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Radiation for brain tumoursRRadiation for brain tumoursRadiation for brain tumoursEnglishNeurology;OncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemNon-drug treatmentAdult (19+)NA2022-01-10T05:00:00Z8.1000000000000061.40000000000001529.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Radiation therapy may be used to help treat a brain tumour. Learn how radiation therapy works and what you need to know before your child begins treatment.</p><p>Radiation therapy is the use of high-energy X-rays, gamma rays or particles. These rays damage or destroy tumour cells. They cannot be seen or felt. Radiation therapy can help to treat or cure the tumour. The doctor who is responsible for radiation treatment is called a radiation oncologist.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Radiation therapy is the use of high-energy X-rays, gamma rays, or particles to destroy tumour cells.</li><li>Before radiation begins, your child will have a special mask created and require a planning CT scan and possibly an MRI.</li><li>Radiation is not dangerous for family members or friends; your child is not "radioactive."</li><li>Side effects may include fatigue, excessive sleepiness, hair loss, nausea or vomiting, and headaches. </li></ul><h2>How does radiation therapy work?</h2><p>The radiation beams affect the cell’s ability to grow and divide. Cells may die when they try to divide. The goal of radiation treatment is to deliver an effective dose of radiation to tumour cells and limit the amount of radiation to normal cells. Fortunately, most normal cells recover from radiation more easily than tumour cells.</p><p>Radiation therapy for <a href="/braintumours">brain tumours</a> is usually delivered in a 'fractionated' way. This means that the total dose of radiation is given in separate small treatments, or fractions, each day from Monday to Friday over a period of weeks. The number of days of treatment needed depends on the total dose of radiation. The total dose is different for each type of tumour.</p><h2>What happens during radiation therapy?</h2><p>You and your child will have to visit the radiation centre every day from Monday to Friday for several weeks. The radiation team will give you a schedule.</p><p>Radiation treatment is like having an X-ray. There is no pain. This is what your child will experience:</p><ol><li>Your child will lie down on a table and their mask will be put on their face.</li><li>The radiation therapist will make sure the marks on the mask line up with the machine settings. Your child will be in the room for about 30 minutes for set-up and treatment. </li><li>Your child will wear Velcro seat belts for safety.</li><li>Some centres have access to TV and DVD or Blu-ray players which your child can watch during treatment.</li><li>Once the child is ready, parents and therapists must leave the room.</li><li>You can see your child on a video TV monitor and you can speak to them.</li><li>Before starting the treatment, your child will have a mini scan to ensure they are in the correct position for the treatment based on the planning CT scan. Once the position is confirmed, the radiation treatment will begin. The machines may make clicking or whirring noises. The treatment will typically last less than five minutes. Most treatments are only one or two minutes. The treatment time depends on the radiation dose and the technique being used.</li></ol><p>During treatment, the radiation nurse and radiation therapists will be available for any questions or concerns you may have. The radiation oncologist will see your child once a week to see how they are doing, and to talk about any concerns or questions you may have.</p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/GkjVBfiDOsg" frameborder="0"></iframe> </div><h2>Is radiation therapy dangerous for family members or friends?</h2><p>No, radiation is not dangerous for family members and friends. The radiation will only affect the person who is having the treatment. The radiation is a form of energy, like heat or light, that goes away very quickly when the energy source is removed. Your child is not "radioactive." They can go to school and see their friends.</p><h2>How is radiation given?</h2><p>Modern radiation techniques allow doctors to accurately focus radiation therapy to the area(s) of the brain requiring treatment. These radiation techniques are best described as conformal radiotherapy and include many different specific technologies. A computer simulation produces an accurate image of the tumour and nearby areas. Then, the radiation beams are shaped exactly to the contour of the tumour to reduce the dose of radiation to nearby normal tissue. Some techniques that may be used are described below.</p><h3>Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)</h3><p>IMRT refers to a technique of being able to modify the intensity of each radiation beam in such a way as to be able to exclude some important <a href="/article?contentid=1307&language=english">parts of the brain </a>(e.g., optic nerves, the brain stem, the pituitary gland) that are near the tumour, while still giving a full dose of radiation to the tumour. </p><h3>Stereotactic radiosurgery</h3><p>Stereotactic radiosurgery refers to the use of technology including stereotactic frames or specialized masks to help guide the radiation beams to smaller tumours. Your radiation oncologist will determine whether your child is a candidate for this treatment. </p><h3>Proton radiation therapy</h3><p>Proton therapy is a type of radiation therapy that uses proton particles rather than conventional X-rays to treat certain childhood cancers. Your radiation oncologist will discuss with you if your child may be a candidate for proton therapy and what the potential benefits may be. This therapy requires highly specialized equipment not yet available in Canada. Currently, eligible patients must travel outside of Canada to receive proton radiation therapy.</p><h2>Short term side effects</h2><ul><li>Fatigue: during or after radiation therapy</li><li>Somnolence syndrome: a condition of excessive sleepiness</li><li>Hair loss</li><li>Nausea or vomiting</li><li>Headaches</li></ul><p>Children who receive whole central nervous system (CNS) radiation may also experience strange smells while receiving the treatment, swallowing pain or difficulty, heartburn.</p><p>For more information, see the page entitled "<a href="/article?contentid=1381&language=english">Potential side effects from radiation</a>".</p><p>For additional resources, SickKids has a free app for Apple devices called <a href="https://apps.apple.com/us/app/rads4kids/id1000774112">Rads4Kids</a>.</p><p>The information that appears on this page has been modified from Handbook for Paediatric Radiation Therapy, written by Susan Awrey, RN, and Ann Griffith, RN.</p><h2>Before radiation begins</h2><p>You will meet with the radiation oncology treatment team. This radiation team will include the radiation oncologist, nurse coordinator, and radiation therapist. They will examine your child and explain the treatment to you. You will find out the schedule of treatments, and possible side effects.</p><p>Remember to bring a pen and paper, phone or laptop to write down any new information or questions you may have.</p><p>There are several steps before radiation therapy begins. These appointments take place at the radiation centre. Your child will need a mask made to help them stay still and in the same position during radiation. Once the mask is made, your child will have a planning computed tomography (CT) scan.</p><p>Your child may anticipate and fear the unknown of yet another new procedure. At times, this fear does not allow the child to cooperate, especially if they are very young. In these situations, it may be necessary for your child to have an anaesthetic for the planning session and daily treatments. However, if a child is adequately prepared for what to expect during the planning and treatment appointments, this will help to gain their cooperation and may avoid the need for anaesthesia in older children. Your radiation team, in collaboration with child life specialists, are valuable resources in preparing a child for radiation planning and treatments. </p><h3>How is the mask made?</h3><p>The plastic mask will be made by shaping warm plastic around your child’s face. To comfort your child, you may wish to bring a toy or blanket. You can prepare them the day before by placing warm, wet washcloths over their face in the bath. This is similar to the feeling of the plastic. Tell them what will happen while the mask is being made.</p><ol><li>The material to make the mask starts out as a firm aerated plastic sheet. This sheet is placed in a warm water bath which will make it soft and pliable.</li><li>Your child will have to lay on the CT table while the soft plastic is placed on their face. The plastic feels wet, warm and weird, but it does not hurt.</li><li>When the plastic is hard and dry, it is ready to come off. The eyes and mouth are then cut out of the mask and placed back on for the planning CT.</li><li>If your child is having radiation to the whole head and spine, they will need tiny ink dots placed to help line up the spine for treatment. These ink dots are called tattoos. </li><li>When the treatment schedule is complete, your child may be able to bring the mask home.</li></ol><h3>What happens at the planning CT and MRI scan?</h3><p>Your child will lay back on the CT table wearing their mask. The therapist will use a felt pen to make marks on the plastic mask. The purpose of the CT scan is to demonstrate the position your child will be in during treatment. This is not a diagnostic scan; it is used for planning and mapping the radiation treatment field to determine the exact field of radiation. The CT scan will take about five minutes. Some children will require a planning MRI as well. This MRI is also done at the radiation centre and usually takes 10-15 minutes.</p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/RaimZnCz5i4" frameborder="0"></iframe> </div>Main
Radiation therapyRRadiation therapyRadiation therapyEnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)BodyNANon-drug treatmentPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z8.6000000000000061.30000000000001002.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Radiation therapy is used to treat some kinds of cancer. Find out it works, what needs to be done to prepare and what to expect while receiving radiation treatment.</p><h2>What is radiation therapy?</h2><p>Radiation therapy has been used as part of cancer treatment for over 100 years. Radiation therapy uses a type of energy called photons to destroy cancer cells. The radiation used is similar to that used in X-rays, which take a picture of your bones, but it is of a much higher energy. It cannot be seen or felt. </p><p>These high energy X-rays are delivered using a special machine that focuses the X-rays so they are accurately aimed at your tumour or cancer cells. Radiation therapy can be a part of treatment for many different types of cancers. It is useful because it can destroy cancer cells, so it can be used to:</p><ul><li>shrink a tumour before another treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy</li><li>kill cancer cells that might still be in the body after surgery or chemotherapy</li><li>relieve symptoms of cancer such as pain<br></li></ul><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Radiation therapy used X-rays to help shrink tumours, kill cancer cells and relieve symptoms such as pain.</li><li>Radiation works by damaging the DNA of cancer cells, however it can also damage healthy cells but these are able to repair themselves.</li><li>You will need a CT and maybe an MRI to help the health-care team plan the radiation treatment.</li><li>The amount of radiation and the length of treatment will depend on the type of cancer and its location.</li><li>The radiation treatment is not painful but you will need to lie still for several minutes.</li></ul>Teens
Radon: Reducing your risk at homeRRadon: Reducing your risk at homeRadon: Reducing your risk at homeEnglishPreventionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2011-11-28T05:00:00Z8.2000000000000056.50000000000001142.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn the facts about radon, what it is, health risks, and practical tips on reducing radon exposure in the home.</p><p>Radon is a colourless, odorless, radioactive gas. It is produced during the natural breakdown of the chemical element, uranium, which is found in soil, rocks and groundwater. As a result, radon occurs naturally in the environment. </p> <p>Radon occurs in outdoor air in such small amounts that it is not a health risk in the open air.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Radon is a colourless, odorless, radioactive gas that occurs naturally in the environment. It occurs in the air outdoors in such small amounts that it is not a health risk.</li> <li>Radon can enter into homes through floors, cracks in concrete walls and basement drains. In closed spaces, like basements, radon can build up to relatively high levels.</li> <li>Breathing in radon gas or the products that is produces when it decays may increase the risk of developing cancer.</li> <li>You should check for radon in your home by testing for it. There are both short- and long-term steps you can take to reduce the levels of radon in your home.</li> </ul>Main
Rasmussen syndromeRRasmussen syndromeRasmussen syndromeEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+) EducatorsNA2010-02-04T05:00:00Z9.4000000000000053.40000000000001080.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out the causes and symptoms of Rasmussen syndrome and how this form of epilepsy is treated.</p><p>Rasmussen syndrome causes partial seizures, mental deterioration and loss of movement skills and speech. It is a rare condition with severe and disabling effects. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Rasmussen syndrome is a rare form of brain inflammation that usually appears between the age of six and 10.</li> <li>In most cases, seizures start in the same part of the brain each time. They start as partial motor, partial sensory or tonic-clonic seizures and develop into a form of partial status epilepticus, with repeated partial motor seizures.</li> <li>Over time, the affected side of the brain starts to shrink, causing gradual loss of movement skills on one side of the body and loss of mental abilities and speech.</li> <li>In most cases, seizures can only be controlled by removing the affected part of the brain. This may still leave the child with motor and cognitive problems. </li></ul>Main
Reading and writing resourcesRReading and writing resourcesReading and writing resourcesEnglishDevelopmentalPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years)NANASupport, services and resourcesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00Z11.500000000000034.7000000000000598.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>There are many resources available to help your child learn to read, including books, workbooks, games and computer programs.</p><p>There are many resources available to help your child learn to read, including books, workbooks, games and computer programs. Some of these resources are global in scope, meaning they encourage children to read and think in general. Other resources are more focused on one aspect of reading such as sound-letter associations or phonetics. Speak with your child's teacher and other professionals to find out what type of reading resources would most benefit your child.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>​Use books, workbooks, games and computer programs to help your child learn reading skills.​</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/reading_writing_resources.jpgMain
Reading disabilities: OverviewRReading disabilities: OverviewReading disabilities: OverviewEnglishDevelopmentalPreschooler (2-4 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);School age child (5-8 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2020-03-03T05:00:00Z11.600000000000039.80000000000001396.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>A reading disability is when a child has significant challenges with reading. Learn about reading disabilities, their symptoms, and how they are diagnosed and treated.</p><h2>What is a reading disability?</h2><p>A reading disability is a specific type of <a href="/Article?contentid=653&language=English">learning disability</a>. Children with reading disabilities have average to above average intellectual abilities but experience a lot of trouble with reading. These difficulties affect how they perform in school, and their achievements fall well below what is expected for children of their age, grade, and intellectual ability.</p><p>Reading disabilities may include problems with:</p><ul><li>Phonological processing—the ability to break up words into sounds</li><li>Reading fluency or speed</li><li>Reading comprehension</li></ul><p>A child with a reading disability has a problem with reading words accurately and/or quickly, or with understanding what they are reading.</p><p>Another general term for reading disabilities is <a href="/Article?contentid=307&language=English">dyslexia</a>. Children with dyslexia may have difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition, as well as poor decoding and spelling abilities.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Reading disabilities are learning disabilities that can include problems with phonological processing, reading fluency or speed, and reading comprehension.</li><li>Children who are diagnosed with a reading disability often show early signs of speech and language difficulties.</li><li>Reading disabilities are often diagnosed with a psychoeducational assessment.</li><li>Reading disabilities can lead to problems with spelling and limit a child’s vocabulary.</li></ul><h2>Early signs of reading problems</h2><p>Children who are diagnosed with a reading disability often show early signs, such as:</p><ul><li>Indistinct, garbled speech after three years of age</li><li>Speaking in phrases or sentences later than normal</li><li>Difficulty learning words to songs or nursery rhymes in preschool</li><li>Difficulty learning the alphabet and the sounds of the letters</li></ul><p>However, not all children with these signs develop a reading disability.</p><h2>Signs of a reading disability</h2><p>Once your child reaches school age, signs that they might have a reading disability include:</p><ul><li>Trouble learning colour names</li><li>Trouble learning letter names</li><li>Trouble rhyming or isolating sounds in words</li><li>Trouble blending sounds together</li><li>Difficulty recognizing a word after having seen it many times in many different contexts</li><li>Frequent letter or number reversals by the end of Grade Two</li><li>Consistent omission or reversal of letters in words; for example, "gril" instead of "girl"</li><li>Choppy, slow reading</li><li>A limited sight word vocabulary</li></ul><p>For a list of typical reading milestones achieved by children at different grade levels, see <a href="/Article?contentid=651&language=English">Reading and writing milestones</a>.</p><h2>Diagnosis of a reading disability</h2><p>If your child’s reading abilities are substantially below the expected level for their age, intellectual abilities and education, they may have a reading disability.</p><p>If you suspect your child might have a reading disability, it is important to share your concerns with your child’s teachers. They will be able to observe your child’s learning, and identify available resources and strategies to help improve your child’s reading skills. If the resources and strategies provided by the school do not help improve your child’s learning, your child might benefit from a formal psychoeducational assessment.</p><p>A psychoeducational assessment can identify your child’s strengths and learning challenges, and diagnose learning, developmental or attention-related disorders, as well as giftedness. The assessment will get to the root cause of your child’s academic issues, and identify a plan for solving them.</p><h2>Treatment</h2><p>Reading disabilities can be treated with two main approaches—accommodations and interventions.</p><p>The earlier a child with a reading disability receives an evidence-based reading intervention over a reasonable period of time, the more likely they are to catch up with their peers.</p><h3>Accommodations</h3><p>Accommodations are changes made in the classroom to help students work around their weaknesses. Accommodations can help some children succeed without direct intervention. Accommodations for a reading disability might include:</p><ul><li>Providing lessons and presentations on audio recordings</li><li>Providing a designated reader</li><li>Allowing answers and assignments to be given verbally or dictated to a scribe</li><li>Allowing frequent breaks or more time for tests</li><li>Providing a space with minimal distractions</li></ul><h3>Interventions</h3><p>Interventions help students address their areas of need so that they can overcome them. Interventions teach children <strong>how</strong> to learn, and allows them to succeed as independent learners. Interventions for a reading disability typically include addressing the core learning difficulties (speech, language, phonological deficits) through direct instruction. Direct instruction teaches skills in a targeted, well-organized way. Through drills and repetition, it provides children with opportunities for guided practise and cumulative learning.</p><h2>Association with spelling and vocabulary</h2><h3>Spelling problems</h3><p>Spelling is often challenging for children who have a reading disability. Spelling and reading rely on the same underlying knowledge: phonological processing and visual memory. Since many children with reading disabilities struggle with phonological processing, they will also have difficulty breaking down words in order to spell them correctly.</p><h3>Vocabulary problems</h3><p>Vocabulary is important in both learning to read and in reading comprehension. Children develop their reading vocabularies faster when they are reading words more advanced than the words they say when talking. Young children who read well are quickly exposed to all sorts of words that they would not hear when talking to an adult or on television. This exposure helps a child’s reading vocabulary to grow, and it makes it easier for the child to read advanced material.</p><p>Children who struggle with reading lag in vocabulary development because they read less. The feedback between reading vocabulary and comprehension helps to explain why poor readers fall behind in vocabulary and general knowledge. It is important to intervene early, before this performance gap widens.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Reading_disabilities-Overview.jpgMain
Reading milestonesRReading milestonesReading milestonesEnglishDevelopmentalPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2020-04-29T04:00:00Z9.1000000000000063.3000000000000701.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the reading skills expected of your child at different stages.</p><p>Once children start speaking, they move on to develop reading skills. This page describes the typical reading achievements for a child at different grade levels from kindergarten to Grade 3.</p><p>The "milestones" below are a general guide.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Your child will go through a series of steps or “milestones” as they develop reading skills.</li><li>Not all children learn at the same pace.</li><li>You can help your child develop basic skills for reading by exposing them to a variety of activities.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/reading_writing_milestones.jpgMain
Reading nutrition fact tables and food labelsRReading nutrition fact tables and food labelsReading nutrition fact tables and food labelsEnglishTransplant;NephrologyTeen (13-18 years)KidneysRenal system/Urinary systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-ZTeens
Reading problems: When to worryRReading problems: When to worryReading problems: When to worryEnglishDevelopmentalPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00Z10.200000000000058.3000000000000193.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about some signs that indicate your child may need extra help with reading.</p><p>You should begin to have concerns and seek guidance from a teacher or other educational professional if your child shows signs they need extra help with reading.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>​There are signs starting as soon as junior kindergarten to look out for that may indicate your child is having problems with reading.</li><li>​If your child is having problems with reading and needs extra help consult with a teacher or education professional.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/reading_problems_when_to_worry.jpgMain
Reading: How to help early and struggling readersRReading: How to help early and struggling readersReading: How to help early and struggling readersEnglishDevelopmentalToddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years)NANANAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2020-07-20T04:00:00Z5.0000000000000078.9000000000000566.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the everyday activities you can do with your child to develop their reading skills.</p><h2>Engage your child in oral activities and games</h2><ul><li>Recite rhymes and rhythms.</li><li>Sing nursery rhymes.</li><li>Name pictures of objects and group those that rhyme together.</li><li>Clap out the number of words in a sentence and clap out the number of sounds in a word. You can also tap blocks or a table as you say each word or sound.</li><li>Play a game where each player says a word that starts with a particular sound (e.g., “the ’b’ sound” – bottle, baby, etc.).</li><li>Play word games (e.g., “I spy something that starts with the 'b’ sound”).</li><li>Draw a picture of a train (engine, passenger car, caboose). Put the letters representing each sound into the train cars. Say the sounds while pointing to the letters, then blend the sounds together.</li><li>Play teacher and print letters on a sheet of paper, or black or white board. Have your child point to the correct letter or letters every time you say a word beginning with the sound(s). Reverse roles and include the whole family.</li></ul><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Daily reading is valuable for language skill development.</li><li>Simple games can support early reading skills, such as sound-letter association and rhyming games.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/reading_problems_how_to_help_your_child_premature_babies.jpgMain
Reasons for a blood and marrow transplantRReasons for a blood and marrow transplantReasons for a blood and marrow transplantEnglishHaematology;Immunology;OncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemNAAdult (19+)NA2010-02-12T05:00:00Z9.0000000000000056.8000000000000379.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Parents can find out if their child is a candidate for a blood and marrow transplant (BMT).</p><p>Your child may need a blood and marrow transplant (BMT) for many reasons including if your child is undergoing chemotherapy and immuno-therapy to treat cancer. A BMT may also be used to treat bone marrow deficiencies caused by genetic disorders. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>If a child is undergoing high-dose chemotherapy, they may have a BMT to help their immune system recover.</li> <li>A BMT may be given as immunotherapy if a child relapses with cancer.</li> <li>Some genetic disorders may be treated by BMT.</li></ul>Main
Receiving cancer medicationsRReceiving cancer medicationsReceiving cancer medicationsEnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)BodyNADrug treatmentPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z4.4000000000000076.3000000000000489.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Cancer treatment requires different types of medication, each of which may be given in a different way. Lean about the most common ways to receive chemotherapy and other medications and what to expect.</p><p></p><p>During your treatment, you will need to take different types of medication. You may need to receive them in different ways, for example orally or through an injection. Chemotherapy is the most common cancer medication. This section outlines the most common ways you can receive your chemotherapy and other medications so you know what to expect. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Medications can be received in different ways including oral (tablets, capsules, liquids), subcutaneous injection, intramuscular injection, intravenous injection and intrathecal injection.</li><li>It is important to always check with the health-care team to make sure that you are taking medications in the correct way and if there is anything you need to avoid.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Receiving_cancer_medications.jpgTeens
Recognizing stress and anxietyRRecognizing stress and anxietyRecognizing stress and anxietyEnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANANAPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z6.1000000000000076.3000000000000610.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about how stress works, how you can recognize when you are feeling stress and signs of body and mind stress.</p><p>Now that you have thought about some of the things that cause you stress, it is important to learn more about how stress works so you can recognize it. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Stress triggers a 'fight or flight' response in your body, and when this goes on for too long your muscles become tense, your heart rate increases and you may start to feel sick or tired.</li><li>Stress looks different for everyone, so it is important to spend time figuring out how you react to stress, both physically and emotionally.</li><li>Physical signs of stress include cold or sweaty hands, change in appetite, upset stomach and a racing heartbeat.</li><li>Signs of mind stress include feeling easily irritated, nervous, worried or overwhelmed.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Recognizing_stress_and_anxiety.jpgTeens
Recovering from scoliosis surgeryRRecovering from scoliosis surgeryRecovering from scoliosis surgeryEnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Vertebrae;SpineMuscular system;Skeletal systemHealthy living and preventionAdult (19+)NA2008-06-01T04:00:00Z6.1000000000000074.4000000000000395.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about how to properly take care of your teen's incision scar following scoliosis surgery.</p><p>Be careful with your teenager’s incision. There are a number of things you can do to make sure the incision stays clean and healthy. Here are a few tips. </p><h2> Key points </h2><ul><li> The Steri-Strips will fall off the incision on their own. </li><li>When taking a shower, teens can place a tower over the incision so water pressure will not sting.</li><li> Inspect the incision each day for any redness, discharge or odour.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/ChantalScar_EN.jpgMain
Recovery after caesarean sectionRRecovery after caesarean sectionRecovery after caesarean sectionEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)BodyReproductive systemNAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-11T04:00:00Z8.0000000000000065.3000000000000720.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about recovery after Caesarean section. Pain and discomfort in the first few days are discussed. Making a full recovery in the weeks is included.</p><p>A caesarean section is a major abdominal surgery. You will stay in the hospital longer than most mothers how had a vaginal birth. You will also experience a lot of pain as your incision heals. Here is what to expect in the days and weeks after a C-section.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Your stay in the hospital should be about three days after surgery, during which time you will be given pain medication as necessary.</li> <li>After a C-section, you will experience pain at the incision site, cramping in your uterus, and gas.</li> <li>A full recovery from a C-section takes about six weeks. If you notice any infection around the incision site, pain in your calves, fever or worsening abdominal pain see your health care provider as soon as possible.</li> <li>Women who give birth by C-section have a more difficult time regaining their energy, so you may need extra help to take care of you baby while you recover.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/caesarean_section_recovery.jpgMain
Recovery position: First aid at homeRRecovery position: First aid at homeRecovery position: First aid at homeEnglishRespiratoryPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Nose;Mouth;Trachea;Lungs;EsophagusRespiratory systemNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2020-09-02T04:00:00Z6.6000000000000075.4000000000000256.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>An overview of what the recovery position is, when you might need to use it and how to put your child in it.</p><h2>When to put your child in the recovery position</h2> <p>If your child is unconscious, breathing and has a pulse (does not need CPR), put them in a recovery position until a health provider arrives. The recovery position prevents your child from choking while unconscious.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Put your child in the recovery position if they are unconscious, breathing and have a pulse.</li> <li>The recovery position helps to prevent them from choking while they are unconscious.</li> <li>If your child may have a spinal or neck injury, do not put them in the recovery position unless they are not able to breathe because their airway is blocked.</li> </ul><h2>How to put your child into the recovery position</h2><ol class="akh-steps"><li> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/recovery_position_step1_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Child lying on their side while caregiver grasps the upper thigh of one leg and holds hand under child’s cheek to roll them" /> </figure> <p>Sit beside your child. Grasp the upper thigh and your child's cheek on the floor.</p></li><li><p>Roll your child onto their side toward you, as if you were rolling them down a hill.</p></li><li><p>Pull the leg up to bend the knee. Put the knee on the ground at a right angle to stabilize your child.</p></li><li> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/recovery_position_step2_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Child rolled onto their side with one leg bent upward at the knee and caregiver tilting the child’s head back with both hands" /> </figure> <p>Tilt the head back to maintain an open airway.</p></li></ol>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/recovery_position_step1_MED_ILL_EN.jpgMain
Recreational water illnesses: Prevention and precautionRRecreational water illnesses: Prevention and precautionRecreational water illnesses: Prevention and precautionEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyNAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Diarrhea;Fever;Vomiting2022-07-13T04:00:00Z10.500000000000049.9000000000000517.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to prevent the spread of recreational water illnesses while cooling down in pools, fountains and water parks.</p><p>Hot weather makes public pools, fountains, water parks and splash pads attractive options for some refreshing fun. But despite the sunny weather, laughter and playing, these public water areas are not all fun and games. With so many people using public water amenities, often without showering first, these areas can soon become sources of common recreational water illnesses.</p> <h2>What are recreational water illnesses?</h2><p>Recreational water illnesses are illnesses caused by bacteria or chemicals found in the water that your child swims or plays in. Bacteria can be spread by swallowing, breathing or having contact with contaminated water.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Recreational water illnesses are caused by swallowing or having contact with water that is contaminated with bacteria.</li> <li>Even if water is treated with chlorine, some bacteria take time to kill.</li> <li>Prevent the spread of recreational water illnesses by showering with soap before swimming, washing hands after using the toilet or changing diapers, and not letting a child with diarrhea go in the water.</li> <li>Remind your child not to drink or swallow the water they play in.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of recreational water illnesses</h2> <p> Recreational water illnesses can appear as many different infections, including skin, stomach, ear and eye infections. Common recreational water illness symptoms are <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a> and abdominal (tummy) cramps.</p><h2>Sources</h2> <p>Recreational Water Illnesses. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/swimming/swimmers/rwi.html.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/recreational_water_illnesses_prevention_and_precaution.jpgMain
Recurrent abdominal painRRecurrent abdominal painRecurrent abdominal painEnglishGastrointestinalToddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Stomach;Small Intestine;Large Intestine/ColonStomach;Small intestine;Large intestineConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2021-03-09T05:00:00Z8.2000000000000062.6000000000000479.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn the signs and causes of recurrent abdominal pain and when to get medical help. </p><h2>What is recurrent abdominal pain (RAP)?</h2><p>A stomach ache or bellyache is called abdominal pain. If a child has abdominal pain that comes and goes regularly, they have recurrent abdominal pain (RAP).</p><p>Recurrent abdominal pain can be caused by a number of different illnesses or there may not be any underlying problem at all. If the child is seen by a doctor, and all medical causes are ruled out, then the child is said to have "functional abdominal pain". This means that there is no known cause for the pain.</p>​<h2>Key points </h2> <ul> <li>Recurrent abdominal pain may be "functional abdominal pain", in which case there is no known cause, or it may be due to a specific underlying problem. </li> <li>Functional abdominal pain is common in children. </li> <li>See your child's doctor if your child has other concerning symptoms in addition to the abdominal pain. </li> <li>If the abdominal pain keeps coming back, but there are no other concerning symptoms, keep a written diary to track the abdominal pain and bring it with you when you go to see your child's doctor. </li> </ul><h2>Other causes of recurrent abdominal pain </h2><p>Some children with recurrent abdominal pain do have an identifiable cause. Some possible causes include: </p><ul><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=6&language=English">constipation</a> </li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=823&language=English">irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)</a></li><li>food sensitivities (for example, lactose intolerance)</li><li>heartburn (gastroesophageal reflux)</li><li>abdominal migraines</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">anxiety</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=19&language=English">depression</a></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=822&language=English">gas</a></li><li>ovulation in girls</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=821&language=English">inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)</a>, such as <a href="/Article?contentid=923&language=English">Crohn's disease</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=924&language=English">ulcerative colitis</a></li><li> <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=935&language=English">recurrent urinary tract infections</a></li></ul><h2>When to see a doctor</h2><p>See your child's doctor if your child has abdominal pain and also any of the following: </p><ul><li>weight loss </li><li>slowed growth </li><li>significant <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a> and/or <a href="/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a></li><li>persistent pain on the right side of the abdomen</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a></li><li>pain that wakes the child up at night</li><li>blood in the stool</li><li>pain or bleeding with urination (peeing) or feeling urgency to pee</li><li>changes in stool pattern (stool more frequently or less frequently than what was typical for the child, or stooling at night) </li></ul><p>If your child does not have any of these symptoms, but they have recurrent abdominal pain, keep a pain diary for your child. Record when the pain happened, how long it lasted and if there were any triggers. Take this diary with you when you go to see your child's doctor. </p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/recurrent_abdominal_pain.jpgMain
Reflex epilepsyRReflex epilepsyReflex epilepsyEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+) EducatorsNA2010-02-04T05:00:00Z10.600000000000046.20000000000002339.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about the causes and treatments for reflex epilepsy, a rare condition in which seizures are set off by specific stimuli such as flashing lights.</p><p>A small number of people have what is known as reflex epilepsy, in which seizures are set off by specific stimuli. These can include flashing lights, a flickering computer monitor, sudden noises, a piece of music or the phone ringing.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Reflex epilepsy occurs when seizures occur in response to a specific stimulus, such as a flashing light, a sudden noise, some language tasks or certain movements.</li> <li>Reflex epilepsy affects only 6 per cent of all people with epilepsy.</li> <li>The most common form of reflex epilepsy is visual sensitive or photosensitive epilepsy, in which flickering or flashing light provokes generalized tonic-clonic seizures.</li> <li>Reflex epilepsy can be treated by avoiding or reducing the stimulus or, if that is not possible, by taking medications.</li></ul>Main
Regaining appetite: Choosing flavours to try after a blood and marrow transplant and cellular therapyRRegaining appetite: Choosing flavours to try after a blood and marrow transplant and cellular therapyRegaining appetite: Choosing flavours to try after a blood and marrow transplant and cellular therapyEnglishHaematology;Immunology;Oncology;NutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemHealthy living and preventionAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2020-06-19T04:00:00Z11.000000000000055.0000000000000555.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Your child’s sense of taste may change after their blood and marrow transplant/cellular therapy. Learn which flavours and textures are helpful for boosting your child’s appetite after transplant.</p><p>The treatment that your child received for their blood and marrow transplant (BMT) or cellular therapy—like chemotherapy and other medicines—can change the way your child tastes food. Do not worry! Most children regain their sense of taste and appetite with time. Choosing foods with certain flavours and textures may help your child start to eat and drink again like they used to, and enjoy the food they eat.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Chemotherapy and other medicines can change the way your child tastes food.</li><li>Certain bold flavours and textures may help your child start to eat and drink like they used to.</li><li>Give your child cold food if they are still recovering from mucositis (mouth sores).</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Regaining_appetite--Choosing_flavours.jpgMain
Regular appointments for cancer treatmentRRegular appointments for cancer treatmentRegular appointments for cancer treatmentEnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANASupport, services and resourcesPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z10.200000000000055.9000000000000237.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>You will have many appointments with your health-care team as part of your treatment. Read about why it is so important to attend your regular appointments, even if you feel fine.</p><p>During cancer treatment you will have many appointments with your doctor or other members of your health-care team. </p><p>Sometimes, you may find it difficult to attend all of your appointments. There may be days when you feel too sick or tired, or times when appointments get in the way of school, work or other activities. Some days you may just not feel like going.</p><p>At times like these, it can be helpful to have a reminder of your ultimate goal: to be as healthy as possible. A big part of getting there is attending your regular appointments. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>It is important to attend all of your regular appointments, even if you aren't feeling well, so that your health-care team can monitor how the treatment is working and it's affects.</li><li>You should attend your appointments even if you feel fine and do not have any concerns so that your team can understand what's working well and you can discuss cancer follow-up care and future health needs.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Regular_appointments_TTC_Cancer.jpgTeens
Regular check-ups for JIARRegular check-ups for JIARegular check-ups for JIA-CANEnglishRheumatology;AdolescentPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)BodySkeletal systemNAPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2017-01-31T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out what happens during regular arthritis check-ups, how frequent they should be, and why it is important for you to attend all check-up appointments.</p><p>It is important that you have regular check-ups with your rheumatology health-care team. This usually includes a rheumatologist, nurses, occupational therapist (OT) and/or physical therapist (PT). These check-ups will help your doctor to see how the JIA is doing. It will also give you and your parents a chance to talk to the health-care team members.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Regular check-ups with the rheumatology team are important for monitoring symptoms and responses to medications.</li><li>Try to coordinate multiple appointments on the same day to avoid missing school or activities.</li><li>If you cannot attend a scheduled appointment, please phone the doctor's office to reschedule.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/regular_check-ups_for_juveline_ideopathic_arthritis.jpgTeens
Regular check-ups for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)RRegular check-ups for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)Regular check-ups for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)EnglishRheumatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodySkeletal systemTestsAdult (19+)NA2017-01-31T05:00:00Z8.5000000000000063.0000000000000490.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out what happens during regular arthritis check-ups, how frequent they should be, and why it is important for your child or teen to attend all check-up appointments.</p><p>It is important that your child have regular check-ups with the rheumatology health-care team. This usually includes a rheumatologist, nurses, occupational therapist (OT) and/or physical therapist (PT). These check-ups will help the doctor to see how your child is doing. It will also give you and your child a chance to talk to the health-care team.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Regular check-ups with the rheumatology team are important for monitoring symptoms and responses to medications.</li> <li>Try to coordinate multiple appointments on the same day to avoid missing school or activities.</li> <li>If your child cannot attend a scheduled appointment, please phone the doctor's office to reschedule.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/regular_check-ups_for_juveline_ideopathic_arthritis.jpgMain
Regular check-ups when taking immunosuppressantsRRegular check-ups when taking immunosuppressantsRegular check-ups when taking immunosuppressantsEnglishTransplant;NephrologyTeen (13-18 years)KidneysRenal system/Urinary systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-ZTeens
Regular eye exams for JIARRegular eye exams for JIARegular eye exams for JIA-CANEnglishRheumatology;Ophthalmology;AdolescentPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)EyesSkeletal systemNAPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)NA2017-01-31T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>If you have JIA, regular eye exams are very important for detecting early signs of eye inflammation. Learn what happens during an eye exam.</p><p>Regular eye exams for JIA are important as many children and teens with JIA are at risk for uveitis, which can lead to other <a href="/Article?contentid=2562&language=English">eye conditions</a> such as cataracts or glaucoma.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Eye exams are important as eye inflammation (uveitis) usually occurs without any eye symptoms until it is too late.</li><li>Eye inflammation can lead to cataracts and glaucoma.</li><li>Various, painless tests will be conducted during the eye exam.</li></ul> https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/regular_eye_exams_for_JIA_US.jpgTeens
Regular eye exams for JIARRegular eye exams for JIARegular eye exams for JIAEnglishRheumatology;OphthalmologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)EyesSkeletal systemTestsAdult (19+)NA2017-01-31T05:00:00Z7.6000000000000067.0000000000000592.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>If your child has JIA, regular eye exams are very important for detecting early signs of eye inflammation. Learn what happens during an eye exam.</p><p>Regular eye exams for JIA are important as many children and teens with JIA are at risk for uveitis, which can lead to other eye conditions such as cataracts or glaucoma.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Eye exams are important as eye inflammation (uveitis) usually occurs without any eye symptoms until it is too late.</li> <li>Eye inflammation can lead to cataracts and glaucoma.</li> <li>Various, painless tests will be conducted during the eye exam.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/regular_eye_exams_for_JIA.jpgMain
Regular tests and checks-ups after a transplantRRegular tests and checks-ups after a transplantRegular tests and checks-ups after a transplantEnglishTransplant;NephrologyTeen (13-18 years)KidneysRenal system/Urinary systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-ZTeens
RehabilitationRRehabilitationRehabilitationEnglishOtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANANon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2018-01-19T05:00:00Z000Landing PageLearning Hub<p>There are many reasons your child may need rehabilitation therapy. A therapist can help with things such as feeding problems or hand difference. If you child has a health condition they may need physiotherapy to help them recover.</p><p>There are many reasons your child may need rehabilitation therapy. An occupational therapist can help with things such as feeding problems, brachial plexus palsy or hand difference. If you child has a health condition or has had surgery they may need physiotherapy to help them recover and stay active.</p>rehabilitation,rehabhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/rehabilitation_landing_page.jpgMain
Rehabilitation therapists for children with heart diseaseRRehabilitation therapists for children with heart diseaseRehabilitation therapists for children with heart diseaseEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemHealth care professionalsAdult (19+)NA2009-12-04T05:00:00Z11.800000000000041.90000000000001446.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Physiotherapists, occupational therapists, and speech-language pathologists are health care professionals who can help children with heart conditions recover after surgery.<br></p><p> This page explains how various health care professionals can offer assistance with movement, speech, developmental and other day-to-day skills to children with heart conditions.</p><h2> Key points </h2><ul><li>Physiotherapists help prevent, identify and correct movement problems.</li><li> Occupational therapists help children with everyday functional skills and behaviours challenged by certain conditions and diseases.</li> <li>Speech-language pathologists help with speech, language, voice, feeding and swallowing difficulties.</li></ul>Main
Rehabilitation therapists for premature babiesRRehabilitation therapists for premature babiesRehabilitation therapists for premature babiesEnglishNeonatologyPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)NANAHealth care professionalsPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00Z12.200000000000041.20000000000001193.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about rehabilitation therapists. They are specialists trained to work with premature babies to help improve social, cognitive, and motor skills.</p><p>Occupational therapists and physiotherapists do some work that is similar, though physiotherapists tend to focus more on range of motion, orthopaedics, musculoskeletal concerns, and chest physiotherapy, while occupational therapists focus on feeding and sensory and motor development.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Physiotherapists prevent, identify and correct movement problems and can help if your baby is having breathing or musculoskeletal problems.</li> <li>Occupational therapists will help your baby learn to feed, hold their head up, look and follow with their eyes, soothe themselves and bring their hands to their mouth and body.</li></ul>Main
Rejection of a kidney transplantRRejection of a kidney transplantRejection of a kidney transplantEnglishTransplant;NephrologyTeen (13-18 years)KidneysRenal system/Urinary systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-ZTeens
Rejection of a liver transplantRRejection of a liver transplantRejection of a liver transplantEnglishTransplant;GastrointestinalTeen (13-18 years)LiverDigestive systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-ZTeens
Related donor for blood and marrow transplantRRelated donor for blood and marrow transplantRelated donor for blood and marrow transplantEnglishHaematology;Immunology;OncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemNAAdult (19+)NA2010-03-05T05:00:00Z7.7000000000000065.7000000000000822.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn what a related donor, including sibling donors, experiences before the blood and marrow transplant.</p><p>Being a donor can be a rewarding experience; however, it can be emotional to go through. Many have to embrace the possibility that the transplant may still not cure the child. This places a considerable amount of stress on the donor. Often, the attention becomes so focused on the child receiving the blood and marrow transplant (BMT) that the needs and concerns of the donor get ignored.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A donor can give stem cells from the bone marrow or from the peripheral blood.</li><li>The donor may want to speak with a social worker or psychologist to help them cope with any stress.</li></ul>Main
Relationship stress after having a babyRRelationship stress after having a babyRelationship stress after having a babyEnglishNeonatologyNewborn (0-28 days);Adult (19+)NANANAAdult (19+)NA2009-10-18T04:00:00Z9.3000000000000057.70000000000001271.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>How to effectively handle stress in a relationship after the birth of a baby. Having a baby can challenge even the best of relationships.</p><p>Some couples choose to have a baby to celebrate their stability or to strengthen their relationship. They think that a baby will bring them closer together, and that life after childbirth will be a time of tenderness, intimacy, and maturity. However, having a baby is a stressful experience that challenges even the best of relationships.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Mothers and fathers respond and adjust to their newborn baby in different ways, and sometimes this can cause misunderstandings and conflicts.</li><li>Find or schedule time to talk things over and be a couple, even if it's just for a few minutes.</li> <li>Seek medical help if you or your partner are experiencing any signs of depression.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/relationship_stress_after_baby.jpgMain
Relationship with your partnerRRelationship with your partnerRelationship with your partnerEnglishAdolescent;OncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)NANANAAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z59.10000000000008.90000000000000728.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>It can be very common for parents to experience increased difficulties in their relationships with partners or spouses when their child has cancer. Read about how you and your partner can cope separately and together.<br></p><p>Up until this point, you and your partner have likely divided certain household roles and responsibilities in a way that works for you and your family. Now that your teenager has been diagnosed with cancer, however, you may need to define new roles and responsibilities. You will need to explore how you’re going to cope separately and together.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>While it is normal for you and your partner to cope with your child's diagnosis and treatment in different ways, it is important to avoid negative coping methods.<br></li><li>Maintaining communication, self-care and making time for each other are important for strengthening a relationship.</li><li>For divorced parents, it is important to find a way to work together and communicate in a positive way so that your child gets the best care possible.</li><ul></ul></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Relationship_with_your_partner_TTC_Cancer.jpgMain
Relationships & sexuality for people with heart disease RRelationships & sexuality for people with heart disease Relationships & sexuality for people with heart diseaseEnglishCardiologyTeen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-12-14T05:00:00Z11.100000000000046.20000000000001000.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about relationships and sexuality for those with congenital heart conditions.</p><p> This page advises on how to support teens with heart conditions as their relationships change and sexuality begins to develop.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>The self-esteem of children and adolescents with a heart condition may suffer if they are excluded or feel alienated from their peers due to their health.</li> <li> Parents should still focus on the sexual development of teens with heart conditions and provide sexual health information.</li> <li> If your teen with a heart condition is experiencing irregular periods, a gynecologist can determine whether she is ovulating and will be able to have a child. </li> <li> Pediatric cardiologists can provide early sexual counselling to teens with heart conditions.</li> <li> Cardiologists should advise on birth control as oral contraception increases risk of blood clots.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/relationships_and_sexuality_for_people_with_heart_disease.jpgMain
Relationships and hemophiliaRRelationships and hemophiliaRelationships and hemophiliaEnglishHaematologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NAArteries;VeinsConditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2019-03-13T04:00:00Z7.0000000000000070.0000000000000394.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Relationship advice for teens living with hemophilia.</p><p>Establishing and maintaining relationships is an important part of life. A big part of being in a relationship is sharing personal stories with each other. Your personal stories are often filled with a colourful history that isn’t always perfect. Sharing your hemophilia will be a part of this story. Conversations like this will happen naturally as you get to know one another. Feeling anxious about sharing your condition is normal. Sharing your hemophilia may bring you two closer together or perhaps not much will change at all. Once you feel like the other person has gotten to know you well enough you may feel ready to talk to them about your hemophilia. You may feel comfortable very early in the relationship or want to wait until a few months have passed.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/hemophilia_and_relationships.jpgTeens
Relative energy deficiency in sports (RED-S)RRelative energy deficiency in sports (RED-S)Relative energy deficiency in sports (RED-S)EnglishAdolescentTeen (13-18 years)BodyBones;Cardiovascular system;Muscular systemHealthy living and preventionTeen (13-18 years)Fatigue;Joint or muscle pain2022-06-10T04:00:00Z9.8000000000000056.50000000000001079.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Relative energy deficiency in sports (RED-S) is a syndrome in athletes caused by consistently not getting enough fuel through food to support the demands of your daily physical activity and training. It is not an eating disorder but can put you at risk for developing, or can result in, one.</p><h2>What is RED-S?</h2><p>Relative energy deficiency in sports (RED-S) is a syndrome caused by consistently not getting enough fuel through food to support the demands of your daily physical activity and training. You may be unaware of just how few calories you are taking in, or you may be limiting your food intake on purpose due to disordered eating or influence/pressure by a parent or coach. Over time, if you do not get enough fuel through food to support the energy demands of your daily training, RED-S can lead to poor health and declining athletic performance.</p><h3>How is RED-S different from an eating disorder?</h3><p>RED-S is a syndrome (a group of symptoms that happen at the same time) that occurs from not getting enough fuel through food to support the demands of your daily physical activity and training. It may overlap with disordered eating, be the result of disordered eating, or it can be a risk factor for developing an eating disorder.</p><figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/REDS_Teen_site.jpg" alt="" /> </figure> <h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>RED-S is a syndrome caused by consistently not getting enough fuel through food to support the demands of your daily physical activity and training.</li><li>Typical signs and symptoms include feeling tired and/or weak, significant weight loss, irregular/missed periods (for people who menstruate), trouble focusing, irritability, anxiety or depression, and frequent/increased injury and illness.</li><li>RED-S can affect athletes of any gender and ability level. You may be at higher risk of developing RED-S if you are a competitive athlete, your sport traditionally favours a thin or lean body type or requires frequent weigh-ins.</li><li>Over time, RED-S can lead to poor health and declining athletic performance.</li><li>You can help prevent RED-S by thinking of food as fuel, choosing activities that complement your natural body strengths, valuing health over competitive success, and being a body-positive role model.</li></ul><h2>What are the signs and symptoms of RED-S?</h2><h3>Physical</h3><ul><li>Feeling tired and/or weak</li><li>Quick and/or significant weight loss</li><li>Dehydration</li><li>Irregular/missed periods (amenorrhea) for people who menstruate</li><li>Frequent/increased injury (e.g., stress fractures, pulled muscles)</li><li>Slow injury healing</li><li>Heart problems (e.g., sudden drops in heart rate and/or blood pressure)</li><li>Delayed puberty</li><li>Having a low/decreased sex drive</li><li>Frequent illness (e.g., colds, flu)</li><li>Trouble staying warm</li><li>Hair loss</li><li>Digestion problems</li><li>Dental and gum problems</li></ul><h3>Psychological</h3><ul><li>Trouble focusing/concentrating</li><li>Irritability</li><li><a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3810&language=English">Anxiety</a> or <a href="https://teens.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=3983&language=English">depression</a></li><li>Disordered eating</li><li>Impaired judgment</li></ul><h2>Who is at risk for RED-S?</h2><p>RED-S can affect athletes of any gender and ability level. However, you may be at higher risk of developing RED-S if your sport or activity traditionally favours a thin or lean body type (like ballet, figure skating, swimming, gymnastics, long distance running, cycling) or requires frequent weigh-ins (like boxing, wrestling and rowing). If you are a competitive athlete, you may also be at a higher risk compared to casual athletes.</p><h2>How can RED-S be treated?</h2><p>Treating RED-S can be tricky to do on your own. It can be helpful to seek out help from a broad support system like your doctor, a registered dietician, a mental health counsellor, and your family, friends, and coaches. RED-S can be treated gradually by increasing your food intake to adequately support the level of your daily physical activity or by decreasing your daily exercise to accommodate your current diet.</p><p>It is possible to be admitted to the hospital for medical or psychological complications of RED-S, with or without an eating disorder, for not getting enough fuel through food to support the demands of your daily physical activity and training.</p><p>Depending on your signs and symptoms and level of risk, your doctor may recommend that you stop training. Practising self care and getting enough sleep will also help in recovery.</p><h2>How does RED-S affect my health and athletic performance?</h2><h3>Poor athletic performance</h3><p>Many of the symptoms of RED-S can not only impact your overall health, but directly impact your performance as an athlete. This often happens in a ‘chain reaction’, with one symptom triggering the next. Feeling tired and having weak muscles can slow you down. It can also put more strain on your heart and lungs, which are working harder to keep up with your body’s pace. A lack of proper fuel through food can make you feel irritable and unable to focus, which can lead to poor performance, increased injury and slow healing.</p><h3>Irregular/missed periods</h3><p>For people who menstruate, exercising intensely and not eating enough calories can lead to a decrease in estrogen, the hormone that helps to regulate your menstrual cycle. As a result, your periods may become irregular or stop completely. When estrogen levels are low, you can experience delayed puberty and bone loss.</p><h3>Brittle bones/low bone density</h3><p>One of the more permanent effects of RED-S can be low bone density (brittle bones). When your body does not get enough fuel in the form of food, it can cause your bones to become weak and brittle. This is a risk to people of all genders, but especially to those who menstruate, and can lead to a permanent change to your bone health as your transition into adulthood. When your bones are weak, you are more prone to stress fractures, which can impact your ability to train and compete. These injuries will also be slower to heal and more likely to happen again over time.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/REDS_Teen_site.jpgTeens
RelaxationRRelaxationRelaxation after a transplantEnglishTransplant;NephrologyTeen (13-18 years)KidneysRenal system/Urinary systemProcedures;Conditions and diseasesTeen (13-18 years)NA2017-11-30T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>There are many ways you can do relaxation, including:</p> <ul> <li>relaxation with tension</li> <li>relaxation without tension</li> <li>mini-relaxation.<br></li> </ul>Teens
Relaxation and cancer treatmentRRelaxation and cancer treatmentRelaxation and cancer treatmentEnglishOncologyPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANANon-drug treatmentPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-18 years)NA2019-09-03T04:00:00Z6.8000000000000068.9000000000000524.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Relaxation is a skill that you can learn and practice over time. Find out why you should practice relaxation and when to use these techniques.</p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe width="560" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/kJ_9qZuTnRM?rel=0" frameborder="0"></iframe> <br></div><p>For more videos regarding teens and cancer, please visit the <a href="https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PLjJtOP3StIuVPUkVxvdZfVGhAY_Dj-Vb7">Teens Taking Charge Cancer playlist</a>. </p><h2>What is relaxation?</h2><p>Stress and discomfort can cause you to tense your muscles and hold your body in unusual ways. The tension makes muscles tired and tight instead of loose and relaxed. </p><p>Tension can be different for everyone. For example, some people have tension in their neck while others clench their teeth or even feel the tension in their stomach. Stress and tension can make your cancer symptoms and treatment side effects worse.</p><p>Relaxation is a way to relax muscles all over your body. It’s a skill you can learn and improve with practice. Just like playing the guitar or baseball, the more you practice, the better you get. When you are relaxed, your body and your muscles are loose. You will also notice your breathing become slow and deep. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Stress and tension can make cancer symptoms and treatment side effects worse.</li><li>Relaxation is a skill you can learn to help relax your muscles and control your breathing.</li><li>Relaxation can help to reduce the effects of stress, give you more energy and help you manage emotions such as fear or anger.</li><li>Practice relaxation techniques every day so that you can use them when you feel pain, strong emotions or tension.</li></ul>Teens
Relaxation for pain managementRRelaxation for pain managementRelaxation for pain managementEnglishPain/AnaesthesiaChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyCentral nervous system;Peripheral nervous system;Autonomic nervous systemSymptomsCaregivers Adult (19+)Pain2009-09-15T04:00:00Z9.4000000000000058.80000000000001237.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about relaxation techniques, such as progressive muscle relaxation and hypnosis, that can be used for pain management in children.</p><p>Many children with pain, especially chronic pain, have lost the ability to feel relaxed because they have spent so much time hurting and tensing against the pain. They often need to re-learn how to completely and fully relax. Health-care providers will recommend specific exercises or play times to help children more naturally become relaxed by resuming their normal sports and social activities. They may also teach children specific relaxation techniques to lessen tense muscles throughout the body. </p> <p>These techniques are commonly used with guided imagery because the concrete imagery makes it easier for children to learn how to relax tense muscles. With practice, children and young people can get very good at becoming deeply relaxed very quickly. This gives the child or young person another tool to use so that they feel more in control of their life.</p> <p>There are many effective relaxation techniques that children can use to reduce pain. Indeed, relaxation makes up some part of most of the psychological coping methods. The point of relaxation is exactly that: to relax and let stress go. The goal is not necessarily to fall asleep — though if your child wants to fall asleep and relaxation techniques help them do so, that is also fine.</p>Main
Relaxation with tensionRRelaxation with tensionRelaxation with tension-CANEnglishRheumatology;AdolescentPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)BodySkeletal systemNon-drug treatmentPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)Joint or muscle pain;Pain2017-01-31T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Relaxation is a way to relieve muscle tension and pain by tensing and then relaxing different groups of muscles in your body. You start in one area and then move on to different groups of muscles, tensing and relaxing as you go. After tensing the muscles for a few seconds, they will want to relax. You will be able to relax deeply after tensing your muscles. It is a good exercise to help you notice the difference between what tension and relaxation feels like. </p>Teens
Relaxation without tensionRRelaxation without tensionRelaxation without tension-CANEnglishRheumatology;AdolescentPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years);Late Teen (16-18 years)BodySkeletal systemNon-drug treatmentPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-15 years) Late Teen (16-18 years)Joint or muscle pain;Pain2017-01-31T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>In the <a href="/Article?contentid=2586&language=English">previous page</a>, you learned how to relax your muscles after tensing them first. You can learn to relax without tension by imagining the feelings you have when your muscles are relaxed. This way, you won’t need to tense your muscles first. </p>Teens
Relieving pain in babiesRRelieving pain in babiesRelieving pain in babiesEnglishNeonatologyNewborn (0-28 days)BodyNANAAdult (19+)Pain2010-10-18T04:00:00Z10.700000000000046.50000000000001011.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>How to effectively relieve an infant's pain. Learn about techniques that have been known to ease pain, such as massage and skin-to-skin contact.</p><p>Pain in babies is treated in much the same way as in older children and adults. Medications and behavioural and physical methods are all used. Often, parents can participate in the behavioural and physical methods of pain relief. These are discussed further down this page. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Babies may be given pain medications depending on their condition and the amount of pain present.</li> <li>Parents may be concerned about drug safety and addiction, however when opioids are taken under supervision for pain relief, addiction is rare.</li> <li>Physical pain management methods include massage and touch, prayer, non-nutritive sucking, skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/relieving_pain_in_babies.jpgMain
ReproductionRReproductionReproductionEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)Body;Uterus;Fallopian tubes;Ovaries;Penis;Vas deferens;Scrotum;TesticleReproductive systemNAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-10T04:00:00Z8.4000000000000063.0000000000000596.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the male and female reproductive systems. The process of reproduction, including ovulation and fertilization, are discussed.</p><p>Human reproduction is when an egg cell from a woman and a sperm cell from a man unite and develop in the womb to form a baby. A number of organs and structures in both the woman and the man are needed in order for this process to occur. These are called the reproductive organs and genitals.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Human reproduction is when an egg cell from a woman and a sperm cell from a man unite and develop to form a baby.</li> <li>Ovulation is when a woman's ovary releases an egg cell.</li> <li>A fertilized egg is implanted in the uterus and grows into the unborn baby.</li</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Female_reproductive_adult_MED_ILL_EN.jpgMain
Research and clinical trialsRResearch and clinical trialsResearch and clinical trialsEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)BodyReproductive systemNAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-11T04:00:00Z8.5000000000000060.70000000000001390.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the importance of clinical research. The benefits and complications of phase I, phase II, and phase III trials are discussed.</p><p>A clinical trial is a research study or scientific experiment that examines the use of drugs or other interventions in treatment. It asks a specific question to try and find better ways of preventing, diagnosing, and treating certain conditions in pregnancy, childbirth, or infancy.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>There are three phases to clinical trials with the most experimental stage being Phase I.</li> <li>Informed consent is when a person agrees to participate in a research or clinical trial or undergo a specific treatment with a full understanding of the purpose, results expected, risks and benefits and other treatments available. </li></ul>Main
Research and clinical trials: An overviewRResearch and clinical trials: An overviewResearch and clinical trials: An overviewEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANANon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-12-11T05:00:00Z9.0000000000000055.7000000000000999.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the different kinds of health research and how research leads to better health care.</p><h2>What are the different kinds of research?</h2> <p>A lot of research is conducted to learn more about diseases that only happen in children, or that have a different course in children than in adults. Doctors, nurses, and other health professionals also study children's mental and physical development in research that can ultimately benefit all children. </p> <p>Different types of research studies include:</p> <ul> <li>"chart reviews," which look at children's existing hospital records to study what happened before, during and after treatment of a disease</li> <li>questionnaires, surveys and interviews, used to collect information on disease outcomes, behaviour, opinions, quality of life or patient satisfaction</li> <li>standard research on sick patients using physical examinations, imaging and specimen collection to study diseases or diagnostic methods</li> <li>intervention studies, which look at a therapy such as a drug, medical device, surgery or physical therapy. Intervention studies include clinical trials.</li> </ul> <h3>What is a clinical trial?</h3> <p>A <a href="/Article?contentid=1264&language=English">clinical trial</a> is a research study that examines the use of drugs or other therapies in treatment. It asks a specific question to try and find better ways of preventing, diagnosing or treating different medical conditions. For example, clinical trials could study new drugs or new combinations of known drugs. </p> <p>Usually, there are four different phases of clinical drug trials. Phase I and Phase II trials determine the safety of a drug. By the time a treatment reaches a phase III clinical trial, it has been well studied and deemed safe for humans. Phase III trials are conducted by an organizing group of experts and under a set of strict rules called a protocol. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>There are many kinds of health research, ranging from chart reviews all the way up to clinical trials.</li> <li>Research is the only way to improve medical treatment and make sure that new treatments are safe and effective.</li> </ul><h2>Research and treatment protocols</h2> <h3>What is a protocol?</h3> <p>A formal protocol is a written plan that describes in detail how to treat a particular illness. It describes the drugs, dosages and tests that are needed. It tells the treatment team how often and when each drug should be given based on a schedule. Each protocol is based on research that shows which treatments are more effective.</p> <p>Experts from many hospitals work together to develop protocols. The results from each hospital are gathered and studied. Researchers have developed international groups to oversee and coordinate these efforts. Protocols can change if new research shows there are other drugs or combinations of drugs that are more effective. Drug companies, while involved in research protocols that initially establish the safety, dosage limits and efficacy of drugs, are not involved in organizing treatment protocols.</p> <h3>What is randomization?</h3> <p>Randomization is used in studies that involve two or more groups. Each group gets a different treatment and patients have to be placed in one of the groups. Randomization means that the patients are placed in a group by chance. This makes sure the results are not biased. A bias may be possible if a person decides who goes in which group. Usually a computer will assign a patient to a group. Most research protocols need randomization at diagnosis, or shortly after diagnosis. </p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/research_clinical_trials_overview.jpgMain
ResilienceRResilienceResilienceEnglishNAPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2012-04-23T04:00:00Z11.700000000000040.9000000000000681.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Resilience is a learned skill. Resilient children are able to cope with stress, particularly after a traumatic life event.</p><h2>​What is resilience?</h2><p>Resilience refers to one’s ability to “bounce back” from adversity. When faced with a difficult life event – for example, the sudden loss of a loved one – resilient individuals are able to successfully cope with, or adapt to, the associated stress.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Resilience is the ability to cope with, and adapt to, stress brought on by a difficult life event.</li> <li>Some children develop resilience through natural process, while others require assistance.</li> <li>Factors that influence the development of resilience in children include general health and well-being, temperament, and parenting styles and behaviours.</li> <li>Parents and caregivers play a key role in the development and nurturing of resilience in children.</li> </ul><h2>Resources</h2><h3>Kids Help Phone – <a href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/">kidshelpphone.ca</a></h3><p>Kids Help Phone is a 24/7 e-mental health service offering free, confidential support to young people.</p><p><a href="https://kidshelpphone.ca/get-info/fostering-hope-how-to-build-resilience-in-youth/">Fostering hope: How to build resilience in youth</a></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/resilience.jpgMain
ResourcesRResourcesResourcesEnglishNANewborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)NANASupport, services and resourcesAdult (19+)NA2009-10-18T04:00:00Z12.200000000000043.3000000000000640.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>An essential list of books, videos, and websites to aid new parents in raising a child to the best of their abilities.</p><p>There are many resources available for expecting parents to help guide them through pregnancy and their baby's early years. These resources include books, websites and videos.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Resources for expecting parents include books, websites and videos.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/pregnancy-induced_hypertension.jpgMain
Resources for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)RResources for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)Resources for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)EnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years)NANervous systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-03-09T04:00:00Z8.6000000000000059.3000000000000664.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>There are many resources to provide support to children with ASD and their families. This page contains a list of community and online resources for ASD.<br></p><p>This section details a list of resources. They will be important to consider as a first step in putting supports in place for your child and family. Some of the resources listed may not apply to your situation because children with ASD can vary greatly in terms of their special needs. Over time, you will create your own list based on your child’s specific needs and the area where you live.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li> Both children with ASD and their families can benefit from financial support, multi-service agencies, behavioural resources, communication resources (speech and language services), sensory and motor services, social and recreation services, family support and respite services, school services, and research opportunities.</li> <li> Some agencies offer more than one type of service.</li> <li> Many agencies have long waiting lists.</li> <li> If you live outside Toronto and do not know where to find similar resources, you can ask agencies listed here to recommend similar local services.</li></ul>Main

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