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FAQs for scoliosis surgeonsFFAQs for scoliosis surgeonsFAQs for scoliosis surgeonsEnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Vertebrae;SpineMuscular system;Skeletal systemHealth care professionalsAdult (19+)NA2008-06-01T04:00:00ZSandra Donaldson, BA;Andrew Howard, MD, MSc, FRCSC;James G. Wright, MD, MPH, FRCSC64.00000000000008.000000000000002500.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out the answers to several frequently asked questions about scoliosis from leading spine surgeons. Trusted answers from The Hospital for Sick Children.</p><p>We asked some leading surgeons to answer a few frequently asked questions about scoliosis surgery. Here is what they had to say. </p>
Facial difference: Confronting the challenges of bullyingFFacial difference: Confronting the challenges of bullyingFacial difference: Confronting the challenges of bullyingEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Head;NeckNAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2011-07-29T04:00:00ZFarah Sheikh MSW, RSW7.0000000000000069.30000000000001844.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>When children have facial differences, they may be more likely to experience bullying than their peers. As a parent, you can help your child confront these challenges.</p><h2>What is a facial difference?</h2> <p>A child with a facial difference has a face that looks different. This may be because of a condition they were born with or because of an accident, illness, or surgery that happened later in life. A facial difference may affect the way a child speaks. It may also affect learning, behavior, and social abilities.</p> <p>Children with facial differences often face challenges because of the way they look or because of other differences. Sometimes, these challenges involve negative reactions from other children and adults. These pages give advice and tips to parents on how they can help their child confront these challenges allowing them to get on with their lives.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Children who have facial differences may be more likely to experience bullying than their peers.</li> <li>You and your child can learn strategies for coping with bullying, including role play and preparing responses to other people's questions.</li> <li>Talk about what is happening. Your child can talk to friends, parents, school staff, and teachers when they feel they are being bullied.</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Bullying_taunting_MED_ILL_EN.jpg
Factors affecting pain assessmentFFactors affecting pain assessmentFactors affecting pain assessmentEnglishPain/AnaesthesiaChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyCentral nervous system;Peripheral nervous system;Autonomic nervous systemSymptomsCaregivers Adult (19+)Pain2009-09-15T04:00:00ZToni Crowell, BA, MSc, CCLS9.7000000000000055.90000000000001562.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the factors that affect pain assessment such as our emotions, behaviour and cultural attitudes to pain.</p><p>Several factors besides age and development can affect an accurate assessment of pain. These include a child’s gender, their psychological and emotional state, their overall behaviour and temperament and their family and cultural background.</p> <p>The role of parents and, in the case of older children, their peers, can be influential on the assessment of a child’s pain. Children often take cues from their parents’ own pain behaviours; they have in part learned how to behave by watching their parents. Children are also aware of how they are expected to behave in certain situations. That expectation can affect the child’s response to pain and their way of showing or hiding it. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>An accurate assessment of pain can be affected by a number of factors, including a child's age, gender, level of understanding and previous pain experiences.</li><li>Cultural and family norms also influence the degree to which your child may experience and express their pain.</li><li>What your child thinks and feels about pain, and how they respond to it, are other factors that affect an accurate assessment.</li><li>All children should be encouraged to freely express their pain so they can receive an accurate assessment and appropriate treatment.<br></li></ul>
Failure to thriveFFailure to thriveFailure to thriveEnglishNABaby (1-12 months)BodyNAConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-10-18T04:00:00ZDouglas Campbell, MD, FRCPCAndrew James, MBChB, MBI, FRACP, FRCPC9.8000000000000058.70000000000001513.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about failure to thrive, which is when a child does not grow adequately over time. Learn about the causes and management of failure to thrive.</p><p>Failure to thrive occurs when a child does not grow adequately over time. Children with untreated failure to thrive are at risk for having a short stature, behavioural and emotional problems and developmental delays. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>There are a variety of causes for failure to thrive including maternal stress, diluted formula, feeding difficulties or specific health conditions.</li> <li>The best way to diagnose failure to thrive is to carefully measure and plot a baby’s weight, height and head circumference over time and then compare the measurements to the standardized growth charts.</li> <li>Managing failure to thrive includes monitoring and changing your bay's diet and managing mealtime routines.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/failure_to_thrive.jpg
Failure to thrive in children with congenital heart conditionsFFailure to thrive in children with congenital heart conditionsFailure to thrive in children with congenital heart conditionsEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years)HeartCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-12-04T05:00:00ZFraser Golding, MD, FRCPC8.8000000000000056.9000000000000167.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about failure to thrive and how your child's health-care team manages it.<br></p><p> Failure to thrive means a difficulty growing and gaining weight. </p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li> Underlying causes of failure to thrive can include heart problems, breathing problems, gastrointestinal problems and inability to absorb nutrients. </li> <li> The doctor will need to assess your child regularly to determine and treat the underlying cause.</li></ul>
FaintingFFaintingFaintingEnglishNAToddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-11-16T05:00:00ZElizabeth Berger, BA, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, MHPE7.6000000000000065.2000000000000530.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Discover the signs and symptoms of fainting, what causes it and how to help your child if they have fainted.</p><p>Fainting, also called syncope, happens when a person suddenly loses consciousness and then rapidly returns to normal.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Fainting is a sudden and temporary loss of consciousness with a rapid return to normal.</li><li>Your child may feel dizzy, nauseous, hot or cold right before they faint. Their face may also go pale.</li><li>The most common cause of fainting is a drop in blood pressure. Other, more serious, causes include an underlying heart condition, low blood sugar or anemia.</li><li>See your child's doctor to discuss the possible cause of any fainting episode. Call 911 right away if your child has stopped breathing or does not “come around” shortly after fainting.​​</li></ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of fainting</h2> <p>Right before fainting, your child might:</p> <ul> <li>feel dizzy or light headed</li> <li>feel weak</li> <li>see dark spots</li> <li>hear muffled sounds</li> <li>feel nauseous (want to <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomit​</a>)</li> <li>feel hot</li> <li>feel cold and clammy</li> <li>become pale</li> <li>start to sweat</li> </ul><h2>Causes of fainting</h2> <p>A child can faint for a number of possible reasons. The most common cause of fainting is a temporary drop in blood pressure. Fainting because of low blood pressure is often called a “vagal” or “vasovagal” episode.</p> <p>A child is more likely to have a drop in blood pressure if they:</p> <ul> <li>are <a href="/Article?contentid=776&language=English">dehydrated</a> (from excessive sweating, diarrhea or vomiting)</li> <li>have not been eating</li> <li>have been standing still for a long time</li> <li>are unwell</li> </ul> <h2>Other common causes of fainting</h2> <p>A child might also faint if they</p> <ul> <li>are frightened</li> <li>are in severe pain</li> <li>stand up too fast</li> <li>are having a <a href="/Article?contentid=780&language=English">breath-holding spell</a></li> </ul> <p>Fainting may be more likely in a closed setting or one that is hot and humid. It may also happen in response to a stimulus that is noxious (unpleasant or potentially harmful), such as a very bad smell or the sight of blood or a needle.</p> <h2>More serious medical causes of fainting</h2> <p>Fainting can sometimes have more serious causes. These include:</p> <ul> <li>an underlying heart condition or heart rhythm disturbance</li> <li>exposure to a medication, toxin or drug</li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=1726&language=English">hypoglycemia</a> (low blood sugar)</li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=841&language=English">anemia</a> (low levels of iron in the blood)</li> <li>pregnancy</li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=781&language=English">anaphylaxis</a> (allergic reaction)</li> </ul> <p>Fainting during exercise or exertion (carrying or pushing something heavy) can be a sign of an underlying condition and should be discussed with your child's doctor.</p> <h2>Conditions that appear similar to fainting</h2> <p>There are some conditions that make it appear that a child is fainting when, in fact, something else is wrong. These mimics of fainting include:</p> <ul> <li><a href="/article?contentid=2057&language=English">seizures</a></li> <li>migraine <a href="/Article?contentid=29&language=English">headaches​</a></li> <li>hyperventilation</li> <li>panic attacks<br></li> </ul><h2>When to see a doctor</h2> <p>See your child's doctor to identify the cause of a fainting episode.</p> <p>Call 911 right away if your child:</p> <ul> <li>has stopped breathing</li> <li>does not become alert right away</li> <li>has changes in their speech, vision or ability to move</li> </ul>faintinghttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/fainting.jpg
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF)FFamilial Mediterranean fever (FMF)Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF)EnglishRheumatologyToddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Chest;Abdomen;Knee;Ankle;SkinImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2015-07-15T04:00:00ZRon Laxer, MD, FRCPC;Karyl S. Barron, MD (National Institutes of Health)​​9.6000000000000052.1000000000000982.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) involves recurrent episodes of fever accompanied by symptoms of abdominal pain, chest pain, joint pain and/or skin rashes. Learn about causes, tests and treatments for FMF.</p><p>Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a disease that involves recurrent episodes of <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a> without an associated infection. Attacks of fever in FMF are usually accompanied by symptoms of inflammation in one or more sites. These may include abdominal pain, chest pain, joint pain and skin rashes, among others. It is a life-long disease and there is no known cure. Fortunately, however, it can be controlled with treatment.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>FMF is a disease that causes regular attacks of fever.</li> <li>The attacks are accompanied by inflammation in areas such as the abdomen, chest, joints and skin.</li> <li>FMF can be treated and controlled with a medication called colchicine.</li> </ul><h2>Symptoms of FMF</h2> <p>A typical attack of FMF starts with a sudden rise in temperature, often up to 104°F (40°C). Fever usually lasts from one to three days and in most cases is accompanied by severe abdominal pain. The pain comes from inflammation of the lining of the abdomen. Sometimes the pain is so bad that it seems as if the child has <a href="/Article?contentid=818&language=English">appendicitis</a>, even though the appendix itself is not inflamed. Severe chest pain, called pleuritis, occurs in about one-third of patients. Brief episodes of arthritis, usually involving the knee or ankle, can occur in about half of patients. About one-third of patients get painful red skin and swelling, called erysipelas. This typically occurs over the foot. These symptoms generally disappear as the fever resolves, although attacks of arthritis may last for up to one week. Rarely, arthritis affecting a single joint, including the joints of the back (sacroiliitis), may persist. Attacks may also be accompanied by severe muscle pain, called myalgia.</p><h2>How common is FMF?</h2> <p>FMF is more common in certain ethnic groups, primarily those whose ancestry was around the Mediterranean Sea. These groups include Armenians, Turks, Arabs and Jews, especially of Sephardic background. More recently, however, FMF has been diagnosed in people from many other ethnic backgrounds. Attacks of FMF begin before the age of 20 in 90% of patients. Attacks begin before age 10 in at least 50% of patients.</p> <h2>Causes of FMF</h2> <p>FMF appears to be caused by failure of the body to control the inflammation system. A protein called pyrin is an important controller of inflammation in the body. Changes (mutations) in the gene that makes pyrin, called MEFV, are found in up to 80% of FMF cases. Most cases require two mutations (one from the mother and one from the father) in the MEFV gene to result in FMF. This type of disease is called “autosomal recessive,” meaning that parents are generally carriers. There is often, but not always, a history of another family member having a similar disease. Sometimes only one or even no mutations are found in typical cases of FMF.</p><h2>Treatment of FMF</h2> <p>Fortunately, amyloidosis can almost always be prevented by stopping attacks of inflammation with the drug colchicine. Taking colchicine every day reduces the frequency of the attacks as well as the severity of the attacks that do occur, and therefore prevents the development of amyloidosis. Colchicine is prescribed as a daily medication. In some patients, missing even one dose may result in an attack. You and your doctor will decide if your child needs colchicine and if so, for how long. </p> <h2>Lab tests for children with FMF</h2> <p>During the attacks, blood tests will usually show very marked degrees of inflammation. The most commonly requested tests are a complete blood count (CBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP). These levels return to normal or near normal between attacks.</p> <p>Your doctor will check for the development of amyloidosis by performing a general physical examination and also a urine test to check for protein in the urine every six months.</p><h2>Complications of FMF</h2> <p>Without treatment, attacks of FMF will occur frequently and can be disabling for the patient. If attacks of inflammation are not controlled, there is a risk of developing amyloidosis, the most serious complication of FMF. In amyloidosis, a protein of inflammation called SAA is deposited in multiple organ systems, particularly the kidney, heart and gastrointestinal tract. Amyloidosis appears to be less common in patients born and raised in the northern hemisphere.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/familial_mediterranean_fever.jpg
Family support and respite services for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)FFamily support and respite services for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)Family support and respite services for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)EnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years)NANervous systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-03-09T04:00:00ZJanice Mulligan MSW, RSWRadha MacCulloch, MSWWendy Roberts MD. FRCPCLee Steel11.400000000000040.1000000000000828.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Provides information about the resources available for family support and respite when a child in the family has autism spectrum disorder.</p><br><p>This section includes information about agencies that provide support services to families and people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>Agencies that provide support services to families and people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) include support groups, referrals to community services, and respite services.</li> <li> You may need the help of a service coordinator to find respite services.</li></ul>
Family support for the child with a congenital heart conditionFFamily support for the child with a congenital heart conditionFamily support for the child with a congenital heart conditionEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemHealth care professionalsAdult (19+)NA2009-12-04T05:00:00ZJennifer Russell, MD, FRCPC9.3000000000000057.10000000000002435.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Having a child with heart disease is a strain for the whole family. Various different health professionals can provide support in difficult times.<br></p><p>Many feelings and stresses can come up when your child is in the hospital. Along with your child’s illness, you may have problems dealing with a complex hospital system. The family support team can help you to cope.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li> Social workers can offer individual, family or group counselling, patient and family education, information about and referral to community based services.</li> <li> Psychologists are trained mental health professionals that can help individuals cope with problems that can be causing stress, anxiety or depression.</li> <li>Child life specialists are trained in child and family development and can help children and patients understand the hospital environment.</li> <li> Patient representatives help connect patients and families with hospital staff and services.</li> <li> A bioethics consultant can help patients and parents who have ethical or moral concerns about their child's care. </li></ul>
Family support team for blood and marrow transplantFFamily support team for blood and marrow transplantFamily support team for blood and marrow transplantEnglishHaematology;Immunology;OncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemHealth care professionalsAdult (19+)NA2010-02-12T05:00:00ZJohn Doyle, MD, FRCPC, FAAPChristine Armstrong, RN, MScN, NP Peds9.0000000000000059.20000000000001564.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn how the family support team can help you cope during your child's blood and marrow transplant (BMT).</p><p>Many feelings and stresses can come up when your child is in the blood and marrow transplant (BMT) unit. Along with dealing with your child’s transplant, you may have trouble dealing with a complex hospital system. The family support team can help you cope.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A family support team will be available to help you cope and deal with the complex hospital system.</li><li>The family support team may include a social worker, an interpreter, a chaplain, a patient representative, and a bioethics consultant.</li></ul>
Fast foods: Better choicesFFast foods: Better choicesFast foods: Better choicesEnglishNutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2015-11-13T05:00:00ZJennifer Buccino, MEd, RD7.4000000000000065.20000000000001173.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn tips on making the healthiest choices when eating out.</p><p>In today's fast-paced world, it is likely unrealistic to say you will never eat fast food or restaurant food again. However, you can still lead a healthy lifestyle and occasionally eat out at the same time. The more you know about the food that goes into your body, the better choices you will be able to make. </p><br><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Eating a diet high in saturated fat and salt, causes weight gain and high blood pressure.</li> <li>If you know you will be eating a meal out, be sure to include lots of whole grains, vegetables and fruits, low-fat dairy products during the day. This way you can balance your intake.</li> <li>The average adult needs about 2000 calories a day. Just one fast food meal can easily contribute nearly half of these daily requirements.</li> <li>Choose healthy fast-food options, which include: single, plain burgers; grilled chicken; unbattered fish. Avoid deep-fried food and always watch your portion size.</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/fast_food_better_choices.jpg
Fast heart rate (tachycardia)FFast heart rate (tachycardia)Fast heart rate (tachycardia)EnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartHeartConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2010-03-19T04:00:00ZElizabeth Stephenson, MD, MSc9.6000000000000050.00000000000001178.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn about different kinds of tachycardia (fast heart rate) and how tachycardia is treated.</p><h2>How does the heart beat?<br></h2> <p>The heartbeat is controlled by electricity. Special cells called pacemakers release bursts of electrical energy that travel through the <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=heart">heart muscle</a>, causing it to contract. When the muscle contracts, blood is pumped through the heart.</p> <h2>What is an arrhythmia?</h2> <p>An <a href="/Article?contentid=890&language=English">arrhythmia</a> (also called dysrhythmia) refers to what is usually an irregular heartbeat. The heart rate can be fast, slow or irregular, taking into consideration age and activity. For example, a newborn's heart beats much faster than a five-year-old child's heart. </p> <h2>What is tachycardia?</h2> <p>Tachycardia is a type of arrhythmia. It is a fast heart rate. With tachycardia, the resting heart rate for a newborn can increase to over 160 beats per minute. This can last for seconds, minutes or even hours, depending on how serious it is. Symptoms include feeling dizzy, weak and generally uncomfortable. </p> <p>It is important to know that it is unusual for tachycardia to cause the heart to stop all of a sudden, and it usually does not last long enough to cause serious damage. </p> <p>There are two basic types of tachycardia: </p> <ul> <li>ventricular tachycardia, which involves only the ventricles</li> <li>supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), which involves both the atria and the ventricles</li> </ul> <p>The most common tachycardia in children is supraventricular tachycardia. This used to be called paroxysmal atrial tachycardia.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Tachycardia is an abnormally fast heart rate.</li> <li>During an episode of tachycardia, your child may feel dizzy, weak or uncomfortable, and the heart may beat more than 160 times per minute.</li> <li>It is unusual for tachycardia to cause the heart to stop all of a sudden. </li> <li>Tachycardia usually does not last long enough to cause serious damage.</li> <li>There are many different types of tachycardia. Usually, they are caused by a problem with the heart's electrical system.</li> <li>Treatment depends on what is causing the tachycardia.</li> </ul><h2>How is tachycardia diagnosed?</h2> <p>A tachycardia can be diagnosed with one of the following:</p> <ul> <li><a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=heart">electrocardiogram</a></li> <li>electrophysiology study (EPS)</li> </ul><h2>How is tachycardia treated?</h2> <p>Treatment depends on what is causing the tachycardia. Some SVTs can be stopped with certain techniques called vasovagal manoeuvres, including: </p> <ul> <li>blowing on your thumb like it's a horn </li> <li>blowing through a straw with your hand on the end to plug it </li> <li>putting ice or cold water on the face for a few seconds</li> </ul> <p>Other tachycardias can be helped with medication. Drugs can help prevent the episodes from starting, decrease the heart rate during the episode or shorten how long the episode lasts. </p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=51&language=English">Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA)</a> is another option. This approach delivers electricity to the heart to permanently interrupt the abnormal electrical pathway. One of the newer approaches is cryoablation, which involves the use of freezing. </p><h2>Additional information</h2><p>For more information, please read <a href="/Article?contentid=890&language=English">Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias)</a>.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Fast_heart_rate_tachycardia.jpg
FatFFatFatEnglishNutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NADigestive systemHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+) Educators Hospital healthcare providers Community healthcare providers Remote populations First nationsNA2013-09-27T04:00:00ZTheresa Couto, RD;Elly Berger, BA, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, MHPE;Francy Pillo-Blocka RD, FDC000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the role of fat in the body, different types of fat and how to manage your family's fat intake.</p><p></p><p>Fat is an essential part of the diet and helps with a number of bodily functions. However, some fats can be harmful, so it is important to limit their intake.</p><h2> Key points</h2> <ul><li>Fat provides energy, helps the body absorb vitamins A, D, E and K and provides essential fatty acids for a range of important functions.</li> <li>Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats lower cholesterol, help prevent blood clots and reduce the risk of heart disease.</li> <li>Saturated fats raise bad cholesterol and are linked to heart disease. Sources of saturated fat include fatty cuts of meat, lard, high-fat milk, yogurt and cheese and coconut oil.</li> <li>Children aged one to three should get 30-40 per cent of daily calories from fats. For older children and teens, fats should make up only 25-35 per cent of daily calories.<br></li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/INM_NRC_track1-6_nutrient_sources.png
Fat in children's food: What you need to knowFFat in children's food: What you need to knowFat in children's food: What you need to knowEnglishNutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2011-08-05T04:00:00ZAshley M. Murphy, BSc, MHSc (c), RD;Jennifer Buccino, MEd, RD, CDE7.0000000000000069.0000000000000715.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Fat is an essential part of your child or teen’s diet. Learn why, and how to make sure your child is getting enough of the right kind of fat.</p><h2>Why is fat important?</h2><p>Fat is an essential part of your child or teen’s diet. It plays an important role in the development of your child’s brain and helps them reach their maximum growth potential. Fat is used in the body as fuel and helps the body absorb the fat-soluble vitamins, A, D, E and K. </p><p>Fatty foods are often associated with overweight, obesity, heart disease and stroke, but eating the right fats can provide the body with many health benefits.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Fat is an important part of your child's diet and plays an important role in their development and growth.</li> <li>Fatty foods are often associated with overweight, obesity, heart disease and stroke, but eating the right fats can provide the body with many health benefits.</li> <li>There are three different types of fats: they are unsaturated fat, saturated fat and trans fat.</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/fat_in_childrens_food_what_you_need_to_know.jpg
Fatherhood: Having a new babyFFatherhood: Having a new babyFatherhood: Having a new babyEnglishNeonatologyNewborn (0-28 days);Adult (19+)NANANAAdult (19+)NA2009-10-18T04:00:00ZHazel Pleasants, ​RN, MNAndrew James, MBChB, FRACP, FRCPC8.2000000000000065.10000000000001146.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about some of the fears a new father might experience once their baby is born. Relationship stress, lifestyle changes, and financial stress are discussed.</p><p>You may feel conflicting emotions after the birth of your baby. First and foremost, the birth of a child brings with it an overwhelming, all-consuming love, like nothing you have ever experienced before. You may also feel proud and powerful at having created a new life. You also may feel helpless when you can’t understand why your baby is crying. You may feel ambivalent towards your newborn baby, like you don’t really know them. You might worry about being a good father, your relationship with your partner, your finances, and the impact your newborn baby will make on your lifestyle. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Fathers can experience multiple concerns about having a new baby, including concerns about being a good father, their relationship with their partner, lifestyle and finances.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/a_fathers_concerns_newborn.jpg
Febrile seizures (convulsions caused by fever)FFebrile seizures (convulsions caused by fever)Febrile seizures (convulsions caused by fever)EnglishNeurologyBaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years)BodyNervous systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)Fever2013-05-04T04:00:00ZElizabeth Berger​, BA, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, MHPE​7.5000000000000068.00000000000001375.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Read about the symptoms, prevention, first aid treatment, and proper care for a child experiencing febrile convulsions (seizures) with fever.</p><p>Your child has reacted strongly to a <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a> by having a seizure. This information explains what to do if your child has a febrile seizure.</p> <h2>What are febrile seizures?<br></h2> <p>A child with seizures may have any of the following: stiffening of the limbs or the body, short, sudden jerking movements of the muscles that cannot be controlled and rolling back of the eyes into the head. A seizure almost always involves loss of consciousness, during which time the child is not responsive. When these seizures are caused by a fever, they are called febrile seizures. Most febrile seizures last for only a couple of minutes.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Febrile seizures are episodes of uncontrollable jerking movements and loss of consciousness caused by fever. They are common in children between the ages of six months and five years.</li> <li>During a febrile seizure, keep your child safe and do not try to put anything in their mouth. Try to roll them onto their side or roll their head to one side.</li> <li>Take your child to the doctor after a febrile seizure. If the seizure lasts longer than three minutes, call an ambulance.</li> <li>Treating your child's fever with medicine will not necessarily prevent seizures.</li> <li>If you have concerns or questions, please talk to your child's doctor. <br></li> </ul><h2>Febrile seizures are common</h2> <p>Between 2% and 5% of children (meaning between two to five out of 100 children) will have at least one febrile seizure between the ages of six months and five years. There is a strong genetic component to febrile seizures. Parents of a child with febrile seizures often had febrile seizures too, and siblings are also more likely to have them.</p> <h2>Risk of another febrile seizure</h2> <p>Children who have a febrile seizure are at risk for having another febrile seizure. This occurs in about 30 to 35 percent of cases. A febrile seizure will not necessarily occur every time the child has a fever. Most recurrences happen within one year of the initial seizure and almost all occur within two years. A child is more likely to have recurrent febrile seizures if they are younger than 15 months when they have the first seizure and if they have a parent or sibling who has had febrile seizures or epilepsy. </p> <h2>Febrile seizures do not cause brain damage</h2> <p>A child's appearance during a febrile seizure can be quite frightening for parents. However, brief seizures do not damage the brain or cause permanent changes in the brain. Most febrile seizures last only a few minutes, although they probably seem to go on much longer. Even if your child has a long febrile seizure, the risk of brain damage is low.</p><h2>Treating your child's fever </h2> <p>Fever may be caused by almost any childhood illness or infection. Often, febrile seizures happen just as your child's temperature starts to rise. You might not even know yet that your child has a fever. Treating your child's fever with medicine will not necessarily prevent a seizure or shorten the time it lasts, but it can help to make your child more comfortable. </p> <p>Do not try to give fever medicine while your child is having a seizure. Wait until the seizure is over. Do not put your child in the bathtub. </p> <h2>Measuring your child's temperature </h2> <p>If your child feels warm, check their temperature with a thermometer. A normal temperature is 37.5°C (99.5°F) when taken by mouth, or 38°C (100.4°F) when taken rectally. </p> <h2>Medicine </h2> <p>Give your child <a href="/Article?contentid=62&language=English">acetaminophen</a> or ibuprofen for fever. Read the instructions on the medicine bottle carefully to find out how much medicine to give and how often to give it. If you are not sure, check with your doctor or pharmacist. Do not give your child ASA (acetylsalicylic acid) unless a doctor tells you to. </p><h2>What to expect at the doctor's office or hospital</h2> <p>The doctor will ask you to describe the seizure carefully, including how long it lasted and how your child looked and moved. It may help the doctor to know if the shaking could be stopped with gentle holding of the shaking body part, or if the jerking movements persisted.</p> <p>The doctor will examine your child. If the cause of the fever is known, and your child is not confused or unconscious, the doctor will not usually ask for any laboratory tests. However, if they suspect something else is wrong, they may order some tests. These will help to rule out any other possible causes of seizures.</p> <p>If your child had a typical febrile seizure, they probably will not need to stay in the hospital. However, if your child has had an atypical febrile seizure (lasting for more than 15 minutes, more than one seizure in a 24-hour period, or if they are not back to themself and alert a few hours after the seizure) then the doctor may order tests and keep the child in the emergency room or in the hospital until the child is safe to return home. </p> <h2>Medicines to prevent febrile seizures</h2> <p>There are anti-seizure medicines (anticonvulsants or anti-epileptic drugs) that can prevent febrile seizures. These medicines do have side effects, and children who have febrile seizures do not usually need to take them. However, there might be special circumstances when your child's doctor thinks that an anti-seizure medicine is needed.</p> <p>If your child often has febrile seizures, the doctor may give a short-acting anti-seizure medicine. The doctor will explain how to care for your child and when you need to seek medical attention.</p>febrileseizureshttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/febrile_seizures.jpg
Federal tax breaks for children with disabilities in CanadaFFederal tax breaks for children with disabilities in CanadaFederal tax breaks for children with disabilities in CanadaEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANASupport, services and resourcesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2012-06-13T04:00:00ZNA11.300000000000048.4000000000000569.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>A helpful resource on federal tax breaks for children with chronic condition in Canada.</p><p>If your family has extra expenses or needs special support because of your sick child, you may be able to obtain financial assistance from the federal government or other groups. A member of your child's health care team might suggest that you talk to a <a href="/Article?contentid=1168&language=English">social worker</a> about financial assistance. They can also direct you to useful community health services.</p><p>When you complete an application, always mail the original and keep a copy for yourself. <a href="/Article?contentid=1148&language=English">Develop an organization system</a> to keep track of all documents and receipts for expenses related to your child's care.</p> ​<h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>If you have a sick child and have extra expenses you may be able to get financial support from federal programs such as the disability tax credit; child disability benefit; and registered disability savings plans.</li> <li>Talk to the social worker on your child's health care team to learn more about the types of financial assistance you may be eligible for and what community health services may be available to you.</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/federal_tax_breaks_for_children_with_disabilities.jpg
Feeding a baby with a heart conditionFFeeding a baby with a heart conditionFeeding a baby with a heart conditionEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years)HeartCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2018-06-05T04:00:00ZJoyce Touw;Debbie Stone11.000000000000051.00000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about feeding a baby with a heart condition. It is best to breastfeed, but if you cannot, you can express your breast milk to keep up your milk volume.<br></p><p> This page explains how to best feed babies with heart conditions.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>It is easier for babies with heart conditions to suck, swallow, and breathe when breastfeeding than bottle feeding.</li> <li>It is important that a mother maintain a normal breast milk volume.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/feeding_a_baby_with_a_heart_condition.jpg
Feeding and nutrition for blood and marrow transplantsFFeeding and nutrition for blood and marrow transplantsFeeding and nutrition for blood and marrow transplantsEnglishHaematology;Immunology;Oncology;NutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemHealthy living and preventionAdult (19+)NA2009-12-08T05:00:00ZJohn Doyle, MD, FRCPC, FAAPChristine Armstrong, RN, MScN, NP Peds8.0000000000000067.0000000000000432.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about nutrition and how to store and handle food after your child's blood and marrow transplant.</p><p>Before your child’s blood and marrow transplant (BMT), doctors first destroyed all of your child's abnormal bone marrow cells. They did this by giving high-dose chemotherapy, with or without <a href="/Article?contentid=1528&language=English">total body irradiation</a> (TBI). Both of these therapies put a lot of strain on the body’s organs and tissues. </p><p>To help repair the damage on any organ and tissue and fight fever, your child needs to eat more protein and calories after the transplant. Eating nutritious food will help keep the new marrow cells healthy. It is important that your child increases their calorie intake at least 30 to 50 days after the transplant.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>After a BMT, your child will need up to 50% to 60% more calories and twice as much protein.</li><li>Your child will be placed on a restricted diet to minimize the risk of infection.</li><li>If your child is unable to eat on their own, they may be given a nutrition mixture called total parenteral nutrition (TPN).</li></ul>
Feeding and nutrition for premature babiesFFeeding and nutrition for premature babiesFeeding and nutrition for premature babiesEnglishNeonatology;Gastrointestinal;NutritionPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)Esophagus;Stomach;Small Intestine;Large Intestine/ColonDigestive systemDrug treatment;Non-drug treatmentPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZChris Tomlinson, MBChB, BSc10.400000000000053.10000000000001123.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about what a premature baby needs to eat and how they can get proper nutrition, and treatments for feeding and nutrition problems they may face.</p><p>Feeding is the way in which a premature baby increases their size. This is important because in general the larger a baby is, the healthier they will be. A growing premature baby is usually a baby who is thriving and getting stronger and healthier day by day. This section will address the different methods of feeding premature babies, which are devised to maximize their growth and health. This section will also address the complications that can interfere with the various feeding methods and growth.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>In general, premature babies should increase their length by 1 cm per week; should increase their head circumference by 0.7 cm per week; and should gain about 15 g per day in overall weight.</li> <li>Most premature babies will be given a nasogastric (NG) tube through which nutrition and feeds will be given.</li> <li>If a baby's GI tract is too immature to absorb nutrition, they will be fed intravenously (parenteral feeding).</li></ul>
Feeding and nutrition of babiesFFeeding and nutrition of babiesFeeding and nutrition of babiesEnglishNABaby (1-12 months)BodyDigestive systemNAAdult (19+)NA2009-10-18T04:00:00ZAndrew James, MBChB, MBI, FRACP, FRCPC11.900000000000045.1000000000000594.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about the benefits of breastfeeding and breast milk for babies. The necessity of increasing a baby's dietary repertoire as they get older is discussed.</p><p>It is universally accepted that human breast milk is the best source of nutrition for newborn babies and infants. Breastfeeding also has many non-nutritive benefits that lead to the best health and development of the baby. According to the World Health Organization, "exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months is the optimal way of feeding infants. Thereafter, infants should receive complementary foods with continued breastfeeding up to two years of age or beyond." </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Breast milk is the best source of nutrition for newborns and infants, providing them with the right amount of nutrients and antibodies.</li> <li>Your baby can begin to eat solid foods after six months of age.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/feeding_nutrition_of_babies.jpg
Feeding and nutrition of newborn babiesFFeeding and nutrition of newborn babiesFeeding and nutrition of newborn babiesEnglishNeonatologyNewborn (0-28 days)BodyNAHealthy living and preventionAdult (19+)NA2009-10-18T04:00:00ZDebbie Stone, RN, IBCLC, RLCJoyce Touw, RScN, PNC(C), RN, IBCLC, RLCAndrew James, MBChB, FRACP, FRCPC12.800000000000038.3000000000000467.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about your newborn baby's nutritional requirements and how to successfully feed them. Bottle feeding and breastfeeding are discussed.</p><p>It is universally accepted that human breast milk is the best source of nutrition for newborn babies and infants. Breastfeeding also has many non-nutritive benefits that lead to the best health and development of the baby.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Benefits of breastfeeding include better tolerance of feeding, reduced gastrointestinal disease and improved intelligence.</li> <li>Breast milk provides the right balance of energy, protein, carbohydrates, fat, electrolytes, minerals and vitamins that your newborn needs.</li> <li>Breast milk contains antibodies that infants need to fight infections during the first few months of life.</li> <li>If you cannot breastfeed or provide breast milk for your baby, commercially manufactured formula milks are available.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Newborn_feeding_nutrition.jpg
Feeding studiesFFeeding studiesFeeding studiesEnglishOtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Mouth;EsophagusMouth;EsophagusTestsCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2015-09-21T04:00:00ZSharon Samaan, MSc(OT), OT Reg. (Ont.);Maggie Harkness, MSc(OT), OT Reg. (Ont.)7.0000000000000069.00000000000001010.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn about feeding studies, which find out what your child can drink and eat safely. The feeding study is an X-ray video of what happens from when food enters your child's mouth until after your child swallows.</p><p>A feeding study is done when swallowing problems are suspected during an occupational therapist's assessment of a child. A feeding study involves an image or video of the inside of your child's mouth and throat to help determine what your child can safely eat and drink. Using X-rays, a feeding study will examine what happens between the time food enters your child's mouth until after your child swallows. A child can have a feeding study at any age.</p> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_feeding_study_EN.jpg" alt="" /> </figure><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>A feeding study is done when swallowing problems are suspected during an occupational therapist's feeding assessment of your child.</li> <li>A feeding study involves an image or video of the inside of your child's mouth and throat to help determine what your child can safely eat and drink.</li> <li>During the feeding study, your child may be asked to drink different liquids and eat different foods. As your child is eating, the occupational therapist and radiologist will be watching the screen to see how your child swallows.</li> <li>Following the feeding study the occupational therapist will talk to you about the results of the feeding study, answer your questions, and talk to you about how to feed your child.</li> </ul><h2>Who will take part in your child's feeding study?</h2> <p>An occupational therapist, radiologist, and X-ray technologist will take part in your child's feeding study.</p> <ul> <li>An occupational therapist, radiologist, and X-ray technologist will take part in your child's feeding study. The occupational therapist will meet you and your child in the GI/GU waiting area before the feeding study. They will go with you into the room where your child will have the feeding study. </li> <li>A radiologist is a doctor who is specially trained to take and read X-rays. They will take your child's X-ray. </li> <li>An X-ray technologist sets up the equipment to take your child's X-ray. They will help the radiologist take the X-ray. </li> </ul> <p>It is important that you or another family member or caregiver be with your child during the feeding study, if possible. If you want, you can feed your child during the feeding study. The occupational therapist can also help feed your child. Only one person should accompany your child into the feeding study.</p> <p>If you are pregnant or think you may be pregnant, you should not take part in your child's feeding study.</p> <h2>What will happen during your child's feeding study?</h2> <p>Inside the feeding study room, you will see a chair where your child will sit. There will be a large camera and a TV screen beside this chair. Parents and caregivers will wear a lead apron during the feeding study to protect themselves from radiation. The lights in the room will be dim.</p> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_feeding_study_monitor_EN.jpg" alt="" /> </figure> <p>The radiologist will move the camera to the right spot to look at how your child swallows. For the best picture possible, your child will need to sit still and try not to lean forward or turn around. When your child is in the right position and the radiologist is ready, your child will start drinking or eating. The camera will make beeping noises as the X-rays are taken. It does not touch your child and the X-rays do not hurt.</p> <h2>What will your child drink and eat during the feeding study?</h2> <p>During the feeding study, your child may be asked to drink different liquids and eat different foods. He may be asked to drink a very thin liquid or eat solid food made up of sterile water, rice cereal, and barium. Barium is a white liquid that makes food show up on the X-ray. For older children, the liquid may taste like chocolate or fruit punch. As your child is eating, the occupational therapist and radiologist will be watching the screen to see how your child swallows.</p><h2>What happens after the feeding study?</h2> <p>After the feeding study, the X-ray technologist or occupational therapist will take you to the waiting area. The occupational therapist will talk to you about the results of the feeding study and answer your questions. They will talk to you about how to feed your child. The occupational therapist will send the results of the feeding study to the doctor who sent your child for the test.</p> <h2>Are there any side effects?</h2> <p>The barium may make your child's stool look a little white the next few times that they go to the bathroom after the feeding study. This is normal.</p> <h2>What should you tell your child about the feeding study?</h2> <p>The best thing you can do to prepare your child for a feeding study is to read this information carefully. It is important that you know what will happen during the feeding study so that you can explain it to your child in words he or she will understand. This will help your child feel more comfortable. Children who know what to expect are usually less worried.</p> <h2>What should you do to prepare your child for a feeding study?</h2> <p>Please make sure you follow these instructions:</p> <ul> <li>Do not give your child anything to eat or drink for three hours before the feeding study. This is to make sure your child is hungry enough to eat and drink during the study.</li> <li>Bring the feeding equipment that your child uses at home, such as a bottle, nipple, cup or spoon. Your therapist may ask you to bring certain foods for the test. </li> <li>Remove your child's jewelry or clothing with metal snaps. Metal can show up on the X-ray.</li> <li>Your child may be hungry after the feeding study. Bring food for your child to eat after the study. If your child uses tube-feeding equipment, please bring this with you.</li> </ul>feedingstudieshttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_feeding_study_EN.jpg
Feeding your baby: WeaningFFeeding your baby: WeaningFeeding your baby: WeaningEnglishDevelopmentalBaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2010-03-05T05:00:00ZDebbie Stone, RN, IBCLC, RLC;Joyce Touw, BScN, PNC(C), RN, IBCLC, RLC7.5000000000000069.80000000000001488.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Weaning is the change a baby makes from one form of feeding to another. Learn how to make weaning easier for your child.</p><h2>Weaning is changing from one form of feeding to another</h2> <p>Weaning is the change a baby makes from one form of feeding to another. If your baby is breastfeeding, weaning will occur naturally when the baby starts to develop skills in eating and drinking with spoons and cups. Some mothers may choose to wean their babies from breastfeeding to bottle feeding or, for an older baby, directly from a breast to a cup with a spout (sippy cup).</p> <h3>Weaning can either be partial or complete</h3> <p>Partial weaning would be, for example, if a mother is returning to work and wants to breastfeed in the early morning and bedtime, and the baby is bottle-fed by a caregiver during the day. </p> <p>Some mothers wish to stop breastfeeding completely. Depending on the age of the baby, they will wean to a bottle or cup for all feedings. This is called complete weaning. </p> <p>If your baby is bottle-fed, weaning to a cup is usually achieved when the baby is able to hold the cup in their hand and raise it to their mouth. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Weaning is the change a baby makes from one form of feeding to another. </li> <li>Breastfeed for at least 6 months and then slowly introduce solid foods, while continuing breastfeeding for up to 2 years and beyond.</li> <li>Many babies are ready to wean themselves from the breast when they are 9 to 12 months old and have started solid foods.</li> <li>Some breastfed babies readily accept a bottle, while other babies are more resistant. It is important to stay calm and keep positive when weaning your baby from the breast to a bottle.</li> <li>By 6 months of age or older, you can begin to introduce a cup to your baby. </li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/feeding_your_baby_weaning.jpg
Feeding your toddler or preschoolerFFeeding your toddler or preschoolerFeeding your toddler or preschoolerEnglishNutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+) Educators Hospital healthcare providers Community healthcare providers Remote populations First nationsNA2013-09-27T04:00:00ZSamantha Thiessen, RD, MHSc.;Elly Berger, BA, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, MHPE7.1000000000000072.00000000000001119.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Discover some easy, creative and nutritious meal and snack ideas for your toddler or preschooler.</p><p>Children from age one to four usually are usually exploring new foods and developing their eating habits. Meal plans can help them enjoy a variety of foods while saving you time during the week. </p> <br><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Offer your toddler or preschooler a range of options from all four food groups.</li> <li>Be sure to offer toddlers soft, bite-sized pieces of food, paying attention to the risk of choking.</li> <li>Use meal planning with your preschooler as an opportunity to talk about nutrition.</li> <li>Help your child develop good eating habits by balancing a relaxed family mealtime atmosphere with rules about when a child can leave the table.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/feeding_your_toddler_or_preschooler.jpg
Feeding: Transitioning from tube feeding to oral feedingFFeeding: Transitioning from tube feeding to oral feedingFeeding: Transitioning from tube feeding to oral feedingEnglishDevelopmentalBaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years)Mouth;EsophagusMouth;EsophagusNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-11-07T05:00:00Z​​Beth Haliburton, RD;Ashley Graham, OT​​6.6000000000000075.1000000000000649.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Discover how to help a tube-fed child gradually adjust to feeding by mouth.</p><p>If your child has been tube fed for a long time, they may gradually transition to oral feeding (feeding by mouth). This transition can be long and challenging.</p><p>When your child’s health-care team tells you that your child is safe to feed orally, the following ideas can help make this transition easier.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Talk to your child’s health-care team about when to start oral feeding and which foods are safest.</li> <li>Help your child adjust by setting up a meal schedule, including them in family mealtimes, serving a range of age-appropriate, safe foods and letting them try to feed themselves.</li> <li>Always be aware of any signs of distress such as coughing, refusal of feeds or difficulty breathing.</li> <li>If your child is distressed, stop oral feeding and ask your health-care team for advice.</li> </ul><h2>Make mealtimes positive</h2> <p>Your child’s readiness to start feeding by mouth is an exciting time. Help your child develop trust around food by making mealtimes positive.</p> <p>Every child is unique and will adjust to feeding by mouth at their own pace. At this stage, the goal is not about how much your child eats or how many calories they get from their feeds by mouth. Instead, aim for your child to enjoy the social aspect of eating with your family so that they will eat more and, in time, develop the skills they need to feed themselves.</p> <h2>Set up a meal schedule for oral feeds</h2> <p>Your child’s interest in eating will vary throughout the day and from day to day. They may also need time to learn what hunger and fullness feel like, as tube feeds can interfere with this.</p> <ul> <li>Set up a routine that includes three meals and two or three snacks a day.</li> <li>Start with very small meals. </li> <li>Offer food every three to four hours at consistent times every day.</li> <li>Limit mealtimes to a maximum of 30 minutes. </li> <li>While your child is still receiving some tube feeds, and if the feeding schedule allows, offer food by mouth before the tube feed.</li> </ul> <h2>Include your child in family mealtimes</h2> <ul> <li>Eat with your child. Children learn from copying others.</li> <li>If your child can hold their head up and sit with minimal support, sit them in a highchair during family mealtimes (even if they are not taking anything by mouth).</li> <li>If the feeding schedule allows, run tube feeds during family mealtimes so your child is still included.</li> </ul> <h2>Let your child try self-feeding</h2> <ul> <li>Let your child <a href="/Article?contentid=1457&language=English">feed themselves</a> instead of feeding them from a spoon. This gives them a sense of control that they have not had with tube feeds.</li> <li>A child often explores their food before they start feeding themselves. Let your child play with food by placing small amounts of purees on their highchair tray. It will be messy, but this is ok!</li> <li>Ask your occupational therapist (OT) for tips to help <a href="/Article?contentid=1458&language=English">move your child from one food texture to another</a>, for example from purees to soft pieces of cooked food.</li> </ul> <h2>Encourage healthy mealtime behaviour</h2> <ul> <li>Praise your child when they try new foods and show good eating behaviour.</li> <li>Do not react when your child spits out or throws food.</li> <li>Minimize distractions: turn off the TV and put toys away.</li> </ul> <h2>Offer a range of foods</h2> <ul> <li>Offer your child nutritious foods that are suitable for their stage of development.</li> <li>Offer a range of foods: salty, sweet, sour and spicy. Different flavours will spark your child’s interest in what they are eating.</li> </ul> <h2>Monitor your child’s safety</h2> <ul> <li>Ask your child’s health-care team about when to start oral feedings and what foods are safest for your child.</li> <li>Be aware of any signs of distress such as coughing, refusal of feeds, difficulty breathing or <a href="/Article?contentid=1463&language=English">choking</a>. If your child shows any of these signs, stop oral feeding and talk to your child’s health-care team.</li> </ul>feedingtubetooral
Fenestration closure after a Fontan operation in the heart catheterization labFFenestration closure after a Fontan operation in the heart catheterization labFenestration closure after a Fontan operation in the heart catheterization labEnglishCardiologyPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years)HeartHeart;Arteries;VeinsProceduresCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-06T05:00:00ZJackie Hubbert, BScN;Lee Benson, MD, FRCP(C), FACC, FSCAI;Carrie Morgan, RN, MN;Cindy Wasyliw, RN, BNSc8.3000000000000063.30000000000001101.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Read about fenestration closure after a Fontan operation, a surgery to close the hole between your child's heart and the tunnel that moves blood to the lungs.</p><h2>What is fenestration closure after a Fontan operation?</h2><p>Part of the Fontan operation involves making a tunnel to bring oxygen-poor blood directly from the body into the lungs. The tunnel connects the inferior vena cava to the pulmonary artery, bypassing the heart. It can be made in one of two ways:</p><ul><li>outside the heart (extracardiac conduit)</li><li>inside the heart (lateral tunnel)</li></ul><p>This new circulation can put extra pressure on the lungs while your child's body is getting used to it. To relieve this pressure, the surgeon makes a fenestration (hole) between the tunnel and the heart.</p><p>The fenestration allows some blood to flow from the tunnel into the heart. It acts as a temporary pressure release valve while your child's body is adjusting to the new circulation. It is usually closed several months after the Fontan operation, so that oxygen-poor and oxygen-rich blood no longer mix.</p><p>This information explains what happens when we close the hole. This procedure is done in the heart catheterization lab.</p> <figure class="asset-c-100"> <span class="asset-image-title">Closing the fenestration after Fontan operation</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Fontan_fenestration_closure_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Blood flow through a heart with open fenestration compared to blood flow through a heart with a closure device" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Closing the fenestration after the Fontan operation completes the separation of oxygen-rich blood from oxygen-poor blood. The illustration shows an extracardiac conduit to connect the inferior vena cava to the pulmonary artery.</figcaption> </figure> <h2>What is heart catheterization?</h2><p>During heart catheterization, the doctor carefully puts a long, thin tube called a catheter into a vein or artery in your child's neck or groin. The groin is the area at the top of the leg. Then, the catheter is threaded through the vein or artery to your child's heart.</p><p>The doctor who does the procedure is a cardiologist, which means a doctor who works on the heart and blood vessels. This may not be your child's regular cardiologist.</p><p>To learn about heart catheterization, please see <a href="/Article?contentid=59&language=English">Heart catheterization: Getting ready for the procedure</a>.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Fenestration closure after a Fontan operation is a procedure to close the hole between your child's heart and the tunnel that takes oxygen-poor blood from the body to the lungs. </li> <li>The procedure is done in the heart catheterization lab. </li> <li>There is a small risk that your child will have complications from the procedure. Your child's doctor will explain the risks to you before the procedure. </li> <li>Your child will need to have an anaesthetic. Your child may need to stay overnight in the hospital after the procedure.</li> </ul><h2>What does the closure device look like and how does it stay in place?</h2> <p>The closure device is made of metal and mesh material. It looks like a short tube with different-sized discs (circles) on either end. Before it is put in, the discs are folded so the device will fit in the catheter. When it is in the right place, one disc opens up as the device is moved out of the catheter. The tube portion plugs the hole and the other disc opens up on the opposite side of the hole. </p> <h2>What happens during the fenestration closure</h2> <p>The procedure is performed while your child is under a general anaesthetic. This means that your child will be asleep during the procedure. </p> <p>During the procedure, the doctor inserts a catheter with a balloon on the tip into a blood vessel in the groin at the top of your child's leg. The catheter is moved up the blood vessel into the heart and into the fenestration. An X-ray picture is taken of the fenestration. </p> <p>The balloon is then inflated so that it fills the hole and closes it for a short time. This lets the doctor see if your child's heart is ready to have the closure device in place. If the pressure is good, the closure device is threaded through the catheter and placed into the fenestration. </p> <p>Once the device is in place, the doctor takes out the catheter and covers the cut on your child's leg with a bandage.</p> <h2>The procedure will take two to four hours</h2> <p>The procedure usually takes two to four hours. After the procedure, your child will go to the recovery room to wake up from the anaesthetic. If your child needs to stay overnight, they will be taken to the inpatient unit. If not, you can take your child home. </p><h2>After the procedure</h2> <p>The cardiologist will let you know when your child can go home. Your child will stay in the hospital for at least four to six hours after the procedure. Most children can go home on the same day as the procedure. </p> <p>If your child needs to stay overnight, they will be transferred to the inpatient unit.</p> <p>For information on what to do after your child goes home, please see <a href="/Article?contentid=1214&language=English">Heart catheterization: Caring for your child after the procedure</a>.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Fontan_fenestration_closure_MED_ILL_EN.jpg
Fertility chartingFFertility chartingFertility chartingEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)BodyReproductive systemNAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-11T04:00:00ZNicolette Caccia, MEd, MD, FRCSCAndrew James, MBChB, FRACP, FRCPC9.1000000000000056.70000000000001076.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about fertility charting, and how to use changes in your cervical mucous and basal body temperature to predict when you are most fertile.</p><p>Some women have longer intervals between menstrual periods, which can affect the time at which they are most fertile. Your own fertility pattern is unique. It is helpful to be aware of the signs that predict the times at which you are most fertile.​</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Some women have longer intervals between menstrual periods which affects when they are most fertile.</li> <li>Measuring your cervical mucus can help you determine whether you are approaching your time of ovulation.</li> <li>Basal body temperature can tell you if you have already ovulated.</li> <li>Ovulation kits can be purchased to help you determine when you are most likely to conceive.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/fertility_charting.jpg
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)FFetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)EnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyNAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-06T05:00:00ZMargaret Lintott, RN;Peggy Kirkpatrick, MD, FRCPC8.7000000000000057.60000000000001158.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn how drinking alcohol while pregnant can cause physical and cognitive delays in the baby, known collectively as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD).</p><h2>What is fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)?</h2> <p>Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a general or "umbrella" term used to describe disabilities caused when a woman drinks alcohol during pregnancy. FASD includes any of the following diagnoses: </p> <ul> <li>fetal alcohol syndrome </li> <li>partial fetal alcohol syndrome </li> <li>alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder </li> <li>alcohol-related birth defects </li> </ul><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can cause many different problems for the baby, including physical problems and problems with learning, attention, memory and behaviour. </li> <li>Problems caused by drinking during pregnancy are called fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). </li> <li>There is no cure for FASD, but it may be possible to get help for specific problems. It is important to diagnose FASD early. </li> <li>If you are pregnant, do not drink alcohol. </li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of FASD</h2> <p>The effects of FASD are not always obvious at birth. Often, behavioural and learning problems are not noticed until the child is old enough to go to school. Differences from other children become more apparent at about grade 3 or 4. </p> <p>Some people with FASD have a mixture of physical and mental problems. Many children with FASD do not have physical problems.</p> <h3>Problems with intelligence and learning</h3> <p>Children with FASD may have one or more of the following problems:</p> <ul> <li>intellectual disability (IQ below 70); however, most children with FASD have IQs in the normal range </li> <li>slow learning, short attention span, hyperactivity or memory problems </li> <li>learning disabilities, especially with reading, comprehension and abstract math </li> <li>delays or lack of abilities in speech and language: for example, the child may have receptive language disorder, interrupt, talk out of context or chat with no content </li> <li>lack of executive function skills, including difficulties with organization, planning and reasoning </li> <li>inability to manage money, for example by saving and budgeting </li> <li>inability to understand cause and effect </li> </ul> <h3>Sensory integration problems</h3> <p>Children with FASD may need more or less stimulation than the average person. This is called a problem with sensory integration. These problems may involve one or more senses, such as: </p> <ul> <li>sensitivity to touch; the child may not be able to tolerate tags in shirts or seams in clothing </li> <li>seeming to need more touch than other children; for example, the child may need tight hugs or may not seem to feel pain </li> <li>hating bright lights or noise </li> <li>noticing smells more than others </li> <li>being bothered by "every little thing" </li> </ul> <p>These problems may occur in combination. A child with FASD could be hypersensitive to bright lights, but crave deep pressure or touch. </p> <h3>Behaviour and mood problems</h3> <p>Babies with FASD may have one or more of the following problems:</p> <ul> <li>irritable, nervous, or sensitive to sound and light </li> <li>cry often </li> <li>very quiet and not very responsive </li> </ul> <p>Children with FASD may have one or more of the following problems:</p> <ul> <li>behavioural problems, such as oppositional defiant disorder and aggressive or defiant behaviours </li> <li>mental illness, such as depression or psychosis </li> <li>drug and alcohol problems </li> <li>anger control problems or violence </li> </ul> <p>Poor judgment and the inability to connect an action with its consequences are the hallmarks of FASD. As a result, people with FASD are at high risk for getting in trouble with the law. </p> <h3>Physical problems</h3> <p>At birth, babies may have one or more of the following:</p> <ul> <li>low birth weight (less than 2.5 kg or 5 lb 8 oz) </li> <li>small head size </li> <li>face and mouth deformities </li> <li>flat shape of the face </li> <li>specific facial features may include thin upper lip, flatness under nose and smaller eyes</li> </ul> <p>Other physical problems may include:</p> <ul> <li>delayed growth </li> <li>small height and/or weight </li> <li>short height as an adult </li> <li>bone, joint, or muscle problems </li> <li>hearing problems </li> <li>repeated ear infections </li> <li>visual and eye problems </li> <li>genital defects </li> <li>heart defects </li> <li>kidney problems </li></ul><h2>FASD is caused by drinking alcohol during pregnancy</h2> <p>FASD can happen when a pregnant woman drinks any type of alcohol, including beer, wine, hard liquor or coolers. Alcohol crosses the placental barrier from mother to baby. Any amount of drinking during pregnancy can cause FASD. </p> <ul> <li>High risk begins when a woman has two drinks a day, or 14 drinks on average per week, or four or more drinks on any one occasion. </li> <li>Recent evidence suggests that even one drink per day may cause behavioural problems. </li> </ul> <p>The kinds of problems the baby may have depends on when the mother drinks during the pregnancy:</p> <ul> <li>Since the brain is developing during the entire pregnancy, the brain is always being affected if the mother drinks regularly. </li> <li>Drinking during the first trimester increases the chance that the baby will have a small brain, physical problems and/or severe intellectual disability. </li> <li>Drinking during the second trimester increases the chances of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage). </li> <li>Drinking during the third trimester, and during nursing, can affect intelligence. </li> </ul> <p>Not all babies who are exposed to alcohol during pregnancy will have FASD. We do not yet understand why some babies are born with problems and others are not, even when their mothers drank about the same amount of alcohol during their pregnancies. In some cases, one baby will have FASD but their fraternal twin will not. </p> <h2>FASD is common</h2> <p>FASD affects approximately 1% of people living in Canada. This means that there may be about 300,000 people with FASD living in Canada today. </p><h2>How FASD is diagnosed</h2> <p>If you think that your baby could have been exposed to alcohol before birth, speak to your doctor. A health care provider can diagnose FASD by: </p> <ul> <li>asking about the mother's pregnancy and the child's birth </li> <li>doing a physical exam </li> <li>testing the child's abilities to understand, communicate, move and adapt </li> <li>measuring facial features </li> </ul><h2>There is no cure for FASD</h2> <p>It is not easy to "treat" FASD. However, it is important to diagnose FASD early because there are some things that can help.</p> <ul> <li>Physical and occupational therapy can often help somewhat. </li> <li>A child with FASD should have psycho-educational testing to find specific difficulties. This will help the child get services in school that will help with the difficulties. </li> <li>Social workers can help the family cope and deal with family issues. </li> </ul> https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/fetal_alcohol_spectrum_disorder.jpg
Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT)FFetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT)Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT)EnglishHaematologyNewborn (0-28 days);PrenatalNACardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2017-11-09T05:00:00ZLani Lieberman, MD, FRCPC;Mark Fung, MD, PhD;Nadine Shehata, MD, MSc, FRCPC;Stacy Corke9.0000000000000056.1000000000000910.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Find out about fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) including its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, prevention and treatment. <br></p><h2>What is FNAIT?</h2><p>Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) occurs when the mother’s immune system attacks her fetus’ or newborn’s platelets. Platelets are a type of blood cell that have proteins on their surface and are involved in blood clotting. If a fetus or newborn has a low platelet count then they will have an increased risk of bleeding. In most cases the effects of FNAIT are mild, however, if bleeding occurs in the brain, there may be long-term effects.</p><h3>Other names for FNAIT</h3><p>FNAIT is also called NAIT, AIT, FMAIT (fetal maternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia), NAT or NATP (neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenic purpura).</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) occurs when the mother’s immune system attacks her fetus’ and/or newborn’s platelets, the blood cells that help stop bleeding.</li><li>Doctors may suspect a baby has FNAIT if there is bruising, bleeding, a specific pinpoint rash and/or a low platelet count on a blood test.</li><li>The main treatment for a baby with FNAIT is platelet transfusions.</li><li>If the mother becomes pregnant again in the future, her doctor should refer her to a hospital that specializes in fetal-maternal medicine for monitoring and treatment.</li></ul><h2>Why does FNAIT happen?</h2><p>Platelets have many proteins on their surface. Each person has a different set of proteins, which are inherited from their parents. Sometimes a baby inherits a protein that is found on their father’s platelets but is absent from their mother’s platelets. When this happens the mother's immune system may respond by developing an antibody to fight against the protein the baby inherited from their father. This is called an alloimmune response.</p><p>The antibody may pass from the mother’s blood into the baby’s blood through the placenta and attach to the baby’s platelets. This antibody destroys the baby’s platelets, resulting in a low platelet count and an increased risk of bleeding for the baby.</p><p>The mother’s antibodies can remain in the baby’s blood stream for weeks, and bleeding can occur in the baby before birth (fetal), during birth or after birth (neonatal).</p><p>There are a number of proteins that can cause FNAIT but the most common one is human platelet antigen (HPA)-1a.</p><p>FNAIT does not occur because of anything the mother does, eats or drinks. It has not been linked to any environmental or dietary exposures.</p><h3>How common is FNAIT?</h3><p>FNAIT is rare. It occurs in about one in every 2,000 births.</p><h2>How is FNAIT diagnosed?</h2><p>Doctors may suspect a baby has FNAIT if there is:</p><ul><li>bleeding or bruising</li><li>a low platelet count on a blood test after birth</li><li>a specific pinpoint rash (called petechiae)</li></ul><p>The diagnosis of FNAIT can be confirmed by taking blood samples from the mother, the father and possibly the baby. If the baby’s platelet count is very low, doctors may look for possible bleeding in the brain using ultrasound.</p><h3>Why blood tests in pregnancy do not show that the baby may have FNAIT?</h3><p>Because FNAIT is rare, doctors do not usually screen for it. Doctors may first suspect a baby has FNAIT when they are born with bruises or a rash.</p><h2>How is FNAIT treated?</h2><p>Babies with FNAIT may need to be admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit for close monitoring.</p><p>The main treatment for FNAIT is platelet transfusions. These transfusions will help to prevent and treat the bleeding.</p><h2>Where can I get more information?</h2><p>Visit <a href="https://www.naitbabies.org/">www.naitbabies.org</a>.</p><p>This document was created by the International Collaboration for Transfusion Medicine Guidelines (ICTMG), a group of international transfusion experts brought together to create and promote evidence-based guidelines to optimize transfusion care. For more information, visit the website at <a href="https://www.ictmg.org/">www.ictmg.org</a>.</p>
Fetal developmentFFetal developmentFetal developmentEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)BodyReproductive systemNAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-11T04:00:00ZNicolette Caccia, MEd, MD, FRCSCRory Windrim, MB, MSc, FRCSC10.200000000000053.0000000000000222.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn all about fetal development, from conception to birth. The fascinating and exciting baby growing stages are discussed.</p><p>Your baby does most of their development in the first three months and their organs and structures are fully formed by the end of the first trimester. This section provides information about the normal development of the unborn baby during pregnancy. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Your baby does most of their development in the first trimester.</li> <li>The Pregnancy & Babies resource centre counts the weeks of pregnancy starting with the date of the beginning of the woman's last menstrual period.</li></ul>
Fetal monitoringFFetal monitoringFetal monitoringEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)Body;UterusReproductive systemNAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-11T04:00:00ZNicolette Caccia, MEd, MD, FRCSCRory Windrim, MB, MSc, FRCSC11.800000000000042.70000000000001103.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about external and internal fetal monitoring during pregnancy. Intermittent auscultation is also discussed.</p><p>Fetal monitors are used to assess the baby’s heart rate and the contractions of the uterus during pregnancy and childbirth. The main objective of fetal heart rate monitoring is to monitor the well-being of the baby. There are two types of fetal monitoring: external and internal. Both types of monitor trace a pattern of the baby’s heart rate and the mother’s contractions onto a strip of graph paper. In childbirth, external fetal monitoring can be done either continuously throughout labour or intermittently. <br></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>External fetal monitoring can be done at any time during pregnancy.</li> <li>An internal fetal monitor is a small electrode placed on the baby's scalp can only be put into position after the mother’s fetal membranes have broken.</li> <li>The use of continuous fetal monitoring during childbirth is controversial because the accuracy of the technology is still quite limited.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/fetal_monitoring.jpg
FeverFFeverFeverEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Fever2019-02-13T05:00:00ZElana Hochstadter, MD;Tania Principi, MD, FRCPC, MSc8.0000000000000062.90000000000002359.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>A fever can be a sign that the body is fighting an infection. Learn how to properly care for an infant or child with a fever.</p><p>A fever can be a sign that the body is fighting an infection. When the body's defense (immune) system is activated by a bacteria or a virus, many reactions occur in the body. Fever is one sign of these reactions. Fever is not a disease or illness itself but a signal that something is going on in the body. How your child looks and acts are more important than how high the fever is.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Fever is usually a sign that the body is fighting an infection.</li><li>A temperature of 38°C (100.4°F) or higher means a fever. </li><li>See your doctor if your child has a temperature that lasts for more than three days or if your child has a fever and is less than three months old.</li><li>Pay attention to how your child looks and acts. Keep a record of the number of days of fever.</li><li>To keep your child comfortable, dress your child lightly. Give your child lots of fluids to drink, and give acetaminophen or ibuprofen if it seems to make your child feel better.</li></ul><h2>What to expect when your child has a fever</h2> <p>Fevers can go up and down on their own without medication. Fevers can make children feel uncomfortable. </p> <ul> <li>When symptoms are mild, your child may be slightly cranky or have aches and pains. Some children are less active and sleepier. They may not be interested in eating or drinking.</li> <li>Some fevers may be associated with shaking (chills or rigors) as the body temperature is changing. This type of shaking is one way for the body to try to regulate the temperature. It is not a seizure or convulsion, and is not associated with changes in the child's level of consciousness.</li> <li>Approximately 5% of children between the ages of six months and six years may have <a href="/Article?contentid=1&language=English">febrile seizures</a>. They are episodes called a seizure or convulsion associated with a fever. Your child should see a doctor after a febrile seizure, but febrile seizures are generally not dangerous.</li> </ul> <p>The type of infection causing the fever usually determines how often the fever recurs and how long the fever lasts. Fevers due to viruses can last for as little as two to three days and sometime as long as two weeks. A fever caused by a bacterial infection may continue until the child is treated with an antibiotic.</p> <h2>What causes fever?</h2> <p>Many different infections can cause a fever. To find out what is causing your child's fever, the doctor will look at other signs or symptoms of the illness, not the fever itself. How high a fever is does not help the doctor to decide whether an infection is mild or severe, or whether an infection is from a bacteria or a virus.</p> <p>It is important to know how many days of fever your child has had. You should keep a record of your child's fevers so that you can accurately tell the doctor how long the fever has been present.</p> <h3>Fever may also be caused by other conditions</h3> <ul> <li>A mild increase in body temperature can occur with exercise or too much clothing, after a hot bath or shower, or in hot weather.</li> <li>Rarely, <a href="/Article?contentid=1915&language=English">heat stroke</a> or exposure to certain medications or drugs can cause a severe and possibly dangerous increase in body temperature.</li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=1986&language=English">Vaccinations</a> can cause fever. </li> <li>Some non-infectious illnesses and inflammatory conditions can cause recurrent or persistent fevers. </li> </ul> <h3>Teething does not cause fever</h3> <p>Many people believe that <a href="/Article?contentid=304&language=English">teething</a> causes fever. Research shows us that teething does not cause real fever. If your baby has a fever, do not assume it is due to teething.</p> <h2>Does my child have a fever?</h2><h3>A temperature of 38°C (100.4°F) or higher is a fever</h3><p>Children often feel warm to the touch when they have a fever. To confirm that your child has a fever, use a thermometer to measure your child's body temperature. A temperature of 38°C (100.4°F) or higher means that your child has a fever.</p><h3>Measuring your child’s temperature</h3><p>Do NOT use a glass thermom​eter which contains mercury.</p><p>The <a href="/Article?contentid=966&language=English">most accurate way to measure temperature</a> is with a thermometer:</p><ul class="akh-steps"><li> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">How to measure a rectal temperature</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_temperature_rectal_EN.jpg" alt="Baby lying on tummy across a lap with thermometer inserted in the baby's rectum" /></figure> <p>Inserted into the anus or rectum (rectal temperature) in babies and children under three years of age</p></li><li> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">How to measure an oral temperature</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_temperature_oral_EN.jpg" alt="Young girl lying under a blanket while her temperature is taken by mouth" /></figure> <p>Placed in the mouth (oral temperature) in older children able to hold the thermometer in their mouth long enough</p></li></ul><p>Other methods of measuring temperature may sometimes be useful but less accurate. These methods include: </p><ul class="akh-steps"><li> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">How to measure an armpit (axillary) temperature</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_temperature_armpit_EN.jpg" alt="Baby lying on their back with a thermometer held under the armpit" /></figure> <p>Using a thermometer in the armpit (axillary temperature)</p></li><li> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">How to measure an ear (tympanic) temperature</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_temperature_ear_EN.jpg" alt="Boy having his temperature taken by ear with one hand holding the ear up and the other holding the thermometer in the ear" /></figure> <p>Using an ear thermometer (tympanic temperature)</p></li></ul><p>You should avoid using a thermometer on the forehead or pacifier thermometer to check a temperature because they are inaccurate.</p><h3>Fever in babies younger than three months</h3><p>If your baby is less than three months old and has a fever, you need to see a doctor immediately.</p><p>For babies less than one month of age, fever may be a sign of a serious infection. If this happens on the weekend, do not wait to see your doctor; go to the nearest Emergency Department right away to have your baby assessed by a doctor. Do not give any fever medication to your baby unless a doctor says so.​<br></p><h2>When to see a doctor</h2><h3>See your child's regular doctor or go to the nearest Emergency Department right away if your child has a fever and: </h3><ul><li>Your child is less than three months old.</li><li>You have recently returned from travelling abroad. </li><li>Your child develops a rash that looks like small purple dots that do not go away when you apply pressure with your fingers (blanching). </li><li>Your child is not able to keep down any fluids, is not peeing and appears dehydrated. </li><li>Your child's skin looks very pale or grey, or is cool or mottled. </li><li>Your child is in constant pain. </li><li>Your child is lethargic (very weak) or difficult to wake up. </li><li>Your child has a stiff neck. </li><li>Your child has a seizure associated with fever for the first time or a long seizure associated with fever. </li><li>Your child is looking or acting very sick. </li><li>Your child seems confused or delirious.</li><li>Your child does not use their arm or leg normally or refuses to stand up. </li><li>Your child has problems breathing. </li><li>Your child cries constantly and cannot be settled. </li></ul><h3>See a doctor within one to two days if your child has a fever and: </h3><ul><li>Your child is between three and six months old.</li><li>Your child has specific pain, such as ear or throat pain that may require evaluation.</li><li>Your child has had a fever for more than three days. </li><li>The fever went away for over 24 hours and then came back. </li><li>Your child has a bacterial infection that is being treated with an antibiotic, but the fever is not going away after two to three days of starting the antibiotic. </li><li>Your child cries when going to the bathroom. </li><li>You have other concerns or questions. </li></ul><p>If you are unsure, call Telehealth Ontario at 1-866-797-0000 (toll-free number) if you live in Ontario.</p><h2>Myths about fever</h2><p>There are many myths about fever, and some of these myths may make you worry unnecessarily. If your child has a fever, the most important thing is how your child looks and acts. </p><h3>Myth: Fever needs to be treated with medication</h3><p>This is wrong! The fever itself is not dangerous and does not need to be treated. Medication should be used to make your child more comfortable when they have a fever. If your child is comfortable with a fever (either awake or sleeping) you do not need to give them fever medication. </p><h3>Myth: The exact number of the temperature is useful</h3><p>That is wrong! The most important part of assessing a child with fever is how the child looks and acts, especially after treating the fever with medication. For example a child who appears well but has a high temperature is less concerning than a child who only has a mild fever, but who appears quite unwell or unresponsive. Some minor viral illnesses may trigger high fevers; some serious bacterial infections may be associated with an abnormally low body temperature. In any case, you should measure your child’s temperature so you can keep a record of the number of days of fever.</p><h3>Myth: Fevers cause brain damage</h3><p>That is wrong! Most fevers associated with infections are less than 42°C (107.6°F). These fevers do not cause brain damage. Only a persistent body temperature greater than 44°C (111.2°F) can cause brain damage. These body temperatures are more likely to occur with heat stroke or after exposure to certain street drugs or medications, such as anaesthetic or some psychiatric medicines. They do not occur with the usual infections that children can have. </p><h3>Myth: Fevers are bad for children</h3><p>That is wrong! A fever is just a sign that the body's immune system has been activated. Fevers help to fight infections because many germs do not survive as well at slightly higher body temperatures. Thus most fevers have a beneficial effect despite your child’s discomfort. The main reason to use medication is to make the child feel better. </p><h3>Myth: Fevers should always respond to ibuprofen or acetaminophen</h3><p>That is wrong! These medications help make children feel more comfortable but may only reduce the fever by 1°C to 2°C (2°F to 3°F) and may not bring the temperature down to normal. Sometimes a fever continues even after giving ibuprofen or acetaminophen.</p><h3>Myth: Fevers should respond quickly to antibiotics </h3><p>That is wrong! Antibiotics are only useful in treating bacterial infections. The antibiotic will start working to fight the bacteria as soon as your child takes it, but it may take two to three days before the fever goes away. Antibiotics have no effect on viral infections. Since most infections in children are caused by viruses, an antibiotic will be of no use in these cases. </p><h3>Myth: Treating the fever will prevent febrile seizures </h3><p>This is wrong! Treating the fever will not prevent febrile seizures and you should not use medications for this purpose. Febrile seizures usually run in families and are more likely to happen at the beginning of your child’s infection.</p>​​ <h2>References</h2><p>Richardson M, Purssell E. (2015). Who's afraid of fever? <em>Arch Dis Child</em>. 100(9):818-20. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2015-309491. Retrieved on February 10th, 2016 <a href="http://adc.bmj.com/content/early/2015/05/14/archdischild-2014-307483.full.pdf+html">http://adc.bmj.com/content/early/2015/05/14/archdischild-2014-307483.full.pdf+html</a></p> <br> <p>Sullivan JE, Farrar HC. (2011). Fever and antipyretic use in children. <em>Pediatrics</em>. 127(3):580-7. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-3852. Retrieved February 10th, 2016. <a href="https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/127/3/580.full-text.pdf">http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/127/3/580.full-text.pdf</a> </p> <br> <p>Mistry N, Hudak A. (2014). Combined and alternating acetaminophen and ibuprofen therapy for febrile children. <em>Paediatrics & Child Health</em>. 19(10):531-2. Retrieved on February 10th, 2016 <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4276386/pdf/pch-19-531.pdf">http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4276386/pdf/pch-19-531.pdf​</a> and Corrigendum. (2015). <em>Paediatrics & Child Health</em>, 20(8), 466–467. Retrieved on February 10th, 2016 <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4699537/">http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4699537/</a> </p> <br> <p>National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (2013). <em>Feverish illness in children: assessment and initial management in children younger than 5 years</em> (2nd ed.). Sections 9.1 and 9.2. London, UK: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Retrieved February 10th, 2016 <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK327853/">https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK327853/</a><br></p> ​feverhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/fever.jpg
Fever and neutropeniaFFever and neutropeniaFever and neutropeniaEnglishOncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2011-06-09T04:00:00ZLee Dupuis RPh, ACPR, MScPhm, FCSHP;Sarah Alexander, MD;Sandra Doyle, RN, MScN9.1000000000000056.5000000000000863.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>An overview on fever and a side effect of chemotherapy, called neutropenia. Learn how to help manage your child's fever at home.</p><h2>What is fever and neutropenia?</h2><p>When a child receives treatment for cancer, he is at risk of infections. Sometimes these infections can be serious. At times the number of white blood cells can decrease to very low amounts. This is called neutropenia. It is during this time when the risk of having a serious infection is higher.</p><p>Often, a fever is the first sign of an infection. This is why all children who have a fever during cancer treatment need to be evaluated urgently. If the doctor finds that the child has low white blood cells (neutropenia), they will start your child on antibiotic treatment at once.</p> <h3>Fever</h3><p>A fever is part of the body's response to infection. Your child has a fever if their:</p><ul><li>temperature is 38.3°C or more by mouth one time, or;</li><li>temperature is 38°C or more by mouth for one hour or more.</li></ul><p>Whenever possible, take your child's temperature by mouth. Only take your child's temperature under the arm if you can't take it by mouth.</p><p>When checking for fever under your child's arm, your child has a fever if their:</p><ul><li>temperature is 37.8°C or more under the arm one time, or;</li><li>temperature is 37.5°C or more under the arm for one hour or more.</li></ul><h3>Neutropenia</h3><p>The blood contains a type of white blood cell that helps the body protect itself from infection. These blood cells are called neutrophils. Healthy people usually have more than 1.5 x 10<sup>9</sup> neutrophils for every litre of blood. Neutropenia happens when the number of neutrophils in the blood decreases to less than 0.5 x 10<sup>9</sup> cells/litre.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Neutropenia occurs when the number of white blood cells decrease to low amounts. This can happen as a result of cancer treatment.</li><li>A low white blood cell count puts a child at risk for infection. Fever is often the first sign of an infection.</li><li>If your child has fever and neutropenia they will receive antibiotics.</li> </ul><h2>How is fever and neutropenia treated? </h2> <p>If your child develops a fever, a doctor or nurse practitioner in the Emergency Department or the Haematology/Oncology Clinic will evaluate your child. They will check your child's white blood cell count. If they find that your child is neutropenic, your child may be:</p> <ul> <li>admitted to the hospital and treated with antibiotics, intravenously (IV) or orally</li> <li>given a dose of IV antibiotics at the hospital, and prescribed oral antibiotics to take at home. This happens in a small number of cases.</li> </ul> <p>Your child's Haematology/Oncology doctor will decide which treatment option is best for your child. They will base this decision on strict, pre-set criteria determined by the best scientific evidence to date. </p> <h3>What will happen if my child can receive treatment for fever and neutropenia at home? </h3> <p>In the Emergency Department or the Haematology/Oncology Clinic:</p> <ol> <li>Your child will receive one dose of IV antibiotics. </li> <li>Your child will receive one dose of oral antibiotics. </li> <li>Your child will then be sent home on oral antibiotics under the care of at least one parent (or alternate) that can stay with your child at home (not in daycare or school). </li> </ol> <h3>What you need to do if your child is being managed at home: </h3> <ol> <li>Record each time you give your child their antibiotic on the medicine calendar. </li> <li>Take your child's <a href="/Article?contentid=966&language=English">temperature</a> every four hours and record it in the temperature diary. </li> <li>Bring your child to the Haematology/Oncology Clinic for a check-up until they stop your child's treatment for neutropenia. Your child's doctor or Contact Nurse will let you know how often and when to come into the clinic for a check-up.</li> <li>A homecare nurse will be asked to visit you at home to review the diary with you and also to assess your child.</li> <li>If your child looks ill at any time, if your child throws up the antibiotic, or if you have concerns about your child, call the Contact Nurse or the Haematology/Oncology Fellow-on-Call.</li> </ol> <p>For more information, watch the video on <a id="Neutropenia and chemotherapy for leukemia" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Mls5TViEhg">Neutropenia and chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.</a></p><h2>At SickKids</h2><p>Before leaving the Emergency Department, you will be given:</p><ul><li>a 72-hour supply of antibiotics to be given by mouth</li><li>a Temperature Diary & Medication Calendar<br></li><li>an appointment for a follow-up appointment in the clinic</li></ul><p>When managing your child's neutropenia at home: </p><ul><li>Come to the Haematology/Oncology clinic for your child's check up on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays until your child's doctor or nurse stops treatment.</li><li>Homecare nurses may visit your home on Saturdays, Sundays, Tuesdays and Thursdays.</li><li>It is important that you speak with a member of the SickKids team every day about your child. On days when you do not come to the clinic, call your child's Contact Nurse, Tuesdays and Thursdays and the Haematology/Oncology Fellow-on-Call on weekends between the hours of 8:00 a.m. and noon to report your child's temperatures and progress.</li><li>If you are ever concerned about your child, call our Contact Nurse (Monday through Friday during the day) or the Haematology/Oncology Fellow-on-Call at 416-813-7500 after 5:00 p.m. or anytime on the weekends.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/fever_and_neutropenia.jpg
Fever during brain tumour treatmentFFever during brain tumour treatmentFever during brain tumour treatmentEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-08-14T04:00:00ZEric Bouffet, MD, FRCPC8.6000000000000056.0000000000000406.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Important information on what to do in the event of your child running a fever during brain tumour treatment, such as when to call your doctor.</p><p>When your child is away from the hospital, you become their primary caregiver. You have a responsibility to contact the treatment team if your child presents with specific problems. In children on active treatment, the most common unexpected complications are fever and neutropenia. Fever is a temperature above 38.3°C (101°F). It may be accompanied by headache, shaking from chills, confusion, skin rash, or loss of appetite. Fever is especially a concern if your child is receiving chemotherapy, radiation, or steroids. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul>Fever may be caused by: bacterial or viral infections; immune system-weakening drugs; the tumour; drug allergies; or blood transfusions. <li>Call your child’s doctor if their fever reaches 38.3°C (101°F) or higher.</li> <li>The doctor will determine the cause of the fever before treating it.</li></ul>
Fever in a returning travellerFFever in a returning travellerFever in a returning travellerEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-05-26T04:00:00ZShawna Silver, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, PEng8.5000000000000059.50000000000001476.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Find out what to look out for and when to see a doctor if your child has a fever after travelling abroad.</p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">Fever</a> is the body's response to infection. If your child has been travelling outside your home country, a fever may mean that your child caught an infection while away.</p><p>If your child has had a fever after travelling, see a doctor right away. Be prepared to tell the doctor:</p><ul><li>the country or countries where your child was travelling</li><li>how long your child was there</li><li>what areas your child visited and stayed in, for example in a city or in a rural area</li><li>why your child was travelling</li><li>what your child usually ate or drank while away</li><li>what vaccinations your child received before travel</li><li>what preventative medications your child had before travelling or while away</li><li>whether any other travellers have a fever or any other illness.</li></ul> ​<h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>If your child has just come back from travelling, a fever can mean that they have caught an illness while abroad.</li><li>Your child's doctor will need to know where your child visited while travelling, what they usually ate or drank, whether their vaccinations were up to date and what medications they took before and during their travels. They may also need to do different tests to find the cause of the fever.</li><li>Always remind health-care providers that you and your family have travelled. You and your child are at risk for malaria for up to 12 months after returning from an area where malaria is known to occur.</li><li>Prevention is the best defence against illness. Arrange a visit with your child's doctor six to eight weeks before you travel to give enough time to have vaccinations or get prescriptions for specific medications.</li></ul><h2>Possible causes of a fever in a returning traveller</h2> <p>Travelling may expose a child to unusual diseases, but more than half of the most common causes of fever are diseases similar to those that your child may get at home. These include respiratory illnesses (such as the flu or pneumonia), urinary tract infections, sore throat and gastroenteritis (severe stomach upsets).</p> <p>When a child returns from travelling, however, a doctor must consider if there are any unusual and unfamiliar infections. This is why it is usually necessary to take a thorough history and do a physical exam and any further tests.</p> <p>A fever in a child who has been travelling can be a sign of one of the following diseases:</p> <ul> <li>dengue fever - common in central and south America, south and southeast Asia, and Africa but also occasionally reported in Texas, Hawaii and the Middle East</li> <li>hepatitis A - common in central and south America, Africa, the Middle East, Asia and the western Pacific</li> <li>malaria - common in sub-Saharan Africa, south and southeast Asia, central and south America, the Middle East and Mexico</li> <li>tuberculosis (TB) - common in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa</li> <li>typhoid fever - common in Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Middle East</li> <li>yellow fever - common in sub-Saharan Africa, Panama and tropical south America.</li> </ul> <h3>Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever</h3> <p>Dengue fever is a viral disease that is spread by mosquitoes. It is not spread directly from one person to another.</p> <p>Dengue fever symptoms usually appear four to seven days after the infection, but they can occur up to 14 days afterwards. Children generally have a milder illness than adults, and some people show no symptoms.</p> <p>Signs and symptoms of dengue fever may include:</p> <ul> <li>fever</li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=29&language=English">headache</a></li> <li>pain behind the eyes</li> <li>joint and muscle pain</li> <li>rash</li> </ul> <p>There are four types of dengue virus (called serotypes). Dengue hemorrhagic fever can occur when someone is infected with one dengue serotype and recovers but is later infected with a different serotype.</p> <p>Dengue hemorrhagic fever is more common in children. Signs and symptoms may include:</p> <ul> <li>fever</li> <li>bruising, nosebleeds, bleeding gums or other blood clotting problems</li> <li>abdominal (tummy) pain</li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a></li> </ul> <h3>Hepatitis A</h3> <p>The liver is an organ that helps the body digest food. It also removes waste and toxins and stores energy. <a href="/Article?contentid=819&language=English">Hepatitis</a> is an inflammation of the liver that affects its ability to do its usual tasks.</p> <p>Hepatitis A is caused by a virus. It is usually passed through the fecal-oral route (for example through poor hand washing between using the bathroom and eating) or by having contaminated food or drink.</p> <p>Most cases of hepatitis A occur two to six weeks after a person is exposed to the virus. In young children, most hepatitis A infections are mild and may not even show any signs or symptoms.</p> <p>Older children may show some of the following signs and symptoms:</p> <ul> <li>dark urine</li> <li>extreme tiredness</li> <li>flu-like symptoms of fever, headache and weakness</li> <li>nausea and vomiting</li> <li>abdominal discomfort</li> <li>pain in the area of the liver, on the right side of the body beneath the lower ribs</li> <li>poor appetite</li> <li>muscle pain</li> <li>itching</li> <li>jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) - rarely</li> </ul> <h3>Malaria</h3> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=904&language=English">Malaria</a> is caused by parasites. It is spread by mosquitoes. If left untreated, malaria can lead to death.</p> <p>Malaria symptoms usually appear six to 30 days after a person becomes infected, but they may appear up to 12 months later.</p> <p>The symptoms of malaria are similar to those of a terrible flu. They include:</p> <ul> <li>fever</li> <li>chills</li> <li>headache</li> <li>nausea</li> <li>vomiting</li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a></li> <li>extreme weakness</li> <li>muscle aches</li> <li>pain in the abdomen, back and joints</li> <li>coughing</li> <li>confusion</li> </ul> <p>If your child shows several of these signs, see a doctor right away. If they are not treated properly, the symptoms can get worse quickly.</p> <p>The best ways to prevent malaria are by:</p> <ul> <li>taking anti-malarial medications</li> <li>avoiding mosquito bites by wearing protecting clothing, using child safe DEET products and sleeping under a mosquito net</li> </ul> <h3>Tuberculosis</h3> <p>Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease of the lungs that is caused by slow-growing bacteria. It can be spread from person to person through the air.</p> <p>Children with TB may not show any signs or symptoms. Instead, TB is usually diagnosed with the help of a skin test that can screen for exposure to the bacteria that causes it. If the infection is diagnosed promptly, your child can be treated earlier with effective medications. This will prevent the disease from spreading to other people.</p> <h3>Typhoid fever</h3> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=902&language=English">Typhoid fever</a> is an infection caused by bacteria. It is usually transmitted by consuming contaminated food or drink.</p> <p>Signs and symptoms of typhoid fever appear about seven to 14 days after a person is exposed to the bacteria. However, some children may become sick as little as three days or as much as two months after exposure.</p> <p>Signs and symptoms of typhoid fever may include:</p> <ul> <li>persistent fever that rises gradually to 39°C to 40°C (102°F to 104°F) </li> <li>headache</li> <li>sore throat</li> <li>tiredness</li> <li>low energy</li> <li>stomach pain</li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=6&language=English">constipation</a></li> <li>diarrhea</li> <li>a temporary rash with raised pink spots on the stomach or chest</li> </ul> <h3>Yellow fever</h3> <p>Yellow fever is a viral disease that is spread by mosquitoes. Symptoms of yellow fever appear three to six days after a person is exposed to the virus. They may include:</p> <ul> <li>fever</li> <li>chills</li> <li>headache</li> <li>back and knee pain</li> <li>muscle aches</li> <li>nausea</li> <li>redness of the eyes, tongue and face</li> </ul> <p>In severe cases, yellow fever can cause shock, organ failure and death.</p> <p>Your child's doctor will need to take blood tests to diagnose yellow fever.</p> <p>The best way to prevent yellow fever is by getting a yellow fever vaccine. Anyone nine months old or older can receive the vaccine, and it will protect your child for 10 years. You and your child should also avoid mosquito bites while travelling by:</p> <ul> <li>wearing protective clothing</li> <li>using child safe DEET products</li> <li>sleeping under a mosquito net.</li> </ul><h2>Finding out why a returning traveller has a fever</h2> <p>Your child's doctor may need to do some tests to find out why your child has a fever. These may include:</p> <ul> <li>blood tests</li> <li>urine tests</li> <li>diagnostic imaging, such as a chest x-ray</li> <li>stool (poo) tests.</li> </ul> <p>Your child may need to have other tests as well.</p><h2>Further information</h2> <p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. <em><a target="_blank" href="http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/?s_cid=cdc_homepage_topmenu_003">Traveler's Health​</a></em></p> <p>Government of Canada. <a target="_blank" href="http://travel.gc.ca/travelling?_ga=1.210770070.2052734278.1397067394"><em>Travelling Abroad</em></a></p> <p>Public Health Agency of Canada. <em><a target="_blank" href="http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/tmp-pmv/index-eng.php">Travel Health</a></em></p> <p>World Health Organization. <em><a target="_blank" href="http://www.who.int/topics/travel/en/">Travel and Health</a></em></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/fever_in_returning_traveller.jpg
Fifth disease (erythema infectiosum)FFifth disease (erythema infectiosum)Fifth disease (erythema infectiosum)EnglishInfectious DiseasesSchool age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-15 years)SkinImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Fever;Headache;Rash2010-03-05T05:00:00ZSheila Jacobson, MBBCh, FRCPC6.3000000000000067.1000000000000435.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>A general overview of the symptoms, causes and treatment of fifth disease, and other useful tips for parents.</p><br><br><h2>What is fifth disease?</h2> <p>Fifth disease is a viral infection. It is also known as "slapped cheek syndrome." This because it causes a red rash on the cheeks. A virus called Parvovirus B19 causes fifth disease. Parvovirus B19 can spread from person to person. It spreads through droplets in the air or on surfaces we touch. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Fifth disease is a viral infection that is usually mild.</li> <li>People with blood disorders and pregnant women are at risk of complications.</li> <li>Once the rash appears, the child is no longer contagious.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of fifth disease</h2> <ul> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">mild fever</a>, chills, headaches and other flu-like symptoms (these usually appear four to 14 days after the virus enters the body, and can last up to three weeks)</li> <li>bright red cheeks</li> <li>pale area around mouth</li> <li>a red, blotchy, lace-like rash that appears on the torso about four days after the illness starts</li> <li>the rash then spreads to the arms and the rest of the body</li> <li>the rash can be more well-defined after a warm bath (it can be itchy and last from seven to 21 days)</li> <li>sometimes joint pain or swelling</li> </ul><h2>How to help your child with fifth disease</h2><p>Offer your child fluids often. This helps to avoid dehydration. Treat fever or pain with <a href="/Article?contentid=62&language=English">acetaminophen</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=153&language=English">ibuprofen</a>. </p><p>Because fifth disease is caused by a virus, antibiotics will not work. There is no effective lotion or medication for the rash. </p><p>Children who are otherwise healthy are usually healthy again after a few weeks. </p><h2>Complications</h2> <p>Fifth disease can make children with blood disorders such as <a href="/Article?contentid=745&language=English">sickle cell disease</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=840&language=English">thalassemia</a> more sick. </p> <p>The virus can spread from a pregnant woman to her unborn child. If this happens, it can lead to severe and life-threatening conditions in the unborn baby. It can also cause a miscarriage. </p><h2>When to seek medical assistance</h2> <p>See the doctor if: </p> <ul> <li>your child becomes ill with fifth disease</li> <li>your child has a blood disorder</li> <li>you are pregnant or if any pregnant women have been in contact with your child with fifth disease </li> </ul>parvovirushttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/fifth_disease.jpg
Financial literacy: Teaching kids about moneyFFinancial literacy: Teaching kids about moneyFinancial literacy: Teaching kids about moneyEnglishNAPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2012-03-28T04:00:00Z7.4000000000000065.0000000000000753.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Follow these money milestones to teach your preschooler, tween or teen about the basics of money.</p><p>Parents can teach money management to kids of any age. Whether your child is in preschool, middle school or high school, follow these simple money milestones.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>When teaching money to preschoolers, start by teaching them to practice patience and how to count.</li><li>School-aged children can begin receiving an allowance and learning the cost of household items.<br></li><li>Tweens will feel empowered about money if they have a savings account. Teach them to be critical consumers by talking about how advertising companies work.</li><li>Teach your teenager about money by talking about how investing works and suggesting a part-time job.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/financial_literacy_teaching_kids.jpg
Financial support for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)FFinancial support for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)Financial support for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)EnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years)NANervous systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-03-09T04:00:00ZJanice Mulligan MSW, RSWRadha MacCulloch, MSWWendy Roberts MD. FRCPCLee Steel11.600000000000042.10000000000001325.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Information about where to obtain financial assistance if you have a child with autism spectrum disorder.</p><p>As a parent of a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), you may qualify for financial support. This support can help cover the extraordinary costs associated with being a parent of a child with special needs. Financial support can come from government and private programs. The amount of money you receive will depend on your child’s needs and your family’s financial situation. The list that follows describes some, but not all, of the financial benefits available to children with special needs and their families. Financial support also includes tax benefits for families raising a child with special needs.</p><h2> Key points </h2><ul><li>If your child has autism spectrum disorder (ASD), you may qualify for financial support from government and private programs.</li> <li>The amount of money you receive will depend on your child's needs and your financial situation.</li></ul>
Financial support for parents in OntarioFFinancial support for parents in OntarioFinancial support for parents in OntarioEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANASupport, services and resourcesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2012-06-13T04:00:00ZNA10.900000000000047.60000000000001047.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find financial support and resources in Ontario for parents with a sick child. </p><p>If your family has extra expenses because of your sick child, you may be able to obtain financial or other assistance. There are a number of <a href="/Article?contentid=1150&language=English">federal tax breaks for children with disabilities in Canada</a>.</p><p>You can discuss financial and practical problems with a <a href="/Article?contentid=1168&language=English">social worker</a>. They can also direct you to useful <a href="/Article?contentid=1155&language=English">community health services</a>.</p><p>When you complete an application, always mail the original and keep a copy for yourself. Pay attention to renewal dates for programs that must be re-applied for every year. If you miss a renewal date or hand an application in late, it may result in you losing your benefits. If you have any questions when completing an application, call the appropriate agency for information. Developing a relationship with a worker from each agency can be helpful when specific questions arise about your application or available services. You will need to be <a href="/Article?contentid=1148&language=English">organized</a> and keep a phone contact record of everyone you have spoken to.</p><p>Some of the options available in Ontario are described here; other provinces may have similar programs.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>In Ontario, the Ministry of Community and Social Services and the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care have programs to help families who have extra expenses because they are taking care of a sick family member.</li> <li>Talk to the social worker on your child's health-care team to learn more about the types of financial assistance you may be eligible for and what community health services may be available to you.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/financial_support_for_parents_in_ontario.jpg
Finding and keeping a healthy body weightFFinding and keeping a healthy body weightFinding and keeping a healthy body weightEnglishNutritionPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyNANon-drug treatmentPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-18 years)NA2009-11-06T05:00:00ZStacey Segal, MSc, RD;Jennifer Buccino, MEd, RD, CDE;Kellie Welch, RD5.0000000000000078.0000000000000725.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Eating healthy foods and exercising are key components to maintaining a healthy weight. Read tips for finding and keeping a healthy body weight.</p><h2>Tips for living a healthy lifestyle for teens and kids</h2> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p>Eating well, being active, and feeling good about yourself are all part of a healthy lifestyle. Along with what we suggest here, please follow the recommendations in <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/canada-food-guides.html" target="_blank">Canada's Food Guide</a>. Ask your dietitian for a copy if you do not have one. </p> <p>Here are four basic things to remember about achieving and maintaining a healthy weight:</p> <ul> <li>be active<br></li> <li>establish healthy eating patterns<br></li> <li>make healthy food choices<br></li> <li>feel good about yourself.<br></li></ul><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>To help you achieve and maintain a healthy weight be active, establish healthy eating patterns, make healthy food choices and feel good about yourself.</li> <li>Follow the recommendations in Canada's Food Guide and get the recommended number of servings of vegetables and fruit, grain products, milk and alternatives, and meat and alternatives.</li> <li>Treats have a place in a healthy eating lifestyle. Eating a treat every once in a while is part of balanced eating.<br></li> </ul><h2>Be active</h2><ul><li>Try to <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=642&language=English">be active </a>every season.<br></li><li>Participate in gym class.</li><li>Try increasing your current activity level by 30 minutes per day to start.</li><li>After checking with your doctor and physiotherapist, aim for 20 to 30 minutes of vigorous activity and 90 minutes of total activity per day, four to five times a week.</li><li>Choose different activities that you like so you do not get bored.</li><li>Choose some activities that you can do in your neighbourhood or at home, like walking or biking.</li><li>Limit the amount of time you spend watching TV and playing on the computer to 90 minutes per day or less. Start by reducing your current daily <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=643&language=English">screen time</a> by 30 minutes per day.<br></li></ul><h2>Establish healthy eating patterns<br></h2><ul><li>Eat three meals a day. Do not skip meals - especially breakfast.</li><li>If you are hungry between meals, plan to eat a healthy snack such as yogurt and fruit, cut up fruits and vegetables, or whole wheat crackers and cheese. One to three healthy snacks a day are okay.</li><li>Eat slowly and without distractions like homework, TV and toys. That way, you will know when you are full.</li><li>See Canada's Food Guide for common portion sizes. If you are not sure about portion sizes, talk to your dietitian.</li><li>Eat at home more often. Try to eat out less often.</li></ul><h2>Make healthy food choices</h2><div class="akh-series"><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Body_weight_drinks_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Milk and water" /> </figure> <h3>Drinks</h3><ul><li>Choose water. If you do not want water, choose from a variety of sugar-free drinks.<br></li><li>Remember to get your recommended servings of milk. Choose 2%, 1% or skim milk.<br></li></ul></div></div><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Body_weight_fruits_veggies_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Fruits, vegetables and juice" /> </figure> <h3>Vegetables and fruits</h3><ul><li>Choose fresh <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=1437&language=English">vegetables and fruit</a> instead of juice and dried or canned fruit.</li><li>Limit juice to one glass per day.</li><li>Choose fruit canned in juice instead of syrup.</li><li>Use herbs, spices and lemon juice to add flavour to vegetables, instead of butter and cream.</li></ul></div></div><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Body_weight_grains_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Grain products" /> </figure> <h3>Grain products</h3><ul><li>Choose whole <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=1438&language=English">grain</a> breads such as whole wheat and whole rye.</li><li>Choose cereals made from whole grains. Try not to eat sugary cereals and granola.</li></ul></div></div><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Body_weight_milk_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Milk, cheese and sorbet" /> </figure> <h3>Milk and alternatives<br></h3><ul><li>Choose 2%, 1% or skim <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=1439&language=English">milk</a>.</li><li>Choose cheese with less than 20% of milk fat. It should say 20% m.f. on the package.</li><li>Limit the use of table cream, whipped cream and sour cream. Choose low-fat versions of these products.</li><li>Choose sherbets, ice milk, gelato and frozen yogurt more often as alternatives to ice cream.</li></ul></div></div><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Body_weight_meat_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Chicken, eggs, fish, legumes and tofu" /> </figure> <h3>Meat and alternatives</h3><ul><li>Choose leaner cuts of <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=1440&language=English">meat</a>, such as loins and rounds.</li><li>Cut away visible fat from meat. Take off the skin from chicken or turkey.</li><li>Choose tuna and other fish canned in water instead of oil.</li><li>Limit the use of gravy and sauces.</li><li>Try having legumes, soybeans and tofu as a source of protein.</li></ul></div></div></div><h2>Treats</h2><p>Treats do have a place in a healthy eating lifestyle. Eating a treat every once in a while is part of balanced eating.</p><ul><li>The key is moderation. Limit yourself to one to two treats per week.</li><li>Try not to keep too many treats in the house.</li><li>Choose healthier treats if you can.</li><li>Do make exceptions for special occasions that may involve treats, such as parties, holidays and other special occasions.</li></ul><h2>Feel good about yourself</h2><ul><li>Remember that healthy bodies come in different shapes and sizes.</li><li>Focus on the positive changes you have made to your lifestyle.<br></li><li>Do not weigh yourself often. Do not compare different scales.</li><li>Reward yourself for your efforts. You deserve it.</li></ul><p>Your dietitian also recommends:</p><p></p><p>Cautions:</p><p></p><p></p><h3>Call your dietitian if you have any questions:</h3><p>Name:</p><p></p><p>Number:</p><p></p>healthybodyweighthttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Body_weight_fruits_veggies_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg
Finger feeding your babyFFinger feeding your babyFinger feeding your babyEnglishDevelopmentalNewborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)NANANon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-06T05:00:00ZDebbie Stone, RN, IBCLC, RLC;Joyce Touw, BScN, PNC(C), RN, IBCLC, RLC7.0000000000000074.00000000000001666.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Finger feeding is a temporary way to feed your baby using your finger and a small tube. Learn what supplies you will need and tips for finger feeding.</p><h2>What is finger feeding?</h2> <p>Finger feeding is a temporary way to feed your baby. To finger feed, tape a feeding tube on the soft side of your finger or thumb and put your finger or thumb in your baby's mouth. Try to use the largest finger or thumb that you are comfortable using and that fits into the baby's mouth. Your baby will suck on your finger or thumb and the feeding tube, in much the same way that he would suck on your breast. Fathers and other caregivers can feed the baby this way too. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Finger feeding is a temporary method of feeding your baby using your finger or thumb and a small tube. </li> <li>Finger feeding can be a supplement or a replacement for breastfeeding. </li> <li>Finger feeding can help your baby learn to suck to help with breastfeeding. </li> <li>Finger feeding needs to be supervised by a breastfeeding specialist or doctor once you are discharged from the hospital. </li> </ul><h2>How to finger feed your baby</h2><p>You can use two different containers to finger feed your baby:</p><ul><li>a syringe without a needle with the plunger removed</li><li>a bottle</li></ul><p>To finger feed your baby, follow these steps:</p><ol><li> <a href="/article?contentid=1981&language=English">Wash your hands</a> thoroughly. Parents can use their bare finger or thumb, or you can cover your hand with a hospital glove. Health-care professions will wear a glove if they finger feed your baby. Make sure the nail on the finger or thumb that you will use is cut short so that you do not hurt your baby's mouth.</li><ul class="akh-steps"><li> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">Finger feeding with a syringe</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Finger_feeding_1_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Woman finger feeding a baby with a syringe" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption"> Fasten the syringe to your clothing.</figcaption> </figure> <p>If you are using a syringe, attach the wide end of the feeding tube to the tip of the syringe. Pour the feeding supplement into the syringe. Place the elastic band around the top of the syringe. Then put a safety pin through the end of the elastic. Pin the syringe to your clothing so the bottom of the syringe is at the same level with your baby's head.<br></p></li><li> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">Finger feeding with a </span><span class="asset-image-title">bottle</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Finger_feeding_3_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Woman finger feeding a baby with a bottle" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The</figcaption><figcaption class="asset-image-caption"> bottle should be on a flat surface so the fluid in the bottle is level with the baby's head.</figcaption> </figure> <p>If you are using a bottle, pour the feeding supplement into the bottle. Put the wide end of the feeding tube into the feeding supplement. Put the small end of the feeding tube through the enlarged nipple hole, leaving the large end of the tube touching the bottom of the bottle. Place the bottle on a flat surface close to you so the fluid is at the same level as your baby's head.<br></p></li></ul></ol><ol start="2"><li>Sit comfortably with your baby on your lap. Your baby should be facing you. Your baby should be sitting almost upright, but at a little bit of an angle.</li><li> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Finger_feeding_2_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="How to insert finger in baby’s mouth for finger feeding" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The finger is inserted just past the first knuckle, soft side up, just as far as where the hard palate meets the soft palate.</figcaption> </figure> <p>Hold your finger or thumb soft side up. Place the thin end of the feeding tube on your finger so that the end of the feeding tube is at the end of your finger. Tape the feeding tube in place behind the second joint of your finger or the first joint of your thumb.</p></li><li>Tickle your baby's lip so that the baby will open their mouth wide. Put the finger with the feeding tube, soft side up, in your baby's mouth.</li><li>Move your finger back and forth slightly along the baby's tongue if you need to encourage your baby to suck.</li><li>Let your fingertip move to the back of the baby's mouth with each suck. Your finger should just touch the ridge at the top of the mouth where the hard part of the mouth becomes soft. Your finger will be in your baby's mouth up to between the first and second knuckle.</li><li>Make sure your baby is getting enough feeding supplement. The feeding supplement should flow when the baby sucks and stop when the baby stops sucking. Your baby is getting enough feeding supplement if you can hear them swallowing with each suck.</li></ol><h3>Troubleshooting</h3><p>If your baby is not getting enough feeding supplement, try the following things:</p><ul><li>Check for bends or kinks in the feeding tube.</li><li>Check the position of the feeding tube in your baby's mouth.</li><li>Raise the bottle or syringe higher above the level of your baby's head.</li></ul><p>If your baby is getting the feeding supplement too fast, lower the bottle or syringe so it is below the level of your baby's head.</p><h2>Cleaning your finger feeding supplies is easy</h2> <p>You can use your finger feeding supplies at home as long as you clean the supplies thoroughly right after you feed your baby. Follow these steps to clean the supplies: </p> <ol> <li>Wash your finger-feeding supplies with warm soapy water.</li> <li>Rinse the supplies well with warm clean water. Make sure there is no dry feeding supplement left in the feeding supplies.</li> <li>Keep the feeding supplies wrapped in a clean towel or in a sealed plastic bag after you wash them.</li> </ol> <p>The feeding tube can generally be used for seven days or until it becomes hard.</p> <p>Note: You should not boil the feeding supplies because boiling will make the plastic hard too quickly.</p><h2>Supplies you need to finger feed your baby</h2><ul><li>A number 5 French feeding tube that is 36 inches long. </li><li>A baby bottle or a syringe without a needle that will hold 30 to 60 mL of liquid. A syringe is a hollow tube that has a plunger and holds liquids. </li><li>Adhesive or clear medical tape. </li><li>An elastic band and a safety pin, if you are using a syringe. </li><li>A clean hand or a hospital glove, if you want to cover your hand. </li><li>A feeding supplement such as milk taken from your breast or formula. Milk taken from your breast is called <a href="/Article?contentid=1979&language=English">expressed breast milk</a>. Sometimes, a liquid or powder is added to breast milk or formula if your baby needs extra calories.</li><li>A plastic bag that you can seal to store the feeding tube. </li></ul><p>These supplies may be available at your local hospital. Some drugstores and medical supply stores may carry these supplies as well. If you are unable to get these supplies at your location, they can be ordered in person, on the phone or online from the Specialty Food Shop at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto. </p><p>For details, go to: <a href="https://www.specialtyfoodshop.ca/products/baby-kids/infant-feeding-supplies/breast-pumps-supplies" target="_blank">https://www.specialtyfoodshop.ca/products/baby-kids/infant-feeding-supplies/breast-pumps-supplies </a> or call 1-800-737-7976. The Specialty Food Shop may be able to ship these supplies directly to your home.</p><h2>At SickKids</h2> <p>If you have any questions about finger feeding or breastfeeding in general, please call the Breastfeeding Program at 416-813-5757 ext 2.</p> <p>Finger feeding and other breastfeeding supplies are sold at the <a href="https://www.specialtyfoodshop.ca/products/baby-kids/infant-feeding-supplies/breast-pumps-supplies">Specialty Food Shop</a> on the Main floor of the hospital. Ask your nurse how to clean the feeding tube and syrynge while your baby is in hospital. A new feeding tune is used each 12 hours.</p> ​https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Finger_feeding_2_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg
Fingernail infection (paronychia)FFingernail infection (paronychia)Fingernail infection (paronychia)EnglishDermatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Fingers;ToesNailsConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2013-05-04T04:00:00ZElly Berger, BA, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, MHPE8.1000000000000062.0000000000000504.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>An easy-to-understand overview of fingernail infections including possible causes, treatment and when to see a doctor.</p><h2>What is a fingernail infection? </h2><p>Fingernail infections occur on or near the edge of the nail. Most of the time, fingernail infections are not serious but they can be painful. This type of infection can also form on the toenails.​</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Nail infections can occur on the hands and the feet.</li> <li>Nail biting and finger sucking can cause the skin to break, allowing bacteria to enter. </li> <li>Symptoms include swelling, redness and tenderness of the area where the nail meets the tissue of the finger. </li> <li>Clean the infection three times a day with warm water and an antibacterial soap.</li> <li>If the infection has not cleared after four or five days, seek medical attention.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of a fingernail infection</h2> <p>Signs and symptoms may include: </p> <ul> <li>Swelling where the finger meets the nail </li> <li>Redness and mild tenderness surrounding the infected area </li> <li>A blister filled with pus or pus draining from the swollen area </li> </ul><h2>Causes of a fingernail infection</h2> <p>Fingernail infections are caused by bacteria entering the skin around the nail. Nail biting, ingrown nails and finger sucking can cause the skin to break, allowing bacteria to enter. Also, pushing the cuticle down or trimming the cuticle (which is usually done as part of a manicure) can also lead to infection. </p><h2>Treatment of a fingernail infection</h2> <h3>Antiseptic soaks </h3> <p>Soak the affected area in warm water with an antibacterial soap. Do this three times a day for 10 to 20 minutes at a time. If the infection has not cleared after four or five days, make an appointment to see your child's doctor. </p> <h3>Draining </h3> <p>In most cases, pus will drain on its own after soaking the infection. You may need to apply a bit of pressure by gently rubbing or squeezing the area with a damp cloth or cotton swab. If this does not work, then see your doctor. You doctor may take a small needle to open up the affected area and drain the pus.</p> <h3>Antibiotics </h3> <p>You can try applying an over-the-counter antibiotic ointment such as Polysporin to the infected area two to three times per day. The best time to apply this ointment is after the area has been soaked in warm water for 10 to 20 minutes. If the infection persists, your child's doctor may prescribe a stronger antibiotic ointment to fight the infection. Apply the ointment as directed until the infection disappears. If the infection appears to be spreading beyond the nail, your child's doctor may prescribe an oral antibiotic. </p> <h3>Prevention </h3> <p>Encourage your child to not bite, pick or chew their fingernails. Use nail clippers instead. Avoid pushing cuticles down and do not trim the cuticle. </p><h2>When to see a doctor</h2><p>Make an appointment with your child's doctor if: </p><ul><li>your child develops a <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a></li><li>the infection has not cleared after four or five days</li><li>the area of redness or swelling is getting bigger</li><li>the area is hot and painful</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/fingernail_infection.jpg
First aid kitFFirst aid kitFirst aid kitEnglishPreventionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2013-04-23T04:00:00ZElizabeth Berger, BA, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, MHPE8.2000000000000061.5000000000000376.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find a list of supplies and medicines to include in a first aid kit. It is recommended that there be an equipped first aid kit in the house and in the car.</p><p>Like smoke detectors and fire extinguishers, a first aid kit is a necessity for every home, cottage, and workplace. Accidents and injuries can happen to anyone at any time so it is important to be prepared.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Keep your first aid kit in a central location so it is easily accessible.</li> <li>Try to keep the contents of the first aid kit at room temperature.</li> <li>If your first aid kit contains medications, remember to check expiration dates and replace when necessary. Remember to keep out of reach of small children.</li> <li>Consider keeping a basic first aid kit in your car.</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/first_aid_kit.jpg
Fish allergyFFish allergyFish allergyEnglishAllergyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-12-18T05:00:00ZVy Kim, MD, FRCPC;Anna Kasprzak, RN​8.9000000000000061.6000000000000998.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Find out how to help your child manage a fish allergy.</p><h2>What is a fish allergy?</h2><p>A fish allergy is a reaction to one or more of the proteins in fish.</p><p>It can be easy to mistake a true fish allergy for histamine poisoning. Anchovies, mackerel, mahi-mahi and tuna can contain high levels of histamine when they are not properly frozen or refrigerated. When someone eats these improperly stored fish, they may experience similar symptoms to that of a fish or seafood allergy. See your doctor if you suspect your child has histamine poisoning.</p> ​ <h2>If my child has an allergy to fish, must they avoid all seafood?</h2><p>Some people may be allergic to one group of seafood, such as fish, but may be able to eat other groups of seafood, such as crustaceans, as long as the seafood has not come in contact with the fish in any way.</p><p>In addition, allergic reactions do not always occur within complete families of seafood. For example, a person can be allergic to salmon but not to other types of fish.</p><p>If your child has an allergy to a specific fish, speak to an allergist (a doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating allergies) before letting them try other types of fish. Your child may need to avoid all fish due to the high chance of cross-contamination (see below), as fish products are often processed in the same facility.</p><h2>Will my child always have a fish allergy?</h2><p>Most children with a fish allergy will continue to have it as they get older.</p><p>An allergist (a doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating allergies) can help you find out when to test your child and see whether they have outgrown their allergy.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>A fish allergy can be different for each person: for example, some people can eat all fish but must avoid seafood, but other people can tolerate some types of fish but not others.</li> <li>Most children with a fish allergy do not outgrow it. Consult an allergist regularly to see if there is any change in your child's allergy.</li> <li>Sources of fish include coffee, fried rice, salad dressing and gelatin. </li> <li>To prevent an allergic reaction, always read food product labels, avoid foods if you are not sure of the ingredients and avoid using utensils or containers that might have come in contact with fish.</li> <li>If your child's diet is limited because of a fish allergy, a registered dietitian can offer advice on getting a balanced diet.</li> </ul><h2>Possible sources of fish</h2> <p>Fish and other seafood are used in a wide range of packaged foods. Below is a list of some of the many food products that can contain fish.</p> <table class="akh-table"> <tbody> <tr> <td>Coffee</td> <td>Deli meats (bologna, ham)</td> </tr> <tr> <td>​Fried rice</td> <td>Gelatin</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Hot dogs</td> <td>Marshmallows</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Salad dressing (for example Caesar dressing)</td> <td>Soups and sauces</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Spring rolls</td> <td>Sushi</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Worcestershire sauce​ </td> <td> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table><h2>Reducing the risk of cross-contamination</h2><p>Cross-contamination occurs when a harmless substance comes in contact with a harmful substance, for example a potential allergen or harmful bacteria. If the substances mix together, the harmful substance taints the other substance, making it unsafe to eat.</p><p>Food allergens can contaminate other foods when, for example, the same food containers, utensils or frying pans hold a range of foods.</p><p>Avoid using utensils or containers that may have come in contact with allergy-causing foods and ask about possible cross-contamination when eating out.</p><h2>How can my child get the right mix of nutrients if they must avoid fish?</h2><p>The main nutrients in fish include protein, omega-3 fats, vitamin A, vitamin B 12, vitamin D, vitamin E, calcium, iron and zinc. Your child can still get these nutrients even if they must avoid fish and products that contain them.</p><h3>Nutrients in fish that are found in other foods</h3><table class="akh-table"><thead><tr><th>Nutrie​nt​</th><th>Where to find it​</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>Protein</td><td>Milk, chicken, egg, beans, soy</td></tr><tr><td>​Omega-3 fats</td><td>Flaxseed oil, edamame (soybeans), radish seeds, omega-3 eggs fortified with DHA</td></tr><tr><td>​Vitamin A​</td><td>Sweet potato, pumpkin, liver, goat cheese, carrots, squash, spinach</td></tr><tr><td>​Vitamin B12</td><td>Milk, cheese, liver, beef</td></tr><tr><td>Vitamin D</td><td>Milk or soy beverage fortified with vitamin D</td></tr><tr><td>​Vitamin E</td><td>Spinach, red pepper, Swiss chard, wheat germ cereal, egg, almonds, sunflower seeds</td></tr><tr><td>​Calcium</td><td>Milk, buttermilk, cheese, yogurt, spinach, collards, beans, soy beverage fortified with calcium</td></tr><tr><td>Iron​</td><td>Spinach, tomato puree, edamame, lima beans, snow peas, instant oatmeal, cereal</td></tr><tr><td>​Zinc</td><td>Bran cereal, wheat germ, cheese, milk, beef, pumpkin seeds, baked beans</td></tr></tbody></table><h2>Can my child with a fish allergy enjoy sushi?</h2><p>Many kinds of delicious sushi rolls do not contain any fish. If you dine at a sushi restaurant, contact the restaurant ahead of time to tell them about your child’s allergy. Ask if the restaurant can provide seafood-free sushi that is uncontaminated by sushi rolls that contain seafood.</p><h2>When to see a dietitian about a fish allergy</h2> <p>If you have removed many foods from your child's diet because of a fish allergy, it may be a good idea to speak to a registered dietitian. The dietitian can review the foods your child still eats to decide if they are getting enough nutrients. If necessary, they can also recommend alternative foods that your child can eat safely.</p><h2>​Further information</h2> <p>Health Canada. <a href="http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/alt_formats/pdf/pubs/securit/fish-poisson-eng.pdf" target="_blank">Seafood (fish, crustaceans and shellfish) - One of the ten priority food allergens​</a></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/fish_allergy.jpg
Fitting treats and drinks into your family's dietFFitting treats and drinks into your family's dietFitting treats and drinks into your family's dietEnglishNutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NADigestive systemHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+) Educators Hospital healthcare providers Community healthcare providers Remote populations First nationsNA2013-09-27T04:00:00ZTheresa Couto, RD;Elly Berger, BA, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, MHPE;Francy Pillo-Blocka RD, FDC000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to fit treats and drinks into your family's daily diet.</p><p>Canada's Food Guide focuses on the four food groups that make up a healthy, balanced diet. It does not include fatty or sweet "treat" foods. </p><p>A healthy perspective is to allow "all foods to fit" in a balanced diet. This means choosing food from all the food groups regularly and allowing your children a few treats each week. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A balanced diet includes nutritious food from the four food groups in Canada's Food Guide as well as occasional treats.<br></li><li>Limit higher calorie treats and snacks such as cakes, cookies, chocolate, fries, nachos and potato chips.</li><li>Instead offer your child low-fat yogurt, low-fat hummus and fresh or dried fruit. Children aged five and older can also have popcorn, nuts, crackers or raw vegetables.</li><li>To keep the right balance between fluids and nutrients encourage your child to drink plain water regularly and cut out or limit sugary drinks such as soda, sports and energy drinks or sweetened tea or coffee.<br></li></ul>
Flow rate testFFlow rate testFlow rate testEnglishUrologyPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BladderBladderTestsCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2010-12-17T05:00:00ZCathy Daniels, RN (EC), MS, NP-Paeds6.0000000000000078.0000000000000600.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>A flow rate test helps to assess how well your child can empty their bladder by measuring the rate at which urine flows out of it. Learn more about the procedure and preparing your child. </p><h2>What is a flow rate test?</h2> <p>A flow rate test assesses how your child urinates (pees or voids). It is not invasive and does not hurt.</p> <p>Your child will be asked to urinate into a flow rate toilet. This is a special toilet that measures the volume (amount) and rate (speed) of urine flow. The nurse will explain this test to you and your child as it is being performed. </p> <p>Before and after the test, a bladder scan is done to show how much urine is left in your child's bladder (residual urine).</p> <h3>What is a flow rate test with EMG?</h3> <p>A flow rate test with EMG is similar to a regular flow rate test. <a href="/Article?contentid=1278&language=English">EMG</a> is a test that looks at how muscles and nerves work together. Your child will have electrodes, which are like stickers, gently placed on the buttocks and hip. These electrodes allow us to assess your child's pelvic floor muscles while your child pees. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>A flow rate test assesses how your child urinates (pees). Your child will need to urinate into a special toilet.</li> <li>Your child will need a full bladder for the test.</li> <li>Your child will have a bladder scan before and after urinating.</li> </ul><h2>Purpose of the flow rate test</h2> <p>Your child may be sent for this test for any of the following reasons:</p> <ul> <li>to see if your child has urination problems</li> <li>to assess the effects of certain medicines</li> <li>to evaluate how your child urinates before and after an operation</li> <li>to assess the results of a procedure</li> </ul><h2>Taking the test</h2> <p>Every child has a different bladder capacity. We want to do this test when your child feels a strong urge to urinate. A strong urge to urinate shows that your child's bladder is full.</p> <p>If your child is not ready for the test when you arrive at the clinic, encourage your child to drink water. When your child feels a strong urge to urinate, please tell the clerical staff at the front desk. </p> <p>Once your child's bladder is full, the test will take about five minutes. Your child will have a bladder scan and will be asked to urinate into the flow rate toilet. Then your child will have a second bladder scan to see if any urine is left in the bladder.</p><h2>Getting ready for the test</h2> <p>Your child will need a full bladder for this test.</p> <p>Remember that it takes 20 to 30 minutes for liquid to get down to the bladder. If your child does not normally drink a lot of water, or if your child has been ill, your child may be slightly dehydrated. If your child is dehydrated, it will take more water to fill the bladder. </p> <p>Your child can eat and drink as usual before this test. You can bring their favourite drinks or formula from home or buy a drink from the hospital cafeteria.</p><h2>At SickKids</h2> <p>If this is your child's first visit to the hospital, you will need to register at Clinic Registration on the main floor, in the Atrium. Then go to the Urodynamics clinic on 5D (Atrium elevators), where the test is done.</p> <p>If your child has been to the hospital before, go directly to 5D.</p> <p>Check in with the clerical staff at the front desk of 5D. You can wait in the kitchen or playroom on 5D until your child is ready for the test.</p> <p>If you have any questions, speak with your urologist or nurse practitioner or call the urodynamics nurses at 416-813-6661.</p> <p>For any cancellations or changes in appointment dates, please call the Urology Clinic at 416-813-6661.</p>
FolateFFolateFolateEnglishNutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NADigestive systemHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+) Educators Hospital healthcare providers Community healthcare providers Remote populations First nationsNA2013-09-27T04:00:00ZTheresa Couto, RD;Elly Berger, BA, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, MHPE;Francy Pillo-Blocka RD, FDC000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Discover the role of folate in the body.</p><p></p><p>Folate is another name for vitamin B9. It keeps the heart and blood vessels healthy and reduces the risk of some birth defects such as spina bifida.</p> <figure class="asset-c-100"> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/INM_NRC_track1-8-4_illustration_food_folate.jpg" alt="Grain products and vegetables and fruits containing folate" /> </figure><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Folate, also known as folic acid, is mostly found in grain products, green leafy vegetables, peas and orange juice. </li> <li>Women of childbearing age need a supplement of 400 µg folic acid each day in addition to the folate found in a healthy diet.</li> <li>Pregnant women need to take a multivitamin containing 400 - 1000 µg of folic acid.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/INM_NRC_track1-8-4_illustration_food_folate.jpg
FolliculitisFFolliculitisFolliculitisEnglishDermatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)SkinSkinConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2016-06-24T04:00:00ZMichael Bishara, BSc, MD, FRCPC;Irene Lara-Corrales, MSc, MD​​​9.0000000000000052.0000000000000475.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Folliculitis occurs when the hair follicle becomes inflamed or infected. Learn about the causes and treatment for this skin condition.<br></p><figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_folliculitis_EN.jpg" alt="Skin affected by folliculitis" /> </figure> <h2>What is folliculitis?</h2><p>A follicle is a small pouch from which hair grows. Folliculitis occurs when the hair follicle becomes inflamed or infected.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Folliculitis is an inflammation or infection of the hair follicle. It results in small red bumps, which may be itchy or painful.</li> <li>The most common cause of folliculitis is a bacterial infection, but skin irritation is also a factor.</li> <li>Folliculitis usually goes away on its own but can be helped with warm wet compresses or antibacterial soaps.</li> <li>See your child’s doctor if the folliculitis does not improve, if there is redness, swelling or pain at the folliculitis or if your child develops a fever. Your child may need an antibiotic.</li> </ul><h2>How does folliculitis affect the body?</h2><p>If your child has folliculitis, they will develop many little red bumps where their body hair grows. Sometimes these bumps may feel itchy or slightly painful and even produce pus. Other times there are no symptoms.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/IMD_folliculitis_EN.png" alt="Cross section of skin with normal hair follicle and cross section of skin with infected hair follicle (folliculitis)" /> </figure> <p>When the folliculitis heals, the red bump is sometimes replaced by darker skin. This condition is called <a href="/Article?contentid=2299&language=English">post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation</a>.</p><h2>What causes folliculitis?</h2> <p>There are many causes for folliculitis, including:</p> <ul> <li>infections by <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> or other bacteria, for example from water in hot tubs or swimming pools</li> <li>irritation from shaving, plucking or waxing hair (especially common among those with very curly hair)</li> <li>irritation from sporting equipment or tight clothing rubbing against the skin</li> <li>blockage of hair follicles by creams, oils or ointments.<br></li> </ul><h2>How is folliculitis diagnosed?</h2> <p>Your child’s doctor can often diagnose folliculitis simply by looking at your child’s skin and asking about your child’s symptoms and recent activities.</p> <p>If your child’s skin seems to be very infected or there have been many episodes of folliculitis, your doctor may do a skin swab to see which bacteria are responsible.</p><h2>How is folliculitis treated?</h2> <p>Treatment depends on the extent of the folliculitis and where it is located on the body. In most cases, folliculitis goes away on its own, especially if it is mild and limited to a small area.</p><h2>When to see a doctor for folliculitis</h2><p>See your child’s doctor if the folliculitis does not go away on its own. The doctor may suggest one or more of the following treatments.</p><ul><li>Using a warm wet cloth compress over the affected area for 10 to 15 minutes three times a day</li><li>Using antibacterial soaps and washes (such as benzoyl peroxide or chlorhexidine) or bleach baths</li><li>Avoiding any triggers of folliculitis (such as tight clothing)</li><li>Avoiding any contaminated water (such as in a hot tub) until it is thoroughly cleaned</li></ul><p>Your child’s doctor may recommend a topical or oral antibiotic (an antibiotic for the skin or by mouth) if:</p><ul><li>your child’s folliculitis is spreading </li><li>your child's folliculitis does not improve on its own with time</li><li>your child’s skin is red, tender or painful around the folliculitis</li><li>your child develops a <a href="/article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a>.</li></ul><br>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_folliculitis_EN.jpg
Follow-up care for newborn babiesFFollow-up care for newborn babiesFollow-up care for newborn babiesEnglishNeonatologyNewborn (0-28 days)NANANAAdult (19+)NA2009-10-18T04:00:00ZDouglas Campbell, MD, FRCPCHosanna Au, MD, FRCPC10.500000000000054.60000000000001418.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Important factors and detailed information to consider when choosing a health-care provider for your baby. </p><p>After your baby is born you will need to make decisions about their future health care. You can choose between a family physician or a paediatrician to care for your baby's health. You will also need to decide what type of health-care practice you want to go to. There are a few other factors you may need to consider, outlined below.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>A family physician cares for the entire family while a paediatrician specializes in child health-care.</li> <li>When choosing a health-care provider, consider their style and philosophy of medicine, as well as the logistics and atmosphere of the doctor's office.</li> <li>Newborns need to be seen by their health-care provider within the fourth and seventh day of life.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/follow_up_care_baby.jpg

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