion or flow error. This may be a problem with the pump, the feeding bag, or the tube itself.</p><p>If your child receives a gravity feed using a feeding bag, the feed will stop dripping in the dripping chamber of the feeding bag system.</p><p>When you are flushing your child’s tube, it may feel hard to push. If only a small amount of fluid will go into the tube, this is called a "partial blockage".</p><p>If you cannot get any fluid into the tube, this means the tube may be completely blocked.</p><p>If your child’s G or GJ tube has an adaptor at the end of their tube, remove and flush it with water to clear the inside of the adaptor of any possible blockage. If you remove the adaptor and stomach contents flow back out of your child’s G or GJ tube, your child’s tube is not blocked. Rather, the adaptor was blocked and it can be washed or replaced. If stomach contents do not flow out of the G tube or GJ tube after removing the adaptor, this means the tube is blocked.</p><h2>At SickKids</h2><p>If your child is a SickKids patient, contact the G Tube Resource Nurse with any concerns.</p><h3>G Tube Resource Nurse contact info:</h3><p>Phone 416-813-7177</p><p>g.tubenurse@sickkids.ca</p><p>On weekends/afterhours, you may need to come to the Emergency Department for an alternate method of feed/fluids/medication administration.</p>Main
G/GJ tubes: What to do if your child’s feeding tube is pulled outGG/GJ tubes: What to do if your child’s feeding tube is pulled outG/GJ tubes: What to do if your child’s feeding tube is pulled outEnglishGastrointestinal;OtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Abdomen;Stomach;Small IntestineDigestive systemNon-drug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2019-09-17T04:00:00Z7.7000000000000067.00000000000001138.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn what to do if your child's G tube or GJ tube is accidentally pulled out. </p><h2>What are feeding tubes?</h2><p>Gastrostomy tubes (G tubes) and gastrojejunostomy tubes (GJ tubes) are feeding devices. A G tube gives liquid nutrition, medication and other fluids directly into the stomach. A GJ tube gives liquid nutrition, medication and other fluids directly into the small intestine (the jejunum). Both G tubes and GJ tubes are placed through a small opening in the stomach. This opening is called a "stoma". The tunnel from the outside of the body to the stomach is called the "tract".</p><h2>What to do if your child's feeding tube is accidentally pulled out</h2><p>If your child has a <a href="/article?contentid=2908&language=english">balloon type G tube</a>, and it has accidentally pulled out, check if the balloon is broken. If the balloon is not broken, you may re-insert the balloon type G tube if you have learned how to do so. </p><p>If your child has a non-balloon type G tube or a GJ tube that has accidentally pulled out, it is important to insert a Foley type tube into the tract as soon as possible to prevent the stoma and tract from closing. </p><p>The Foley type catheter should be one size smaller than your child’s G or GJ tube. For example, if your child has a 16 FR tube, the Foley catheter should be 14 FR.</p><p>The sooner you insert the Foley catheter, the easier it will be to insert. You will need to carry the Foley catheter and emergency supplies with you at all times in case the tube is accidentally pulled out.</p><p>You will need the following emergency supplies:</p><ul><li>A Foley catheter one size smaller than your child’s tube</li><li>A wash cloth, soap and water</li><li>Water-based lubricating jelly</li><li>Tape</li><li>Sterile or distilled water</li><li>3 x 5mL slip-tip syringes – 1 filled with water to fill the balloon, 1 empty to check the pH and 1 filled with water to flush the tube </li><li>pH strips</li><li>pH colour reference guide</li><li>An adaptor or extension set </li></ul><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>If your child’s G tube or GJ tube is accidentally pulled out, you must insert a Foley catheter into the tract as soon as possible.</li><li>You must keep the emergency supplies with your child at all times.</li><li>The Foley catheter should be one size smaller than your child’s G tube or GJ tube.</li><li>If your child’s tube is accidentally pulled out within 8 weeks of when it was first put in, insert a Foley catheter but do not use the catheter for feeds, medication or fluid. Do not inflate the Foley catheter’s balloon. </li><li>If your child’s tube is accidentally pulled out after 8 weeks of when it was first put in, insert the Foley catheter. Once you verify that the Foley catheter is in the stomach, inflate the Foley catheter balloon, and use it for feeds, medication or fluid.</li><li>Stop feeding your child with the Foley catheter if they have a hard bloated stomach, severe stomach pain, vomiting, gagging, high fever, trouble breathing, or diarrhea.</li><li>If you cannot insert the Foley catheter, contact your G tube specialist or go to your nearest emergency department. </li></ul><h2>When to get medical help</h2><p>Contact your G tube specialist or go to the nearest emergency department if:</p><ul><li>you cannot insert a Foley catheter after a tube has been accidently dislodged </li><li>you cannot verify the Foley catheter is in the stomach</li><li>your child has lots of pain after the insertion of a Foley catheter</li></ul><p>Stop feeding and get medical help if your child has any of the following signs and symptoms after the Foley catheter is inserted:</p><ul><li>a hard bloated stomach</li><li>severe pain in the stomach</li><li>vomiting, coughing or gagging</li><li>sudden high fever</li><li>diarrhea</li><li>problems with feeds and liquids getting into the lungs (aspiration)</li><li>breathing problems</li></ul><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/7Zaz4jHLPYc?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> </div><ul><li> <a href="#gtube">G tube instructions</a></li><li> <a href="#gjtube">GJ tube instructions</a></li></ul><h2 id="gtube">Inserting a Foley catheter after a G tube has been accidently pulled out</h2><p>The steps for inserting the Foley catheter are different depending on if your child’s G tube is new or if they have had it for a while. </p><h3>Within eight weeks of getting a G tube</h3><p>If your child’s G tube is accidentally pulled out within eight weeks of when it was first put in, do the following.</p> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Foley catheter</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/GTubes_FoleyCatheter.jpg" alt="Foley catheter showing feeding tube, feeding port, balloon port and balloon" /> </figure> <ol><li>Gather your Foley catheter and all of your emergency supplies.</li><li>Wash your hands and the skin around your child’s feeding tube with soap and water.</li><li>Lubricate the tip of the Foley catheter with the lubricating jelly. If you do not have lubricating jelly, you can wet the tip of the Foley catheter with water.</li><li>Measure the Foley catheter against your index finger. If your child weighs less than 3kg (6.6 lbs), measure about 3 to 4 cm in length. This is about half the length of your index finger. If your child weighs more than 3 kg, the tube should measure 4 to 6 cm. This is the full length of your index finger.</li><li>With your dominant hand, insert the Foley into the stoma at the length you measured. This length should be enough for the tip of the Foley catheter to reach the stomach.</li><li>Tape the Foley catheter to your child’s abdomen.</li></ol><p>Your child’s tract takes about eight weeks to heal after their tube is first inserted. Because the tract may not be completely healed, there is a risk that the Foley catheter may not be in the stomach. Therefore, do not use the Foley catheter to give your child feeds, fluids or medications. If your child cannot eat or drink by mouth, you may insert a nasogastric tube if you have been trained to do this. Contact your G tube specialist as soon as you insert the Foley catheter. If they are unavailable, go to the nearest emergency department as soon as possible.</p><h3>Eight or more weeks after getting the tube</h3><p>If your child’s G tube is pulled out eight or more weeks after it was first put in, do the following.</p><ol><li>Gather your Foley catheter and all of your emergency supplies.</li><li>Wash your hands and the skin around your child’s feeding tube with soap and water.</li><li>Lubricate the tip of the Foley catheter with the lubricating jelly. If you do not have lubricating jelly, you can wet the tip of the Foley catheter with water.</li><li>Measure the Foley catheter against your index finger. If your child weighs less than 3kg (6.6 lbs), measure about 3 to 4 cm in length. This is about half the length of your index finger. If your child weighs more than 3 kg, the tube should measure 4 to 6 cm. This is the full length of your index finger.</li><li>With your dominant hand, insert the Foley into the stoma at the length you measured. This length should be enough for the tip of the Foley catheter to reach the stomach.</li><li>Tape the Foley catheter to your child’s abdomen.</li><li>You will likely see stomach contents coming from the end of the Foley catheter. This is a good sign that the Foley catheter is in the stomach. </li><li>If you do not see stomach contents seeping out of the Foley, you will need another way to verify the Foley is in the stomach. To do this, connect a syringe to the end of the Foley catheter and pull back. You may need to use an adaptor or extension to connect the syringe to the Foley catheter. </li><li>Confirm that the Foley tube is in the stomach by checking the pH (acidity) of the stomach contents in the syringe. You can confirm that the Foley catheter is in the stomach by: <ul><li>checking that the stomach contents have a pH of 6.0 or less (see below for how to check the pH)</li><li>observing that what is in the syringe looks like stomach contents</li></ul></li><li>Flush the tube with 5 mL of water to ensure the Foley is working well. </li><li>Fill the Foley catheter balloon with the amount of water recommended on the balloon port of the tube. Use only sterile or distilled water. This will help to keep the Foley tube in place while you are feeding your child. </li><li>Close the Foley catheter with either a catheter plug, the plunger of the syringe or an extension set. </li></ol><p> <strong>Do not use the Foley catheter to feed or give liquids or medications until you confirm it is in the right place</strong>. Contact your G tube specialist before feeding if: </p><ul><li>You cannot get stomach contents back from the Foley catheter</li><li>The pH of the stomach contents is greater than 6.0</li><li>What you pull back from the Foley does not look like stomach contents</li></ul><h2>How to check the pH of the stomach contents</h2><p>Before using the newly changed tube for feeds and medications, you will need to check that it is in the stomach by checking the pH of the contents that are pulled from the tube.</p><h3>How to check the pH</h3><p>You will need:</p><ul><li>One empty 5 mL slip tip syringe</li><li>pH strips</li><li>pH colour reference guide</li></ul><p>What to do:</p><ol><li>Attach the 5 mL syringe to the Foley catheter. You may need to use an adaptor or extension to connect the syringe to the Foley. </li><li>Pull back to get stomach contents. If you cannot get stomach contents, move your child side to side or sit them upright.</li><li>Empty the stomach contents from the syringe onto a pH strip.<br></li><li>Compare the colours on the pH strip to the colours on the reference guide. </li></ol><p> <strong>If the pH is 6.0 or less</strong>, this means the Foley catheter tube is in the stomach. You can flush the tube and use the Foley catheter for feeds, fluids and medications.</p><p> <strong>If the pH is 6.0 or higher</strong>, do not use the tube for feeds, fluids or medications because the Foley catheter may not be in the stomach. Medications and recent feedings can cause the pH to be high. If the pH is 6.0 or higher, check it again in one hour. If the reading is still higher than 6.0 after one hour, do not use the Foley catheter. Contact your G tube specialist to have the position checked. </p><h2 id="gjtube">Inserting the Foley catheter after a GJ tube has been accidently pulled out</h2><p>If your child’s GJ tube is accidentally pulled out, do the following.</p><ol><li>Gather your Foley catheter, and all of your emergency supplies. </li><li>Wash your hands and the skin around your child’s feeding tube with soap and water.</li><li>Lubricate the tip of the Foley catheter with the lubricating jelly. If you do not have lubricating jelly, you can wet the tip of the Foley catheter with water.</li><li>Measure the Foley catheter against your index finger. If your child weighs less than 3kg (6.6 lbs), measure the Foley at about 3 to 4 cm in length. This is about half the length of your index finger. If your child weighs more than 3 kg, measure 4 to 6 cm in length. This is the full length of your index finger. Hold the Foley at the length your measures with your dominant hand. </li><li>Insert the Foley into the stoma at the length your measured. This length should be enough for the tip of the Foley catheter to reach the stomach. </li><li>Tape the Foley catheter to your child’s abdomen. </li></ol><p> <strong>Do not use the Foley catheter to give your child feeds, fluids or medications.</strong> Call your G tube specialist. If they are unavailable, go to the nearest emergency department as soon as possible.</p>Main
G/GJ tubes: What to do if your child’s feeding tube movesGG/GJ tubes: What to do if your child’s feeding tube movesG/GJ tubes: What to do if your child’s feeding tube movesEnglishGastrointestinal;OtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Abdomen;Small Intestine;StomachDigestive systemNon-drug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2019-05-22T04:00:00Z6.8000000000000073.3000000000000963.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Find out how to prevent your child's G tube from moving in and out of the stoma, and what to do if you suspect it has moved.</p><p>Gastrostomy tubes (G tubes) and gastrojujenostomy tubes (GJ tubes) are feeding devices. A G tube gives liquid nutrition, medication and other fluids directly into the stomach. A GJ tube gives liquid nutrition, medication and other fluids directly into the small intestine (the jejunum). Both G tubes and GJ tubes are placed in a surgical opening in your child's tummy (abdomen) called the stoma. The tunnel from the outside into the stomach is called the tract.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>If your child’s G tube looks longer or shorter than normal, it may have moved out of position.</li><li>If you child has a G tube inserted by a radiologist using image guidance, it can be re-positioned to sit in the stomach.</li><li>If your child has a GJ tube that moved out of position, you will need to contact the G tube Resource Nurse immediately or visit the emergency department as the tube cannot be re-positioned at home. An image guidance will be required to re-position the tube in the jejunum.</li><li>Always secure the tube properly to prevent it moving in and out of the stoma.</li></ul><p><a href="/Article?contentid=2536&language=English">Corflo PEG tubes</a> and MacLoc G tubes are types of feeding tubes placed by an interventional radiologist using image guidance. Low-profile balloon type G tubes are placed by a G tube specialist (at SickKids this is the G Tube Resource Nurse). If your child’s G tube looks longer or shorter than normal, it may have moved out of position. Depending on the type of G tube your child has, the instructions for moving the tube back into place may be different.</p><h2>Corflo PEG tube</h2><p>A Corflo PEG tube has a round bolster inside the stomach that helps prevent the tube from being pulled out. There is a crossbar or white elbow fixation device at the stoma that helps prevent the tube from moving into the stomach. If the crossbar or elbow fixation device is not sitting at your child’s stoma, the tube may have moved out of position.</p><p>If the Corflo PEG tube has moved farther into the stomach your child may experience the following signs and symptoms.</p><ul><li>Vomiting</li><li>Discomfort or pain</li><li>Diarrhea</li><li>Bloated stomach</li></ul><p>If any of these signs occur, contact your G tube team.</p><h3>Preventing your child’s Corflo PEG tube from moving</h3><p>To prevent your child’s Corflo PEG tube from moving:</p><ul><li>Always secure the tube</li><li>A crossbar or elbow fixation device is used to prevent the tube moving from in and out of the stoma</li><li>Ensure proper fit of the crossbar or elbow fixation device at the stoma</li></ul><p>For the first two weeks after tube insertion, do not adjust the crossbar or elbow fixation device. Contact your G tube team if you have concerns about the placement of the cross bar or elbow fixation device. </p><p>Two weeks after the initial insertion of the Corflo PEG tube, you may adjust the crossbar or elbow fixation device to sit at the stoma.</p><p>How to re-position your child’s Corflo PEG tube:</p><ol><li>Wash your hands with soap and water.</li><li>Remove any tape used to secure the tube to abdomen.</li><li>Pull the tube back gently until resistance felt. This means the bolster is at the end of stoma tract.</li><li>Stop pulling when resistance felt, then adjust the crossbar or elbow fixation device to sit at the stoma.</li><li>Re-tape the tube to the skin if preferred and secure the tube well.</li></ol><h3>What to do if the Corflo PEG tube is partially pulled out</h3><p>Although it is very unlikely, your child's Corflo PEG tube may be pulled out part way, which can cause the bolster on the end of the tube to become stuck in the tract. If this has happened, you may notice the following.</p><ul><li>Significant pain in the G tube area</li><li>A visible hard plastic bulge (the bolster) that does not go away when you move the tube</li><li>You may be able to feel a hard bulge (the bolster) in the tract or stoma</li><li>Formula leaking from the stoma</li><li>If you are concerned that the tube has been partially pulled out and the bolster is stuck, call your G tube specialist right away. On the weekend/after hours, go to the Emergency Department</li></ul><h2>Low-profile balloon type G tube</h2><p>If your child has a <a href="/Article?contentid=2908&language=English">low-profile balloon type G tube</a>, it will not move farther into the stomach. This is a skin level tube that extends through the stoma. There is a balloon filled with water at the end of the tube that is in the stomach. This balloon holds the tube in place. Check the amount of water in the balloon at least once a week; if there is less water in the balloon, the tube may be able to move slightly in the tract. Use sterile or distilled water to refill the balloon.</p><h2>MacLoc G tube</h2><p>If your child has a MacLoc type G tube that looks longer or shorter than normal, it may have moved out of position.</p><p>If the MacLoc type G tube has moved farther into the stomach, your child may experience the following signs and symptoms:</p><ul><li>Vomiting</li><li>Discomfort or pain</li><li>Diarrhea</li><li>Bloated stomach.</li></ul><p>If any of these signs occur, contact your child's G tube team.</p><h3>Preventing your child’s MacLoc G tube from moving<br></h3><p>To prevent your child’s MacLoc type G tube from moving:</p><ul><li>Always secure the tube in place with tape</li><li>Mark the outside part of your child’s feeding tube where it meets the stoma.</li></ul><p>How to mark your child's MacLoc G tube:</p><ol><li>Wash your hands with soap and water</li><li>Remove the tape securing the tube to the skin</li><li>Pull back on the tube gently</li><li>When you feel resistance, stop pulling. Push the tube into the stomach 1–2 cm. </li><li>Re-tape the tube to the skin and mark the tube where it meets the stoma. Use a permanent marker so it will not wash off with your daily soap and water cleaning.</li></ol><p>You may also measure the length of the outside part of the feeding tube, from stoma to adaptor. Make sure to mark this number down somewhere you will remember.</p><h2>At SickKids</h2><p>If your child is a SickKids patient, contact the G Tube Resource Nurse with any concerns.</p><h3>G Tube Resource Nurse contact info:</h3><p>Phone 416-813-7177</p><p>g.tubenurse@sickkids.ca</p><p>On weekends/afterhours, you may need to come to the Emergency Department for an alternate method of feed/fluids/medication administration.</p>Main
G6PD deficiencyGG6PD deficiencyG6PD deficiencyEnglishGeneticsChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NACardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-06T05:00:00Z8.5000000000000062.0000000000000900.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>G6PD deficiency can cause haemolysis and anaemia. Learn what this has to do with blood, the problems it can cause and what medicines you should avoid.</p><h2>What is G6PD deficiency?</h2> <p>Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an enzyme that helps red blood cells to work properly. Some people have less than the usual amount of G6PD in their red blood cells. This is called G6PD deficiency, or favism. </p> <p>Most people with G6PD deficiency have completely normal health, but sometimes it can cause problems. This guide explains the problems G6PD deficiency may cause and what to do if your child has problems. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>G6PD is an enzyme that helps protect red blood cells. </li> <li>Most people who have G6PD deficiency are healthy, but sometimes fever or certain medicines and foods can break down their red blood cells (haemolysis) and cause anaemia. </li> <li>Your child with G6PD deficiency should avoid certain medicines and foods.</li> <li>Tell your pharmacist, nurse and doctor that your child has G6PD deficiency.</li> <li>If your child has symptoms of anaemia, call your family doctor or take your child to the nearest Emergency Department. </li> </ul><h2>G6PD deficiency is passed on from parents to children</h2> <p>G6PD deficiency is an inherited disorder, which means it is passed from one or both parents to the child. It affects males more often than females.</p> <p>About 400 million people worldwide have G6PD deficiency. Anyone can have G6PD deficiency, but it is most common in people whose families came from Africa or other areas where malaria has been common, such as the Mediterranean, Caribbean and South-East Asia. G6PD deficiency is usually milder in people of African origin and more severe in people of Mediterranean and Asian origin.</p><h2>Your child should not take certain medicines</h2> <p>If your child has G6PD deficiency, they should not take any of the following medicines:</p> <ul> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=77&language=English">acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)</a></li> <li>ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) </li> <li>chloramphenicol </li> <li>chloroquine </li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=119&language=English">dapsone</a> </li> <li>dimercaprol </li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=120&language=English">doxorubicin</a> </li> <li>mepacrine </li> <li>methylene blue </li> <li>methyldopa</li> <li>nalidixic acid </li> <li>naphthalene </li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=201&language=English">nitrofurantoin</a> </li> <li>phenazopyridine </li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=222&language=English">primaquine</a> </li> <li>quinine </li> <li>sulfacetamide </li> <li>sulfadiazine </li> <li>sulfamethoxazole (Co-trimoxazole, Septra) </li> <li>sulfanilamide </li> <li>sulfapyridine </li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=243&language=English">sulfisoxazole</a> (Pediazole) </li> <li>toluidine blue </li> </ul> <p>This list only contains the names of drugs that are more likely to cause haemolysis in patients with G6PD deficiency. The list may change at a later time. Sometimes medicines that are not on this list can also cause problems. Tell your pharmacist, nurse and doctor that your child has G6PD deficiency and ask them to check before giving your child any medicine, including herbal remedies. </p> <p>If your child's doctor feels that your child needs to take one of the medicines on the list, your child will have their blood tested while taking the medicine. </p> <p>The risk and severity of haemolysis is almost always dose-related. This means that if your child takes a higher dose of one of these medicines, they are more likely to develop haemolysis and it is more likely to be severe. </p> <h2>Your child should avoid mothballs and certain foods</h2> <p>Your child should not come in close contact with mothballs (naphthalene).</p> <p>Your child should not eat fava beans. Some people should also avoid red wine, all beans, blueberries, soya products, tonic water and camphor. </p><h2>G6PD deficiency can cause problems</h2> <h3>Problems for newborn babies</h3> <p>If a mother carries G6PD deficiency, she may pass it on to one or more of her children. Some babies may get jaundiced (yellow) shortly after they are born. This is more likely for baby boys. </p> <p>Severe jaundice can be serious for newborn babies if it is not treated. It is usually treated by putting the baby under a special light for a few days. </p> <p>Many babies with G6PD deficiency are diagnosed because they have jaundice soon after birth. Once the jaundice has passed, they should not get other problems from G6PD deficiency, as long as they avoid fava beans and certain medicines. </p> <h3>Problems for children and adults</h3> <p>Most people with G6PD deficiency have completely normal health, but sometimes it can cause problems.</p> <p>Some children and adults with G6PD deficiency may develop haemolysis and <a href="/Article?contentid=841&language=English">anaemia</a> after they are exposed to any of these triggers:</p> <ul> <li>if they get a fever </li> <li>if they take certain medicines listed later in this guide </li> <li>if they eat fava beans; this is called favism </li> </ul> <p>If your child is exposed to a trigger that causes haemolysis, sometimes there are no symptoms at all. In more serious cases, your child may have one or more of the following symptoms of <a href="/Article?contentid=841&language=English">anaemia</a>: </p> <ul> <li>pale skin </li> <li>fatigue </li> <li>rapid heartbeat </li> <li>rapid breathing </li> <li>shortness of breath </li> <li>jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) </li> <li>backache </li> <li>dark, tea-coloured urine </li> </ul> <p>If your child is experiencing any of these symptoms, call your family doctor or go to the nearest Emergency Department.</p> <p>Once the trigger is removed or resolved, the symptoms of G6PD deficiency usually go away fairly quickly, usually within a few weeks. </p>Main
GI tractGGI tractGI tractEnglishNutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)AbdomenDigestive systemHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+) Educators Hospital healthcare providers Community healthcare providers Remote populations First nationsNA2013-09-27T04:00:00Z7.3000000000000066.0000000000000813.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn how the different parts of the GI tract work together to digest food.</p><figure><span class="asset-image-title">GI tract</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_digestive_system_V3_EN.jpg" alt="Salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small and large intestines, and anus" /> </figure> <p>When you eat, your body turns the food into energy and extracts vitamins, minerals and other nutrients to help it work properly. This process is called digestion. The parts of the body that are involved in digestion are called the digestive system.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>The digestive system includes the GI tract and the accessory organs of the liver, gall bladder and pancreas.</li> <li>The GI tract is divided into the upper GI tract, which runs from the mouth to the stomach, and the lower GI tract, which includes the small and large intestines.</li> <li>Together, the GI tract and accessory organs use mechanical digestion and chemical digestion to break down food.</li></ul>Main
Gaining too much weight during brain tumour treatmentGGaining too much weight during brain tumour treatmentGaining too much weight during brain tumour treatmentEnglishNeurology;NutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous system;Digestive systemNAAdult (19+)NA2009-08-14T04:00:00Z6.6000000000000064.5000000000000265.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>In-depth information concerning the issues that may arise for your child if he gains too much weight as a side effect of his brain tumour treatment.</p><p>A number of factors can cause weight gain in children with brain tumours:</p> <ul><li>Steroid use: some of the weight gained is caused by water retention, which will be lost when steroid use is stopped. </li> <li>The treatment or type of tumour: children with a tumour located near the hypothalamus may develop uncontrollable appetites. The hypothalamus is a part of the brain that controls eating and appetite. </li> <li>Untreated or undiagnosed hypothyroidism: low levels of thyroid hormones cause the body's metabolism to slow down. </li></ul><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Children with brain tumours may gain weight due to steroid use, tumour type, hypothyroidism.</li> <li>Try to maintain a healthy weight by being as active as possible and establish healthy eating patterns.</li></ul>Main
Gas (flatulence)GGas (flatulence)Gas (flatulence)EnglishGastrointestinalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Stomach;Small Intestine;Large Intestine/Colon;RectumStomach;Small intestine;Large intestine;Rectum;AnusConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2019-07-22T04:00:00Z7.6000000000000062.3000000000000397.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>An overview of the causes of your child's gas. Also included are tips on how to help your child control their excessive gas and when to seek medical attention.</p><h2>What is excessive gas?</h2> <p>Passing gas on a daily basis is normal. Gas bothers some people more than others. When gas becomes bothersome, it is excessive gas. Excessive gas can be accompanied by gas pains and/or bloating. Bloating is the feeling of fullness and cramping that can accompany gas.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>In most cases, your child's gas will not need medical attention.</li><li>Simple dietary changes can reduce the amount of gas buildup in your child's stomach.</li><li>Foods high in fibre can cause gas. Other causes may include antibiotics or constipation.</li></ul><h2>Causes of gas</h2> <p>Gas (flatulence) is usually caused by swallowing air when eating or drinking. Foods that are high in fibre, such as beans and cabbage, and carbonated drinks can also cause gas. </p> <h3>Other causes may include:</h3> <ul> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=1120&language=English">antibiotics</a></li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=6&language=English">constipation</a></li> <li>lactose intolerance</li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=816&language=English">celiac disease</a></li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=823&language=English">irritable bowel syndrome</a></li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=907&language=English">gastroenteritis</a></li> </ul><h2>Treatment of gas</h2><p>In general, the gas will not need medical treatment. Most of the time, excessive gas can be managed by changing your child's diet or making sure they are not swallowing large amounts of air when eating. </p><p>The use of <a href="/Article?contentid=1990&language=English">probiotics</a> may help reduce excessive gas. Examples of foods containing probiotics include yogurt, soy beverages and some juices. However, not all probiotics are the same. Some may increase flatulence. Talk to your child's doctor or dietician about probiotics.</p><p>Consider keeping a written diary of the foods and drinks that your child consumes so that you can identify what foods give them gas.</p><h3>Some dietary changes you can make:</h3><ul><li>You can cut down on certain foods which are known to produce a lot of gas, including cabbage, potatoes, Brussels sprouts, corn, asparagus, cauliflower, beans, legumes, peas and broccoli. These foods offer many nutritional benefits, so they should be reduced in the diet but not cut out completely.<br></li><li>Decrease or eliminate artificial sweeteners, chewing gum and fizzy drinks like pop.</li></ul><h2>When to see a doctor</h2> <h3>Make an appointment with your child's doctor if:</h3> <ul> <li>your child is losing weight</li> <li>your child has loose stools or <a href="/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a> that last for more than seven days</li> <li>your child's abdomen is distended (swollen)<br></li> <li>symptoms persist after dietary changes</li> <li>your child experiences persistent stomach pain</li> <li>there is blood in your child's stool</li> <li>your child experiences loss of appetite</li> <li>your child is <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a> and it is frequent and/or persistent</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Gas_(flatulence).jpgMain
Gastric emptying scanGGastric emptying scanGastric emptying scanEnglishOtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Stomach;Small IntestineStomach;Small intestineTestsCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2013-12-06T05:00:00Z7.6000000000000069.0000000000000691.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn how a gastric emptying scan is done and how it shows how quickly food leaves the stomach. </p><h2>What is a gastric emptying scan?</h2><p>A gastric emptying scan is a test to see how long it takes for food to empty from the stomach and enter the small intestine.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>A gastric emptying scan shows how quickly food moves from the stomach to the small intestine. It takes about 2.5 hours.</li> <li>The test involves adding a tiny amount of radioactive material to some food or liquid before giving it to your child. A special camera then takes pictures at set times to check how fast the food or liquid is moving through your child's stomach.</li> <li>Your child must not eat or drink anything for three to four hours before a scan using liquid or for four to six hours before a scan using solid food.</li> <li>A nuclear medicine doctor will send the results of the scan to your family doctor or paediatrician (child's doctor) within two working days. The person who does the scan cannot give the results.</li> </ul><h2>How long does the scan take?</h2> <p>The scan (both solid and liquid) takes about 2.5 hours.</p><h2>How is the gastric emptying scan done?</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Digestive system</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_digestive_system_V3_EN.jpg" alt="Salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small and large intestines and anus" /> </figure> <p>A gastric emptying scan is carried out by a nuclear medicine technologist.<br></p><p>The test involves adding a small amount of radioactive material to some food or liquid. When your child has the food or liquid, the material will cause it to show up clearly inside your child's stomach during the scan. The food or liquid will not taste any different to your child.</p><p>If your child is having a solid gastric emptying scan (a scan with solid food), they will be given an egg sandwich to eat.</p><p>If they are having a liquid gastric emptying scan, they will, depending on their age, have infant formula or milk, apple juice or a liquid meal replacement.</p><p>Your child can take the liquid in different ways:</p><ul><li>orally (by mouth)</li><li>through a gastric tube (a tube that goes directly into their stomach)</li><li>through a naso-gastric tube (a tube that goes through their nose, past their throat, and down into their stomach).</li></ul><p>When your child has taken the sandwich or had the liquid, a special camera will take pictures at set times to check how fast your child's stomach is emptying. In most cases, your child can watch a movie as the scan is being done.</p><h2>Do I need to supply the food or liquid for the scan?</h2><p>If your child needs formula for this scan, please bring it with you from home. The hospital will provide all other liquids and any food.</p><h2>Does my child need to do anything special to prepare for the scan?</h2> <p>Your child will not be able to eat or drink anything for a while before the scan, even food that is not normally swallowed (such as chewing gum or sucking candy).</p> <ul> <li>For a solid scan, your child must not eat or drink anything four to six hours before the test.</li> <li>For a liquid scan, your child must not eat or drink anything three to four hours before the test.</li> </ul><h2>At SickKids</h2> <p>If you have any questions or concerns about the scan or if you need to change your appointment, please call the Nuclear Medicine Department at 416 813 6065.</p><h2>Source</h2> <p>Alliance for Radiation Safety in Pediatric Imaging (2013). <a href="http://www.imagegently.org/Roles-What-can-I-do/Parent/Nuclear-Medicine" target="_blank"><em>Image Gently: Nuclear Medicine - What can I do as a parent?</em></a><br></p>Main
Gastroesophageal reflux diseaseGGastroesophageal reflux diseaseGastroesophageal reflux diseaseEnglishGastrointestinalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Esophagus;StomachEsophagus;StomachConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2021-01-19T05:00:00Z9.6000000000000053.4000000000000838.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>An overview of how you can help your child with the condition that causes the backwards movement of food and acid from the stomach into the esophagus.<br></p><h2>What is gastroesophageal reflux? </h2> <p>"Reflux" means "backwards movement." The esophagus is the tube that leads from the mouth to the stomach. So, gastroesophageal reflux is the backwards movement of food and acid from the stomach into the esophagus.</p> <p>Burping and spitting up are common after a baby feeds. Most babies spit up to some degree without discomfort, and it usually fades by the first year. This is called gastroesophageal reflux (without "disease").</p> <p>In infants, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) occurs when there is poor weight gain or other bothersome symptoms, such as excessive crying, irritability or back arching.</p> <p>Older children and adolescents may also get GERD. Their symptoms are similar to those of adults and can include heartburn and regurgitation.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Most infants experience some regurgitation after feeding. </li> <li>Most infants outgrow symptoms of GERD by the time they can eat solid foods. </li> <li>Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) occurs when the irritable and painful symptoms are frequent and persistent or lead to poor weight gain.</li> <li>Complications can include bleeding in the esophagus or difficulty breathing.<br></li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of GERD</h2> <p>In a baby, symptoms of GERD may include:</p> <ul> <li>effortless spitting up of food or feedings with discomfort</li> <li>coughing, when regurgitated food gets into the trachea (breathing tube)</li> <li>irritability during feeding; the baby will arch their back, twist their neck or pull away from feeding</li> <li>crying before or during feeding</li> <li>poor weight gain<br></li> </ul> <p>In older children, signs and symptoms may include:</p> <ul> <li>dental cavities, caused by stomach acid </li> <li>heartburn</li> <li>a sour taste in the mouth</li> <li>stomach and chest discomfort<br></li> </ul><h2>Causes of GERD</h2> <p>GERD occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter, which sits at the connection between the esophagus and the stomach, fails to properly close or relaxes incorrectly. This faulty valve allows food to travel all the way up the esophagus, causing "spit-up." When the food only travels partly up the esophagus, it may cause a burning sensation.</p><h2>How a doctor can help your child</h2> <p>Since vomiting and regurgitation are very common in babies in the first years of feeding, the doctor will need to determine whether the condition is simply GER (without 'D') or severe enough to warrant a GERD diagnosis and the relevant treatment. GERD is typically a clinical diagnosis. Sometimes tests are done to rule out conditions other than GERD that may have similar symptoms or complications to GERD.<br></p> <h2>Complications</h2> <p>Repeated exposure to stomach acid can lead to complications in some infants and children with GERD. These complications can include: </p> <ul> <li>poor weight gain or weight loss</li> <li>feeding aversion or refusal<br></li> <li>difficulty breathing or swallowing</li> <li>irritation of the esophagus (esophagitis)</li> </ul><h2>When to seek medical assistance</h2><p>Make an appointment with your child's doctor if your child:</p><ul><li>is failing to gain weight</li><li>is starting to refuse to feed or only feeds when sleeping</li><li>is crying or extra irritable during feedings or while spitting up (effortless and painless spitting up is usually not a problem if gaining weight)<br></li><li>coughs during or after feeds</li></ul><h2>Source<br></h2><p>Rosen, R., Vandenplas, Y., Singendonk, M., Cabana, M., DiLorenzo, C., Gottrand, F., . . . Tabbers, M. (2018, March). Pediatric gastroesophageal reflux clinical practice guidelines ... <em>JPGN, 66</em>: 3. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.naspghan.org/files/Pediatric_Gastroesophageal_Reflux_Clinical.33.pdf">https://www.naspghan.org/files/Pediatric_Gastroesophageal_Reflux_Clinical.33.pdf</a></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/gastroesophageal_reflux_disease.jpgMain
Gastrointestinal infections in babiesGGastrointestinal infections in babiesGastrointestinal infections in babiesEnglishNABaby (1-12 months)Stomach;Small Intestine;Large Intestine/Colon;RectumDigestive systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)Abdominal pain;Constipation;Diarrhea;Vomiting;Fever;Nausea;Fatigue2009-10-18T04:00:00Z11.000000000000043.20000000000001996.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about the symptoms and treatment of various gastrointestinal infections that can arise during infancy, including rotavirus and Norwalk virus.<br></p><p>Gastrointestinal problems can arise from time to time in infancy. They are usually caused by a viral infection in the stomach. Rotavirus and Norwalk virus infection are common causes of gastroenteritis in babies and children. <em>Escherichia coli</em>, campylobacter, and salmonella are important bacterial causes of gastroenteritis. Some of the more common causes of gastrointestinal upset are described below, along with their symptoms and treatment. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Gastrointestinal infections are usually caused by a virus or bacterial infection.</li> <li>Some of the common causes of gastrointestinal upset are rotavirus, Norwalk virus, <em>Escherichia coli</em>, campylobacter and salmonella infections.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/gastrointestinal_infections.jpgMain
Gender and identity: Support and resourcesGGender and identity: Support and resourcesGender and identity: Support and resourcesEnglishAdolescentTeen (13-18 years)NANASupport, services and resourcesTeen (13-18 years)NA2021-06-21T04:00:00ZFlat ContentHealth A-Z<p>A list of resources for young people who may be questioning their gender identity or sexual orientation.</p><p>There are many resources available to help you if you are questioning you gender identity or sexual orientation. Here are just a few.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>These online resources may help you if you are questioning you gender identity or sexual orientation.</li></ul><h3>AboutKidsHealth Teens</h3><p> <strong><a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/adolescenthealth">Adolescent Health Learning Hub</a></strong> - <a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3964&language=English">Gender and identity: Support and resources</a><br>Share this article with your parents or guardian for tips on how they can support you in talking about sensitive topics.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Happy%20non-binary%20person%20using%20laptop%20at%20home_ContentID3964.jpgTeens
Gender and identity: Support and resourcesGGender and identity: Support and resourcesGender and identity: Support and resourcesEnglishAdolescentTeen (13-18 years)NANASupport, services and resourcesAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2021-07-30T04:00:00Z17.700000000000010.300000000000047.0000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>A list of resources for young people and families who may be questioning their gender identity or sexual orientation.</p><p>There are many resources available to help if your child is questioning their gender identity or sexual orientation. Here are just a few.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>These online resources may be helpful if your child is questioning their gender identity or sexual orientation.</li></ul><h3>AboutKidsHealth Teens</h3><p> <strong> <a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/adolescenthealth">Adolescent Health Learning Hub</a></strong> - <a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3964&language=English">Gender and identity: Support and resources</a> <br> Share this article with your child for tips on how they can talk to others about sensitive topics.<br></p> <br>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Happy%20non-binary%20person%20using%20laptop%20at%20home_ContentID3964.jpgMain
Gender transitioningGGender transitioningGender transitioningEnglishAdolescentTeen (13-18 years)NANASupport, services and resourcesAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2021-07-30T04:00:00Z11.400000000000038.5000000000000942.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn more about the options for transitioning and helpful resources for transgender youth and their families.</p><p>Transitioning is the process that many <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3966&language=English">transgender people</a> go through to reflect and affirm their gender identity. This can include transitioning socially, legally, medically, or a combination. People who transition are typically on a journey to becoming visibly and socially recognizable as being of a different gender from what they were assigned at birth, but transgender people can express their gender identities in many different ways. How long someone takes to transition can also vary: some people transition slowly and some transition very quickly.</p><h3>What is gender dysphoria?</h3><p>People who are transgender and transitioning may have gender dysphoria. This is a diagnosis used by health-care providers to describe the distress, unhappiness and anxiety that transgender people may feel about the mismatch between the sex they were assigned at birth and their gender identity.</p><p>A person will need to be formally diagnosed with gender dysphoria in order to receive medical treatment to help them transition.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Transitioning is the process that many transgender people go through to reflect and affirm their gender identity.</li><li>There are two different ways to transition: socially and medically.</li><li>Social transitioning is when a person changes aspects of their appearance, behaviour or way of interacting with others (e.g., name, pronouns) to affirm their gender identity. They can also transition legally by changing their name and/or sex designation on legal documents.</li><li>Medical transitioning is when a person takes medications and/or has surgery to affirm their gender identity.</li><li>A person does not have to transition in order to be considered transgender. It is important to remember that not all transgender people wish to change their bodies or the ways in which they express parts of their gender.</li></ul><h2>At SickKids</h2><p>The <a href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/care-services/clinics/transgender-youth-clinic/">SickKids Transgender Youth Clinic (TYC)</a> provides information, options and care to youth experiencing gender dysphoria, which includes assessment and treatment planning. The clinic takes an affirming approach to gender identity and care.</p><h2>Resources</h2><p> <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3969&language=English">Gender and identity: Support and resources</a><br></p><p>Adolescent Health Learning Hub -<a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3962&language=English&hub=gender#adolescenthealth">Transitioning</a>.Share this article with your child for tips on how they can talk to others about sensitive topics. <br> </p><h2>References</h2><p>Sex&U. <em>The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada</em>. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.sexandu.ca/">https://www.sexandu.ca/</a>.</p><p>Gender. <em>Trans Care BC</em>. Retrieved from <a href="http://www.phsa.ca/transcarebc/trans-basics/gender">http://www.phsa.ca/transcarebc/trans-basics/gender</a>.</p><p>Puberty Blockers for Youth. <em>Trans Care BC</em>. Retrieved from <a href="http://www.phsa.ca/transcarebc/child-youth/affirmation-transition/medical-affirmation-transition/puberty-blockers-for-youth">http://www.phsa.ca/transcarebc/child-youth/affirmation-transition/medical-affirmation-transition/puberty-blockers-for-youth</a>.</p><p>Binding, Packing, Tucking & Padding. <em>Trans Care BC</em>. Retrieved from <a href="http://www.phsa.ca/transcarebc/care-support/transitioning/bind-pack-tuck-pad">http://www.phsa.ca/transcarebc/care-support/transitioning/bind-pack-tuck-pad</a>.</p><p>Transgender Identities. <em>Planned Parenthood</em>. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/gender-identity/transgender">https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/gender-identity/transgender</a>.<br></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/gender%20transitioning_ContentID3962.jpgMain
General anaesthesiaGGeneral anaesthesiaGeneral anaesthesiaEnglishPain/AnaesthesiaChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyNervous systemDrug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-17T05:00:00Z8.7000000000000059.80000000000001462.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Your child's stomach must be empty before a general anaesthetic. Follow these instructions to help your child get ready for an operation, test or treatment.</p><h2>What is general anaesthesia?</h2> <p>General anaesthesia (say: an-iss-THEES-ee-a) is a mix of medicines that helps your child fall into a deep sleep. This means your child will not feel pain or remember the operation. General anaesthesia may be used when your child has an operation, test or treatment.</p> <p>This information will help you and your child prepare for general anaesthesia. Please read this information carefully and explain it to your child, using words they can understand. Knowing what to expect will help your child feel less nervous. You can also contact the pre-anaesthesia clinic to help you and your child prepare.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Your child's stomach must be empty during and after general anaesthesia. If your child's stomach is not empty, your child could vomit and damage their lungs. If you do not follow these instructions, your child's operation, test or treatment will be delayed or cancelled. </li> <li>Starting at <strong>midnight</strong> before your child's operation, test or treatment, your child must not eat or drink any solid food, gum, candy, milk or orange juice. Your child must only have clear liquids such as water, ginger ale or clear apple juice until three hours before the anaesthesia.</li> <li><strong>Three hours</strong> before the operation, test or treatment, stop giving your child anything to drink.</li> <li>There is a small chance your child may have serious side effects from the general anaesthesia. The anaesthesiologist will watch your child carefully to deal with these problems if they happen.</li> </ul><h2>If you have any questions</h2> <p>On the day of your child's operation, test or treatment, the anaesthesiologist will meet with you to talk about any questions and concerns you may have. If you have questions before then, call the anaesthesia department.</p> <p>The team will work with you to make this the best possible experience for you and your child. Please call if you have any questions or concerns.</p> <h2>How general anaesthesia is given</h2> <p>Your child is given general anaesthesia either through a face mask or through a small tube in a vein called an intravenous line (IV).</p> <p>If your child is very nervous, they may be given some medicine before the general anaesthesia. This will help calm your child so they can be less anxious about getting the general anaesthesia.</p> <h3>Who gives the general anaesthesia</h3> <p>The doctor who will give your child the general anaesthesia is called an anesthesiologist. An anesthesiologist is a doctor who helps with surgery and other painful or anxiety-provoking procedures by giving sedatives, painkillers and anaesthetic drugs so that your child will sleep and will not be aware of anything during the procedure.</p> <p>The anesthesiologist will care for your child and help your child cope with the effects of the general anaesthesia. During your child's operation, test or treatment, the anaesthesiologist will be checking your child's breathing, heartbeat, temperature and blood pressure. After the procedure, the anesthesiologist makes sure your child is comfortable and recovering well.</p><h2>Your child may have side effects from the general anaesthesia</h2> <p>After general anaesthesia, your child may have minor side effects (problems), including:</p> <ul> <li>fatigue (tiredness)</li> <li>dizziness</li> <li>irritability</li> <li>sore throat</li> <li>cough</li> <li>nausea (feeling sick to the stomach)</li> <li>vomiting (throwing up); if this happens, your child will get medicine to help them feel better</li> </ul> <h3>Serious side effects are rare</h3> <p>There is a very small chance that there will be a serious problem during or after your child's general anaesthesia. These problems are rare but may include:</p> <ul> <li>an allergic reaction to a drug</li> <li>brain injury</li> <li>cardiac arrest, which means the heart stops beating; this can cause death</li> </ul> <p>The anaesthesiologist will watch your child very closely during the operation, test or treatment. They are trained to deal with these problems if they happen.</p> <p>If your child has a serious problem, they may need to stay in the hospital for a longer time.</p> <h2>After the operation, test or treatment</h2> <p>Your child will go to the Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit (PACU) or recovery room. Specially trained nurses will regularly check your child's breathing, heartbeat, temperature and blood pressure. Your child will wake up soon after the operation, test or treatment. You can be with your child as soon as they wake up.</p> <h2>If your child has pain</h2> <p>Before your child wakes up from the general anaesthesia, they will get medicine for pain.</p> <p>Managing your child's pain is important to help your child get better after the operation, test or treatment. If you think your child is in pain, talk to your child's nurse or doctor so that they can help.</p><h2>What to feed your child before general anaesthesia</h2><p>Your child's stomach must be empty before general anaesthesia. If your child has even a small amount of food or drink in the stomach, your child could vomit (throw up) during the anaesthesia and damage his or her lungs. An empty stomach lowers the chance that your child will vomit.</p><p>Follow these instructions to make sure your child's stomach is empty. If you do not follow these instructions, your child's operation, test or treatment will be delayed or cancelled.</p><ul><li>At <strong>midnight</strong> before the anaesthesia, your child must stop eating solid food, gum, candy, milk or orange juice. Your child can still drink clear liquids up until three hours before the anaesthesia. Clear liquids means liquids you can see through like a window. Clear liquids include water, ginger ale and clear apple juice.</li><li> <strong>Three hours</strong> before the anaesthesia, your child must stop drinking clear liquids. Your child should not take anything by mouth until after they wake up.</li><li>If your child needs to take prescription medicine, talk to your child's doctor before giving the medicine.</li></ul><p>Your child is having general anaesthesia at this time: ________________________</p><p>Your child must stop drinking clear liquids at this time: ___________________</p><h3>For babies</h3><p>If your baby is breastfeeding, stop breastfeeding your baby four hours before the anaesthesia, at this time: ___________</p><p>If your baby drinks formula, stop giving formula six hours before the anaesthesia, at this time: _____________</p><h3>Summary: Eating and drinking before general anaesthesia</h3><table class="akh-table"><thead><tr><th>Time</th><th>What your child can eat and drink</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>Midnight before the anaesthesia</td><td><p>Stop giving your child solid food, including gum, candy and orange juice. Your child must not eat anything until they wake up from the anaesthetic.</p><p>Your child may drink clear liquids, including clear apple juice, water and ginger ale. If your child only drinks water, you may give them Pedialyte.</p></td></tr><tr><td>6 hours before the anaesthesia<br></td><td>Stop giving your baby formula.</td></tr><tr><td>4 hours before the anaesthesia</td><td>Stop giving your baby breast milk.</td></tr><tr><td>3 hours before the anaesthesia</td><td>Stop giving your child clear liquids. Your child must not drink anything until they wake up from the anaesthetic.</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2">If your child takes prescription medicine, ask your child's doctor when and how to give the medicine.</td></tr></tbody></table><h2>Assessing your child before general anaesthesia</h2><p>Before your child's general anaesthesia, a nurse will call you to ask about your child's health. You may be asked to bring your child to the Pre-Anaesthesia Assessment Clinic. At this clinic, you and your child will talk with a nurse or an anaesthesiologist about the general anaesthesia. To reduce the risk of the procedure, the anesthesiologist needs to know about any medical conditions or problems your child has. You and your child will also talk with a nurse in the clinic about the care your child will need in the hospital before and after the operation.</p><p>Please bring a list of your child's medicines to the clinic.</p><h3>Your child may need tests before general anaesthesia</h3><p>The anaesthesiologist or your child's physician may decide that your child needs to have some lab tests before the general anaesthesia. This will depend on your child's medical history and why your child is having the general anaesthesia.</p><p>All girls aged 12 and over will have a urine test before receiving general anaesthesia.</p><h2>If your child is sick before the operation, test or treatment</h2><p>Your child needs to be as healthy as possible before having a general anaesthesia.</p><p>If your child is sick at any time in the week before the operation, test or treatment, call your child's doctor at the hospital right away. Call if your child has any of the following:</p><ul><li>wheezing</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=774&language=English">cough</a></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a></li><li>runny nose</li><li>vomiting</li><li>generally feeling unwell</li></ul><h2>At SickKids</h2><p>If you have questions or concerns before your child's anaesthesia, call the Pre-Anaesthesia Clinic at 416-813-7654, ext. 3058. You can make an appointment or speak with an anaesthesiologist.</p><p>SickKids offers a Pre-Admission Program for children between the ages of three and 12 to help them get ready for an operation at the hospital. Your child can play with stethoscopes, hospital gowns, masks and hats. To register your child for the Pre-Admission Program, please call 416-813-5819.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/general_anaesthesia.jpgMain
Generalized epilepsy syndromesGGeneralized epilepsy syndromesGeneralized epilepsy syndromesEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+) EducatorsNA2010-02-04T05:00:00Z10.800000000000043.0000000000000876.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about the causes, symptoms and treatments for generalized epilepsy syndromes.</p><p>Generalized epilepsy syndromes include seizures with myoclonic and tonic features. They can be idiopathic, cryptogenic or symptomatic.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Generalized epilepsy syndromes include benign myoclonic epilepsy in infancy, epilepsy with myoclonic astatic seizures, epilepsy with myoclonic absences and epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures on awakening.</li> <li>Seizures can begin as early as four months old to as late as 20.</li> <li>Causes of these syndromes can include a family history of epilepsy, sleep deprivation and photosensitivity.</li> <li>Most seizures can be treated with anti-epilepsy medications.</li></ul>Main
Genes and ALLGGenes and ALLGenes and ALLEnglishOncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodySkeletal systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2018-03-06T05:00:00Z9.8000000000000050.0000000000000515.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p> Learn how gene changes can cause acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).</p><p>Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) can develop because of gene changes inside leukemic stem cells. These changes can include chromosome translocations or changes in the number of chromosomes.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>Chromosome translocations or a change in the number of chromosomes will often occur in a child with ALL's leukemic cells.</li></ul>Main
Genetic counsellingGGenetic counsellingGenetic counsellingEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)BodyReproductive systemHealthy living and preventionPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2022-06-13T04:00:00Z14.000000000000029.3000000000000991.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Genetic counselling is a process that provides information and support to individuals and families at risk of, or with, a genetic condition. </p><h2>What is genetic counselling?</h2><p>Genetic counselling is a communication process to help individuals, couples and families understand the risk or adapt to the news of having a genetic condition or having a child with a genetic condition. This includes providing psychological support to patients and families as they adapt to a genetic diagnosis, understand possible treatment/management options or plan for future children. Genetic counselling can also help determine whether other at-risk family members should seek testing. It can be provided by trained genetic counsellors or physicians, including medical geneticists.</p><h2>Who are genetic counsellors?</h2><p>Genetic counsellors are health professionals with specialized training in genetics and counselling. They are valuable members of a health-care team who provide information on genetic disorders including how a genetic disorder is inherited, the risks associated with having that disorder and how it can be managed. Genetic counsellors are trained to support individuals who are adapting to a genetic condition and help them make informed medical and personal decisions.</p><p>The role of a genetic counsellor is to:</p><ul><li>Interpret family and medical histories to assess the chance that a genetic condition may occur or recur in a family.</li><li>Provide education about the condition, how it is inherited, and options for testing, management, and prevention.</li><li>Provide support resources to families.</li><li>Discuss opportunities to participate in research studies.</li><li>Provide counselling so that families can make informed choices based on their goals, and ethical and religious values.</li><li>Support patients and families as they adjust to the diagnosis of a genetic disorder or to information about the chances of having a child with a genetic disorder during a pregnancy.</li></ul><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Genetic counselling is a process of providing information and support to individuals/families at risk of, or with, a genetic condition.</li><li>Genetic counselling can be provided by trained genetic counsellors or physicians, including medical geneticists.</li><li>Reasons for genetic counselling can include assessment of a possible genetic condition, discussion of genetic testing options/results, providing information regarding a specific genetic diagnosis, or understanding the risks of having a child with a genetic condition during a pregnancy.</li></ul><h2>At SickKids</h2><p><a href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/care-services/support-services/genetic-counselling/">Genetic counselling</a></p><h2>Resources</h2><p><strong>Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors</strong> - <a href="https://www.cagc-accg.ca/index.php?page=225&id=">Find a genetics clinic</a></p><h2>References</h2><p>National Society of Genetic Counselors' Definition Task Force, et al. A new definition of Genetic Counseling: National Society of Genetic Counselors' Task Force report. <em>J Genet Couns.</em> 2006 Apr;15(2):77-83.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/neurofibromatosis_genetic_counselling.jpgMain
Genetic testing: MicroarrayGGenetic testing: MicroarrayGenetic testing: MicroarrayEnglishGeneticsChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years);Adult (19+)NANATestsAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2022-06-29T04:00:00Z11.400000000000041.8000000000000616.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>A microarray is a genetic test that can detect small missing or extra pieces of chromosomes. It can help identify the underlying cause of your child’s medical condition.</p><h2>What is a microarray?</h2><p>A microarray is a genetic test that can detect small missing (deletions) or extra pieces (duplications) of chromosomes. It can help identify the underlying cause of your child’s medical condition. A microarray is also known as chromosomal microarray, array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) or single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray.</p><h2>What are the benefits of doing a microarray?</h2><p>The results of a microarray may provide a diagnosis for your child’s condition and answers for your family. A diagnosis may help with learning the associated medical or health risks of your child’s condition, accessing the appropriate resources for your family, informing other family members of potential risks (if any), and informing decisions around future pregnancies.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A microarray can detect small missing (deletions) or extra pieces (duplications) of chromosomes and can help identify the underlying cause of your child’s medical condition.</li><li>The test is done by taking a blood sample from your child and comparing their DNA to a control sample to look for deletions or duplications. </li><li>The missing or extra pieces are called copy number variants (CNVs). They can be harmless (benign) or be the explanation for your child’s condition (pathogenic).</li><li>A microarray does not test for all genetic conditions or changes in specific genes.</li><li>A microarray is also known as chromosomal microarray, array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) or single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray.</li></ul><h2>How is a microarray done?</h2><p>A blood sample is taken from your child and sent to the lab. DNA is extracted from the sample and compared to a control sample to detect any small extra or missing pieces of chromosomes that cannot be detected under a microscope. A normal microarray result does not rule out a possible underlying genetic cause of your child's condition. Microarrays only look at your child’s chromosomes and not at specific genes.</p><h2>How to interpret microarray results</h2><p>There are three major types of test results that can be reported from a microarray:</p><ul><li> <strong>Pathogenic/likely pathogenic:</strong> the small extra or missing piece of chromosome identified explains or likely explains your child’s condition.</li><li> <strong>Variant of uncertain significance (VUS):</strong> there isn't enough information available currently to say whether the small extra or missing piece of a chromosome explains your child's condition or is harmless. Finding a VUS is common and not all VUSs are pathogenic. If you are the biological parent of your child, you may be requested to provide a blood sample to help with interpretation.</li><li> <strong>Benign/normal:</strong> your child's sample matches the control sample (i.e., no small extra or missing pieces of chromosomes were identified).</li></ul><p> <strong>Absence of homozygosity (AOH)</strong> is another result that can be interpreted from a microarray. AOH means there are areas detected on a microarray where one or more chromosomes are identical. This is not always an abnormal result and can be seen in healthy individuals; however, AOH can raise the possibility of an underlying genetic disorder.</p><p>Your child’s health-care provider who ordered the microarray test will talk to you about the test results. A referral to a <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=343&language=English">genetic counsellor and/or a geneticist</a> may be made.</p><h2>Preparing for the test</h2><p>There are no preparations needed before completing a microarray test. Your child can eat and drink as usual.</p>Main
GeneticsGGeneticsGeneticsEnglishGeneticsChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years);PrenatalNANAConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2022-02-08T05:00:00ZLanding PageLearning Hub<p>Genetics can play an important role in your family's health. Learn more about genetics; genetic counselling, screening, and diagnosis; different genetic conditions; and how genetics relate to understanding and managing overall health.</p><p>Genetics is the study of changes in genetic material and how genetic traits are passed down from parents to their children. Genetics can play an important role in your family's health. Learn more about genetics; genetic counselling, screening, and diagnosis; different genetic conditions; and how genetics relate to understanding and managing overall health.</p>geneticshttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-1297146235.jpgMain
Genetics and heart conditionsGGenetics and heart conditionsGenetics and heart conditionsEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years);Adult (19+)HeartCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-12-04T05:00:00Z12.000000000000038.60000000000001364.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the role that genetics plays in many heart conditions that afflict children.<br></p><p>Congenital heart conditions can have many causes. In fact, the same condition in two different children could have completely different origins. Congenital heart conditions may be the result of spontaneous genetic changes in the body, genetic mutations that are inherited by a child from a parent, changes caused by external or environmental influences, or a combination of these factors. </p><p>Genetic disorders can result in isolated heart conditions or heart conditions within the context of a syndrome that affects the body and its organs and functions in different ways. In some cases, a heart condition may be the first clue that a patient has a syndrome. As a result, children with heart conditions should be assessed to see whether their heart condition is just one part of a syndrome. </p><p>This page gives examples of some specific genetic disorders and syndromes that can result in heart conditions. In some cases, syndromes are discussed in more detail in the section on Understanding Diagnosis. For more detailed information, please consult your doctor or a genetic counsellor. </p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>Spontaneous genetic changes in the body, genetic mutations, and external or environmental influences can all result in a congenital heart condition. </li> <li> Heart conditions can be a part of a genetic disorder or syndrome.</li></ul>Main
Genetics of epilepsyGGenetics of epilepsyGenetics of epilepsyEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+) EducatorsNA2010-02-04T05:00:00Z12.100000000000035.80000000000002857.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out how genetics play a part in many types of epilepsy. </p><p>Epilepsy often runs in families. Family studies have shown that some epilepsy syndromes are completely determined by genetics, and genes are a major factor in other syndromes. Some inherited metabolic conditions also raise the likelihood of having seizures, as do some chromosomal disorders.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Genetic disorders can cause epilepsy alone, or can result in a syndrome with a number of different effects on the organs and functions of the body, including epilepsy.</li> <li>Epilepsy can arise directly or indirectly (as a symptom of another condition) from genetic disorders related to a specific gene, a combination of genetics and environmental factors, mutations in the DNA in mitochondria, missing or mutated chromosomes or changes in the activity of genes.</li> <li>Mutations in certain genes have been identified as causes of brain malformations, which can lead to epilepsy.</li></ul>Main
Genetics of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)GGenetics of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)Genetics of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)EnglishGeneticsChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Eyes;SkinSkin;NervesConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2010-03-05T05:00:00Z6.3000000000000073.8000000000000768.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) occurs because of a mutation to the NF1 gene. About half of cases are spontaneous mutations, while the other half are inherited from a parent to a child.</p><h2>What is a gene?</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">What are genes?</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/What_is_a_gene_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Cell, chromosome, DNA strand, gene and DNA building blocks or nucleotides" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Genes are made of long strings of nucleotides on a section of DNA. Groups of genes are packed tightly in a chromosome.</figcaption></figure> <p>Our bodies are made up of billions of cells. The cells work together to make our bodies work. Different cells have different jobs, but they all have one thing in common: each contains genes. </p><p>Genes are the instructions that our cells use to make proteins. Genes tell our cells how to work and what to do. For example, one gene may determine the colour of your hair or your blood type. </p><p>Genes are packaged in the form of chromosomes. The information in a gene is coded in a chemical called DNA.</p><p>There are about 30,000 genes inside every cell. Each person carries two copies of each gene. A child gets (inherits) one copy from their mother and the other from their father.</p><p>For more information about genes, please see the AboutKidsHealth section on <a href="/En/HowTheBodyWorks/GeneticsIntroduction" target="_blank">How the Body Works: Genetics.</a></p><h2>What causes NF1?</h2><p>Every person has two copies of the NF1 gene. This gene codes for a protein called neurofibromin (say: noor-oh-fie-BROH-min).</p><p>Neurofibromin's job in the body is to make sure that certain cells divide and grow in a controlled way. In particular, it stops certain cells that support the nerves from growing too much. These cells are called nerve sheath cells. </p><p>A mutation (a change in the genetic code) in the NF1 gene leads to a neurofibromin protein that does not work properly. This leads to symptoms of NF1. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>A person can get NF1 in one of two ways. Half of cases happen completely by chance. The rest of the time, NF1 is inherited or passed down from parent to child.</li> <li>In some cases, the signs or symptoms of NF1 are so mild that a parent may not find out they have NF1 until a child is diagnosed. </li> <li>A person with NF1 has a 50% (one in two) chance to have an affected child with each pregnancy. </li> <li>Adults may benefit from genetic counselling to understand their risks and choices regarding planning and family. </li> </ul><h2>There are two ways to get NF1<br></h2><p>There are two ways a person can get NF1: as a new mutation, or by inheriting it from a parent.</p><h3>A new (spontaneous) mutation</h3><p>Half of all cases of NF1 occur by chance. This is called a new or spontaneous mutation. A change occurs in the NF1 gene at the time of, or shortly after, conception. Conception is the time when the father's sperm and the mother's egg join and the egg is fertilized. </p><p>In this case, neither parent of the affected child will have NF1. Spontaneous gene mutations are not inherited from either parent. </p><h3>Inherited from a parent with NF1</h3><p>The other half of people with NF1 inherited it from one of their parents. This means that a parent with a mutation in the NF1 gene passed the mutated gene to the child. </p><p>In some cases, the signs or symptoms of NF1 are so mild that a parent may not find out they have NF1 until their child is diagnosed. </p><h2>How NF1 is inherited</h2><p>Genes come in pairs, as do the chromosomes that carry them. When we have children, each parent passes half of their genetic material to their children, meaning one gene from each pair of genes. </p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Heredity of neurofibromatosis (NF1)</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Neurofibromatosis_genetics_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Chromosome distribution from an affected parent with one chromosome with NF1 gene mutation an unaffected parent" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Every person has 2 copies of the NF1 gene, one on each chromosome. If a person has one mutated NF1 gene, he or she may develop the conditions of neurofibromatosis. An affected parent has a 50% chance of passing the mutated gene on to his or her child.</figcaption> </figure> <p>NF1 is inherited as a dominant condition. Dominant means the mutated gene is stronger than the normal gene. This means that only one NF1 gene needs to be mutated for the person to develop NF1. </p><p>If a person has NF1, they have one normal NF1 gene and one NF1 gene with a mutation. When this person has a child, they can pass on either the normal NF1 gene or the NF1 gene with the mutation. In other words, a person with NF1 has a 50% (one in two) chance of passing on NF1 to their children. </p><p>Adults with NF1 who are planning a family may wish to seek genetic counselling so that they can understand their risks and choices. </p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/What_is_a_gene_MED_ILL_EN.jpgMain
Genetics teamGGenetics teamGenetics teamEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealth care professionalsAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2009-12-04T05:00:00Z11.100000000000045.9000000000000967.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Geneticists and genetic counsellors can provide information and support if a child has been diagnosed with a genetic condition or if the family is at high risk.</p><p> This page explains how members of the genetics team assess the risk of having a condition with a genetic component.</p><h2> Key points </h2><ul><li> Genetic counsellors assess and counsel individuals and families with a medical history of a genetic disorder, who themselves have a genetic disorder, or who may be at an increased risk of having a child with a genetic disorder.</li><li>A geneticist is a specialized medical doctor who investigates the cause of a genetic disorder or birth defect.</li><li>Your child's doctor will refer you to the genetics team or clinic if they think your child has a condition with a genetic component. </li></ul>Main
Genital problemsGGenital problemsGenital problemsEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)Body;Uterus;Ovaries;Penis;Scrotum;TesticleReproductive systemConditions and diseasesPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-10T04:00:00Z9.9000000000000049.8000000000000990.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the various genital abnormalities that can arise in a developing fetus during pregnancy. Answers from Canadian Paediatric Hospitals.<br></p><p>Some babies are born with congenital abnormalities, or birth defects, in their genital tract. These abnormalities form as the result of something going wrong with the development of the baby’s genital tract during pregnancy. It is important to keep in mind that these abnormalities are rare, and can sometimes be treated with surgery. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Genital tract abnormalities can occur in both boys and girls; they are usually rare and may sometimes be treated with surgery.</li> <li>Problems with sexual differentiation are a result of chromosomal issues. They can affect the gender of your child.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Undescended_testes_MED_ILL_EN.pngMain
Genome-wide sequencing: Whole exome sequencing and whole genome sequencingGGenome-wide sequencing: Whole exome sequencing and whole genome sequencingGenome-wide sequencing: Whole exome sequencing and whole genome sequencingEnglishGeneticsChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years);Adult (19+)BodyNATestsAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2022-06-13T04:00:00Z12.300000000000039.60000000000001086.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Genome-wide sequencing refers to two genetic tests, whole exome sequencing and whole genome sequencing, that allow health-care providers to look broadly at your child’s DNA.</p><h2>What is genome-wide sequencing?</h2><p>Genome-wide sequencing (GWS) refers to two diagnostic tests, whole exome sequencing and whole genome sequencing. Both of these tests involve looking at your child’s <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1581&language=English">genetic material (genes/DNA)</a> to identify any potential genetic causes of their condition.</p><p>Whole exome sequencing looks at the parts of your child’s DNA that provide instructions for making proteins, while whole genome sequencing looks at all of your child’s DNA.</p><p>GWS can offer many possible benefits to patients and families. If your child has a condition with a suspected underlying genetic cause or causes, GWS may provide an explanation and a better understanding of their health condition. This information can help you and your family access additional support and resources. It can also guide future family planning decisions and clarify potential health risks to other members of your family.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Genome-wide sequencing can examine the entire genetic makeup of a person in a single test. It is used to identify potential genetic causes of your child’s medical condition.</li><li>Whole exome sequencing looks at the parts of a person’s DNA that provide instructions for making proteins.</li><li>Whole genome sequencing looks at all of a person’s DNA.</li><li>Genome-wide sequencing is increasingly used in clinical and research settings.</li></ul><h2>How is genome-wide-sequencing performed?</h2><p>GWS is performed in molecular diagnostic laboratories using DNA that has been extracted from blood. A blood sample will be drawn from your child, as well as their immediate family members. You will likely be asked to provide a blood sample if you are your child’s biological parent.</p><p>While the sequence of DNA between humans is very similar (>99% similarity), there are still millions of differences between individuals that can be detected with GWS. Some of these differences, known as genetic variants, can cause medical conditions. In order to guide the analysis of the differences in your child’s DNA, it is helpful to compare their genetic variants to variants identified in family members who are either unaffected or who have the same or similar medical condition as your child. The laboratory uses your child’s clinical information, family information and current medical knowledge of genetics to evaluate which of the identified genetic variants might be responsible for your child’s medical condition.</p><h3>Whole exome sequencing</h3><p>Whole exome sequencing is a test that looks at the parts of your child’s DNA that provide instructions for making proteins. Proteins are very important molecules in the body that help our bodies develop and function. By looking at the order of the DNA that makes proteins, the test will be able to identify if there are any critical proteins missing or not functioning properly in your child’s body.</p><p>The exome makes up about 1% of your child’s genetic code. Sequencing this small fragment can be a very efficient and cost-effective way to diagnose rare genetic disorders, as the majority of disease-causing genetic variants occur in this 1% of the genome.</p><p><strong>Whole exome sequencing</strong></p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/2PkF1-efXcI" frameborder="0"></iframe> <br> </div><h3>Whole genome sequencing</h3><p>Whole genome sequencing looks at all of your child’s DNA. This test is considered more comprehensive than whole exome sequencing as it can detect genetic changes that occur outside of the protein-coding regions in your child’s genome.</p><h2>What is reported?</h2><p>The laboratory will report any genetic variants likely to be associated with your child’s medical condition to the doctor who ordered the test. You and your child will be informed of all test results, and these results will be put into your child’s medical record.</p><h2>Types of findings reported</h2><h3>Primary findings</h3><p>A primary finding refers to genetic variants that may explain your child’s medical condition. Different categories of genetic variants may be reported:</p><ul><li> <strong>Pathogenic:</strong> variants that are known to cause the medical condition</li><li> <strong>Likely pathogenic:</strong> variants that are highly likely to cause the medical condition</li><li> <strong>Variants of uncertain significance:</strong> variants for which the impact cannot be determined at the current time</li></ul><p>It is possible that the classification of a genetic variant or gene will change over time. The interpretation of your child’s GWS results may also change over time due to new scientific knowledge. As such, it is encouraged that you keep in touch with your child’s doctor to learn of any changes in the classification or interpretation of their results.</p><h3>Secondary findings</h3><p>GWS can also identify disease-causing variants in genes that are not related to your child’s primary medical condition. These variants may cause other medical conditions during childhood or later in life and are known as <strong><em>medically actionable secondary findings</em></strong> because there are clear medical recommendations that can be made to reduce the risk that they impact your child’s health in the future.</p><p>The laboratory will search for variants in specific disease genes. You may have the option to choose which types of secondary findings you would like to receive. The types of secondary findings available for reporting may vary depending on the laboratory performing GWS.</p><p><strong>Whole exome sequencing secondary findings</strong><br></p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/S_UBRcAXTf8" frameborder="0"></iframe> <br> </div> <br> <h2>Potential risks of genome-wide sequencing</h2><p>Because GWS is performed as a family analysis, the same genetic variants that are identified in your child may also be found in other family members that have provided a sample for testing. This could have medical implications for these other family members.</p><p>GWS results may reveal that biological relationships in a family are not as they were reported to the health-care team. This means that the results can show when a child is not biologically or blood-related to their mother, father and other family members who provided a DNA sample. It is important to provide accurate information about the biological relationships and health statuses within your family to prevent an inaccurate interpretation of your child’s GWS results.</p><h2>Limitations of genome-wide sequencing</h2><p>GWS does not always lead to a definitive explanation of your child’s medical condition. This is due to the current limitations in medical knowledge and testing technologies.</p><p>GWS does not detect all types of genetic variants. When GWS does not identify a pathogenic variant, it does not rule out the possibility that a genetic variant may be causing your child’s medical condition.</p><p>With all laboratory tests, there is a small possibility of error or sample failure.</p><h2>At SickKids</h2><p>The <a href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/care-services/for-health-care-providers/lab-testing-services/#diagnostics">Genome Diagnostics Laboratory at SickKids</a> is a partner in <a href="https://gsontario.ca/">Genome-wide Sequencing Ontario (GSO)</a>, a pilot implementation project for rare disease diagnostics. GSO provides clinical whole exome and whole genome analysis in Ontario.</p>Main
Germ cell tumoursGGerm cell tumoursGerm cell tumoursEnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)Testicle;OvariesReproductive systemConditions and diseasesPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z6.8000000000000074.3000000000000550.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Germ cell tumours are a type of cancer that start in the germ cells. Learn about where germ cell tumours are most commonly found, how they are diagnosed and the main types of treatment.</p><p>Germ cell tumours are a cancer that starts in the germ cells of the body. The word "germ" in germ cell comes from the word "germinate", which means to give life. It does not mean germ like the kind that makes you sick.</p><p>Germ cells are the cells in our bodies that play a part in human reproduction. A germ cell tumour starts with a mutation in one of these cells. The mutation causes the cell to divide out of control. As the cells divide again and again, a tumour forms.</p><p>In teens, germ cell tumours are most commonly found in the:</p><ul><li>testicles (in boys), where they form a painless lump</li><li>ovaries (in girls), where they form a lump in the abdomen (belly) that can be painful and make it hard to go to the bathroom.</li></ul><p>Although germ cells are part of reproduction, they can also be found in the abdomen, chest and brain. This is because in the months before we are born, germ cells move around our tiny growing body to the parts that will later develop into our sex organs. Some of these cells do not make it all the way to their destination and tumours can form where these cells are left.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Germ cells play a part in human reproduction.</li><li>Germ cell tumours are most commonly found in the testicles and the ovaries.</li><li>Germ cell tumours are diagnosed through blood tests and a biopsy, as well as scans.</li><li>The main treatments include surgery and chemotherapy.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Germ_cell_tumours_teen.jpgTeens
Getting enough sleepGGetting enough sleepGetting enough sleep-CANEnglishRheumatology;AdolescentPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)BodySkeletal systemHealthy living and preventionPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2017-01-31T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Sleep is an important part of your well-being. It can help you to concentrate and manage your stress better. Do you remember from "Managing your symptoms," how many hours of sleep you need each night for your body to function at its best? If you don’t remember, go back <a href="/Article?contentid=2576&language=English">to check</a>!</p><p>Not getting enough sleep can make some JIA symptoms even worse. If you don’t sleep, you will be tired and will not feel like exercising. Without exercise, your joints can become more stiff and painful. Lack of sleep over a long period of time can also lead to changes in your body metabolism and can cause weight gain. </p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/getting_enough_sleep_JIA_US.jpgTeens
Getting help when your child is in hospitalGGetting help when your child is in hospitalGetting help when your child is in hospitalEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANASupport, services and resourcesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2012-06-13T04:00:00Z8.1000000000000066.9000000000000619.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Coping with your child's illness as a parent means taking care of yourself. Learn practical stress relief approaches for parents.</p><p>Most people are not in a position to be able to suddenly drop everything in their lives and be with their <a href="/Article?contentid=1161&language=English">sick child in the hospital</a> 24 hours a day. Even parents who may be independently wealthy will have to make arrangements that will require more than just money. For example, there may be other children in the family who still require competent and trustworthy care.</p><p>All families will have to keep on with many aspects of their lives, no matter what. Income and other financial matters cannot be ignored for long; children need to be cared for, and transportation needs to be arranged. Juggling all of this while still visiting a child, perhaps for extended periods in the hospital, will be difficult. You cannot do it all yourself. There will certainly be resources and other help that can be accessed at the hospital which you should take advantage of. But do not stop there. Draw on whatever other resources you have. </p> ​<h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>If you have a sick child in the hospital you will still need to keep up with other aspects of your daily life such as caring for other children and meeting work and financial obligations. Draw on the resources you have and get the help that you need.</li> <li>You may be able to get some help from the hospital and community health services for certain things, but do not be afraid to ask family, friends and neighbours for help especially with the day-to-day tasks around the home.</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/getting_help_when_your_child_is_in_hospital.jpgMain
Getting involved in your communityGGetting involved in your communityGetting involved in your communityEnglishAdolescentTeen (13-18 years)NANASupport, services and resourcesTeen (13-18 years)NA2021-03-03T05:00:00Z7.1000000000000071.5000000000000560.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about some of the ways you can get involved in your community with a health condition.</p><div class="callout2"><h2>We want to hear from you!</h2><p>AboutKidsHealth is trying to improve the information and education we provide young people (aged 12-18) and families through our website. After reading this article, please take 5 minutes to complete our Adolsecent Health Learning Hub survey.</p> <button> <a class="redcap-survey" href="https://surveys.sickkids.ca/surveys/?s=XHD3EK3XD4">click here</a></button> </div><p>When you have a health condition, and start to feel better, you may be interested in getting more involved in your community. There are many ways to get to know people and be more active in your own community.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Look for opportunities to meet other kids your age with or without the same health condition. Talking to people who understand your health condition can be helpful.</li><li>Be a role model, and share your story and experience with others.</li><li>Give back by volunteering.</li></ul>Teens
Getting involved in your communityGGetting involved in your communityGetting involved in your communityEnglishTransplant;NephrologyTeen (13-18 years)KidneysRenal system/Urinary systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-ZTeens
Getting pregnantGGetting pregnantGetting pregnantEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)BodyNANAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-11T04:00:00Z9.5000000000000058.1000000000000929.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Important information to consider when thinking of getting pregnant, including the benefits and drawbacks of getting pregnant in your 20s, 30s, or 40s.<br></p><p>Getting pregnant is not as easy as you might think. A healthy couple at the prime reproductive age has about a 25% chance of conceiving each month. Only about half of all couples get pregnant within six months of trying, but most – 85% – do become pregnant within a year. Becoming pregnant takes time; don’t assume it will happen right away.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>If you want to become pregnant, see your doctor first for advice on health before pregnancy.</li> <li>If you are planning to become pregnant, you will need to stop your birth control</li> <li>The return of your fertility will depend on the type of contraception you were using.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/getting_pregnant.jpgMain
Getting ready for scoliosis surgery GGetting ready for scoliosis surgery Getting ready for scoliosis surgery EnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Vertebrae;SpineMuscular system;Skeletal systemProceduresAdult (19+)NA2021-02-25T05:00:00Z9.1000000000000061.80000000000002142.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn about what your child should expect when preparing for scoliosis surgery, including a pre-surgery teaching session, X-rays, clinical photos, blood work and other imaging tests.</p><p>Your child has been scheduled for <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=2019&language=English">surgery to treat their scoliosis</a>. The information on this page describes what a child may experience at home and while in hospital prior to scoliosis surgery.</p><p>Generally, there are several steps that need to be taken before surgery can happen. A nurse will review all of these steps with your child in a teaching session. During the teaching session, the nurse will outline what will happen during your child’s hospital stay and how your child can prepare themselves physically for surgery.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A nurse will review all of the steps that need to be taken before surgery with your child in a detailed teaching session.</li><li>Your child will need X-rays, clinical photos, and blood work done before surgery.</li><li>Additional tests and/or imaging may be required, such as: a pulmonary function test, echocardiogram, CT scan or MRI scan.</li></ul><h2>About scoliosis surgery</h2><p>Your child is having surgery to correct or improve the curve in their spine and to keep the curve from getting bigger. Your child’s surgeon will already have discussed the reasons for your child’s surgery, and the benefits and risks of having surgery with you and your child in detail.</p><h2>Arriving at the hospital for scoliosis surgery</h2><ol><li>You and your child will meet a nurse at the pre-operative waiting room. Here, the nurse will do a basic assessment of your child, weigh your child, check their vital signs, assess their current level of health, and review their chart.</li><li>You will be given a pack of wipes that you will use to wipe down your child prior to putting on their surgical gown.</li><li>The surgeon, or a member of the surgical team, will come out to speak with you and your family.</li><li>Your child's anaesthesiologist will come and meet with you in the waiting room before your child goes to surgery. The anaesthetist you meet is the doctor who will be monitoring your child during their surgery. If your child is very nervous, they may be given some medication that will help them relax in the waiting room. This decision will be made by the anaesthetist, yourself and your child.</li><li>You and your child will also meet the nurse who will be looking after your child in the operating room. Once all questions have been asked and answered, your child will go to the operating room with the anaesthetist and nurse.</li><li>Child life specialists are also available to patients and families. They are a great resource if your child is very anxious about the surgery or has a developmental disability. If helpful, a child life specialist can also speak to you before the surgery to create a pre-operative coping plan for your child.</li><li>At this point, you may go to the waiting room. You can wait here while your child is in the operating room. The surgical waiting room is also where the surgeon will come to meet you after the procedure. Please note that you will not get updates during the surgery; you will only see the surgeon before and after the surgery.</li><li>Your child’s surgeon may be able to give you an idea of when the surgery will be finished. If you are unable to stay in hospital, please provide the nurse with a number at which you can be reached. When the surgery is over, your child’s surgeon or a member of the surgical team will come and talk to you.</li></ol><h2>Tests before surgery</h2><p>Your child will need certain tests before surgery:</p><ul><li> <strong> <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=2015&language=English">Spinal X-rays</a>:</strong> The surgeon requires current spinal X-rays to plan their surgical approach. This will help them reassess the scoliosis and determine the placement of the hardware.</li><li> <strong>Clinical photos:</strong> Some surgeons like to have before and after photos taken. This will help your child and their surgeon to see the changes that take place to the shape of your child’s body after surgery.</li><li> <strong> <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1646&language=English">Blood work</a>:</strong> Some basic blood work is required so that the surgeon knows your child’s blood type, iron and hemoglobin levels. Hemoglobin is a protein in the red blood cells that carries oxygen. Knowing these levels before surgery will help the surgery and anaesthesia team ensure your child’s spinal cord is safe and getting enough oxygen-rich blood during your child’s surgery. Some additional blood work may be required that is specific to your child. The nurse will let you know if this is the case for you child during the teaching session.</li></ul><h3>Additional tests</h3><ul><li> <strong> <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1268&language=English">Pulmonary function testing</a>:</strong> This test looks at how well your child’s lungs are working. Depending on the size of their curve, your child’s lung function may be affected. Generally, this happens with very large curves only. Some surgeons and/or anaesthetists may request this test to be completed before surgery to measure your child’s lung function. After surgery, depending on the results, a repeat test is recommended a few months later. Your child’s health-care team will inform you if this is needed for your child.</li><li> <strong> <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1274&language=English">Echocardiogram</a>:</strong> An echocardiogram helps the surgeon and anaesthetist look at your child’s heart function and ability to circulate oxygenated blood during the surgery. This test is generally ordered for children with larger curves or for children with pre-existing heart conditions to ensure your child’s safety during surgery. This test is completed by using ultrasound imaging, and it is noninvasive and pain-free.</li><li> <strong> <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1270&language=English">Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)</a>:</strong> This diagnostic test may be required by the surgeon to make sure there are no concerns with your child’s nerves or spinal cord before surgery. Usually, an MRI is ordered for children with larger curves or for children with other medical conditions.</li><li> <strong> <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1272&language=English">Computed tomography (CT scan)</a>:</strong> This diagnostic test is usually required for children with neuromuscular scoliosis. A CT scan helps the surgeon identify where to place hardware during surgery.</li></ul><h2>Blood transfusions</h2><p>Blood may be ordered for the surgery in case your child needs it. The blood will be coming from a blood bank. Canadian Blood Services no longer uses the autologous blood donation program (where a patient’s own blood is collected before surgery) or donation from parents.</p><p>Your child may also receive cell-saver blood. This is your child’s own blood that is cleansed and given back to them to minimize blood loss.</p><h2>Iron before surgery</h2><p>Iron supplements are generally started on the day that your child is booked for surgery. Even if your child has a well-balanced diet and is not anaemic, the iron supplements will still have to be started to further boost their iron stores. The iron supplements will help minimize the risk of blood product exposure and contribute to better postoperative healing. You will be given a handout that has a list of different formulations of iron that your child can take. A blood conservation coordinator will follow up on your child’s blood tests and give you a call to discuss your child’s blood work and iron dosage.</p><h2>Fasting before surgery</h2><p>Before the scheduled time of your child’s operation, it is important to follow the NPO guidelines. Please keep in mind that any food or liquid in your child’s stomach while under anaesthesia can flow up to their mouth and pass down into their lungs, which is very dangerous for your child. Surgery may be cancelled if fasting rules are not followed.</p><h2>Bathing/showering before surgery</h2><p>It is important that your child bathes or showers before their surgery to prevent infection.</p><p> <strong>Your child will need to bathe/shower two times before the procedure*:</strong></p><ol><li>48 hours (2 days) before surgery</li><li>24 hours (1 day) before surgery</li></ol><p> <em>*Be sure your child uses liquid soap (any kind) and <strong><u>not a soap bar</u></strong>.</em></p><p>Once you arrive to the hospital, your child’s nurse will give you a package of bathing wipes to wipe your child down one last time before they put on their surgical gown.</p><h2>Areas of focus for bathing wipes</h2><p>A nurse will give you instructions on how to preform a <a href="https://www.sickkids.ca/siteassets/patients--visitors/planning-your-visit/coming-for-surgery/preoperative-patient-bathing.pdf">pre-operative bath</a> and provide the necessary supplies, including a special pair of pajamas and slippers to wear in surgery.</p><p>Watch <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XCFY-IgB62A&feature=youtu.be">this video</a> on how to preform a pre-operative bath using wipes.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/scoliosis_preparing_for_surgery.jpgMain

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