Radiation for brain tumoursRRadiation for brain tumoursRadiation for brain tumoursEnglishNeurology;OncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemNon-drug treatmentAdult (19+)NA2022-01-10T05:00:00Z8.1000000000000061.40000000000001529.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Radiation therapy may be used to help treat a brain tumour. Learn how radiation therapy works and what you need to know before your child begins treatment.</p><p>Radiation therapy is the use of high-energy X-rays, gamma rays or particles. These rays damage or destroy tumour cells. They cannot be seen or felt. Radiation therapy can help to treat or cure the tumour. The doctor who is responsible for radiation treatment is called a radiation oncologist.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Radiation therapy is the use of high-energy X-rays, gamma rays, or particles to destroy tumour cells.</li><li>Before radiation begins, your child will have a special mask created and require a planning CT scan and possibly an MRI.</li><li>Radiation is not dangerous for family members or friends; your child is not "radioactive."</li><li>Side effects may include fatigue, excessive sleepiness, hair loss, nausea or vomiting, and headaches. </li></ul><h2>How does radiation therapy work?</h2><p>The radiation beams affect the cell’s ability to grow and divide. Cells may die when they try to divide. The goal of radiation treatment is to deliver an effective dose of radiation to tumour cells and limit the amount of radiation to normal cells. Fortunately, most normal cells recover from radiation more easily than tumour cells.</p><p>Radiation therapy for <a href="/braintumours">brain tumours</a> is usually delivered in a 'fractionated' way. This means that the total dose of radiation is given in separate small treatments, or fractions, each day from Monday to Friday over a period of weeks. The number of days of treatment needed depends on the total dose of radiation. The total dose is different for each type of tumour.</p><h2>What happens during radiation therapy?</h2><p>You and your child will have to visit the radiation centre every day from Monday to Friday for several weeks. The radiation team will give you a schedule.</p><p>Radiation treatment is like having an X-ray. There is no pain. This is what your child will experience:</p><ol><li>Your child will lie down on a table and their mask will be put on their face.</li><li>The radiation therapist will make sure the marks on the mask line up with the machine settings. Your child will be in the room for about 30 minutes for set-up and treatment. </li><li>Your child will wear Velcro seat belts for safety.</li><li>Some centres have access to TV and DVD or Blu-ray players which your child can watch during treatment.</li><li>Once the child is ready, parents and therapists must leave the room.</li><li>You can see your child on a video TV monitor and you can speak to them.</li><li>Before starting the treatment, your child will have a mini scan to ensure they are in the correct position for the treatment based on the planning CT scan. Once the position is confirmed, the radiation treatment will begin. The machines may make clicking or whirring noises. The treatment will typically last less than five minutes. Most treatments are only one or two minutes. The treatment time depends on the radiation dose and the technique being used.</li></ol><p>During treatment, the radiation nurse and radiation therapists will be available for any questions or concerns you may have. The radiation oncologist will see your child once a week to see how they are doing, and to talk about any concerns or questions you may have.</p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/GkjVBfiDOsg" frameborder="0"></iframe> </div><h2>Is radiation therapy dangerous for family members or friends?</h2><p>No, radiation is not dangerous for family members and friends. The radiation will only affect the person who is having the treatment. The radiation is a form of energy, like heat or light, that goes away very quickly when the energy source is removed. Your child is not "radioactive." They can go to school and see their friends.</p><h2>How is radiation given?</h2><p>Modern radiation techniques allow doctors to accurately focus radiation therapy to the area(s) of the brain requiring treatment. These radiation techniques are best described as conformal radiotherapy and include many different specific technologies. A computer simulation produces an accurate image of the tumour and nearby areas. Then, the radiation beams are shaped exactly to the contour of the tumour to reduce the dose of radiation to nearby normal tissue. Some techniques that may be used are described below.</p><h3>Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)</h3><p>IMRT refers to a technique of being able to modify the intensity of each radiation beam in such a way as to be able to exclude some important <a href="/article?contentid=1307&language=english">parts of the brain </a>(e.g., optic nerves, the brain stem, the pituitary gland) that are near the tumour, while still giving a full dose of radiation to the tumour. </p><h3>Stereotactic radiosurgery</h3><p>Stereotactic radiosurgery refers to the use of technology including stereotactic frames or specialized masks to help guide the radiation beams to smaller tumours. Your radiation oncologist will determine whether your child is a candidate for this treatment. </p><h3>Proton radiation therapy</h3><p>Proton therapy is a type of radiation therapy that uses proton particles rather than conventional X-rays to treat certain childhood cancers. Your radiation oncologist will discuss with you if your child may be a candidate for proton therapy and what the potential benefits may be. This therapy requires highly specialized equipment not yet available in Canada. Currently, eligible patients must travel outside of Canada to receive proton radiation therapy.</p><h2>Short term side effects</h2><ul><li>Fatigue: during or after radiation therapy</li><li>Somnolence syndrome: a condition of excessive sleepiness</li><li>Hair loss</li><li>Nausea or vomiting</li><li>Headaches</li></ul><p>Children who receive whole central nervous system (CNS) radiation may also experience strange smells while receiving the treatment, swallowing pain or difficulty, heartburn.</p><p>For more information, see the page entitled "<a href="/article?contentid=1381&language=english">Potential side effects from radiation</a>".</p><p>For additional resources, SickKids has a free app for Apple devices called <a href="https://apps.apple.com/us/app/rads4kids/id1000774112">Rads4Kids</a>.</p><p>The information that appears on this page has been modified from Handbook for Paediatric Radiation Therapy, written by Susan Awrey, RN, and Ann Griffith, RN.</p><h2>Before radiation begins</h2><p>You will meet with the radiation oncology treatment team. This radiation team will include the radiation oncologist, nurse coordinator, and radiation therapist. They will examine your child and explain the treatment to you. You will find out the schedule of treatments, and possible side effects.</p><p>Remember to bring a pen and paper, phone or laptop to write down any new information or questions you may have.</p><p>There are several steps before radiation therapy begins. These appointments take place at the radiation centre. Your child will need a mask made to help them stay still and in the same position during radiation. Once the mask is made, your child will have a planning computed tomography (CT) scan.</p><p>Your child may anticipate and fear the unknown of yet another new procedure. At times, this fear does not allow the child to cooperate, especially if they are very young. In these situations, it may be necessary for your child to have an anaesthetic for the planning session and daily treatments. However, if a child is adequately prepared for what to expect during the planning and treatment appointments, this will help to gain their cooperation and may avoid the need for anaesthesia in older children. Your radiation team, in collaboration with child life specialists, are valuable resources in preparing a child for radiation planning and treatments. </p><h3>How is the mask made?</h3><p>The plastic mask will be made by shaping warm plastic around your child’s face. To comfort your child, you may wish to bring a toy or blanket. You can prepare them the day before by placing warm, wet washcloths over their face in the bath. This is similar to the feeling of the plastic. Tell them what will happen while the mask is being made.</p><ol><li>The material to make the mask starts out as a firm aerated plastic sheet. This sheet is placed in a warm water bath which will make it soft and pliable.</li><li>Your child will have to lay on the CT table while the soft plastic is placed on their face. The plastic feels wet, warm and weird, but it does not hurt.</li><li>When the plastic is hard and dry, it is ready to come off. The eyes and mouth are then cut out of the mask and placed back on for the planning CT.</li><li>If your child is having radiation to the whole head and spine, they will need tiny ink dots placed to help line up the spine for treatment. These ink dots are called tattoos. </li><li>When the treatment schedule is complete, your child may be able to bring the mask home.</li></ol><h3>What happens at the planning CT and MRI scan?</h3><p>Your child will lay back on the CT table wearing their mask. The therapist will use a felt pen to make marks on the plastic mask. The purpose of the CT scan is to demonstrate the position your child will be in during treatment. This is not a diagnostic scan; it is used for planning and mapping the radiation treatment field to determine the exact field of radiation. The CT scan will take about five minutes. Some children will require a planning MRI as well. This MRI is also done at the radiation centre and usually takes 10-15 minutes.</p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/RaimZnCz5i4" frameborder="0"></iframe> </div>
Radon: Reducing your risk at homeRRadon: Reducing your risk at homeRadon: Reducing your risk at homeEnglishPreventionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2011-11-28T05:00:00Z8.2000000000000056.50000000000001142.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn the facts about radon, what it is, health risks, and practical tips on reducing radon exposure in the home.</p><p>Radon is a colourless, odorless, radioactive gas. It is produced during the natural breakdown of the chemical element, uranium, which is found in soil, rocks and groundwater. As a result, radon occurs naturally in the environment. </p> <p>Radon occurs in outdoor air in such small amounts that it is not a health risk in the open air.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Radon is a colourless, odorless, radioactive gas that occurs naturally in the environment. It occurs in the air outdoors in such small amounts that it is not a health risk.</li> <li>Radon can enter into homes through floors, cracks in concrete walls and basement drains. In closed spaces, like basements, radon can build up to relatively high levels.</li> <li>Breathing in radon gas or the products that is produces when it decays may increase the risk of developing cancer.</li> <li>You should check for radon in your home by testing for it. There are both short- and long-term steps you can take to reduce the levels of radon in your home.</li> </ul>
Rasmussen syndromeRRasmussen syndromeRasmussen syndromeEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+) EducatorsNA2010-02-04T05:00:00Z9.4000000000000053.40000000000001080.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out the causes and symptoms of Rasmussen syndrome and how this form of epilepsy is treated.</p><p>Rasmussen syndrome causes partial seizures, mental deterioration and loss of movement skills and speech. It is a rare condition with severe and disabling effects. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Rasmussen syndrome is a rare form of brain inflammation that usually appears between the age of six and 10.</li> <li>In most cases, seizures start in the same part of the brain each time. They start as partial motor, partial sensory or tonic-clonic seizures and develop into a form of partial status epilepticus, with repeated partial motor seizures.</li> <li>Over time, the affected side of the brain starts to shrink, causing gradual loss of movement skills on one side of the body and loss of mental abilities and speech.</li> <li>In most cases, seizures can only be controlled by removing the affected part of the brain. This may still leave the child with motor and cognitive problems. </li></ul>
Reading and writing resourcesRReading and writing resourcesReading and writing resourcesEnglishDevelopmentalPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years)NANASupport, services and resourcesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00Z11.500000000000034.7000000000000598.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>There are many resources available to help your child learn to read, including books, workbooks, games and computer programs.</p><p>There are many resources available to help your child learn to read, including books, workbooks, games and computer programs. Some of these resources are global in scope, meaning they encourage children to read and think in general. Other resources are more focused on one aspect of reading such as sound-letter associations or phonetics. Speak with your child's teacher and other professionals to find out what type of reading resources would most benefit your child.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>​Use books, workbooks, games and computer programs to help your child learn reading skills.​</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/reading_writing_resources.jpg
Reading disabilities: OverviewRReading disabilities: OverviewReading disabilities: OverviewEnglishDevelopmentalPreschooler (2-4 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);School age child (5-8 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2020-03-03T05:00:00Z11.600000000000039.80000000000001396.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>A reading disability is when a child with age-appropriate intellectual abilities has significant challenges with reading. Learn about reading disabilities, their symptoms, and how they are diagnosed and treated.</p><h2>What is a reading disability?</h2><p>A reading disability is a specific type of <a href="/Article?contentid=653&language=English">learning disability</a>. Children with reading disabilities have average to above average intellectual abilities but experience a lot of trouble with reading. These difficulties affect how they perform in school, and their achievements fall well below what is expected for children of their age, grade, and intellectual ability.</p><p>Reading disabilities may include problems with:</p><ul><li>Phonological processing—the ability to break up words into sounds</li><li>Reading fluency or speed</li><li>Reading comprehension</li></ul><p>A child with a reading disability has a problem with reading words accurately and/or quickly, or with understanding what they are reading.</p><p>Another general term for reading disabilities is <a href="/Article?contentid=307&language=English">dyslexia</a>. Children with dyslexia may have difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition, as well as poor decoding and spelling abilities.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Reading disabilities are learning disabilities that can include problems with phonological processing, reading fluency or speed, and reading comprehension.</li><li>Children who are diagnosed with a reading disability often show early signs of speech and language difficulties.</li><li>Reading disabilities are often diagnosed with a psychoeducational assessment.</li><li>Reading disabilities can lead to problems with spelling and limit a child’s vocabulary.</li></ul><h2>Early signs of reading problems</h2><p>Children who are diagnosed with a reading disability often show early signs, such as:</p><ul><li>Indistinct, garbled speech after three years of age</li><li>Speaking in phrases or sentences later than normal</li><li>Difficulty learning words to songs or nursery rhymes in preschool</li><li>Difficulty learning the alphabet and the sounds of the letters</li></ul><p>However, not all children with these signs develop a reading disability.</p><h2>Signs of a reading disability</h2><p>Once your child reaches school age, signs that they might have a reading disability include:</p><ul><li>Trouble learning colour names</li><li>Trouble learning letter names</li><li>Trouble rhyming or isolating sounds in words</li><li>Trouble blending sounds together</li><li>Difficulty recognizing a word after having seen it many times in many different contexts</li><li>Frequent letter or number reversals by the end of Grade Two</li><li>Consistent omission or reversal of letters in words; for example, "gril" instead of "girl"</li><li>Choppy, slow reading</li><li>A limited sight word vocabulary</li></ul><p>For a list of typical reading milestones achieved by children at different grade levels, see <a href="/Article?contentid=651&language=English">Reading and writing milestones</a>.</p><h2>Diagnosis of a reading disability</h2><p>If your child’s reading abilities are substantially below the expected level for their age, intellectual abilities and education, they may have a reading disability.</p><p>If you suspect your child might have a reading disability, it is important to share your concerns with your child’s teachers. They will be able to observe your child’s learning, and identify available resources and strategies to help improve your child’s reading skills. If the resources and strategies provided by the school do not help improve your child’s learning, your child might benefit from a formal psychoeducational assessment.</p><p>A psychoeducational assessment can identify your child’s strengths and learning challenges, and diagnose learning, developmental or attention-related disorders, as well as giftedness. The assessment will get to the root cause of your child’s academic issues, and identify a plan for solving them.</p><h2>Treatment</h2><p>Reading disabilities can be treated with two main approaches—accommodations and interventions.</p><p>The earlier a child with a reading disability receives an evidence-based reading intervention over a reasonable period of time, the more likely they are to catch up with their peers.</p><h3>Accommodations</h3><p>Accommodations are changes made in the classroom to help students work around their weaknesses. Accommodations can help some children succeed without direct intervention. Accommodations for a reading disability might include:</p><ul><li>Providing lessons and presentations on audio recordings</li><li>Providing a designated reader</li><li>Allowing answers and assignments to be given verbally or dictated to a scribe</li><li>Allowing frequent breaks or more time for tests</li><li>Providing a space with minimal distractions</li></ul><h3>Interventions</h3><p>Interventions help students address their areas of need so that they can overcome them. Interventions teach children <strong>how</strong> to learn, and allows them to succeed as independent learners. Interventions for a reading disability typically include addressing the core learning difficulties (speech, language, phonological deficits) through direct instruction. Direct instruction teaches skills in a targeted, well-organized way. Through drills and repetition, it provides children with opportunities for guided practise and cumulative learning.</p><h2>Association with spelling and vocabulary</h2><h3>Spelling problems</h3><p>Spelling is often challenging for children who have a reading disability. Spelling and reading rely on the same underlying knowledge: phonological processing and visual memory. Since many children with reading disabilities struggle with phonological processing, they will also have difficulty breaking down words in order to spell them correctly.</p><h3>Vocabulary problems</h3><p>Vocabulary is important in both learning to read and in reading comprehension. Children develop their reading vocabularies faster when they are reading words more advanced than the words they say when talking. Young children who read well are quickly exposed to all sorts of words that they would not hear when talking to an adult or on television. This exposure helps a child’s reading vocabulary to grow, and it makes it easier for the child to read advanced material.</p><p>Children who struggle with reading lag in vocabulary development because they read less. The feedback between reading vocabulary and comprehension helps to explain why poor readers fall behind in vocabulary and general knowledge. It is important to intervene early, before this performance gap widens.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Reading_disabilities-Overview.jpg
Reading milestonesRReading milestonesReading milestonesEnglishDevelopmentalPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2020-04-29T04:00:00Z9.1000000000000063.3000000000000701.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the reading skills expected of your child at different stages.</p><p>Once children start speaking, they move on to develop reading skills. This page describes the typical reading achievements for a child at different grade levels from kindergarten to Grade 3.</p><p>The "milestones" below are a general guide.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Your child will go through a series of steps or “milestones” as they develop reading skills.</li><li>Not all children learn at the same pace.</li><li>You can help your child develop basic skills for reading by exposing them to a variety of activities.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/reading_writing_milestones.jpg
Reading problems: When to worryRReading problems: When to worryReading problems: When to worryEnglishDevelopmentalPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00Z10.200000000000058.3000000000000193.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about some signs that indicate your child may need extra help with reading.</p><p>You should begin to have concerns and seek guidance from a teacher or other educational professional if your child shows signs they need extra help with reading.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>​There are signs starting as soon as junior kindergarten to look out for that may indicate your child is having problems with reading.</li><li>​If your child is having problems with reading and needs extra help consult with a teacher or education professional.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/reading_problems_when_to_worry.jpg
Reading: How to help early and struggling readersRReading: How to help early and struggling readersReading: How to help early and struggling readersEnglishDevelopmentalToddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years)NANANAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2020-07-20T04:00:00Z5.0000000000000078.9000000000000566.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the everyday activities you can do with your child to develop their reading skills.</p><h2>Engage your child in oral activities and games</h2><ul><li>Recite rhymes and rhythms.</li><li>Sing nursery rhymes.</li><li>Name pictures of objects and group those that rhyme together.</li><li>Clap out the number of words in a sentence and clap out the number of sounds in a word. You can also tap blocks or a table as you say each word or sound.</li><li>Play a game where each player says a word that starts with a particular sound (e.g., “the ’b’ sound” – bottle, baby, etc.).</li><li>Play word games (e.g., “I spy something that starts with the 'b’ sound”).</li><li>Draw a picture of a train (engine, passenger car, caboose). Put the letters representing each sound into the train cars. Say the sounds while pointing to the letters, then blend the sounds together.</li><li>Play teacher and print letters on a sheet of paper, or black or white board. Have your child point to the correct letter or letters every time you say a word beginning with the sound(s). Reverse roles and include the whole family.</li></ul><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Daily reading is valuable for language skill development.</li><li>Simple games can support early reading skills, such as sound-letter association and rhyming games.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/reading_problems_how_to_help_your_child_premature_babies.jpg
Reasons for a blood and marrow transplantRReasons for a blood and marrow transplantReasons for a blood and marrow transplantEnglishHaematology;Immunology;OncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemNAAdult (19+)NA2010-02-12T05:00:00Z9.0000000000000056.8000000000000379.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Parents can find out if their child is a candidate for a blood and marrow transplant (BMT).</p><p>Your child may need a blood and marrow transplant (BMT) for many reasons including if your child is undergoing chemotherapy and immuno-therapy to treat cancer. A BMT may also be used to treat bone marrow deficiencies caused by genetic disorders. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>If a child is undergoing high-dose chemotherapy, they may have a BMT to help their immune system recover.</li> <li>A BMT may be given as immunotherapy if a child relapses with cancer.</li> <li>Some genetic disorders may be treated by BMT.</li></ul>
Recovering from scoliosis surgeryRRecovering from scoliosis surgeryRecovering from scoliosis surgeryEnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Vertebrae;SpineMuscular system;Skeletal systemHealthy living and preventionAdult (19+)NA2008-06-01T04:00:00Z6.1000000000000074.4000000000000395.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about how to properly take care of your teen's incision scar following scoliosis surgery.</p><p>Be careful with your teenager’s incision. There are a number of things you can do to make sure the incision stays clean and healthy. Here are a few tips. </p><h2> Key points </h2><ul><li> The Steri-Strips will fall off the incision on their own. </li><li>When taking a shower, teens can place a tower over the incision so water pressure will not sting.</li><li> Inspect the incision each day for any redness, discharge or odour.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/ChantalScar_EN.jpg
Recovery after caesarean sectionRRecovery after caesarean sectionRecovery after caesarean sectionEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)BodyReproductive systemNAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-11T04:00:00Z8.0000000000000065.3000000000000720.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about recovery after Caesarean section. Pain and discomfort in the first few days are discussed. Making a full recovery in the weeks is included.</p><p>A caesarean section is a major abdominal surgery. You will stay in the hospital longer than most mothers how had a vaginal birth. You will also experience a lot of pain as your incision heals. Here is what to expect in the days and weeks after a C-section.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Your stay in the hospital should be about three days after surgery, during which time you will be given pain medication as necessary.</li> <li>After a C-section, you will experience pain at the incision site, cramping in your uterus, and gas.</li> <li>A full recovery from a C-section takes about six weeks. If you notice any infection around the incision site, pain in your calves, fever or worsening abdominal pain see your health care provider as soon as possible.</li> <li>Women who give birth by C-section have a more difficult time regaining their energy, so you may need extra help to take care of you baby while you recover.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/caesarean_section_recovery.jpg
Recovery position: First aid at homeRRecovery position: First aid at homeRecovery position: First aid at homeEnglishRespiratoryPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Nose;Mouth;Trachea;Lungs;EsophagusRespiratory systemNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2020-09-02T04:00:00Z6.6000000000000075.4000000000000256.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>An overview of what the recovery position is, when you might need to use it and how to put your child in it.</p><h2>When to put your child in the recovery position</h2> <p>If your child is unconscious, breathing and has a pulse (does not need CPR), put them in a recovery position until a health provider arrives. The recovery position prevents your child from choking while unconscious.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Put your child in the recovery position if they are unconscious, breathing and have a pulse.</li> <li>The recovery position helps to prevent them from choking while they are unconscious.</li> <li>If your child may have a spinal or neck injury, do not put them in the recovery position unless they are not able to breathe because their airway is blocked.</li> </ul><h2>How to put your child into the recovery position</h2><ol class="akh-steps"><li> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/recovery_position_step1_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Child lying on their side while caregiver grasps the upper thigh of one leg and holds hand under child’s cheek to roll them" /> </figure> <p>Sit beside your child. Grasp the upper thigh and your child's cheek on the floor.</p></li><li><p>Roll your child onto their side toward you, as if you were rolling them down a hill.</p></li><li><p>Pull the leg up to bend the knee. Put the knee on the ground at a right angle to stabilize your child.</p></li><li> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/recovery_position_step2_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Child rolled onto their side with one leg bent upward at the knee and caregiver tilting the child’s head back with both hands" /> </figure> <p>Tilt the head back to maintain an open airway.</p></li></ol>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/recovery_position_step1_MED_ILL_EN.jpg
Recreational water illnesses: Prevention and precautionRRecreational water illnesses: Prevention and precautionRecreational water illnesses: Prevention and precautionEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyNAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Diarrhea;Fever;Vomiting2014-05-21T04:00:00Z10.200000000000049.9000000000000536.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to prevent the spread of recreational water illnesses while cooling down in pools, fountains and water parks.</p><p>Hot weather makes public pools, fountains, water parks and splash pads attractive options for some refreshing fun. But despite the sunny weather, laughter and playing, these public water areas are not all fun and games. With so many people using public water amenities, often without showering first, these areas can soon become sources of common recreational water illnesses.</p> <h2>What are recreational water illnesses?</h2><p>Recreational water illnesses are illnesses caused by bacteria or chemicals found in the water that your child swims or plays in. Bacteria can be spread by swallowing, breathing or having contact with contaminated water.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Recreational water illnesses are caused by swallowing or having contact with water that is contaminated with bacteria.</li> <li>Even if water is treated with chlorine, some bacteria take time to kill.</li> <li>Prevent the spread of recreational water illnesses by showering with soap before swimming, washing hands after using the toilet or changing diapers, and not letting a child with diarrhea go in the water.</li> <li>Remind your child not to drink or swallow the water they play in.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of recreational water illnesses</h2> <p> Recreational water illnesses can appear as many different infections, including skin, stomach, ear and eye infections. Common recreational water illness symptoms are <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a> and abdominal (tummy) cramps.</p><h2>Sources</h2> <p>Recreational Water Illnesses. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/swimming/swimmers/rwi.html.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/recreational_water_illnesses_prevention_and_precaution.jpg
Recurrent abdominal painRRecurrent abdominal painRecurrent abdominal painEnglishGastrointestinalToddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Stomach;Small Intestine;Large Intestine/ColonStomach;Small intestine;Large intestineConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2021-03-09T05:00:00Z8.2000000000000062.6000000000000479.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn the signs and causes of recurrent abdominal pain and when to get medical help. </p><h2>What is recurrent abdominal pain (RAP)?</h2><p>A stomach ache or bellyache is called abdominal pain. If a child has abdominal pain that comes and goes regularly, they have recurrent abdominal pain (RAP).</p><p>Recurrent abdominal pain can be caused by a number of different illnesses or there may not be any underlying problem at all. If the child is seen by a doctor, and all medical causes are ruled out, then the child is said to have "functional abdominal pain". This means that there is no known cause for the pain.</p>​<h2>Key points </h2> <ul> <li>Recurrent abdominal pain may be "functional abdominal pain", in which case there is no known cause, or it may be due to a specific underlying problem. </li> <li>Functional abdominal pain is common in children. </li> <li>See your child's doctor if your child has other concerning symptoms in addition to the abdominal pain. </li> <li>If the abdominal pain keeps coming back, but there are no other concerning symptoms, keep a written diary to track the abdominal pain and bring it with you when you go to see your child's doctor. </li> </ul><h2>Other causes of recurrent abdominal pain </h2><p>Some children with recurrent abdominal pain do have an identifiable cause. Some possible causes include: </p><ul><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=6&language=English">constipation</a> </li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=823&language=English">irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)</a></li><li>food sensitivities (for example, lactose intolerance)</li><li>heartburn (gastroesophageal reflux)</li><li>abdominal migraines</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">anxiety</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">depression</a></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=822&language=English">gas</a></li><li>ovulation in girls</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=821&language=English">inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)</a>, such as <a href="/Article?contentid=923&language=English">Crohn's disease</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=924&language=English">ulcerative colitis</a></li><li> <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=935&language=English">recurrent urinary tract infections</a></li></ul><h2>When to see a doctor</h2><p>See your child's doctor if your child has abdominal pain and also any of the following: </p><ul><li>weight loss </li><li>slowed growth </li><li>significant <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a> and/or <a href="/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a></li><li>persistent pain on the right side of the abdomen</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a></li><li>pain that wakes the child up at night</li><li>blood in the stool</li><li>pain or bleeding with urination (peeing) or feeling urgency to pee</li><li>changes in stool pattern (stool more frequently or less frequently than what was typical for the child, or stooling at night) </li></ul><p>If your child does not have any of these symptoms, but they have recurrent abdominal pain, keep a pain diary for your child. Record when the pain happened, how long it lasted and if there were any triggers. Take this diary with you when you go to see your child's doctor. </p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/recurrent_abdominal_pain.jpg
Reflex epilepsyRReflex epilepsyReflex epilepsyEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+) EducatorsNA2010-02-04T05:00:00Z10.600000000000046.20000000000002339.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about the causes and treatments for reflex epilepsy, a rare condition in which seizures are set off by specific stimuli such as flashing lights.</p><p>A small number of people have what is known as reflex epilepsy, in which seizures are set off by specific stimuli. These can include flashing lights, a flickering computer monitor, sudden noises, a piece of music or the phone ringing.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Reflex epilepsy occurs when seizures occur in response to a specific stimulus, such as a flashing light, a sudden noise, some language tasks or certain movements.</li> <li>Reflex epilepsy affects only 6 per cent of all people with epilepsy.</li> <li>The most common form of reflex epilepsy is visual sensitive or photosensitive epilepsy, in which flickering or flashing light provokes generalized tonic-clonic seizures.</li> <li>Reflex epilepsy can be treated by avoiding or reducing the stimulus or, if that is not possible, by taking medications.</li></ul>
Regaining appetite: Choosing flavours to try after a blood and marrow transplant and cellular therapyRRegaining appetite: Choosing flavours to try after a blood and marrow transplant and cellular therapyRegaining appetite: Choosing flavours to try after a blood and marrow transplant and cellular therapyEnglishHaematology;Immunology;Oncology;NutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemHealthy living and preventionAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2020-06-19T04:00:00Z11.000000000000055.0000000000000555.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Your child’s sense of taste may change after their blood and marrow transplant/cellular therapy. Learn which flavours and textures are helpful for boosting your child’s appetite after transplant.</p><p>The treatment that your child received for their blood and marrow transplant (BMT) or cellular therapy—like chemotherapy and other medicines—can change the way your child tastes food. Do not worry! Most children regain their sense of taste and appetite with time. Choosing foods with certain flavours and textures may help your child start to eat and drink again like they used to, and enjoy the food they eat.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Chemotherapy and other medicines can change the way your child tastes food.</li><li>Certain bold flavours and textures may help your child start to eat and drink like they used to.</li><li>Give your child cold food if they are still recovering from mucositis (mouth sores).</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Regaining_appetite--Choosing_flavours.jpg
Regular check-ups for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)RRegular check-ups for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)Regular check-ups for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)EnglishRheumatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodySkeletal systemTestsAdult (19+)NA2017-01-31T05:00:00Z8.5000000000000063.0000000000000490.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out what happens during regular arthritis check-ups, how frequent they should be, and why it is important for your child or teen to attend all check-up appointments.</p><p>It is important that your child have regular check-ups with the rheumatology health-care team. This usually includes a rheumatologist, nurses, occupational therapist (OT) and/or physical therapist (PT). These check-ups will help the doctor to see how your child is doing. It will also give you and your child a chance to talk to the health-care team.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Regular check-ups with the rheumatology team are important for monitoring symptoms and responses to medications.</li> <li>Try to coordinate multiple appointments on the same day to avoid missing school or activities.</li> <li>If your child cannot attend a scheduled appointment, please phone the doctor's office to reschedule.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/regular_check-ups_for_juveline_ideopathic_arthritis.jpg
Regular eye exams for JIARRegular eye exams for JIARegular eye exams for JIAEnglishRheumatology;OphthalmologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)EyesSkeletal systemTestsAdult (19+)NA2017-01-31T05:00:00Z7.6000000000000067.0000000000000592.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>If your child has JIA, regular eye exams are very important for detecting early signs of eye inflammation. Learn what happens during an eye exam.</p><p>Regular eye exams for JIA are important as many children and teens with JIA are at risk for uveitis, which can lead to other eye conditions such as cataracts or glaucoma.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Eye exams are important as eye inflammation (uveitis) usually occurs without any eye symptoms until it is too late.</li> <li>Eye inflammation can lead to cataracts and glaucoma.</li> <li>Various, painless tests will be conducted during the eye exam.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/regular_eye_exams_for_JIA.jpg
RehabilitationRRehabilitationRehabilitationEnglishOtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANANon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2018-01-19T05:00:00Z000Landing PageLearning Hub<p>There are many reasons your child may need rehabilitation therapy. A therapist can help with things such as feeding problems or hand difference. If you child has a health condition they may need physiotherapy to help them recover.</p><p>There are many reasons your child may need rehabilitation therapy. An occupational therapist can help with things such as feeding problems, brachial plexus palsy or hand difference. If you child has a health condition or has had surgery they may need physiotherapy to help them recover and stay active.</p>rehabilitation,rehabhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/rehabilitation_landing_page.jpg
Rehabilitation therapists for children with heart diseaseRRehabilitation therapists for children with heart diseaseRehabilitation therapists for children with heart diseaseEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemHealth care professionalsAdult (19+)NA2009-12-04T05:00:00Z11.800000000000041.90000000000001446.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Physiotherapists, occupational therapists, and speech-language pathologists are health care professionals who can help children with heart conditions recover after surgery.<br></p><p> This page explains how various health care professionals can offer assistance with movement, speech, developmental and other day-to-day skills to children with heart conditions.</p><h2> Key points </h2><ul><li>Physiotherapists help prevent, identify and correct movement problems.</li><li> Occupational therapists help children with everyday functional skills and behaviours challenged by certain conditions and diseases.</li> <li>Speech-language pathologists help with speech, language, voice, feeding and swallowing difficulties.</li></ul>
Rehabilitation therapists for premature babiesRRehabilitation therapists for premature babiesRehabilitation therapists for premature babiesEnglishNeonatologyPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)NANAHealth care professionalsPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00Z12.200000000000041.20000000000001193.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about rehabilitation therapists. They are specialists trained to work with premature babies to help improve social, cognitive, and motor skills.</p><p>Occupational therapists and physiotherapists do some work that is similar, though physiotherapists tend to focus more on range of motion, orthopaedics, musculoskeletal concerns, and chest physiotherapy, while occupational therapists focus on feeding and sensory and motor development.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Physiotherapists prevent, identify and correct movement problems and can help if your baby is having breathing or musculoskeletal problems.</li> <li>Occupational therapists will help your baby learn to feed, hold their head up, look and follow with their eyes, soothe themselves and bring their hands to their mouth and body.</li></ul>
Related donor for blood and marrow transplantRRelated donor for blood and marrow transplantRelated donor for blood and marrow transplantEnglishHaematology;Immunology;OncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemNAAdult (19+)NA2010-03-05T05:00:00Z7.7000000000000065.7000000000000822.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn what a related donor, including sibling donors, experiences before the blood and marrow transplant.</p><p>Being a donor can be a rewarding experience; however, it can be emotional to go through. Many have to embrace the possibility that the transplant may still not cure the child. This places a considerable amount of stress on the donor. Often, the attention becomes so focused on the child receiving the blood and marrow transplant (BMT) that the needs and concerns of the donor get ignored.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A donor can give stem cells from the bone marrow or from the peripheral blood.</li><li>The donor may want to speak with a social worker or psychologist to help them cope with any stress.</li></ul>
Relationship stress after having a babyRRelationship stress after having a babyRelationship stress after having a babyEnglishNeonatologyNewborn (0-28 days);Adult (19+)NANANAAdult (19+)NA2009-10-18T04:00:00Z9.3000000000000057.70000000000001271.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>How to effectively handle stress in a relationship after the birth of a baby. Having a baby can challenge even the best of relationships.</p><p>Some couples choose to have a baby to celebrate their stability or to strengthen their relationship. They think that a baby will bring them closer together, and that life after childbirth will be a time of tenderness, intimacy, and maturity. However, having a baby is a stressful experience that challenges even the best of relationships.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Mothers and fathers respond and adjust to their newborn baby in different ways, and sometimes this can cause misunderstandings and conflicts.</li><li>Find or schedule time to talk things over and be a couple, even if it's just for a few minutes.</li> <li>Seek medical help if you or your partner are experiencing any signs of depression.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/relationship_stress_after_baby.jpg
Relationship with your partnerRRelationship with your partnerRelationship with your partnerEnglishAdolescent;OncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANANAAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z59.10000000000008.90000000000000728.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>It can be very common for parents to experience increased difficulties in their relationships with partners or spouses when their child has cancer. Read about how you and your partner can cope separately and together.<br></p><p>Up until this point, you and your partner have likely divided certain household roles and responsibilities in a way that works for you and your family. Now that your teenager has been diagnosed with cancer, however, you may need to define new roles and responsibilities. You will need to explore how you’re going to cope separately and together.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>While it is normal for you and your partner to cope with your child's diagnosis and treatment in different ways, it is important to avoid negative coping methods.<br></li><li>Maintaining communication, self-care and making time for each other are important for strengthening a relationship.</li><li>For divorced parents, it is important to find a way to work together and communicate in a positive way so that your child gets the best care possible.</li><ul></ul></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Relationship_with_your_partner_TTC_Cancer.jpg
Relationships & sexuality for people with heart disease RRelationships & sexuality for people with heart disease Relationships & sexuality for people with heart diseaseEnglishCardiologyTeen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-12-14T05:00:00Z11.100000000000046.20000000000001000.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about relationships and sexuality for those with congenital heart conditions.</p><p> This page advises on how to support teens with heart conditions as their relationships change and sexuality begins to develop.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>The self-esteem of children and adolescents with a heart condition may suffer if they are excluded or feel alienated from their peers due to their health.</li> <li> Parents should still focus on the sexual development of teens with heart conditions and provide sexual health information.</li> <li> If your teen with a heart condition is experiencing irregular periods, a gynecologist can determine whether she is ovulating and will be able to have a child. </li> <li> Pediatric cardiologists can provide early sexual counselling to teens with heart conditions.</li> <li> Cardiologists should advise on birth control as oral contraception increases risk of blood clots.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/relationships_and_sexuality_for_people_with_heart_disease.jpg
Relaxation for pain managementRRelaxation for pain managementRelaxation for pain managementEnglishPain/AnaesthesiaChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyCentral nervous system;Peripheral nervous system;Autonomic nervous systemSymptomsCaregivers Adult (19+)Pain2009-09-15T04:00:00Z9.4000000000000058.80000000000001237.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about relaxation techniques, such as progressive muscle relaxation and hypnosis, that can be used for pain management in children.</p><p>Many children with pain, especially chronic pain, have lost the ability to feel relaxed because they have spent so much time hurting and tensing against the pain. They often need to re-learn how to completely and fully relax. Health-care providers will recommend specific exercises or play times to help children more naturally become relaxed by resuming their normal sports and social activities. They may also teach children specific relaxation techniques to lessen tense muscles throughout the body. </p> <p>These techniques are commonly used with guided imagery because the concrete imagery makes it easier for children to learn how to relax tense muscles. With practice, children and young people can get very good at becoming deeply relaxed very quickly. This gives the child or young person another tool to use so that they feel more in control of their life.</p> <p>There are many effective relaxation techniques that children can use to reduce pain. Indeed, relaxation makes up some part of most of the psychological coping methods. The point of relaxation is exactly that: to relax and let stress go. The goal is not necessarily to fall asleep — though if your child wants to fall asleep and relaxation techniques help them do so, that is also fine.</p>
Relieving pain in babiesRRelieving pain in babiesRelieving pain in babiesEnglishNeonatologyNewborn (0-28 days)BodyNANAAdult (19+)Pain2010-10-18T04:00:00Z10.700000000000046.50000000000001011.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>How to effectively relieve an infant's pain. Learn about techniques that have been known to ease pain, such as massage and skin-to-skin contact.</p><p>Pain in babies is treated in much the same way as in older children and adults. Medications and behavioural and physical methods are all used. Often, parents can participate in the behavioural and physical methods of pain relief. These are discussed further down this page. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Babies may be given pain medications depending on their condition and the amount of pain present.</li> <li>Parents may be concerned about drug safety and addiction, however when opioids are taken under supervision for pain relief, addiction is rare.</li> <li>Physical pain management methods include massage and touch, prayer, non-nutritive sucking, skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/relieving_pain_in_babies.jpg
ReproductionRReproductionReproductionEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)Body;Uterus;Fallopian tubes;Ovaries;Penis;Vas deferens;Scrotum;TesticleReproductive systemNAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-10T04:00:00Z8.4000000000000063.0000000000000596.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the male and female reproductive systems. The process of reproduction, including ovulation and fertilization, are discussed.</p><p>Human reproduction is when an egg cell from a woman and a sperm cell from a man unite and develop in the womb to form a baby. A number of organs and structures in both the woman and the man are needed in order for this process to occur. These are called the reproductive organs and genitals.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Human reproduction is when an egg cell from a woman and a sperm cell from a man unite and develop to form a baby.</li> <li>Ovulation is when a woman's ovary releases an egg cell.</li> <li>A fertilized egg is implanted in the uterus and grows into the unborn baby.</li</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Female_reproductive_adult_MED_ILL_EN.jpg
Research and clinical trialsRResearch and clinical trialsResearch and clinical trialsEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)BodyReproductive systemNAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-11T04:00:00Z8.5000000000000060.70000000000001390.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the importance of clinical research. The benefits and complications of phase I, phase II, and phase III trials are discussed.</p><p>A clinical trial is a research study or scientific experiment that examines the use of drugs or other interventions in treatment. It asks a specific question to try and find better ways of preventing, diagnosing, and treating certain conditions in pregnancy, childbirth, or infancy.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>There are three phases to clinical trials with the most experimental stage being Phase I.</li> <li>Informed consent is when a person agrees to participate in a research or clinical trial or undergo a specific treatment with a full understanding of the purpose, results expected, risks and benefits and other treatments available. </li></ul>
Research and clinical trials: An overviewRResearch and clinical trials: An overviewResearch and clinical trials: An overviewEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANANon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-12-11T05:00:00Z9.0000000000000055.7000000000000999.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the different kinds of health research and how research leads to better health care.</p><h2>What are the different kinds of research?</h2> <p>A lot of research is conducted to learn more about diseases that only happen in children, or that have a different course in children than in adults. Doctors, nurses, and other health professionals also study children's mental and physical development in research that can ultimately benefit all children. </p> <p>Different types of research studies include:</p> <ul> <li>"chart reviews," which look at children's existing hospital records to study what happened before, during and after treatment of a disease</li> <li>questionnaires, surveys and interviews, used to collect information on disease outcomes, behaviour, opinions, quality of life or patient satisfaction</li> <li>standard research on sick patients using physical examinations, imaging and specimen collection to study diseases or diagnostic methods</li> <li>intervention studies, which look at a therapy such as a drug, medical device, surgery or physical therapy. Intervention studies include clinical trials.</li> </ul> <h3>What is a clinical trial?</h3> <p>A <a href="/Article?contentid=1264&language=English">clinical trial</a> is a research study that examines the use of drugs or other therapies in treatment. It asks a specific question to try and find better ways of preventing, diagnosing or treating different medical conditions. For example, clinical trials could study new drugs or new combinations of known drugs. </p> <p>Usually, there are four different phases of clinical drug trials. Phase I and Phase II trials determine the safety of a drug. By the time a treatment reaches a phase III clinical trial, it has been well studied and deemed safe for humans. Phase III trials are conducted by an organizing group of experts and under a set of strict rules called a protocol. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>There are many kinds of health research, ranging from chart reviews all the way up to clinical trials.</li> <li>Research is the only way to improve medical treatment and make sure that new treatments are safe and effective.</li> </ul><h2>Research and treatment protocols</h2> <h3>What is a protocol?</h3> <p>A formal protocol is a written plan that describes in detail how to treat a particular illness. It describes the drugs, dosages and tests that are needed. It tells the treatment team how often and when each drug should be given based on a schedule. Each protocol is based on research that shows which treatments are more effective.</p> <p>Experts from many hospitals work together to develop protocols. The results from each hospital are gathered and studied. Researchers have developed international groups to oversee and coordinate these efforts. Protocols can change if new research shows there are other drugs or combinations of drugs that are more effective. Drug companies, while involved in research protocols that initially establish the safety, dosage limits and efficacy of drugs, are not involved in organizing treatment protocols.</p> <h3>What is randomization?</h3> <p>Randomization is used in studies that involve two or more groups. Each group gets a different treatment and patients have to be placed in one of the groups. Randomization means that the patients are placed in a group by chance. This makes sure the results are not biased. A bias may be possible if a person decides who goes in which group. Usually a computer will assign a patient to a group. Most research protocols need randomization at diagnosis, or shortly after diagnosis. </p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/research_clinical_trials_overview.jpg
Research and treatment protocols for brain tumoursRResearch and treatment protocols for brain tumoursResearch and treatment protocols for brain tumoursEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemNAAdult (19+)NA2009-08-14T04:00:00Z8.6000000000000057.70000000000001408.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>An in-depth explanation of treatment protocols and their importance for treating childhood brain tumours. Answers by Canadian Paediatric Hospitals</p><p>A protocol is a written plan that describes in detail how to treat a particular brain tumour. It describes the drugs, dosages, and tests that are needed. It tells the treatment team how often and when each drug should be given based on a schedule. Each protocol is based on research that shows which treatments are more effective. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Protocols ensure that the treatment is the same for all children with the same tumour.</li> <li>One type of protocol is where all participants receive the same treatment while another protocol compares two treatment plans to improve results.</li> <li>Experts from many hospitals work together to develop protocols.</li></ul>
ResilienceRResilienceResilienceEnglishNAPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2012-04-23T04:00:00Z11.700000000000040.9000000000000681.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Resilience is a learned skill. Resilient children are able to cope with stress, particularly after a traumatic life event.</p><h2>​What is resilience?</h2><p>Resilience refers to one’s ability to “bounce back” from adversity. When faced with a difficult life event – for example, the sudden loss of a loved one – resilient individuals are able to successfully cope with, or adapt to, the associated stress.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Resilience is the ability to cope with, and adapt to, stress brought on by a difficult life event.</li> <li>Some children develop resilience through natural process, while others require assistance.</li> <li>Factors that influence the development of resilience in children include general health and well-being, temperament, and parenting styles and behaviours.</li> <li>Parents and caregivers play a key role in the development and nurturing of resilience in children.</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/resilience.jpg
ResourcesRResourcesResourcesEnglishNANewborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)NANASupport, services and resourcesAdult (19+)NA2009-10-18T04:00:00Z12.200000000000043.3000000000000640.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>An essential list of books, videos, and websites to aid new parents in raising a child to the best of their abilities.</p><p>There are many resources available for expecting parents to help guide them through pregnancy and their baby's early years. These resources include books, websites and videos.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Resources for expecting parents include books, websites and videos.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/pregnancy-induced_hypertension.jpg
Resources for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)RResources for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)Resources for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)EnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years)NANervous systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-03-09T04:00:00Z8.6000000000000059.3000000000000664.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>There are many resources to provide support to children with ASD and their families. This page contains a list of community and online resources for ASD.<br></p><p>This section details a list of resources. They will be important to consider as a first step in putting supports in place for your child and family. Some of the resources listed may not apply to your situation because children with ASD can vary greatly in terms of their special needs. Over time, you will create your own list based on your child’s specific needs and the area where you live.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li> Both children with ASD and their families can benefit from financial support, multi-service agencies, behavioural resources, communication resources (speech and language services), sensory and motor services, social and recreation services, family support and respite services, school services, and research opportunities.</li> <li> Some agencies offer more than one type of service.</li> <li> Many agencies have long waiting lists.</li> <li> If you live outside Toronto and do not know where to find similar resources, you can ask agencies listed here to recommend similar local services.</li></ul>
Resources for speech and languageRResources for speech and languageResources for speech and languageEnglishDevelopmentalToddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years)NANANAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00Z12.100000000000035.6000000000000478.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>This page contains a list of resources available for parents to help their children improve their speech and language. Books, games, web sites and other resources are listed.</p><p>There are many resources available to help you and your child develop their speech and language skills, including books, activity books, organizations and websites.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Resources available to help your child improve their speech and language include reading and activity books, various organizations, and websites.</li></ul>
Resources for visuomotor skills developmentRResources for visuomotor skills developmentResources for visuomotor skills developmentEnglishDevelopmentalPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years)NANANAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00Z12.800000000000024.4000000000000291.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>A variety of resources parents can use to help their child improve and develop their visuomotor skills. Books, games, and web sites are listed.</p><p>There are several activity books available to help you and your child develop and strengthen their visuomotor skills.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Activity books, such as colouring and writing books, are available to help your child develop and strengthen their visuomotor skills.</li></ul>
Respiratory distress syndrome in premature babiesRRespiratory distress syndrome in premature babiesRespiratory distress syndrome in premature babiesEnglishNeonatology;RespiratoryPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)LungsRespiratory systemConditions and diseasesPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00Z11.400000000000047.7000000000000653.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about surfactant, a substance that occurs in the lungs and helps keep them open. Read about difficulties that arise when it is lacking.</p><p>Surfactant is a substance that develops in the lungs and helps keep them open. If a baby is born prematurely they may not have developed surfactant and are considered to have respiratory distress syndrome or RDS.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Surfactant is a substance that allows the alveoli to remain open, making gas exchange easier.</li> <li>Babies born without enough surfactant are said to have respiratory distress syndrome or RDS.</li> <li>Surfactant replacement therapy for premature babies acts to keep the alveoli from sticking together, and is supplemented with oxygen or ventilation to help the baby breathe.</li> <li>The majority of premature babies recover from RDS without major complications, while others are at risk for chronic breathing difficulties.</li></ul>
Respiratory problems in babiesRRespiratory problems in babiesRespiratory problems in babiesEnglishNABaby (1-12 months)LungsRespiratory systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)Cough;Nasal congestion;Wheezing2009-10-18T04:00:00Z9.3000000000000058.20000000000001867.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about various respiratory illnesses that can arise during infancy, including the common cold, the flu, bronchiolitis, croup, pneumonia, and asthma.</p><p>Respiratory illnesses are common in infancy. In fact, about one-third of all hospitalizations in the first year of life are due to respiratory problems. Colds, flu, croup and bronchiolitis are common respiratory illnesses that can occur during the first 12 months of life, and at any time during childhood. Asthma and pneumonia are serious conditions that can also arise during this time. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Respiratory illnesses are common in infancy, including colds, flu, croup and bronchiolitis.</li> <li>More serious respiratory conditions that can affect infants include asthma and pneumonia.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/respiratory_problems_in_babies.jpg
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)RRespiratory syncytial virus (RSV)Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)EnglishRespiratoryChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Trachea;LungsTrachea;LungsConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Cough;Fever;Runny nose2013-10-29T04:00:00Z7.3000000000000064.80000000000001123.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>RSV is a virus that infects the lungs and airways, causing flu-like symptoms. Learn how you can help prevent your child from getting RSV.</p><h2>What is respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)?</h2><p>Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects the lungs and airways. It causes colds and is the most common cause of <a href="/article?contentid=765&language=english">bronchiolitis</a> in young infants and toddlers. Most children will have an RSV infection by the age of two. Children are more likely to catch it during the RSV season, from November to April, when the virus is most active. Most children will have a mild infection and not require any medical attention.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Respiratory system</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Respiratory_system_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Location of the lungs, trachea, bronchus, bronchioles and diaphragm in a boy, with close-up on bronchioles and alveoli" /> </figure><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a virus. It is very common and causes mild symptoms in most infants and children. It can cause serious lung infections in some babies and children.</li><li>You can help prevent spreading the virus by regularly washing your hands, avoiding close contact with your baby if you are unwell, keeping your baby away from sick people.</li><li>If your baby is at high risk for serious lung infections, your baby will need treatment once a month during RSV season (November to April).</li><li>You can help by reminding your health-care provider that your baby needs medicine. Use the tables to help you keep track.<br></li></ul><h2>Signs and symptoms caused by respiratory syncytial virus</h2><p>A baby or child with this infection may:</p><ul><li> <a href="/article?contentid=774&language=english">cough</a></li><li>have a runny nose</li><li>have a <a href="/article?contentid=30&language=english">fever</a></li><li>sometimes wheeze</li></ul><p>Because these are common symptoms, it is easy to mistake RSV for the flu or another virus.</p><p>In most cases, you can take care of your child with RSV at home as long as they are breathing comfortably, their skin does not look blue and they are drinking and peeing as usual. The infection usually lasts a few days.</p><p>In healthy adults, RSV is often not serious. But adults can pass the virus to children.</p><h2>Respiratory syncytial virus can be serious</h2><p>Some babies and children can develop a severe form of RSV. This may be <a href="/article?contentid=784&language=english">pneumonia</a> or <a href="/article?contentid=765&language=english">bronchiolitis</a>. These illnesses can be serious. Your child may need to visit your family doctor or paediatrician, or go to the emergency department.</p><h3>Your baby or child may have a higher risk of getting very ill from RSV if:</h3><ul><li>your baby was born prematurely (before 33 weeks of pregnancy) and is less than six months old when the RSV season starts in November.</li><li>your child is less than two years old and has certain lung conditions, congenital heart disease, <a href="/article?contentid=9&language=english">Down syndrome</a> or has problems with their immune system. Your child's doctor will speak to you about this.</li><li>your child has other specific medical problems that your doctor will talk to you about.</li></ul><h2>Treatment of respiratory syncytial virus</h2><p>When a child is fighting RSV, treatment is mainly to relieve the symptoms. Antibiotics have no effect on viruses. They will not help your child get better faster.</p><h2>Babies at high risk need medicine during respiratory syncytial virus season</h2><p>No medicine can stop your baby from catching RSV and getting RSV once does not prevent infection. The average person may have an RSV infection multiple times during their lifetime.</p><p>There is no vaccine available for the general public yet. But there is one medicine that can help prevent RSV from becoming very serious and it is recommended for babies at high risk of serious RSV infection. Your health-care provider will decide if your child needs this medicine. The name of the medicine is <a href="/article?contentid=208&language=english">palivizumab</a>. This treatment is sometimes called RSV prophylaxis (say: pro-full-AX-iss), which means prevention.</p><p>Palivizumab is given by a needle (injection) into a muscle. It does not interfere with normal childhood immunizations. This medicine works by giving your baby <a href="/article?contentid=926&language=english">antibodies</a> that help fight an RSV infection. These antibodies help reduce the chances that an RSV infection will become severe.</p><p>A palivizumab dose works for about 30 days. This means that your child needs a dose of the medicine every month during RSV season. If you delay or skip the next appointment, the medicine stops working. Your child will no longer be protected against the virus.</p><h3>Reactions are rare</h3><p>The most common side effects of palivizumab are fever, rash or redness at the injection site. Serious allergic reactions are very rare. Ask your baby's doctor or nurse for the most recent information.</p><h3>Remind your baby's doctor or nurse if your baby needs medicine to prevent RSV</h3><p>Your baby can take the medicine in the hospital, the doctor's office or an RSV clinic. A doctor or a nurse can give it.</p><h3>To help your baby get the right treatment each month, you should:</h3><ul><li>Keep notes of the dates of the treatment. Use your baby's regular immunization card to keep track. You can also print out the tables below to help you keep track of your baby's treatment.</li><li>Remind your baby’s doctor or nurse that your baby needs the medicine once a month during RSV season.</li></ul><h2>RSV prophylaxis</h2><table class="akh-table"><thead><tr><th>Palivizumab</th><th>Date</th><th>Location</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>Dose #1</td><td></td><td></td></tr><tr><td>Dose #2</td><td></td><td></td></tr><tr><td>Dose #3</td><td></td><td></td></tr><tr><td>Dose #4</td><td></td><td></td></tr><tr><td>Dose #5</td><td></td><td></td></tr><tr><td>Dose #6</td><td></td><td></td></tr></tbody></table><h2>Positive tests for RSV and RSV hospitalizations</h2><table class="akh-table"><thead><tr><th> </th><th>Date</th><th>Date</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>RSV positive</td><td></td><td></td></tr><tr><td>RSV admission to hospital</td><td></td><td></td></tr><tr><td>Discharged from hospital</td><td></td><td></td></tr></tbody></table><p>Visit the <a href="https://www.ontario.ca/page/get-full-coverage-certain-drugs#section-4" target="_blank">Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care website</a> to find more information about RSV prophylaxis.</p>rsvhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/respiratory_syncytial_virus.jpg
Restricting fluidsRRestricting fluidsRestricting fluidsEnglishNephrologyBaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyKidneysNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-10T05:00:00Z4.1000000000000085.9000000000000566.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Sometimes children need to restrict their daily fluid intake, often because of kidney problems. Learn ways to regulate your child's fluid intake. </p><h2>Why restrict fluids?</h2> <p>Sometimes, children with kidney problems need to limit how much fluid they drink. Healthy kidneys clean the blood and flush out unwanted fluid and chemicals through urine. Kidneys that are not working properly cannot do this. Instead, extra fluid stays in the body and builds up.</p> <p>If too much fluid builds up in the body it can cause the following problems:</p> <ul> <li>puffiness and weight gain </li> <li>high blood pressure </li> <li>trouble breathing </li> </ul><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Some children with kidney problems must limit their daily fluid intake. </li> <li>All liquids and some foods are fluids. </li> <li>Measure all fluids your child gets each day. </li> <li>Semi-solid foods count as fluids. </li> </ul><h2>Liquids and some foods are fluids</h2><p>Fluids are things your child drinks such as milk, tea, juice, water and pop. Food that is liquid at room temperature also counts as fluid. This includes foods such as ice cream, popsicles, freezies, yogurt, soup, ice cubes and pudding.</p><p>You can help measure and control how much fluid your child eats and drinks. It is important to measure all the fluid your child gets each day. This is the only way to make sure they do not have too much.</p><p>In the hospital, children may also get fluids from an IV tube leading into their arm. These are called intravenous fluids. Staff at the hospital will measure the intravenous fluids your child is given.</p><h2>Measuring fluids</h2> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">Fluid measurements</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Fluid_measurements_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Fluid measurements of drinks, yogurt, pudding, jello, ice cream, soup and ice cubes" /> </figure> <p>Measure and write down all the fluid your child eats or drinks in a 24-hour period.</p><p>Read labels to find the number of ml of fluid in the food or drink. The size of containers may change with different brands of the same food or drink.</p><p>Count the fluid your child drinks when they take their medicine.</p><p>Count all the foods that are liquid at room temperature such as ice cream, Jell-O, ice cubes, yogurt, soup and pudding. These semi-solid foods count as fluids.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Fluid_measurements_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg
Restrictive cardiomyopathyRRestrictive cardiomyopathyRestrictive cardiomyopathyEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2018-10-26T04:00:00Z10.300000000000048.4000000000000473.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Read about restrictive cardiomyopathy, a condition in which the heart muscle becomes very stiff and cannot pump blood effectively.</p><figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Normal left heart function</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Normal_Cardiomyopathy_EN.jpg" alt="" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">1) Oxygenated blood is pumped into the left atrium from the lungs. The atrium contracts (pumps), pushing blood into the left ventricle. 2) The ventricles contract. 3) This contraction pumps the oxygenated blood out of the left ventricle and into the aorta. The aorta delivers oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. Deoxygenated blood is pumped into the pulmonary artery, to be taken to the lungs.</figcaption> </figure> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Restrictive cardiomyopathy</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Restrictive_Cardiomyopathy_Restrictive_EN.jpg" alt="" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">1) The heart muscle becomes very stiff and does not stretch to allow the ventricles to fill . As a result, the left ventricle cannot handle the amount of blood being pumped in from the left atrium. 2) The stiff heart muscle causes higher pressure in the ventricle. 3) Higher pressure causes blood to back up in the atrium. 4) This results in increased pressure in the atrium which can cause a buildup of pressure and fluid in the lungs.</figcaption> </figure> <p>In restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM), the <a href="/Article?contentid=1577&language=English">heart muscle</a> becomes very stiff. This means the heart muscle does not stretch in the relaxation phase when it needs to fill with blood. Although the heart keeps pumping, it does not pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs.</p><p>Restrictive cardiomyopathy is rare in children, accounting for between 2-5% of all paediatric cardiomyopathy.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Restrictive cardiomyopathy is the most serious type of cardiomyopathy.</li><li>In restrictive cardiomyopathy, the heart muscle becomes very stiff and does not stretch in the relaxation phase when it needs to fill with blood.</li><li>Children with this condition will have symptoms of congestive heart failure.</li><li>This condition is difficult to treat with medication and may require a heart transplant.</li></ul><h2>Symptoms of RCM</h2><p>Children with RCM will have symptoms of congestive heart failure, including:</p><ul><li>irritability</li><li>difficulty feeding</li><li>faster and harder breathing</li><li>slow weight gain</li><li>sweating with crying or feeding</li><li>poor energy</li><li>exercise intolerance</li><li>poor appetite</li><li>palpitation</li><li>swelling of ankles and abdomen (rare)</li></ul><h2>Causes of RCM in children</h2><p>Similar to other types of cardiomyopathy, RCM can be inherited from a parent, meaning there is a genetic cause. If your child is diagnosed with RCM, it is usually recommended that parents, siblings and other close relatives be tested for a heart condition.</p><h2>Treatment of RCM</h2><p>RCM is the rarest type of cardiomyopathy. However, it is also the most serious type of cardiomyopathy and has the fewest treatment options.</p><p>It is difficult to treat this condition with medications. A heart transplant may be needed.</p><h2>Complications of RCM</h2><p>RCM can result in "back pressure" into the lungs and right side of the heart which can cause shortness of breath or fluid in your child’s lungs and/or belly. There is also a higher risk of <a href="/Article?contentid=890&language=English">abnormal heart rhythms</a> with this condition and many children will require blood thinners (anti-coagulation) to reduce the risk of blood clot formation.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Restrictive_Cardiomyopathy_Restrictive_EN.jpg
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP)RRetinopathy of prematurity (ROP)Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP)EnglishOphthalmologyPrematureEyesNervous systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2021-09-10T04:00:00Z7.5000000000000064.70000000000001168.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn what retinopathy of prematurity is, how it is diagnosed and how it may be treated.</p><p>Your premature baby needs an eye exam by a paediatric ophthalmologist. This person is an eye doctor who specializes in checking and treating retina problems in children, including retina problems. This exam is important because premature babies may develop a condition called retinopathy (say: ret-in-OP-uh-thee) of prematurity, or ROP.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Retinopathy of prematurity, or ROP, is caused when small abnormal blood vessels form in your premature baby's eye(s). </li> <li>The vessels can lead to bleeding and scarring. They may also cause the retina to move from its normal place in the eye. This is called retinal detachment.</li> <li>Your baby's eyes will be checked often for any changes. It is important to keep eye appointments, as abnormal vessels can form quickly. </li> <li>Treatments depend on your child's condition. </li> </ul><h2>What can happen if a baby has ROP </h2><p>Abnormal vessels can lead to bleeding and scarring in the retina. They may also cause the retina to separate, or move, from its normal place in the eye. This is called retinal detachment. This could lead to poor vision or even blindness.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">ROP with retinal detachment</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/ROP_retinal_detachment_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="The anatomy of an eye with retinal detachment along the top and bottom" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">ROP may cause the retina to separate from its normal place in the eye.</figcaption> </figure> <h2>How common is ROP?</h2><p>Nobody really knows why abnormal blood vessels form. Some premature babies need oxygen to help them breathe. It is thought this oxygen treatment may play a part in ROP, even when it is closely monitored.</p><p>Not all premature babies have ROP. Babies born before 28 weeks or who weigh less than 1000 g at birth are at the highest risk for developing severe ROP. The risk of ROP developing also depends on how well the retina has formed.</p><h2>Checking your baby for ROP</h2><p>In Canada, all premature babies with a birth weight of 1250 g or less, or who are born at or before 30 weeks and six days are routinely examined for ROP. They will likely be examined initially at four to six weeks after birth. </p><p>The doctor will check your baby's eyes for any abnormal vessels. If these vessels are treated in time, it may help to stop retinal detachment.</p><p>Here is what you can expect to happen during the exam.</p><ul><li>Your baby will have special eye drops to make the pupils bigger. The pupil is the dark area in the centre of the coloured part of the eye. The drops take 30 minutes to an hour to work, sometimes longer. </li><li>Since your baby needs to be very still when their eyes are checked, they will be wrapped in a blanket and held down gently.</li><li>The doctor will check the retina using an instrument with a bright light called an ophthalmoscope (say: op-THAL-mo-scope). </li><li>Your baby will have eye drops to numb the surface of the eyeball.</li><li>Once the eyeball is numb, the doctor will use an instrument called a speculum to hold your baby's eyelids apart. This is because your baby is too young to keep their eyes open.</li><li>To get a good look at the eye, the doctor will also use an instrument called a depressor to gently move the eyeball. </li></ul><h3>Your baby should not feel any pain</h3><p>Being held down and having a bright light shone in their eyes will make your baby uncomfortable. They may cry during the exam, but they should not feel any pain.</p><h2>Explaining the condition of your baby's eyes</h2><p>After the exam, the doctor will explain the condition of your baby's eyes. Your baby's condition will be graded depending on how much the abnormal blood vessels have grown. The doctor will use the terms "zone" and "stage".</p><ul><li>The zone is graded from 1 to 3. This explains how far the blood vessels have grown on the retina. Vessels go from Zone 1 to 3 as they grow. The second image on this page shows the zones. </li><li>The stage explains the severity of the ROP. It is graded from 1 to 5. Stage 1 is the best (least severe) and stage 5 is the worst (most severe). </li><ul><li><p><strong>Stage 1 ROP</strong></p><p>In Stage 1, there is a thin line between the area with blood vessels and the area where the blood vessels have not grown yet. At this stage, the vessels may grow normally on their own, but the condition must be watched.</p></li><li><p><strong>Stage 2 ROP</strong></p><p>In Stage 2, the line between the areas with and without blood vessels widens and thickens into a ridge. The condition may still resolve, or it may progress to Stage 3 ROP.</p></li><li><p><strong>Stage 3 ROP</strong></p><p>In Stage 3, new blood vessels begin to grow along the ridge and extend into the clear gel that fills the eye, called vitreous body. These blood vessels can bleed and form scar tissue. </p></li><li><p><strong>Stage 4A ROP</strong></p><p>In Stage 4A, the abnormal blood vessels and scar tissue pull on the retina, partially detaching it. The centre of vision, called fovea (say: FOH-vee-uh), is not involved.</p></li><li><p><strong>Stage 4B ROP</strong></p><p>The retina is still only partially detached, but the fovea is affected. This usually leaves both the centre and peripheral vision impaired to some degree.</p></li><li><p><strong>Stage 5 ROP</strong></p><p>The retina is completely detached, severely affecting vision.</p></li></ul></ul><h2>How often your baby's eyes will be checked</h2><p>Your baby's eyes need to be checked often. Sometimes they will be checked every week or even every few days. The frequency of exams depends on different factors, such as the severity and location of ROP in the eye and how quickly normal blood vessels are forming. The formation of blood vessels is called vascularization. After each exam, the doctor will let you know when the next exam will happen.</p><p>In the majority of cases, even when ROP develops, it will resolve on its own with minimal effect on your baby’s vision. However, it is very important to keep all the appointments because abnormal vessels can form fairly quickly. In approximately 10% of babies, ROP will progress to the extent that is no longer safe to wait for it to resolve on its own.</p><h2>Treating ROP</h2> <p>If your baby has ROP, the treatment will depend on your baby's eye condition. Your baby may need laser treatment, eye injections or even surgeries (operations) to repair retinal detachment. Your doctor will discuss the best treatment for your baby with you.</p><h2>Regular check-ups are important</h2><p>It is important that your child is seen by an ophthalmologist often. Even when the blood vessels are fully formed, there is a greater chance that a premature baby can have certain eye conditions in the future, such as: </p><ul><li>near-sightedness (myopia) </li><li>cross eyes (<a href="/Article?contentid=836&language=English">strabismus</a>) </li><li>lazy eye (<a href="/Article?contentid=835&language=English">amblyopia</a>) </li><li>a condition in which the rays of light are focused in each eye at a different point (anisometropia).</li></ul><p>The ophthalmologist will want to check your child's eyes for these conditions. If an eye problem is found, your child's doctor may be able to treat it early.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/ROP_MED_ILL_EN.jpg
Returning to regular activities after scoliosis surgeryRReturning to regular activities after scoliosis surgeryReturning to regular activities after scoliosis surgeryEnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Vertebrae;SpineMuscular system;Skeletal systemHealthy living and preventionAdult (19+)NA2008-06-01T04:00:00Z8.7000000000000054.8000000000000268.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Following scoliosis surgery there are things that your teen should avoid to ensure proper healing. Find out what these are, and why they are restricted.</p><p>For the first six weeks after surgery, your teen should not bend forward or lift. Everyday activities such as dressing, bathing, and walking are encouraged. They should not play any sports or do other physical activities during this time.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>After surgery, your teen should avoid smoking, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and massages or chiropractic treatment.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/ChantalWalkingUpstairs_EN.jpg
Returning to school after a blood and marrow transplantRReturning to school after a blood and marrow transplantReturning to school after a blood and marrow transplantEnglishHaematology;Immunology;OncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemNATeen (13-18 years) Adult (19+)NA2010-03-25T04:00:00Z8.1000000000000066.3000000000000637.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to help your child transition back to school, after a blood and marrow transplant.</p><p>When your child returns home after their blood and marrow transplant (BMT), they may not feel strong enough to start school full-time. This is especially true for children with immune deficiencies, since their immune systems may take longer to recover.</p> <p>Most children will be able to return to school three to six months after returning home from the BMT. The treatment team will let you know when your child can return to school. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Make your child's transition back to school easier by communicating with their teachers, guidance counsellor, or principal, and by advocating for your child.</li> <li>The school staff may be able to help ease any anxieties your child has about returning to school.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/returning_to_school_after_a_blood_and_marrow_transplant.jpg
Reusable nebulizers: Use and maintenanceRReusable nebulizers: Use and maintenanceReusable nebulizers: Use and maintenanceEnglishRespiratoryChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)LungsLungsDrug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2017-04-26T04:00:00Z9.5000000000000051.4000000000000670.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the importance of cleaning and disinfecting a reusable nebulizer and follow the step-by-step instructions to learn how to do it.</p><h2>What is a reusable nebulizer?</h2> <p>Using a reusable nebulizer is another way of giving a medication. A reusable nebulizer allows certain medications to be converted from a liquid into an aerosol (mist) form so they can be breathed in. It is important to clean and disinfect your child's nebulizer after every use to prevent the growth of germs in and on the device. This will help to reduce the risk of your child getting a lung infection.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>It is important to administer the correct medication in the correct nebulizer to optimize therapy.</li> <li>Reusable nebulizers must be cleaned and disinfected after every use.</li> <li>Cleaning your nebulizer includes washing the pieces of the nebulizer with warm water, dish soap and clean paper towel.</li> <li>Disinfecting your nebulizers using either heat or a special solution.</li> <li>It is important to leave the nebulizer parts to air dry on a clean towel, away from the sink.</li> </ul><h2>Cleaning and disinfecting the nebulizer</h2><p>Having a standard approach to cleaning and disinfecting reusable nebulizers reduces bacterial contamination and risk of infection. Cystic Fibrosis Canada guidelines recommend cleaning and disinfecting reusable nebulizers after every use.<br></p> <a href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Nebulizer_hygiene.pdf"> <figure> <img alt="Download the reusable nebulizer hygiene tip sheet PDF." src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Nebulizer_hygiene_PDFdownload.jpg" /> </figure></a> <p>During cleaning, dirt or foreign material is washed off. During disinfecting, germs such as bacteria and viruses are killed.</p><p>Download a <a href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Nebulizer_hygiene.pdf" target="_blank">one-page tip sheet</a> to help you remember the steps for cleaning and disinfecting your reusable nebulizer.</p><h3>Cleaning</h3><ol><li>Wash your hands with soap and water or use an alcohol based hand sanitizer before handling the nebulizer.</li><li>Take the nebulizer apart.</li><li>Scrub the pieces with clean paper towels using dish soap and water.</li><li>Rinse with sterile water. You can make your own sterile water by boiling tap water for 15 minutes and then allowing it to cool. Discard what you do not use.</li></ol><h3>Disinfecting</h3><ol start="5"><li><p>The next step is to disinfect the pieces of the nebulizer using a method that uses either heat or a special solution.</p><p>You can choose one of the following methods for heat disinfection.</p><ul><li>Put the pieces in boiling water for at least 10 minutes.</li><li>Put the pieces in a microwave (2.45 GHz) for five minutes.</li><li>Put the pieces in a dishwasher and run it without detergent on a cycle where the temperature is greater than 70°C (158°F), for 30 minutes.</li><li>Use an electric steam sterilizer.</li></ul><p>OR you can choose one of the following special solutions for disinfection.</p><ul><li>Soak the pieces in 70% isopropyl alcohol for five minutes.</li><li>Soak the pieces in 3% hydrogen peroxide for 30 minutes.</li></ul><p>Rinse all pieces with sterile water after using a special solution for disinfection.</p><p>You can purchase 70% isopropyl alcohol and 3% hydrogen peroxide at your local pharmacy, they will not need to be diluted.</p></li><li>After disinfecting the pieces of the nebulizer, place them on a clean, dry towel away from the sink to air dry. When the pieces are dry, store them in a sealed container or plastic bag.</li></ol>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/reusable_nebulizers_promo.png
Rhabdoid tumoursRRhabdoid tumoursRhabdoid tumoursEnglishNeurology;OncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-07-10T04:00:00Z9.7000000000000054.7000000000000644.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>This page describes a type of brain tumour called a rhabdoid tumour, what causes this kind of tumour, and some possible symptoms.<br></p><p>Rhabdoid tumours are rare but highly malignant tumours that occur mostly in young children. Rhabdoid tumours can occur in various parts of the central nervous system as well as in other parts of the body. In the brain, rhabdoid tumours can arise in the cerebral hemispheres, ventricles, suprasellar region, pineal gland, cerebellar hemispheres, cerebellopontine angle, and brain stem. Rarely, rhabdoid tumours can occur in the spinal cord.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>In the brain, rhabdoid tumours can arise in the cerebral hemispheres, ventricles, suprasellar region, pineal gland, cerebellar hemispheres, cerebellopontine angle, and brain stem.</li> <li>Rhabdoid tumours cannot be diagnosed with CT or MRI scans alone, and require a biopsy and a BAF47 staining to confirm diagnosis.</li> <li>Rhabdoid tumours can sometimes arise as part of a rhabdoid tumour predisposition syndrome.</li> <li>Symptoms can vary depending on the age of the child, and the location and size of the tumour.</li></ul>
Rhesus hemolytic diseaseRRhesus hemolytic diseaseRhesus hemolytic diseaseEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)BodyReproductive systemConditions and diseasesPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-11T04:00:00Z11.600000000000046.6000000000000694.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about Rh incompatibility and Rh disease during pregnancy, including prevention of Rh disease and what to expect during pregnancy.</p><p>Rhesus (Rh) factor is a group of proteins that occurs on the surface of some people's red blood cells. If you have Rh factor on your red blood cells, you are referred to as Rh-positive. If you do not have Rh factor, you are Rh-negative. Rh incompatibility is when an Rh-negative mother becomes pregnant with an Rh-positive baby. If the unborn baby’s Rh-positive red blood cells cross the placenta and reach the mother, her immune system will produce antibodies that will destroy the baby’s red blood cells. This is the cause of a complication called Rh hemolytic disease in the unborn baby. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Rh incompatibility is when an Rh-negative mother becomes pregnant with an Rh-positive baby, which can cause Rh hemolytic disease.</li> <li>Women who are Rh-negative are given an injection of Rh immunoglobulin during and after pregnancy to block the immune system from harming the unborn baby.</li> <li>If the unborn baby shows signs of Rh hemolytic disease, early labour may need to be induced, so that the mother’s antibodies do not destroy too many of the baby’s red blood cells.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Rh_inheritance_2_MED_ILL_EN.jpg
Rheumatic feverRRheumatic feverRheumatic feverEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2015-03-24T04:00:00Z9.7000000000000050.7000000000000892.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Rheumatic fever can develop when strep throat is not treated fully with antibiotics. Find out how its signs and symptoms and how it is treated. </p><h2>What is rheumatic fever?</h2><p>Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease that can develop as a complication of an infection with group A <em>Streptococcus</em> (GAS) bacteria. A GAS infection in the throat is more commonly known as <a href="/Article?contentid=11&language=English">strep throat</a>.</p><p>Strep throat differs from a throat infection caused by a virus. It is diagnosed based on a patient’s symptoms and physical exam and confirmed with a throat swab. If the throat swab shows <em>Streptococcus</em> bacteria, a doctor will prescribe <a href="/Article?contentid=1120&language=English">antibiotics</a> to fight the infection. In most children, however, a sore throat results from a viral infection and does not need antibiotics.</p><p>Rheumatic fever is most common in children aged five to 15 years. It is rare in children aged under three.</p><p>Symptoms of rheumatic fever can appear two to three weeks after a GAS infection if the infection is not treated properly with antibiotics.</p> <br><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease that can develop as result of strep throat.</li> <li>Treating a strep throat infection with antibiotics can prevent rheumatic fever.</li> <li>A child with rheumatic fever may have a fever, joint pain, a rash, chest pain, difficulty breathing or uncontrollable movements of their face, arms or legs.</li> <li>Rheumatic fever can permanently damage the heart valves.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of rheumatic fever</h2> <p>Rheumatic fever can affect different parts of the body, including the heart, joints, skin and central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Its symptoms vary from child to child and may change over time.</p> <p>Depending on the part of the body that becomes inflamed, your child may experience:</p> <ul> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a></li> <li>inflamed joints, usually in the large joints such as the knees, wrists, ankles and elbows</li> <li>shortness of breath, <a href="/Article?contentid=949&language=English">chest pain</a> and difficulty breathing when lying down</li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=890&language=English">heart palpitations</a> (a feeling of rapid, pounding or skipped heart beats)</li> <li>skin rashes, which can appear as:</li> <ul><li>multiple pink or light red circular spots with normal skin in the centre on the trunk (midsection) or the arms and legs</li> <li>small painless bumps under the skin, usually over bony areas or tendons</li> </ul> <li>jerky and uncontrollable movements of the face, arms and legs (known as <a href="/Article?contentid=846&language=English">Sydenham’s chorea</a> or St. Vitus’ Dance)</li> <li>emotional disturbances, such as crying, restlessness or inappropriate laughing.</li> </ul><h2>What causes rheumatic fever?</h2> <p>The exact cause of rheumatic fever is not completely understood. One possible cause is that proteins in the <em>Streptococcus</em> bacteria look like proteins in the body's normal cells. This confuses the immune system, causing it to attack the body’s own cells by mistake. This leads to the unnecessary inflammation (heat, swelling and redness) in healthy tissue.</p><h2>How is rheumatic fever diagnosed?</h2> <p>If you suspect your child has strep throat, your child's doctor can diagnose it and prescribe antibiotics to prevent it from developing into rheumatic fever.</p> <p>Your doctor will diagnose rheumatic fever by:</p> <ul> <li>examining your child for any symptoms</li> <li>using a throat swab or blood test to check for signs of a recent streptococcus infection</li> <li>looking for signs of inflammation in the joints, skin, heart and central nervous system.</li> </ul> <p>To look for inflammation in the heart, the doctor might order an <a href="/Article?contentid=1274&language=English">echocardiogram</a> (an ultrasound of the heart). The echocardiogram gives information about how the valves in the heart are working. Heart valves are often affected by rheumatic fever. If the damage is permanent, a person can develop rheumatic heart disease which can lead to heart failure.</p><h2>How is rheumatic fever treated?</h2> <p>Medications are the most common treatment for rheumatic fever.</p> <h3>Antibiotics</h3> <p>Your child’s doctor will prescribe antibiotics to treat the original GAS infection, even if your child does not have a sore throat when they meet the doctor. </p> <p>Your child will normally take antibiotics orally (by mouth) for 10 days. It is very important that your child take the full 10 days of antibiotics even if they start to feel better after the first couple of days. If your child does not finish the medication, they are still at risk for rheumatic fever.</p> <p>After the infection is treated, your child’s doctor may prescribe long-term antibiotics to prevent strep throat from returning until your child reaches young adulthood.</p> <h3>Anti-inflammatory medication</h3> <p>Your doctor may prescribe <a href="/Article?contentid=77&language=English">acetylsalicylic acid</a> or another anti-inflammatory medication to ease any joint pain, swelling and fever.</p><h2>When to see a doctor for rheumatic fever</h2> <p>See your child's doctor if your child has:</p> <ul> <li>a sore throat</li> <li>any of the symptoms of rheumatic fever listed above.</li> </ul> <p>Call 911 or go to the nearest emergency department if your child:</p> <ul> <li>is having difficulty breathing or breathing very fast</li> <li>complains of chest pain or palpitations.</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/rheumatic_fever.jpg
RoseolaRRoseolaRoseolaEnglishInfectious DiseasesBaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years)SkinImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Fever;Rash2014-11-04T05:00:00Z7.8000000000000060.3000000000000875.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Find out how to recognize and treat the signs and symptoms of a roseola infection. </p><figure><span class="asset-image-title">Close-up of a roseola rash</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Roseola_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.jpg" alt="Close-up of skin with a roseola rash" /> </figure> <h2>What is roseola?<br></h2><p>Roseola is a very common viral infection that causes a fever, followed by a rash. The infection is caused by the human herpes virus 6 (or less often, human herpes virus 7).</p><h2>Key points </h2> <ul> <li>Roseola is a viral infection that usually affects children age nine to 21 months.</li> <li>Symptoms include high fever followed by a rash.</li> <li>Roseola is spread through person to person contact with saliva or nasal secretions.</li> <li>Treatment is with over the counter medications to bring down the fever. There is no specific treatment for roseola.</li> <li>The best way to prevent roseola is through frequent handwashing. Avoid contact with people who have the infection.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of roseola</h2> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Roseola rash on torso</span> <img alt="Torso of child with roseola rash" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Roseola_torso_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.jpg" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Roseola means "rose rash". The roseola rash looks like lots of small pink spots. It disappears after about four days.</figcaption> </figure> <p>There are two main symptoms of roseola.</p><ul><li>The first symptom is a sudden, high fever, sometimes higher than 40°C (104°F). The fever may last about three to five days. The fever is less likely to occur in babies under six months than in older babies.</li><li>When the fever passes, a rash often appears. This rash has many small pink spots, which are usually flat but may be slightly raised. The rash usually starts on the chest, abdomen and back and may later spread to the face and limbs. It lasts about four days but does not itch.</li></ul><p>The symptoms of roseola are usually mild; it is seldom a severe illness. Complications are unusual. If they do occur, they are usually limited to <a href="/Article?contentid=1&language=English">febrile seizures</a>.</p><p>Other symptoms of roseola include:</p><ul><li>irritability</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=748&language=English">sore throat</a></li><li>runny nose</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=774&language=English">cough</a></li><li>fatigue</li><li>mild <a href="/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a></li><li>decreased appetite</li><li>swollen eyelids</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=777&language=English">swelling of the lymph nodes</a> in the neck</li><li>swelling of the fontanelle (in infants).</li></ul><p>Not every child with roseola will develop these symptoms. If they occur at all, it is usually before the rash appears.</p><p>Roseola can cause serious symptoms in people with weakened immune systems due to an underlying medical condition.</p><h2>How roseola is diagnosed</h2> <p>Roseola is easy to diagnose if it involves a fever followed by rash. However, not all cases of roseola look the same. For example, sometimes there is no rash after the initial fever. In addition, many other conditions can look similar to roseola.</p> <p>If there is no rash after a fever, your doctor may need to do blood, urine and sometimes other tests to diagnose or rule out roseola. For more information about your child's illness, please speak to your child's doctor.</p><h2>How to treat roseola </h2> <p>The best way to treat roseola is to manage the symptoms until the infection passes. Because roseola is caused by a virus, rather than bacteria, antibiotics are not effective.</p> <h3>Medications</h3> <p>To reduce fever, give your child over-the-counter medications such as <a href="/Article?contentid=62&language=English">acetaminophen</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=153&language=English">ibuprofen</a>.</p> <p>Do not give your child <a href="/Article?contentid=77&language=English">acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)</a> because it is known to cause Reye's syndrome in children.</p> <h3>Clothing</h3> <p>Keep your child lightly dressed. Overdressing or bundling your child may result in a higher fever. If your child is having chills or shivers, give them a light blanket. Keep the room temperature at a level that is comfortable for you when lightly dressed.</p> <h3>Extra fluids</h3> <p>Encourage your child to drink extra fluids. It does not matter whether the drinks are warm or cool. As long as your child is drinking well, do not worry if their appetite decreases for a few days.</p><h2>When to see a doctor</h2> <p>See a doctor if:</p> <ul> <li>your child seems very unwell, lethargic or irritable</li> <li>your child's fever is higher than 39.4°C (103°F)</li> <li>your child's fever lasts more than five days</li> <li>the rash does not improve after a few days</li> <li>the spots of the rash look purple or blood-coloured</li> <li>your child already has a weakened immune system when roseola first occurs.</li> </ul> <p>Go to your nearest emergency department right away if your child has a febrile seizure.</p>roseolahttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Roseola_torso_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.jpg
Ross procedureRRoss procedureRoss procedureEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemProceduresAdult (19+)NA2009-12-11T05:00:00Z8.8000000000000055.1000000000000154.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>In the Ross procedure, the child's abnormal aortic valve is replaced with the child's own healthy pulmonary valve.</p><p>This procedure is used to replace a defective aortic valve. </p><h2> Key points </h2><ul><li> In this procedure, a child's abnormal aortic valve is removed and replaced with their healthy pulmonary valve. </li><li>This is an open-heart surgery. </li></ul>

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