FAQs for scoliosis surgeonsFFAQs for scoliosis surgeonsFAQs for scoliosis surgeonsEnglishOrthopaedics/MusculoskeletalChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Vertebrae;SpineMuscular system;Skeletal systemHealth care professionalsAdult (19+)NA2008-06-01T04:00:00Z8.6000000000000063.00000000000002097.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out the answers to several frequently asked questions about scoliosis from leading spine surgeons. Trusted answers from The Hospital for Sick Children.</p><p>We asked some leading surgeons to answer a few frequently asked questions about scoliosis surgery. Here is what they had to say. </p>
Facial difference: Confronting the challenges of bullyingFFacial difference: Confronting the challenges of bullyingFacial difference: Confronting the challenges of bullyingEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Head;NeckNAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2011-07-29T04:00:00Z7.0000000000000069.30000000000001844.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>When children have facial differences, they may be more likely to experience bullying than their peers. As a parent, you can help your child confront these challenges.</p><h2>What is a facial difference?</h2> <p>A child with a facial difference has a face that looks different. This may be because of a condition they were born with or because of an accident, illness, or surgery that happened later in life. A facial difference may affect the way a child speaks. It may also affect learning, behavior, and social abilities.</p> <p>Children with facial differences often face challenges because of the way they look or because of other differences. Sometimes, these challenges involve negative reactions from other children and adults. These pages give advice and tips to parents on how they can help their child confront these challenges allowing them to get on with their lives.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Children who have facial differences may be more likely to experience bullying than their peers.</li> <li>You and your child can learn strategies for coping with bullying, including role play and preparing responses to other people's questions.</li> <li>Talk about what is happening. Your child can talk to friends, parents, school staff, and teachers when they feel they are being bullied.</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Bullying_taunting_MED_ILL_EN.jpg
Factor V Leiden mutationFFactor V Leiden mutationFactor V Leiden mutationEnglishHaematologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2021-04-16T04:00:00Z8.4000000000000061.7000000000000570.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Thrombophilia is a blood clotting disorder that increases the risk of developing blood clots in the blood vessels. One of the most common causes of inherited thrombophilia is factor V Leiden. Learn about the symptoms, causes and management of FVL.</p><h2>What is Factor V Leiden?</h2><p>Factor V Leiden (FVL) is a blood clotting disorder caused by a change in the factor V (5) gene. </p><p>Clotting factors, such as factor V, are proteins in the blood that help to stop cuts and wounds from bleeding. Platelets, one of the main elements in blood, work together with the clotting factors to stop bleeding by creating blood clots. Blood clots are clumps of blood, including clotting factors and platelets, which harden over time to stop wounds from bleeding. Once the bleeding is controlled, the blood clot stops growing.</p><p>In people with FVL thrombophilia, coagulation factor V cannot be stopped normally. This means the clotting process continues longer than usual, which increases the chance of developing abnormal blood clots. </p><p>FVL is more frequently seen among people of northern European descent.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Factor V Leiden (FVL) increases the chance of developing a blood clot such as a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or a pulmonary embolism (PE). DVT occurs in the deep veins of the arms or legs, while a PE is a clot that travels to the lungs.</li><li>Diagnosis of FVL occurs through a simple blood test.</li><li>Although there is no direct treatment for the FVL mutation, preventative measures like exercise, a healthy diet, and avoiding smoking and/or alcohol consumption, are some ways that the risk for developing blood clots can be reduced. </li></ul><h2>What are the signs and symptoms of factor V Leiden?</h2> <p>The FVL gene mutation itself does not cause any signs and symptoms. However, if your child develops a blood clot, they will have symptoms related to the clot. Signs and symptoms will depend on where in the body the blood clot is. </p><p><a href="/article?contentid=2534&language=english&hub=thrombosis">Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)</a> is a blood clot in the deep veins of the arms or legs. Signs and symptoms of DVT include:</p><ul><li>Pain</li><li>Limb swelling </li><li>Redness</li><li>Warmth </li></ul> <figure class="asset-c-80"><span class="asset-image-title">Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/deep_vein_thrombosis_DVT_EN.jpg" alt="Side-by-side of normal blood flow in vein and deep vein thrombosis" /><figcaption>Normally, blood flows easily through the deep veins of the body with the help of both vein valves and muscle contractions. Although less common than in adults, a child might also get a blood clot in a deep vein. The blood clot (thrombus) can fill the inside of the vein obstructing blood flow. </figcaption> </figure> <p>A <a href="/article?contentid=2534&language=english&hub=thrombosis">pulmonary embolism (PE)</a> is a blood clot that has broken off from a larger blood clot and travelled to the lung. Signs and symptoms of PE include:</p><ul><li>Chest pain</li><li>Shortness of breath </li><li>Blood while coughing</li><li>Fainting</li></ul> <figure class="asset-c-80"><span class="asset-image-title">Pulmonary embolism</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/pulmonary_embolism_EN_XL.jpg" alt="Piece of a blood clot breaking free in the leg, traveling through the vein and getting stuck in a blood vessel in the lung" /><figcaption>1) A small piece of a fresh blood clot in a vein can break free (embolus). 2) The embolus travels through the veins of the body to the heart and into the lung. 3) The embolus gets stuck in a blood vessel in the lung. This blocks blood flow to a part of the lung.</figcaption> </figure> <h2>What causes factor V Leiden?</h2><p>The FVL mutation can be inherited from one or both parents. The type of FVL a person has depends on whether they inherited one gene from one parent, or one gene from each parent.</p><h3>Homozygous mutation </h3><p>When a copy of the FVL gene mutation is inherited from one parent, and another copy of the FVL gene mutation from the other parent, this is called homozygous FVL. It affects less than 1% of the population. The inheritance pattern of the mutation is shown below: </p> <figure class="asset-c-80"><span class="asset-image-title">Homozygous inheritance</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/FactorV_Inheritance_Homozygous.jpg" alt="" /><figcaption>Inheritance of factor V Leiden when both parents are heterozygous.</figcaption> </figure> <h3>Heterozygous mutation </h3><p>Heterozygous mutations are seen in between 5-8% of the population. A mutated copy of the factor V gene is inherited from one parent and a normal copy of the gene from the other parent, as seen below:</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"><span class="asset-image-title">Heterozygous inheritance with heterozygous parent</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/FactorV_Inheritance_Heterozygous_Heterozygous.jpg" alt="" /><figcaption>Inheritance of factor V Leiden when one parent is heterozygous. This is the most common type of inheritance.</figcaption> </figure><figure class="asset-c-80"><span class="asset-image-title">Heterozygous inheritance with homozygous parent</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/FactorV_Inheritance_Heterozygous_Homozygous.jpg" alt="" /><figcaption>Inheritance of factor V Leiden when one parent is homozygous.</figcaption> </figure> <h2>Risk factors of blood clots in people with factor V Leiden</h2><p>The FVL mutation slightly increases the risk of developing blood clots in the veins. In people with heterozygous FVL, the risk of thrombosis is increased 5-7 times. In homozygous FVL, the risk increases 25-50 times. However, it is important to stress that the incidence of blood clots in children is quite rare, occurring at 0.07–0.14 per 10,000 children. As a person ages, their chance of developing a blood clot increases. The figure below shows the increasing frequency of blood clots with age.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"><span class="asset-image-title">Frequency of blood clots with age</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Thrombophilia_Graph%20-%20Blood_clot%20_frequency.jpg" alt="" /><figcaption>As a person gets older, their chance of developing a blood clot increases exponentially.</figcaption> </figure> <h2>How is factor V Leiden diagnosed?</h2><p>To diagnose FVL, a blood sample is taken for genetic testing. </p><h2>How is factor V Leiden managed?</h2><p>There is no direct treatment for FVL disorder. Instead, the goal of management is to minimize the risk of getting a blood clot in the first place. Risk factors for developing blood clots include: </p><ul><li>Obesity</li><li>Immobility</li><li>Cancer and chemotherapy</li><li>Surgery or trauma</li><li>Dehydration</li><li>Catheters</li><li>Pregnancy</li><li>Use of oral contraceptives or hormone therapies</li><li>Smoking</li></ul><p>The following measures may be taken to prevent blood clots:</p><ul><li>Maintain a healthy diet. Talk to your child’s health-care team before changing your child’s diet and follow <a href="https://food-guide.canada.ca/en/">Canada’s Food Guide</a> where applicable. Any irregular weight gain can contribute to the poor circulation of blood in the veins, increasing the risk of blood clots. </li><li>Smoking and binge drinking or excessive alcohol consumption should be avoided.</li><li>When travelling, encourage your child to walk around whenever possible. Decreased circulation of blood flow can increase the risk for blood clots.</li><li>Encourage your child to get regular physical activity. Children and youth typically need at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity every day. </li><li>If a child with FVL needs to take hormonal therapy (e.g., birth control pills), talk to a gynecologist about how they can be safely taken, in order to help reduce the risk of blood clots. </li></ul><h2>When to seek medical attention</h2><p>If you suspect your child has developed a blood clot, call their doctor immediately. If you cannot reach the doctor, take your child to the nearest emergency department.</p><h2>At SickKids</h2><p> <a href="https://www.sickkids.ca/en/care-services/clinical-departments/thrombosis-program/">Thrombosis Program</a></p><h2>Resources</h2><p>For more information on thrombophilia, thrombosis, post-thrombotic syndrome and the management of these conditions, please visit the <a href="/thrombosis">Thrombosis Learning Hub</a>.</p><h2>References</h2><p>RH White. The Epidemiology of Venous Thromboembolism. <em>Circulation</em>. 2003;107:I-4-I-8</p>
Factors affecting pain assessmentFFactors affecting pain assessmentFactors affecting pain assessmentEnglishPain/AnaesthesiaChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyCentral nervous system;Peripheral nervous system;Autonomic nervous systemSymptomsCaregivers Adult (19+)Pain2009-09-15T04:00:00Z9.7000000000000055.90000000000001562.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the factors that affect pain assessment such as our emotions, behaviour and cultural attitudes to pain.</p><p>Several factors besides age and development can affect an accurate assessment of pain. These include a child’s gender, their psychological and emotional state, their overall behaviour and temperament and their family and cultural background.</p> <p>The role of parents and, in the case of older children, their peers, can be influential on the assessment of a child’s pain. Children often take cues from their parents’ own pain behaviours; they have in part learned how to behave by watching their parents. Children are also aware of how they are expected to behave in certain situations. That expectation can affect the child’s response to pain and their way of showing or hiding it. </p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>An accurate assessment of pain can be affected by a number of factors, including a child's age, gender, level of understanding and previous pain experiences.</li><li>Cultural and family norms also influence the degree to which your child may experience and express their pain.</li><li>What your child thinks and feels about pain, and how they respond to it, are other factors that affect an accurate assessment.</li><li>All children should be encouraged to freely express their pain so they can receive an accurate assessment and appropriate treatment.<br></li></ul>
Failure to thriveFFailure to thriveFailure to thriveEnglishNABaby (1-12 months)BodyNAConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-10-18T04:00:00Z9.8000000000000058.70000000000001513.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about failure to thrive, which is when a child does not grow adequately over time. Learn about the causes and management of failure to thrive.</p><p>Failure to thrive occurs when a child does not grow adequately over time. Children with untreated failure to thrive are at risk for having a short stature, behavioural and emotional problems and developmental delays. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>There are a variety of causes for failure to thrive including maternal stress, diluted formula, feeding difficulties or specific health conditions.</li> <li>The best way to diagnose failure to thrive is to carefully measure and plot a baby’s weight, height and head circumference over time and then compare the measurements to the standardized growth charts.</li> <li>Managing failure to thrive includes monitoring and changing your baby's diet and managing mealtime routines.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/failure_to_thrive.jpg
Failure to thrive in children with congenital heart conditionsFFailure to thrive in children with congenital heart conditionsFailure to thrive in children with congenital heart conditionsEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years)HeartCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-12-04T05:00:00Z8.8000000000000056.9000000000000167.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about failure to thrive and how your child's health-care team manages it.<br></p><p> Failure to thrive means a difficulty growing and gaining weight. </p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li> Underlying causes of failure to thrive can include heart problems, breathing problems, gastrointestinal problems and inability to absorb nutrients. </li> <li> The doctor will need to assess your child regularly to determine and treat the underlying cause.</li></ul>
FaintingFFaintingFaintingEnglishNAToddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2019-07-22T04:00:00Z7.5000000000000066.7000000000000501.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Discover the signs and symptoms of fainting, what causes it and how to help your child if they have fainted.</p><p>Fainting, also called syncope, happens when a person suddenly loses consciousness and then rapidly returns to normal.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Fainting is a sudden and temporary loss of consciousness with a rapid return to normal.</li><li>Your child may feel dizzy, nauseous, hot or cold right before they faint. Their face may also go pale.</li><li>The most common cause of fainting is a drop in blood pressure. Other, more serious, causes include an underlying heart condition, low blood sugar or a seizure.</li><li>See your child's doctor to discuss the possible cause of any fainting episode. Call 911 if your child has stopped breathing or does not “come around” shortly after fainting.​​</li></ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of fainting</h2> <p>Right before fainting, your child might:</p> <ul> <li>feel dizzy or light headed</li> <li>feel weak</li> <li>see dark spots</li> <li>hear muffled sounds</li> <li>feel nauseous (want to <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomit​</a>)</li> <li>feel hot</li> <li>feel cold and clammy</li> <li>become pale</li> <li>start to sweat</li> </ul><h2>Causes of fainting</h2><p>Fainting can happen for a number of reasons. The most common cause of fainting is a temporary slowing of the heart rate and a drop in blood pressure. This type of fainting is called a “vagal” or “vasovagal” episode.</p><p>A child is more likely to have a drop in blood pressure if they:</p><ul><li>are <a href="/Article?contentid=776&language=English">dehydrated</a> (from excessive sweating, diarrhea or vomiting)</li><li>have not been eating</li><li>have been standing still for a long time</li><li>are unwell</li></ul><h2>Other common causes of fainting</h2><p>A child might also faint if they</p><ul><li>are frightened</li><li>are in severe pain</li><li>stand up too fast</li></ul><p>Fainting may be more likely in a closed setting or one that is hot and humid. It may also happen in response to a stimulus that is noxious (unpleasant or potentially harmful), such as a very bad smell or the sight of blood or a needle.</p><h2>Conditions that appear similar to fainting<br></h2><p>There are some conditions that make it appear that a child is fainting when something else is wrong. These mimics of fainting include:</p><ul><li>an underlying heart condition or heart rhythm disturbance</li><li>exposure to a medication, toxin or drug</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=1726&language=English">hypoglycemia</a> (low blood sugar)<br></li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=781&language=English">anaphylaxis</a> (allergic reaction)</li><li> <a href="/article?contentid=2057&language=English">seizures</a></li><li>migraine <a href="/Article?contentid=29&language=English">headaches​</a></li><li>hyperventilation</li><li>panic attacks<br></li></ul><p>Fainting during exercise or exertion (carrying or pushing something heavy) can be a sign of an underlying condition and should be discussed with your child's doctor.</p><h2>When to see a doctor</h2> <p>See your child's doctor to identify the cause of a fainting episode.</p> <p>Call 911 right away if your child:</p> <ul> <li>has stopped breathing</li> <li>does not quickly become alert after fainting<br></li> <li>has changes in their speech, vision or ability to move</li> </ul>faintinghttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/fainting.jpg
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF)FFamilial Mediterranean fever (FMF)Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF)EnglishRheumatologyToddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Chest;Abdomen;Knee;Ankle;SkinImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2015-07-15T04:00:00Z9.6000000000000052.1000000000000982.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) involves recurrent episodes of fever accompanied by symptoms of abdominal pain, chest pain, joint pain and/or skin rashes. Learn about causes, tests and treatments for FMF.</p><p>Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a disease that involves recurrent episodes of <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a> without an associated infection. Attacks of fever in FMF are usually accompanied by symptoms of inflammation in one or more sites. These may include abdominal pain, chest pain, joint pain and skin rashes, among others. It is a life-long disease and there is no known cure. Fortunately, however, it can be controlled with treatment.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>FMF is a disease that causes regular attacks of fever.</li> <li>The attacks are accompanied by inflammation in areas such as the abdomen, chest, joints and skin.</li> <li>FMF can be treated and controlled with a medication called colchicine.</li> </ul><h2>Symptoms of FMF</h2> <p>A typical attack of FMF starts with a sudden rise in temperature, often up to 104°F (40°C). Fever usually lasts from one to three days and in most cases is accompanied by severe abdominal pain. The pain comes from inflammation of the lining of the abdomen. Sometimes the pain is so bad that it seems as if the child has <a href="/Article?contentid=818&language=English">appendicitis</a>, even though the appendix itself is not inflamed. Severe chest pain, called pleuritis, occurs in about one-third of patients. Brief episodes of arthritis, usually involving the knee or ankle, can occur in about half of patients. About one-third of patients get painful red skin and swelling, called erysipelas. This typically occurs over the foot. These symptoms generally disappear as the fever resolves, although attacks of arthritis may last for up to one week. Rarely, arthritis affecting a single joint, including the joints of the back (sacroiliitis), may persist. Attacks may also be accompanied by severe muscle pain, called myalgia.</p><h2>How common is FMF?</h2> <p>FMF is more common in certain ethnic groups, primarily those whose ancestry was around the Mediterranean Sea. These groups include Armenians, Turks, Arabs and Jews, especially of Sephardic background. More recently, however, FMF has been diagnosed in people from many other ethnic backgrounds. Attacks of FMF begin before the age of 20 in 90% of patients. Attacks begin before age 10 in at least 50% of patients.</p> <h2>Causes of FMF</h2> <p>FMF appears to be caused by failure of the body to control the inflammation system. A protein called pyrin is an important controller of inflammation in the body. Changes (mutations) in the gene that makes pyrin, called MEFV, are found in up to 80% of FMF cases. Most cases require two mutations (one from the mother and one from the father) in the MEFV gene to result in FMF. This type of disease is called “autosomal recessive,” meaning that parents are generally carriers. There is often, but not always, a history of another family member having a similar disease. Sometimes only one or even no mutations are found in typical cases of FMF.</p><h2>Treatment of FMF</h2> <p>Fortunately, amyloidosis can almost always be prevented by stopping attacks of inflammation with the drug colchicine. Taking colchicine every day reduces the frequency of the attacks as well as the severity of the attacks that do occur, and therefore prevents the development of amyloidosis. Colchicine is prescribed as a daily medication. In some patients, missing even one dose may result in an attack. You and your doctor will decide if your child needs colchicine and if so, for how long. </p> <h2>Lab tests for children with FMF</h2> <p>During the attacks, blood tests will usually show very marked degrees of inflammation. The most commonly requested tests are a complete blood count (CBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP). These levels return to normal or near normal between attacks.</p> <p>Your doctor will check for the development of amyloidosis by performing a general physical examination and also a urine test to check for protein in the urine every six months.</p><h2>Complications of FMF</h2> <p>Without treatment, attacks of FMF will occur frequently and can be disabling for the patient. If attacks of inflammation are not controlled, there is a risk of developing amyloidosis, the most serious complication of FMF. In amyloidosis, a protein of inflammation called SAA is deposited in multiple organ systems, particularly the kidney, heart and gastrointestinal tract. Amyloidosis appears to be less common in patients born and raised in the northern hemisphere.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/familial_mediterranean_fever.jpg
Family support and respite services for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)FFamily support and respite services for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)Family support and respite services for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)EnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years)NANervous systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-03-09T04:00:00Z11.400000000000040.1000000000000828.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Provides information about the resources available for family support and respite when a child in the family has autism spectrum disorder.</p><br><p>This section includes information about agencies that provide support services to families and people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>Agencies that provide support services to families and people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) include support groups, referrals to community services, and respite services.</li> <li> You may need the help of a service coordinator to find respite services.</li></ul>
Family support for the child with a congenital heart conditionFFamily support for the child with a congenital heart conditionFamily support for the child with a congenital heart conditionEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemHealth care professionalsAdult (19+)NA2009-12-04T05:00:00Z9.3000000000000057.10000000000002435.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Having a child with heart disease is a strain for the whole family. Various different health professionals can provide support in difficult times.<br></p><p>Many feelings and stresses can come up when your child is in the hospital. Along with your child’s illness, you may have problems dealing with a complex hospital system. The family support team can help you to cope.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li> Social workers can offer individual, family or group counselling, patient and family education, information about and referral to community based services.</li> <li> Psychologists are trained mental health professionals that can help individuals cope with problems that can be causing stress, anxiety or depression.</li> <li>Child life specialists are trained in child and family development and can help children and patients understand the hospital environment.</li> <li> Patient representatives help connect patients and families with hospital staff and services.</li> <li> A bioethics consultant can help patients and parents who have ethical or moral concerns about their child's care. </li></ul>
Family support team for blood and marrow transplantFFamily support team for blood and marrow transplantFamily support team for blood and marrow transplantEnglishHaematology;Immunology;OncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemHealth care professionalsAdult (19+)NA2010-02-12T05:00:00Z9.0000000000000059.20000000000001564.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn how the family support team can help you cope during your child's blood and marrow transplant (BMT).</p><p>Many feelings and stresses can come up when your child is in the blood and marrow transplant (BMT) unit. Along with dealing with your child’s transplant, you may have trouble dealing with a complex hospital system. The family support team can help you cope.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A family support team will be available to help you cope and deal with the complex hospital system.</li><li>The family support team may include a social worker, an interpreter, a chaplain, a patient representative, and a bioethics consultant.</li></ul>
Fast foods: Better choicesFFast foods: Better choicesFast foods: Better choicesEnglishNutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2015-11-13T05:00:00Z7.4000000000000065.20000000000001173.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn tips on making the healthiest choices when eating out.</p><p>In today's fast-paced world, it is likely unrealistic to say you will never eat fast food or restaurant food again. However, you can still lead a healthy lifestyle and occasionally eat out at the same time. The more you know about the food that goes into your body, the better choices you will be able to make. </p><br><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Eating a diet high in saturated fat and salt, causes weight gain and high blood pressure.</li> <li>If you know you will be eating a meal out, be sure to include lots of whole grains, vegetables and fruits, low-fat dairy products during the day. This way you can balance your intake.</li> <li>The average adult needs about 2000 calories a day. Just one fast food meal can easily contribute nearly half of these daily requirements.</li> <li>Choose healthy fast-food options, which include: single, plain burgers; grilled chicken; unbattered fish. Avoid deep-fried food and always watch your portion size.</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/fast_food_better_choices.jpg
Fast heart rate (tachycardia)FFast heart rate (tachycardia)Fast heart rate (tachycardia)EnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartHeartConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2010-03-19T04:00:00Z9.6000000000000050.00000000000001178.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn about different kinds of tachycardia (fast heart rate) and how tachycardia is treated.</p><h2>How does the heart beat?</h2><p>The heartbeat is controlled by electricity. Special cells called pacemakers release bursts of electrical energy that travel through the <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=heart">heart muscle</a>, causing it to contract. When the muscle contracts, blood is pumped through the heart.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">The heart's electrical system</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Hearts_EP/EP_heart_Normal.jpg" alt="Normal heart showing placement of the SA node, AV node, His bundle and Purkinje fibers" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">1) An electrical signal starts in the sinoatrial (SA) node, which signals the atria to contract. 2) The electrical signal moves from the SA node to the atrioventricular (AV) node. 3) From the AV node, the signal travels to the His bundle and then to the Purkinje fibers. 4) As this electrical signal moves through the heart, it stimulates the heart muscle to beat in a specific order; first the atria contract, followed by the ventricles. </figcaption> </figure> <h2>What is an arrhythmia?</h2><p>An <a href="/Article?contentid=890&language=English">arrhythmia</a> (also called dysrhythmia) refers to what is usually an irregular heartbeat. The heart rate can be fast, slow or irregular, taking into consideration age and activity. For example, a newborn's heart beats much faster than a five-year-old child's heart. </p><h2>What is tachycardia?</h2><p>Tachycardia is a type of arrhythmia. It is a fast heart rate. With tachycardia, the resting heart rate for a newborn can increase to over 160 beats per minute. This can last for seconds, minutes or even hours, depending on how serious it is. Symptoms include feeling dizzy, weak and generally uncomfortable. </p><p>It is important to know that it is unusual for tachycardia to cause the heart to stop all of a sudden, and it usually does not last long enough to cause serious damage. </p><p>There are two basic types of tachycardia: </p><ul><li>ventricular tachycardia, which involves only the ventricles</li><li>supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), which involves both the atria and the ventricles</li></ul><p>The most common tachycardia in children is supraventricular tachycardia. This used to be called paroxysmal atrial tachycardia.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Tachycardia is an abnormally fast heart rate.</li> <li>During an episode of tachycardia, your child may feel dizzy, weak or uncomfortable, and the heart may beat more than 160 times per minute.</li> <li>It is unusual for tachycardia to cause the heart to stop all of a sudden. </li> <li>Tachycardia usually does not last long enough to cause serious damage.</li> <li>There are many different types of tachycardia. Usually, they are caused by a problem with the heart's electrical system.</li> <li>Treatment depends on what is causing the tachycardia.</li> </ul><h2>How is tachycardia diagnosed?</h2> <p>A tachycardia can be diagnosed with one of the following:</p> <ul> <li><a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=heart">electrocardiogram</a></li> <li>electrophysiology study (EPS)</li> </ul><h2>How is tachycardia treated?</h2> <p>Treatment depends on what is causing the tachycardia. Some SVTs can be stopped with certain techniques called vasovagal manoeuvres, including: </p> <ul> <li>blowing on your thumb like it's a horn </li> <li>blowing through a straw with your hand on the end to plug it </li> <li>putting ice or cold water on the face for a few seconds</li> </ul> <p>Other tachycardias can be helped with medication. Drugs can help prevent the episodes from starting, decrease the heart rate during the episode or shorten how long the episode lasts. </p> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=51&language=English">Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA)</a> is another option. This approach delivers electricity to the heart to permanently interrupt the abnormal electrical pathway. One of the newer approaches is cryoablation, which involves the use of freezing. </p><h2>Additional information</h2><p>For more information, please read <a href="/Article?contentid=890&language=English">Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias)</a>.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Fast_heart_rate_tachycardia.jpg
FatFFatFatEnglishNutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NADigestive systemHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+) Educators Hospital healthcare providers Community healthcare providers Remote populations First nationsNA2021-09-17T04:00:00Z8.9000000000000057.8000000000000769.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the role of fat in the body, different types of fat, and how to manage your family's fat intake.</p><p>Fat is an essential part of the diet and helps with a number of bodily functions. However, some fats can be harmful, so it is important to limit their intake.</p><h2> Key points</h2><ul><li>Fat provides energy, helps the body absorb vitamins A, D, E, and K, and provides essential fatty acids for a range of important functions.</li><li>Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats lower cholesterol, help prevent blood clots, and reduce the risk of heart disease. Foods that contain mostly unsaturated fat should replace foods that contain mostly saturated fat.</li><li>Saturated fats raise bad cholesterol and are linked to heart disease. Sources of saturated fat include fatty cuts of meat, lard, shortening, butter, and coconut oil.</li><li>Children aged one to three should get 30-40% of daily calories from fats. For older children and teens, fats should make up only 25-35% of daily calories.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Fats_2021.jpg
Fat in children's food: What you need to knowFFat in children's food: What you need to knowFat in children's food: What you need to knowEnglishNutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2011-08-05T04:00:00Z7.1000000000000070.1000000000000796.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Fat is an essential part of your child or teen’s diet. Learn why, and how to make sure your child is getting enough of the right kind of fat.</p><h2>Why is fat important?</h2><p>Fat is an essential part of your child or teen’s diet. It plays an important role in the development of your child’s brain and helps them reach their maximum growth potential. Fat is used in the body as fuel and helps the body absorb the fat-soluble vitamins, A, D, E and K. </p><p>Fatty foods are often associated with overweight, obesity, heart disease and stroke, but eating the right fats can provide the body with many health benefits.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Fat is an important part of your child's diet and plays an important role in their development and growth.</li> <li>Fatty foods are often associated with overweight, obesity, heart disease and stroke, but eating the right fats can provide the body with many health benefits.</li> <li>There are three different types of fats: they are unsaturated fat, saturated fat and trans fat.</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/fat_in_childrens_food_what_you_need_to_know.jpg
Fatherhood: Having a new babyFFatherhood: Having a new babyFatherhood: Having a new babyEnglishNeonatologyNewborn (0-28 days);Adult (19+)NANANAAdult (19+)NA2009-10-18T04:00:00Z8.2000000000000065.10000000000001146.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about some of the fears a new father might experience once their baby is born. Relationship stress, lifestyle changes, and financial stress are discussed.</p><p>You may feel conflicting emotions after the birth of your baby. First and foremost, the birth of a child brings with it an overwhelming, all-consuming love, like nothing you have ever experienced before. You may also feel proud and powerful at having created a new life. You also may feel helpless when you can’t understand why your baby is crying. You may feel ambivalent towards your newborn baby, like you don’t really know them. You might worry about being a good father, your relationship with your partner, your finances, and the impact your newborn baby will make on your lifestyle. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Fathers can experience multiple concerns about having a new baby, including concerns about being a good father, their relationship with their partner, lifestyle and finances.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/a_fathers_concerns_newborn.jpg
Febrile seizures (convulsions caused by fever)FFebrile seizures (convulsions caused by fever)Febrile seizures (convulsions caused by fever)EnglishNeurologyBaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years)BodyNervous systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)Fever2019-11-19T05:00:00Z7.2000000000000069.70000000000001295.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Read about the symptoms, prevention, first aid treatment and proper care for a child experiencing febrile seizures (convulsions)</p><h2>What are febrile seizures?<br></h2><p>A febrile seizure or febrile convulsion is a seizure caused by a fever. A fever is a temperature of 38°C (100.4°F) or higher. If your child has a febrile seizure, it does not mean they have <a href="/Article?contentid=845&language=english&hub=epilepsy">epilepsy</a>.</p><p>A child having a febrile seizure may have any of the following. </p><ul><li>Stiffening of the limbs or the body</li><li>Short, sudden jerking movements of the muscles that cannot be controlled </li><li>Rolling back of the eyes into the head</li></ul><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Febrile seizures are episodes of uncontrollable jerking movements and loss of consciousness when a child has a fever. </li><li>Febrile seizures are common in children between the ages of six months and five years.</li><li>During a febrile seizure, keep your child safe and do not try to put anything in their mouth. Try to roll them onto their side or roll their head to one side.</li><li>Take your child to the doctor after a febrile seizure. If the seizure lasts longer than three minutes, call an ambulance.</li><li>Treating your child's fever with medicine may improve their comfort but will not prevent febrile seizures.</li></ul><h2>What causes febrile seizures?</h2><p>Febrile seizures are most common in children between the ages of six months and five years. Febrile seizures often run in families. Children with parents or siblings who had febrile seizures are more at risk to of having them as well.</p><h2>Risk of another febrile seizure</h2><p>Children who have had one febrile seizure are at risk for having another febrile seizure. This is called a recurrence. A febrile seizure will not necessarily occur every time the child has a fever. Most recurrences happen within one year of the first febrile seizure and almost all occur within two years. A child is more likely to have recurrent febrile seizures if they are younger than 12 months when they have the first seizure and if they have a parent or sibling who has had febrile seizures or epilepsy.</p><h2>Febrile seizures do not cause brain damage</h2><p>A child's appearance during a febrile seizure can be quite frightening for parents. However, brief seizures do not damage the brain or cause permanent changes in the brain. Most febrile seizures last only a few minutes. Even if your child has a long febrile seizure, the risk of brain damage is low.</p><h2>Treating your child's fever</h2><p>Fever may be caused by almost any childhood illness or infection. Often, febrile seizures happen just as your child's temperature starts to rise. You might not yet know that your child has a fever. If your child feels warm, check their <a href="/Article?contentid=966&language=english">temperature</a> with a thermometer. Do not put your child in the bathtub.</p><h3>Acetaminophen and ibuprofen to treat fever</h3><p>Give your child <a href="/Article?contentid=62&language=english">acetaminophen</a> or <a href="/Article?contentid=153&language=english">ibuprofen</a> if they have a fever. Read the instructions on the medicine bottle carefully to find out how much medicine to give and how often to give it. If you are not sure, check with your doctor or pharmacist. </p><p>Do not give your child <a href="/Article?contentid=77&language=english">ASA (acetylsalicylic acid)</a> unless a doctor tells you to.</p><p>Treating your child's fever with medicine may help make your child more comfortable. However, they will not prevent febrile seizures. Do not try to give fever medicine while your child is having a seizure. Wait until the seizure is over. </p><h3>Medicines to prevent febrile seizures</h3><p>Some anti-seizure medicines (anticonvulsants or anti-epileptic drugs) can reduce the risk of recurrent febrile seizures. However, these medicines have side effects so children who have febrile seizures are usually not prescribed them. </p><p>If your child often has febrile seizures, the doctor may give a short-acting anti-seizure medicine to give at home if your child has a seizure that does not stop on its own. The doctor will explain how to care for your child and when you need to seek medical attention.</p><h2>What to expect at the doctor's office or hospital</h2><p>The doctor will ask you to describe the seizure carefully, including how long it lasted and how your child looked and moved. It may help the doctor to know if the shaking started in one side of the body first, if the shaking could be stopped with gentle holding of the shaking body part, or if the jerking movements persisted.</p><p>The doctor will examine your child. If the cause of the fever is known, and your child is not confused or unconscious, the doctor will not usually ask for any laboratory tests. If the cause of the fever is not known, laboratory tests may be ordered to find the source of the fever. </p><p>If your child had a typical febrile seizure, they probably will not need to stay in the hospital. However, if your child has had an atypical febrile seizure (lasting for longer than 15 minutes, more than one seizure in a 24 hour period, or if they are not back to themselves and alert a few hours after the seizure) then the doctor may order tests and keep the child in the emergency room or in the hospital until the child is safe to return home.</p>febrileseizureshttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/febrile_seizures.jpg
Federal tax breaks for children with disabilities in CanadaFFederal tax breaks for children with disabilities in CanadaFederal tax breaks for children with disabilities in CanadaEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANASupport, services and resourcesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2012-06-13T04:00:00Z11.300000000000048.4000000000000569.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>A helpful resource on federal tax breaks for children with chronic condition in Canada.</p><p>If your family has extra expenses or needs special support because of your sick child, you may be able to obtain financial assistance from the federal government or other groups. A member of your child's health care team might suggest that you talk to a <a href="/Article?contentid=1168&language=English">social worker</a> about financial assistance. They can also direct you to useful community health services.</p><p>When you complete an application, always mail the original and keep a copy for yourself. <a href="/Article?contentid=1148&language=English">Develop an organization system</a> to keep track of all documents and receipts for expenses related to your child's care.</p> ​<h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>If you have a sick child and have extra expenses you may be able to get financial support from federal programs such as the disability tax credit; child disability benefit; and registered disability savings plans.</li> <li>Talk to the social worker on your child's health care team to learn more about the types of financial assistance you may be eligible for and what community health services may be available to you.</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/federal_tax_breaks_for_children_with_disabilities.jpg
Feeding a baby with a heart conditionFFeeding a baby with a heart conditionFeeding a baby with a heart conditionEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years)HeartCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2018-06-05T04:00:00Z10.100000000000055.6000000000000413.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about feeding a baby with a heart condition. It is best to breastfeed, but if you cannot, you can express your breast milk to keep up your milk volume.<br></p><p> This page explains how to best feed babies with heart conditions.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>It is easier for babies with heart conditions to suck, swallow, and breathe when breastfeeding than bottle feeding.</li> <li>It is important that a mother maintain a normal breast milk volume.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/feeding_a_baby_with_a_heart_condition.jpg
Feeding and nutrition for blood and marrow transplantsFFeeding and nutrition for blood and marrow transplantsFeeding and nutrition for blood and marrow transplantsEnglishHaematology;Immunology;Oncology;NutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemHealthy living and preventionAdult (19+)NA2019-05-29T04:00:00Z9.4000000000000062.20000000000001168.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about nutrition and how to store and handle food after your child's blood and marrow transplant (BMT).</p><p>The treatment your child received right before their blood and marrow transplant (BMT), which consisted of high-dose chemotherapy, with or without <a href="/Article?contentid=1528&language=English">total body irradiation (TBI)</a>, destroyed the abnormal bone marrow cells in their body. Both the chemotherapy and the transplant put a lot of strain on your child’s organs and tissues.</p><p>Proper nutrition helps your child’s body to:</p><ul><li>repair any organ or tissue damage</li><li>fight fever and infection</li><li>take up (engraft) the donor cells that it received during the BMT</li></ul><p>Eating nutritious, high-protein food can help keep the new marrow cells healthy. To make sure that your child is getting the proper nutrition, they may need to eat higher calorie foods, take oral supplements like Ensure or they may even need a nasogastric (NG) feeding tube.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>After a BMT, your child may need additional calories and up to twice as much protein.</li><li>Your child will be placed on a low-bacteria diet to minimize the risk of infection.</li><li>If your child is unable to eat on their own, the health-care team may recommend that they receive artificial nutrition, either through a feeding tube (enteral nutrition) or through their central line (parenteral nutrition).</li><li>Talk to your health-care team if you would like to continue breastfeeding your baby during their BMT or if you are struggling to express breast milk.</li></ul>
Feeding and nutrition for premature babiesFFeeding and nutrition for premature babiesFeeding and nutrition for premature babiesEnglishNeonatology;Gastrointestinal;NutritionPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)Esophagus;Stomach;Small Intestine;Large Intestine/ColonDigestive systemDrug treatment;Non-drug treatmentPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00Z10.400000000000053.10000000000001123.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about what a premature baby needs to eat and how they can get proper nutrition, and treatments for feeding and nutrition problems they may face.</p><p>Feeding is the way in which a premature baby increases their size. This is important because in general the larger a baby is, the healthier they will be. A growing premature baby is usually a baby who is thriving and getting stronger and healthier day by day. This section will address the different methods of feeding premature babies, which are devised to maximize their growth and health. This section will also address the complications that can interfere with the various feeding methods and growth.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>In general, premature babies should increase their length by 1 cm per week; should increase their head circumference by 0.7 cm per week; and should gain about 15 g per day in overall weight.</li> <li>Most premature babies will be given a nasogastric (NG) tube through which nutrition and feeds will be given.</li> <li>If a baby's GI tract is too immature to absorb nutrition, they will be fed intravenously (parenteral feeding).</li></ul>
Feeding and nutrition of babiesFFeeding and nutrition of babiesFeeding and nutrition of babiesEnglishNABaby (1-12 months)BodyDigestive systemNAAdult (19+)NA2009-10-18T04:00:00Z11.900000000000045.1000000000000594.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about the benefits of breastfeeding and breast milk for babies. The necessity of increasing a baby's dietary repertoire as they get older is discussed.</p><p>It is universally accepted that human breast milk is the best source of nutrition for newborn babies and infants. Breastfeeding also has many non-nutritive benefits that lead to the best health and development of the baby. According to the World Health Organization, "exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months is the optimal way of feeding infants. Thereafter, infants should receive complementary foods with continued breastfeeding up to two years of age or beyond." </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Breast milk is the best source of nutrition for newborns and infants, providing them with the right amount of nutrients and antibodies.</li> <li>Your baby can begin to eat solid foods after six months of age.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/feeding_nutrition_of_babies.jpg
Feeding and nutrition of newborn babiesFFeeding and nutrition of newborn babiesFeeding and nutrition of newborn babiesEnglishNeonatologyNewborn (0-28 days)BodyNAHealthy living and preventionAdult (19+)NA2009-10-18T04:00:00Z12.800000000000038.3000000000000467.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about your newborn baby's nutritional requirements and how to successfully feed them. Bottle feeding and breastfeeding are discussed.</p><p>It is universally accepted that human breast milk is the best source of nutrition for newborn babies and infants. Breastfeeding also has many non-nutritive benefits that lead to the best health and development of the baby.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Benefits of breastfeeding include better tolerance of feeding, reduced gastrointestinal disease and improved intelligence.</li> <li>Breast milk provides the right balance of energy, protein, carbohydrates, fat, electrolytes, minerals and vitamins that your newborn needs.</li> <li>Breast milk contains antibodies that infants need to fight infections during the first few months of life.</li> <li>If you cannot breastfeed or provide breast milk for your baby, commercially manufactured formula milks are available.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Newborn_feeding_nutrition.jpg
Feeding studiesFFeeding studiesFeeding studiesEnglishOtherChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Mouth;EsophagusMouth;EsophagusTestsCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2015-09-21T04:00:00Z7.3000000000000069.20000000000001048.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn about feeding studies, which find out what your child can drink and eat safely. The feeding study is an X-ray video of what happens from when food enters your child's mouth until after your child swallows.</p><p>A feeding study is done when swallowing problems are suspected during an occupational therapist's assessment of a child. A feeding study involves an image or video of the inside of your child's mouth and throat to help determine what your child can safely eat and drink. Using X-rays, a feeding study will examine what happens between the time food enters your child's mouth until after your child swallows. A child can have a feeding study at any age.</p> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_feeding_study_EN.jpg" alt="" /> </figure><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>A feeding study is done when swallowing problems are suspected during an occupational therapist's feeding assessment of your child.</li> <li>A feeding study involves an image or video of the inside of your child's mouth and throat to help determine what your child can safely eat and drink.</li> <li>During the feeding study, your child may be asked to drink different liquids and eat different foods. As your child is eating, the occupational therapist and radiologist will be watching the screen to see how your child swallows.</li> <li>Following the feeding study, the occupational therapist will talk to you about the results of the feeding study, answer your questions, and talk to you about how to feed your child.</li> </ul><h2>Who will take part in your child's feeding study?</h2> <p>An occupational therapist, radiologist, and X-ray technologist will take part in your child's feeding study.</p> <ul> <li>An occupational therapist, radiologist, and X-ray technologist will take part in your child's feeding study. The occupational therapist will meet you and your child in the GI/GU waiting area before the feeding study. They will go with you into the room where your child will have the feeding study. </li> <li>A radiologist is a doctor who is specially trained to take and read X-rays. They will take your child's X-ray. </li> <li>An X-ray technologist sets up the equipment to take your child's X-ray. They will help the radiologist take the X-ray. </li> </ul> <p>It is important that you or another family member or caregiver be with your child during the feeding study, if possible. If you want, you can feed your child during the feeding study. The occupational therapist can also help feed your child. Only one person should accompany your child into the feeding study.</p> <p>If you are pregnant or think you may be pregnant, you should not take part in your child's feeding study.</p> <h2>What will happen during your child's feeding study?</h2> <p>Inside the feeding study room, you will see a chair where your child will sit. There will be a large camera and a TV screen beside this chair. Parents and caregivers will wear a lead apron during the feeding study to protect themselves from radiation. The lights in the room will be dim.</p> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_feeding_study_monitor_EN.jpg" alt="" /> </figure> <p>The radiologist will move the camera to the right spot to look at how your child swallows. For the best picture possible, your child will need to sit still and try not to lean forward or turn around. When your child is in the right position and the radiologist is ready, your child will start drinking or eating. The camera will make beeping noises as the X-rays are taken. It does not touch your child and the X-rays do not hurt.</p> <h2>What will your child drink and eat during the feeding study?</h2> <p>During the feeding study, your child may be asked to drink different liquids and eat different foods. He may be asked to drink a very thin liquid or eat solid food made up of sterile water, rice cereal, and barium. Barium is a white liquid that makes food show up on the X-ray. For older children, the liquid may taste like chocolate or fruit punch. As your child is eating, the occupational therapist and radiologist will be watching the screen to see how your child swallows.</p><h2>What happens after the feeding study?</h2> <p>After the feeding study, the X-ray technologist or occupational therapist will take you to the waiting area. The occupational therapist will talk to you about the results of the feeding study and answer your questions. They will talk to you about how to feed your child. The occupational therapist will send the results of the feeding study to the doctor who sent your child for the test.</p> <h2>Are there any side effects?</h2> <p>The barium may make your child's stool look a little white the next few times that they go to the bathroom after the feeding study. This is normal.</p> <h2>What should you tell your child about the feeding study?</h2> <p>The best thing you can do to prepare your child for a feeding study is to read this information carefully. It is important that you know what will happen during the feeding study so that you can explain it to your child in words he or she will understand. This will help your child feel more comfortable. Children who know what to expect are usually less worried.</p> <h2>What should you do to prepare your child for a feeding study?</h2> <p>Please make sure you follow these instructions:</p> <ul> <li>Do not give your child anything to eat or drink for three hours before the feeding study. This is to make sure your child is hungry enough to eat and drink during the study.</li> <li>Bring the feeding equipment that your child uses at home, such as a bottle, nipple, cup or spoon. Your therapist may ask you to bring certain foods for the test. </li> <li>Remove your child's jewelry or clothing with metal snaps. Metal can show up on the X-ray.</li> <li>Your child may be hungry after the feeding study. Bring food for your child to eat after the study. If your child uses tube-feeding equipment, please bring this with you.</li> </ul>feedingstudieshttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_feeding_study_EN.jpg
Feeding your toddler or preschoolerFFeeding your toddler or preschoolerFeeding your toddler or preschoolerEnglishNutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+) Educators Hospital healthcare providers Community healthcare providers Remote populations First nationsNA2013-09-27T04:00:00Z7.1000000000000072.00000000000001119.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Discover some easy, creative and nutritious meal and snack ideas for your toddler or preschooler.</p><p>Children from age one to four usually are usually exploring new foods and developing their eating habits. Meal plans can help them enjoy a variety of foods while saving you time during the week. </p> <br><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Offer your toddler or preschooler a range of options from all four food groups.</li> <li>Be sure to offer toddlers soft, bite-sized pieces of food, paying attention to the risk of choking.</li> <li>Use meal planning with your preschooler as an opportunity to talk about nutrition.</li> <li>Help your child develop good eating habits by balancing a relaxed family mealtime atmosphere with rules about when a child can leave the table.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/feeding_your_toddler_or_preschooler.jpg
Feeding: Transitioning from tube feeding to oral feedingFFeeding: Transitioning from tube feeding to oral feedingFeeding: Transitioning from tube feeding to oral feedingEnglishDevelopmentalBaby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years)Mouth;EsophagusMouth;EsophagusNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-11-07T05:00:00Z6.6000000000000075.1000000000000649.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Discover how to help a tube-fed child gradually adjust to feeding by mouth.</p><p>If your child has been tube fed for a long time, they may gradually transition to oral feeding (feeding by mouth). This transition can be long and challenging.</p><p>When your child’s health-care team tells you that your child is safe to feed orally, the following ideas can help make this transition easier.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Talk to your child’s health-care team about when to start oral feeding and which foods are safest.</li> <li>Help your child adjust by setting up a meal schedule, including them in family mealtimes, serving a range of age-appropriate, safe foods and letting them try to feed themselves.</li> <li>Always be aware of any signs of distress such as coughing, refusal of feeds or difficulty breathing.</li> <li>If your child is distressed, stop oral feeding and ask your health-care team for advice.</li> </ul><h2>Make mealtimes positive</h2> <p>Your child’s readiness to start feeding by mouth is an exciting time. Help your child develop trust around food by making mealtimes positive.</p> <p>Every child is unique and will adjust to feeding by mouth at their own pace. At this stage, the goal is not about how much your child eats or how many calories they get from their feeds by mouth. Instead, aim for your child to enjoy the social aspect of eating with your family so that they will eat more and, in time, develop the skills they need to feed themselves.</p> <h2>Set up a meal schedule for oral feeds</h2> <p>Your child’s interest in eating will vary throughout the day and from day to day. They may also need time to learn what hunger and fullness feel like, as tube feeds can interfere with this.</p> <ul> <li>Set up a routine that includes three meals and two or three snacks a day.</li> <li>Start with very small meals. </li> <li>Offer food every three to four hours at consistent times every day.</li> <li>Limit mealtimes to a maximum of 30 minutes. </li> <li>While your child is still receiving some tube feeds, and if the feeding schedule allows, offer food by mouth before the tube feed.</li> </ul> <h2>Include your child in family mealtimes</h2> <ul> <li>Eat with your child. Children learn from copying others.</li> <li>If your child can hold their head up and sit with minimal support, sit them in a highchair during family mealtimes (even if they are not taking anything by mouth).</li> <li>If the feeding schedule allows, run tube feeds during family mealtimes so your child is still included.</li> </ul> <h2>Let your child try self-feeding</h2> <ul> <li>Let your child <a href="/Article?contentid=1457&language=English">feed themselves</a> instead of feeding them from a spoon. This gives them a sense of control that they have not had with tube feeds.</li> <li>A child often explores their food before they start feeding themselves. Let your child play with food by placing small amounts of purees on their highchair tray. It will be messy, but this is ok!</li> <li>Ask your occupational therapist (OT) for tips to help <a href="/Article?contentid=1458&language=English">move your child from one food texture to another</a>, for example from purees to soft pieces of cooked food.</li> </ul> <h2>Encourage healthy mealtime behaviour</h2> <ul> <li>Praise your child when they try new foods and show good eating behaviour.</li> <li>Do not react when your child spits out or throws food.</li> <li>Minimize distractions: turn off the TV and put toys away.</li> </ul> <h2>Offer a range of foods</h2> <ul> <li>Offer your child nutritious foods that are suitable for their stage of development.</li> <li>Offer a range of foods: salty, sweet, sour and spicy. Different flavours will spark your child’s interest in what they are eating.</li> </ul> <h2>Monitor your child’s safety</h2> <ul> <li>Ask your child’s health-care team about when to start oral feedings and what foods are safest for your child.</li> <li>Be aware of any signs of distress such as coughing, refusal of feeds, difficulty breathing or <a href="/Article?contentid=1463&language=English">choking</a>. If your child shows any of these signs, stop oral feeding and talk to your child’s health-care team.</li> </ul>feedingtubetooral
Fenestration closure after a Fontan operation in the heart catheterization labFFenestration closure after a Fontan operation in the heart catheterization labFenestration closure after a Fontan operation in the heart catheterization labEnglishCardiologyPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years)HeartHeart;Arteries;VeinsProceduresCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-06T05:00:00Z8.3000000000000063.30000000000001101.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Read about fenestration closure after a Fontan operation, a surgery to close the hole between your child's heart and the tunnel that moves blood to the lungs.</p><h2>What is fenestration closure after a Fontan operation?</h2><p>Part of the Fontan operation involves making a tunnel to bring oxygen-poor blood directly from the body into the lungs. The tunnel connects the inferior vena cava to the pulmonary artery, bypassing the heart. It can be made in one of two ways:</p><ul><li>outside the heart (extracardiac conduit)</li><li>inside the heart (lateral tunnel)</li></ul><p>This new circulation can put extra pressure on the lungs while your child's body is getting used to it. To relieve this pressure, the surgeon makes a fenestration (hole) between the tunnel and the heart.</p><p>The fenestration allows some blood to flow from the tunnel into the heart. It acts as a temporary pressure release valve while your child's body is adjusting to the new circulation. It is usually closed several months after the Fontan operation, so that oxygen-poor and oxygen-rich blood no longer mix.</p><p>This information explains what happens when we close the hole. This procedure is done in the heart catheterization lab.</p> <figure class="asset-c-100"> <span class="asset-image-title">Closing the fenestration after Fontan operation</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Fontan_fenestration_closure_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Blood flow through a heart with open fenestration compared to blood flow through a heart with a closure device" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Closing the fenestration after the Fontan operation completes the separation of oxygen-rich blood from oxygen-poor blood. The illustration shows an extracardiac conduit to connect the inferior vena cava to the pulmonary artery.</figcaption> </figure> <h2>What is heart catheterization?</h2><p>During heart catheterization, the doctor carefully puts a long, thin tube called a catheter into a vein or artery in your child's neck or groin. The groin is the area at the top of the leg. Then, the catheter is threaded through the vein or artery to your child's heart.</p><p>The doctor who does the procedure is a cardiologist, which means a doctor who works on the heart and blood vessels. This may not be your child's regular cardiologist.</p><p>To learn about heart catheterization, please see <a href="/Article?contentid=59&language=English">Heart catheterization: Getting ready for the procedure</a>.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Fenestration closure after a Fontan operation is a procedure to close the hole between your child's heart and the tunnel that takes oxygen-poor blood from the body to the lungs. </li> <li>The procedure is done in the heart catheterization lab. </li> <li>There is a small risk that your child will have complications from the procedure. Your child's doctor will explain the risks to you before the procedure. </li> <li>Your child will need to have an anaesthetic. Your child may need to stay overnight in the hospital after the procedure.</li> </ul><h2>What does the closure device look like and how does it stay in place?</h2> <p>The closure device is made of metal and mesh material. It looks like a short tube with different-sized discs (circles) on either end. Before it is put in, the discs are folded so the device will fit in the catheter. When it is in the right place, one disc opens up as the device is moved out of the catheter. The tube portion plugs the hole and the other disc opens up on the opposite side of the hole. </p> <h2>What happens during the fenestration closure</h2> <p>The procedure is performed while your child is under a general anaesthetic. This means that your child will be asleep during the procedure. </p> <p>During the procedure, the doctor inserts a catheter with a balloon on the tip into a blood vessel in the groin at the top of your child's leg. The catheter is moved up the blood vessel into the heart and into the fenestration. An X-ray picture is taken of the fenestration. </p> <p>The balloon is then inflated so that it fills the hole and closes it for a short time. This lets the doctor see if your child's heart is ready to have the closure device in place. If the pressure is good, the closure device is threaded through the catheter and placed into the fenestration. </p> <p>Once the device is in place, the doctor takes out the catheter and covers the cut on your child's leg with a bandage.</p> <h2>The procedure will take two to four hours</h2> <p>The procedure usually takes two to four hours. After the procedure, your child will go to the recovery room to wake up from the anaesthetic. If your child needs to stay overnight, they will be taken to the inpatient unit. If not, you can take your child home. </p><h2>After the procedure</h2> <p>The cardiologist will let you know when your child can go home. Your child will stay in the hospital for at least four to six hours after the procedure. Most children can go home on the same day as the procedure. </p> <p>If your child needs to stay overnight, they will be transferred to the inpatient unit.</p> <p>For information on what to do after your child goes home, please see <a href="/Article?contentid=1214&language=English">Heart catheterization: Caring for your child after the procedure</a>.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Fontan_fenestration_closure_MED_ILL_EN.jpg
Fertility chartingFFertility chartingFertility chartingEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)BodyReproductive systemNAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-11T04:00:00Z9.1000000000000056.70000000000001076.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about fertility charting, and how to use changes in your cervical mucous and basal body temperature to predict when you are most fertile.</p><p>Some women have longer intervals between menstrual periods, which can affect the time at which they are most fertile. Your own fertility pattern is unique. It is helpful to be aware of the signs that predict the times at which you are most fertile.​</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Some women have longer intervals between menstrual periods which affects when they are most fertile.</li> <li>Measuring your cervical mucus can help you determine whether you are approaching your time of ovulation.</li> <li>Basal body temperature can tell you if you have already ovulated.</li> <li>Ovulation kits can be purchased to help you determine when you are most likely to conceive.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/fertility_charting.jpg
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)FFetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)EnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyNAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2019-06-19T04:00:00Z9.5000000000000050.40000000000001100.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) describes the effects that result from prenatal alcohol exposure.</p><h2>What is fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)?</h2> <p>Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a general or "umbrella" term used to describe disabilities caused when a woman drinks alcohol during pregnancy. FASD includes any of the following diagnoses: </p> <ul> <li>fetal alcohol syndrome with sentinel features<br></li> <li>fetal alcohol syndrome without sentinel features<br></li> </ul><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can cause many different problems for the baby, including physical problems and problems with learning, attention, memory and behaviour. </li> <li>Problems caused by drinking during pregnancy are called fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). </li> <li>There is no cure for FASD, but it may be possible to get help for specific problems. It is important to diagnose FASD early. </li> <li>If you are pregnant, do not drink alcohol. </li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of FASD</h2> <p>The effects of FASD are not always obvious at birth. Often, behavioural and learning problems are not noticed until the child is old enough to go to school.<br></p> <p>Some people with FASD have a mixture of specific facial features and developmental problems. Many children with FASD do not have specific facial features.</p> <h3>Problems with development and learning</h3> <p>Children with FASD may have one or more of the following problems:<br></p><ul> <li>slow learning, short attention span, hyperactivity or memory problems </li> <li>learning disabilities, especially with reading, comprehension and abstract math </li> <li>delays or lack of abilities in speech and language, for example, receptive language disorder, interrupting, talking out of context or chatting with no content </li> <li>lack of executive function skills, including difficulties with organization, planning and reasoning </li> <li>inability to manage money, for example by saving and budgeting </li> <li>inability to understand cause and effect </li> </ul> <h3>Sensory integration problems</h3> <p>Children with FASD may have problems with sensory integration. These problems may involve one or more senses, such as: </p> <ul> <li>sensitivity to touch; the child may not be able to tolerate tags in shirts or seams in clothing </li> <li>seeming to need more touch than other children; for example, the child may need tight hugs or may not seem to feel pain </li> <li>hating bright lights or noise </li> <li>noticing smells more than others </li> <li>being bothered by "every little thing" </li> </ul> <p>These problems may occur in combination. A child with FASD could be hypersensitive to bright lights, but crave deep pressure or touch. </p> <h3>Behaviour and mood problems</h3> <p>Babies with FASD may have one or more of the following problems:</p> <ul> <li>irritable, nervous, or sensitive to sound and light </li> <li>cry often </li> <li>very quiet and not very responsive </li> </ul> <p>Children with FASD may have one or more of the following problems:</p> <ul> <li>behavioural problems, such as oppositional defiant disorder and aggressive or defiant behaviours </li> <li>mental illness, such as depression or psychosis </li> <li>drug and alcohol problems </li> <li>anger control problems or violence </li> </ul> <p>Poor judgment and the inability to connect an action with its consequences are the hallmarks of FASD. As a result, people with FASD are at high risk for getting in trouble with the law. </p> <h3>Physical problems</h3> <p>At birth, babies may have one or more of the following:</p> <ul> <li>low birth weight (less than 2.5 kg or 5 lb 8 oz) </li> <li>small head size </li> <li>face and mouth deformities </li> <li>flat shape of the face </li> <li>specific facial features may include thin upper lip, flatness under nose and smaller eyes</li> </ul> <p>Other physical problems may include:</p> <ul> <li>delayed growth </li> <li>small height and/or weight </li> <li>short height as an adult </li> <li>bone, joint, or muscle problems </li> <li>hearing problems </li> <li>repeated ear infections </li> <li>visual and eye problems </li> <li>genital defects </li> <li>heart defects </li> <li>kidney problems </li></ul><h2>FASD is caused by drinking alcohol during pregnancy</h2> <p>FASD can happen when a pregnant woman drinks any type of alcohol, including beer, wine, hard liquor or coolers. Alcohol crosses the placenta from mother to baby. Any amount of alcohol during pregnancy can cause FASD. </p> <ul> <li>High risk is when a woman has two drinks a day, or 14 drinks on average per week, or four or more drinks on any one occasion. </li> <li>Recent evidence suggests that even one drink per day may cause behavioural problems. </li> </ul> <p>The kinds of problems the baby may have depends on when the mother drinks during the pregnancy:</p> <ul> <li>Since the brain is developing during the entire pregnancy, the brain is always being affected if the mother drinks alcohol regularly. </li> <li>Drinking alcohol during the first trimester increases the chance that the baby will have a small brain, physical problems and/or severe intellectual disability. </li> <li>Drinking alcohol during the second trimester increases the chances of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage). </li> <li>Drinking during the third trimester, and during nursing, can affect intelligence. </li> </ul> <p>Not all babies who are exposed to alcohol during pregnancy will have FASD. We do not yet understand why some babies are affected and others are not.<br></p> <h2>FASD is common</h2> <p>FASD affects approximately 1% of people living in Canada. This means that there may be about 300,000 people with FASD living in Canada today. </p><h2>How FASD is diagnosed</h2> <p>Making a diagnosis of FASD requires involvement of a multi-disciplinary team. The assessment may include: </p> <ul> <li>asking about the mother's pregnancy and the child's birth </li> <li>doing a physical exam including assessing facial features<br></li> <li>a developmental assessment: testing the child's abilities to understand, communicate, move and adapt<br></li> </ul><h2>There is no cure for FASD</h2> <p>There is not a specific treatment for FASD. However, it is important to diagnose FASD early to improve outcomes.</p> <ul> <li>Physical and occupational therapy can often help. </li> <li>A child with FASD should have psycho-educational testing to find specific strengths and difficulties. This will help the child get services in school. </li> <li>Social workers can help the family cope and deal with family issues. </li> </ul><h2>References</h2><p>Cook, J.L., Green, C.R., Lilley, C.M., Anderson, S.M., Baldwin, M.E., Chudley, A.E., . . . Rosales, T. (2016). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: A guideline for diagnosis across the lifespan. <em>Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ), 188</em>(3) 191–197. doi: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.141593">10.1503/cmaj.141593</a></p> https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/fetal_alcohol_spectrum_disorder.jpg
Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT)FFetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT)Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT)EnglishHaematologyNewborn (0-28 days);PrenatalNACardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2017-11-09T05:00:00Z6.4000000000000069.6000000000000930.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Find out about fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT), including its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, prevention and treatment. <br></p><h2>What is FNAIT?</h2><p>Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) occurs when the mother’s immune system attacks her fetus’ or newborn’s platelets. Platelets are a type of blood cell that have proteins on their surface and are involved in blood clotting. If a fetus or newborn has a low platelet count then they will have an increased risk of bleeding. In most cases the effects of FNAIT are mild, however, if bleeding occurs in the brain, there may be long-term effects.</p><h3>Other names for FNAIT</h3><p>FNAIT is also called NAIT, AIT, FMAIT (fetal maternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia), NAT or NATP (neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenic purpura).</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) occurs when the mother’s immune system attacks her fetus’ and/or newborn’s platelets, the blood cells that help stop bleeding.</li><li>Doctors may suspect a baby has FNAIT if there is bruising, bleeding, a specific pinpoint rash and/or a low platelet count on a blood test.</li><li>The main treatment for a baby with FNAIT is platelet transfusions.</li><li>If the mother becomes pregnant again in the future, her doctor should refer her to a hospital that specializes in fetal-maternal medicine for monitoring and treatment.</li></ul><h2>Why does FNAIT happen?</h2><p>Platelets have many proteins on their surface. Each person has a different set of proteins, which are inherited from their parents. Sometimes a baby inherits a protein that is found on their father’s platelets but is absent from their mother’s platelets. When this happens the mother's immune system may respond by developing an antibody to fight against the protein the baby inherited from their father. This is called an alloimmune response.</p><p>The antibody may pass from the mother’s blood into the baby’s blood through the placenta and attach to the baby’s platelets. This antibody destroys the baby’s platelets, resulting in a low platelet count and an increased risk of bleeding for the baby.</p><p>The mother’s antibodies can remain in the baby’s blood stream for weeks, and bleeding can occur in the baby before birth (fetal), during birth or after birth (neonatal).</p><p>There are a number of proteins that can cause FNAIT but the most common one is human platelet antigen (HPA)-1a.</p><p>FNAIT does not occur because of anything the mother does, eats or drinks. It has not been linked to any environmental or dietary exposures.</p><h3>How common is FNAIT?</h3><p>FNAIT is rare. It occurs in about one in every 2,000 births.</p><h2>How is FNAIT diagnosed?</h2><p>Doctors may suspect a baby has FNAIT if there is:</p><ul><li>bleeding or bruising</li><li>a low platelet count on a blood test after birth</li><li>a specific pinpoint rash (called petechiae)</li></ul><p>The diagnosis of FNAIT can be confirmed by taking blood samples from the mother, the father and possibly the baby. If the baby’s platelet count is very low, doctors may look for possible bleeding in the brain using ultrasound.</p><h3>Why blood tests in pregnancy do not show that the baby may have FNAIT?</h3><p>Because FNAIT is rare, doctors do not usually screen for it. Doctors may first suspect a baby has FNAIT when they are born with bruises or a rash.</p><h2>How is FNAIT treated?</h2><p>Babies with FNAIT may need to be admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit for close monitoring.</p><p>The main treatment for FNAIT is platelet transfusions. These transfusions will help to prevent and treat the bleeding.</p><h2>Where can I get more information?</h2><p>Visit <a href="https://www.naitbabies.org/">www.naitbabies.org</a>.</p><p>This document was created by the International Collaboration for Transfusion Medicine Guidelines (ICTMG), a group of international transfusion experts brought together to create and promote evidence-based guidelines to optimize transfusion care. For more information, visit the website at <a href="https://www.ictmg.org/">www.ictmg.org</a>.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/iStock-901666764.jpg
Fetal developmentFFetal developmentFetal developmentEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)BodyReproductive systemNAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-11T04:00:00Z10.200000000000053.0000000000000222.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn all about fetal development, from conception to birth. The fascinating and exciting baby growing stages are discussed.</p><p>Your baby does most of their development in the first three months and their organs and structures are fully formed by the end of the first trimester. This section provides information about the normal development of the unborn baby during pregnancy. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Your baby does most of their development in the first trimester.</li> <li>The Pregnancy & Babies resource centre counts the weeks of pregnancy starting with the date of the beginning of the woman's last menstrual period.</li></ul>
Fetal monitoringFFetal monitoringFetal monitoringEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)Body;UterusReproductive systemNAPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-11T04:00:00Z11.800000000000042.70000000000001103.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about external and internal fetal monitoring during pregnancy. Intermittent auscultation is also discussed.</p><p>Fetal monitors are used to assess the baby’s heart rate and the contractions of the uterus during pregnancy and childbirth. The main objective of fetal heart rate monitoring is to monitor the well-being of the baby. There are two types of fetal monitoring: external and internal. Both types of monitor trace a pattern of the baby’s heart rate and the mother’s contractions onto a strip of graph paper. In childbirth, external fetal monitoring can be done either continuously throughout labour or intermittently. <br></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>External fetal monitoring can be done at any time during pregnancy.</li> <li>An internal fetal monitor is a small electrode placed on the baby's scalp can only be put into position after the mother’s fetal membranes have broken.</li> <li>The use of continuous fetal monitoring during childbirth is controversial because the accuracy of the technology is still quite limited.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/fetal_monitoring.jpg
FeverFFeverFeverEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Fever2019-02-13T05:00:00Z8.0000000000000062.90000000000002359.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>A fever can be a sign that the body is fighting an infection. Learn how to properly care for a baby, toddler or child with a fever.</p><p>A fever can be a sign that the body is fighting an infection. When the body's defense (immune) system is activated by a bacteria or a virus, many reactions occur in the body. Fever is one sign of these reactions. Fever is not a disease or illness itself but a signal that something is going on in the body. How your child looks and acts are more important than how high the fever is.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Fever is usually a sign that the body is fighting an infection.</li><li>A temperature of 38°C (100.4°F) or higher means a fever. </li><li>See your doctor if your child has a temperature that lasts for more than three days or if your child has a fever and is less than three months old.</li><li>Pay attention to how your child looks and acts. Keep a record of the number of days of fever.</li><li>To keep your child comfortable, dress your child lightly. Give your child lots of fluids to drink, and give acetaminophen or ibuprofen if it seems to make your child feel better.</li></ul><h2>What to expect when your child has a fever</h2> <p>Fevers can go up and down on their own without medication. Fevers can make children feel uncomfortable. </p> <ul> <li>When symptoms are mild, your child may be slightly cranky or have aches and pains. Some children are less active and sleepier. They may not be interested in eating or drinking.</li> <li>Some fevers may be associated with shaking (chills or rigors) as the body temperature is changing. This type of shaking is one way for the body to try to regulate the temperature. It is not a seizure or convulsion, and is not associated with changes in the child's level of consciousness.</li> <li>Approximately 5% of children between the ages of six months and six years may have <a href="/Article?contentid=1&language=English">febrile seizures</a>. They are episodes called a seizure or convulsion associated with a fever. Your child should see a doctor after a febrile seizure, but febrile seizures are generally not dangerous.</li> </ul> <p>The type of infection causing the fever usually determines how often the fever recurs and how long the fever lasts. Fevers due to viruses can last for as little as two to three days and sometime as long as two weeks. A fever caused by a bacterial infection may continue until the child is treated with an antibiotic.</p> <h2>What causes fever?</h2> <p>Many different infections can cause a fever. To find out what is causing your child's fever, the doctor will look at other signs or symptoms of the illness, not the fever itself. How high a fever is does not help the doctor to decide whether an infection is mild or severe, or whether an infection is from a bacteria or a virus.</p> <p>It is important to know how many days of fever your child has had. You should keep a record of your child's fevers so that you can accurately tell the doctor how long the fever has been present.</p> <h3>Fever may also be caused by other conditions</h3> <ul> <li>A mild increase in body temperature can occur with exercise or too much clothing, after a hot bath or shower, or in hot weather.</li> <li>Rarely, <a href="/Article?contentid=1915&language=English">heat stroke</a> or exposure to certain medications or drugs can cause a severe and possibly dangerous increase in body temperature.</li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=1986&language=English">Vaccinations</a> can cause fever. </li> <li>Some non-infectious illnesses and inflammatory conditions can cause recurrent or persistent fevers. </li> </ul> <h3>Teething does not cause fever</h3> <p>Many people believe that <a href="/Article?contentid=304&language=English">teething</a> causes fever. Research shows us that teething does not cause real fever. If your baby has a fever, do not assume it is due to teething.<br></p> <h2>Does my child have a fever?</h2><h3>A temperature of 38°C (100.4°F) or higher is a fever</h3><p>Children often feel warm to the touch when they have a fever. To confirm that your child has a fever, use a thermometer to measure your child's body temperature. A temperature of 38°C (100.4°F) or higher means that your child has a fever.</p><h3>Measuring your child’s temperature</h3><p>Do NOT use a glass thermom​eter which contains mercury.</p><p>The <a href="/Article?contentid=966&language=English">most accurate way to measure temperature</a> is with a thermometer:</p><ul class="akh-steps"><li> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">How to measure a rectal temperature</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_temperature_rectal_EN.jpg" alt="Baby lying on tummy across a lap with thermometer inserted in the baby's rectum" /></figure> <p>Inserted into the anus or rectum (rectal temperature) in babies and children under three years of age</p></li><li> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">How to measure an oral temperature</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_temperature_oral_EN.jpg" alt="Young girl lying under a blanket while her temperature is taken by mouth" /></figure> <p>Placed in the mouth (oral temperature) in older children able to hold the thermometer in their mouth long enough</p></li></ul><p>Other methods of measuring temperature may sometimes be useful but less accurate. These methods include: </p><ul class="akh-steps"><li> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">How to measure an armpit (axillary) temperature</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_temperature_armpit_EN.jpg" alt="Baby lying on their back with a thermometer held under the armpit" /></figure> <p>Using a thermometer in the armpit (axillary temperature)</p></li><li> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">How to measure an ear (tympanic) temperature</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/IMD_temperature_ear_EN.jpg" alt="Boy having his temperature taken by ear with one hand holding the ear up and the other holding the thermometer in the ear" /></figure> <p>Using an ear thermometer (tympanic temperature)</p></li></ul><p>You should avoid using a thermometer on the forehead or pacifier thermometer to check a temperature because they are inaccurate.</p><h3>Fever in babies younger than three months</h3><p>If your baby is less than three months old and has a fever, you need to see a doctor immediately.</p><p>For babies less than one month of age, fever may be a sign of a serious infection. If this happens on the weekend, do not wait to see your doctor; go to the nearest Emergency Department right away to have your baby assessed by a doctor. Do not give any fever medication to your baby unless a doctor says so.​<br></p><h2>When to see a doctor</h2><h3>See your child's regular doctor or go to the nearest Emergency Department right away if your child has a fever and: </h3><ul><li>Your child is less than three months old.</li><li>You have recently returned from travelling abroad. </li><li>Your child develops a rash that looks like small purple dots that do not go away when you apply pressure with your fingers (blanching). </li><li>Your child is not able to keep down any fluids, is not peeing and appears dehydrated. </li><li>Your child's skin looks very pale or grey, or is cool or mottled. </li><li>Your child is in constant pain. </li><li>Your child is lethargic (very weak) or difficult to wake up. </li><li>Your child has a stiff neck. </li><li>Your child has a seizure associated with fever for the first time or a long seizure associated with fever. </li><li>Your child is looking or acting very sick. </li><li>Your child seems confused or delirious.</li><li>Your child does not use their arm or leg normally or refuses to stand up. </li><li>Your child has problems breathing. </li><li>Your child cries constantly and cannot be settled. </li></ul><h3>See a doctor within one to two days if your child has a fever and: </h3><ul><li>Your child is between three and six months old.</li><li>Your child has specific pain, such as ear or throat pain that may require evaluation.</li><li>Your child has had a fever for more than three days. </li><li>The fever went away for over 24 hours and then came back. </li><li>Your child has a bacterial infection that is being treated with an antibiotic, but the fever is not going away after two to three days of starting the antibiotic. </li><li>Your child cries when going to the bathroom. </li><li>You have other concerns or questions. </li></ul><p>If you are unsure, call Telehealth Ontario at 1-866-797-0000 (toll-free number) if you live in Ontario.</p><h2>Myths about fever</h2><p>There are many myths about fever, and some of these myths may make you worry unnecessarily. If your child has a fever, the most important thing is how your child looks and acts. </p><h3>Myth: Fever needs to be treated with medication</h3><p>This is wrong! The fever itself is not dangerous and does not need to be treated. Medication should be used to make your child more comfortable when they have a fever. If your child is comfortable with a fever (either awake or sleeping) you do not need to give them fever medication. </p><h3>Myth: The exact number of the temperature is useful</h3><p>That is wrong! The most important part of assessing a child with fever is how the child looks and acts, especially after treating the fever with medication. For example a child who appears well but has a high temperature is less concerning than a child who only has a mild fever, but who appears quite unwell or unresponsive. Some minor viral illnesses may trigger high fevers; some serious bacterial infections may be associated with an abnormally low body temperature. In any case, you should measure your child’s temperature so you can keep a record of the number of days of fever.</p><h3>Myth: Fevers cause brain damage</h3><p>That is wrong! Most fevers associated with infections are less than 42°C (107.6°F). These fevers do not cause brain damage. Only a persistent body temperature greater than 44°C (111.2°F) can cause brain damage. These body temperatures are more likely to occur with heat stroke or after exposure to certain street drugs or medications, such as anaesthetic or some psychiatric medicines. They do not occur with the usual infections that children can have. </p><h3>Myth: Fevers are bad for children</h3><p>That is wrong! A fever is just a sign that the body's immune system has been activated. Fevers help to fight infections because many germs do not survive as well at slightly higher body temperatures. Thus most fevers have a beneficial effect despite your child’s discomfort. The main reason to use medication is to make the child feel better. </p><h3>Myth: Fevers should always respond to ibuprofen or acetaminophen</h3><p>That is wrong! These medications help make children feel more comfortable but may only reduce the fever by 1°C to 2°C (2°F to 3°F) and may not bring the temperature down to normal. Sometimes a fever continues even after giving ibuprofen or acetaminophen.</p><h3>Myth: Fevers should respond quickly to antibiotics </h3><p>That is wrong! Antibiotics are only useful in treating bacterial infections. The antibiotic will start working to fight the bacteria as soon as your child takes it, but it may take two to three days before the fever goes away. Antibiotics have no effect on viral infections. Since most infections in children are caused by viruses, an antibiotic will be of no use in these cases. </p><h3>Myth: Treating the fever will prevent febrile seizures </h3><p>This is wrong! Treating the fever will not prevent febrile seizures and you should not use medications for this purpose. Febrile seizures usually run in families and are more likely to happen at the beginning of your child’s infection.</p>​​ <h2>References</h2><p>Richardson M, Purssell E. (2015). Who's afraid of fever? <em>Arch Dis Child</em>. 100(9):818-20. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2015-309491. Retrieved on February 10th, 2016 <a href="https://adc.bmj.com/content/100/9/818">https://adc.bmj.com/content/100/9/818</a></p> <br> <p>Sullivan JE, Farrar HC. (2011). Fever and antipyretic use in children. <em>Pediatrics</em>. 127(3):580-7. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-3852. Retrieved February 10th, 2016. <a href="https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/127/3/580.full.pdf">https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/127/3/580.full.pdf</a> </p> <br> <p>Mistry N, Hudak A. (2014). Combined and alternating acetaminophen and ibuprofen therapy for febrile children. <em>Paediatrics & Child Health</em>. 19(10):531-2. Retrieved on February 10th, 2016 <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4276386/pdf/pch-19-531.pdf">https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4276386/pdf/pch-19-531.pdf​</a> and Corrigendum. (2015). <em>Paediatrics & Child Health</em>, 20(8), 466–467. Retrieved on February 10th, 2016 <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4699537/">https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4699537/</a> </p> <br> <p>National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (2013). <em>Feverish illness in children: assessment and initial management in children younger than 5 years</em> (2nd ed.). Sections 9.1 and 9.2. London, UK: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Retrieved February 10th, 2016 <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK327853/">https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK327853/</a><br></p> ​feverhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/fever.jpg
Fever and neutropeniaFFever and neutropeniaFever and neutropeniaEnglishOncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2020-11-04T05:00:00Z9.0000000000000056.4000000000000820.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>An overview on fever and a side effect of chemotherapy, called neutropenia. Learn how this side effect will be managed.</p><h2>What is fever and neutropenia?</h2><p>When a child receives treatment for cancer, they are at risk of infections. Sometimes these infections can be serious. At times the number of white blood cells can decrease to very low amounts. This is called neutropenia. It is during this time when the risk of having a serious infection is higher.</p><p>Often, a fever is the first sign of an infection. This is why all children who have a fever during cancer treatment need to be evaluated urgently. If the doctor finds that the child has low white blood cells (neutropenia), they will start your child on antibiotic treatment at once.</p><h3>Fever</h3><p>A fever is part of the body's response to infection. Your child has a fever if their:</p><ul><li>temperature is 38.3°C or more by mouth one time, or;</li><li>temperature is 38°C or more by mouth for one hour or more.</li></ul><p>Whenever possible, take your child's temperature by mouth. Only take your child's temperature under the arm if you cannot take it by mouth.</p><p>When checking for fever under your child's arm, your child has a fever if their:</p><ul><li>temperature is 37.8°C or more under the arm one time, or;</li><li>temperature is 37.5°C or more under the arm for one hour or more.</li></ul><h3>Neutropenia</h3><p>The blood contains a type of white blood cell that helps the body protect itself from infection. These blood cells are called neutrophils. Healthy people usually have more than 1.5 x 10<sup>9</sup> neutrophils for every litre of blood. Neutropenia happens when the number of neutrophils in the blood decreases to less than 0.5 x 10<sup>9</sup> cells/litre.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Neutropenia occurs when the number of white blood cells decrease to low amounts. This can happen as a result of cancer treatment.</li><li>A low white blood cell count puts a child at risk for infection. Fever is often the first sign of an infection.</li><li>If your child has fever and neutropenia they will receive antibiotics.</li></ul><h2>How is fever and neutropenia treated? </h2><p>If your child develops a fever, a doctor or nurse practitioner in the Emergency Department or the Haematology/Oncology Clinic will evaluate your child. They will check your child's white blood cell count. If they find that your child is neutropenic, your child may be:</p><ul><li>admitted to the hospital and treated with antibiotics, intravenously (IV) or orally</li><li>prescribed oral antibiotics to take at home. This happens in a small number of cases.</li></ul><p>Your child's Haematology/Oncology doctor will decide which treatment option is best for your child. They will base this decision on strict, pre-set criteria determined by the best scientific evidence to date. </p><h3>What will happen if my child can receive treatment for fever and neutropenia at home? </h3><p>In the Emergency Department or the Haematology/Oncology Clinic:</p><ol><li>Your child may receive one dose of IV antibiotics. </li><li>Your child will receive one dose of oral antibiotics. </li><li>Your child will then be sent home on oral antibiotics under the care of at least one parent (or alternate) that can stay with your child at home (not in daycare or school). </li></ol><h3>What you need to do if your child is being managed at home: </h3><ol><li>Record each time you give your child their antibiotic on the medicine calendar. </li><li>Take your child's <a href="/Article?contentid=966&language=English">temperature</a> every four hours and record it in the temperature diary. </li><li>Bring your child to the Haematology/Oncology Clinic for a check-up until they stop your child's treatment for neutropenia. Your child's doctor or Contact Nurse will let you know how often and when to come into the clinic for a check-up.</li><li>If your child looks ill at any time, if your child throws up the antibiotic, or if you have concerns about your child, call the Contact Nurse or the Haematology/Oncology Fellow-on-Call.</li></ol> <p>For more information, watch the video on <a id="Neutropenia and chemotherapy for leukemia" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Mls5TViEhg">Neutropenia and chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.</a></p><h2>At SickKids</h2><p>Before leaving the Emergency Department, you will be given:</p><ul><li>a 72-hour supply of antibiotics to be given by mouth</li><li>a Temperature Diary & Medication Calendar<br></li><li>an appointment for a follow-up appointment in the clinic</li></ul><p>When managing your child's neutropenia at home: </p><ul><li>Come to the Haematology/Oncology clinic for your child's check up on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays until your child's doctor or nurse stops treatment.</li><li>It is important that you speak with a member of the SickKids team every day about your child. On days when you do not come to the clinic, call your child's Contact Nurse, Tuesdays and Thursdays and the Haematology/Oncology Fellow-on-Call on weekends between the hours of 8:30 a.m. and noon to report your child's temperatures and progress.</li><li>If you are ever concerned about your child, call our Contact Nurse (Monday through Friday during the day) or the Haematology/Oncology Fellow-on-Call at 416-813-7500 after 5:00 p.m. or anytime on the weekends.</li></ul><h2>Additional resources</h2><p>The following SPARK Care Recommendations are intended to inform families of children undergoing cancer treatments. Seek the care of a health-care professional if you have any questions regarding SPARK Care Recommendations or your child’s diagnosis or symptoms.</p><h3>For parents & caregivers</h3> <a href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/SickKids_CPGs_Fever-and-Neutropenia_Adults_FINAL.pdf"></a><figure class="asset-c-80"><a href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/SickKids_CPGs_Fever-and-Neutropenia_Adults_FINAL.pdf"><img alt="Download fever and neutropenia care summary PDF for parents and caregivers" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/DownloadPDF_FN_Adults.jpg" /> </a></figure> <a href="https://www.ontariopoisoncentre.ca/siteassets/pdfs/english/new---since-2021/posters/1--brownie-green-part-2.pdf"> </a> <h3>For teens</h3> <a href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/SickKids_CPGs_Fever-and-Neutropenia_Teens_FINAL.pdf"><figure class="asset-c-80"><img alt="Download fever and neutropenia care summary PDF for teens" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/DownloadPDF_FN_Teens.jpg" /> </figure> </a> <h3>For kids</h3> <a href="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/SickKids_CPGs_Fever-and-Neutropenia_Children_FINAL.pdf"><figure class="asset-c-80"><img alt="Download fever and neutropenia care summary PDF for kids" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/DownloadPDF_FN_Kids.jpg" /> </figure> </a> https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/fever_and_neutropenia.jpg
Fever during brain tumour treatmentFFever during brain tumour treatmentFever during brain tumour treatmentEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainNervous systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-08-14T04:00:00Z8.6000000000000056.0000000000000406.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Important information on what to do in the event of your child running a fever during brain tumour treatment, such as when to call your doctor.</p><p>When your child is away from the hospital, you become their primary caregiver. You have a responsibility to contact the treatment team if your child presents with specific problems. In children on active treatment, the most common unexpected complications are fever and neutropenia. Fever is a temperature above 38.3°C (101°F). It may be accompanied by headache, shaking from chills, confusion, skin rash, or loss of appetite. Fever is especially a concern if your child is receiving chemotherapy, radiation, or steroids. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul>Fever may be caused by: bacterial or viral infections; immune system-weakening drugs; the tumour; drug allergies; or blood transfusions. <li>Call your child’s doctor if their fever reaches 38.3°C (101°F) or higher.</li> <li>The doctor will determine the cause of the fever before treating it.</li></ul>
Fever in a returning travellerFFever in a returning travellerFever in a returning travellerEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-05-26T04:00:00Z8.5000000000000059.50000000000001476.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Find out what to look out for and when to see a doctor if your child has a fever after travelling abroad.</p><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">Fever</a> is the body's response to infection. If your child has been travelling outside your home country, a fever may mean that your child caught an infection while away.</p><p>If your child has had a fever after travelling, see a doctor right away. Be prepared to tell the doctor:</p><ul><li>the country or countries where your child was travelling</li><li>how long your child was there</li><li>what areas your child visited and stayed in, for example in a city or in a rural area</li><li>why your child was travelling</li><li>what your child usually ate or drank while away</li><li>what vaccinations your child received before travel</li><li>what preventative medications your child had before travelling or while away</li><li>whether any other travellers have a fever or any other illness.</li></ul> ​<h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>If your child has just come back from travelling, a fever can mean that they have caught an illness while abroad.</li><li>Your child's doctor will need to know where your child visited while travelling, what they usually ate or drank, whether their vaccinations were up to date and what medications they took before and during their travels. They may also need to do different tests to find the cause of the fever.</li><li>Always remind health-care providers that you and your family have travelled. You and your child are at risk for malaria for up to 12 months after returning from an area where malaria is known to occur.</li><li>Prevention is the best defence against illness. Arrange a visit with your child's doctor six to eight weeks before you travel to give enough time to have vaccinations or get prescriptions for specific medications.</li></ul><h2>Possible causes of a fever in a returning traveller</h2><p>Travelling may expose a child to unusual diseases, but more than half of the most common causes of fever are diseases similar to those that your child may get at home. These include respiratory illnesses (such as the flu or pneumonia), urinary tract infections, sore throat and gastroenteritis (severe stomach upsets).</p><p>When a child returns from travelling, however, a doctor must consider if there are any unusual and unfamiliar infections. This is why it is usually necessary to take a thorough history and do a physical exam and any further tests.</p><p>A fever in a child who has been travelling can be a sign of one of the following diseases:</p><ul><li>dengue fever - common in central and south America, south and southeast Asia, and Africa but also occasionally reported in Texas, Hawaii and the Middle East</li><li>hepatitis A - common in central and south America, Africa, the Middle East, Asia and the western Pacific</li><li>malaria - common in sub-Saharan Africa, south and southeast Asia, central and south America, the Middle East and Mexico</li><li>tuberculosis (TB) - common in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa</li><li>typhoid fever - common in Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Middle East</li><li>yellow fever - common in sub-Saharan Africa, Panama and tropical south America.</li></ul><h3>Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever</h3><p>Dengue fever is a viral disease that is spread by mosquitoes. It is not spread directly from one person to another.</p><p>Dengue fever symptoms usually appear four to seven days after the infection, but they can occur up to 14 days afterwards. Children generally have a milder illness than adults, and some people show no symptoms.</p><p>Signs and symptoms of dengue fever may include:</p><ul><li>fever</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=29&language=English">headache</a></li><li>pain behind the eyes</li><li>joint and muscle pain</li><li>rash</li></ul><p>There are four types of dengue virus (called serotypes). Dengue hemorrhagic fever can occur when someone is infected with one dengue serotype and recovers but is later infected with a different serotype.</p><p>Dengue hemorrhagic fever is more common in children. Signs and symptoms may include:</p><ul><li>fever</li><li>bruising, nosebleeds, bleeding gums or other blood clotting problems</li><li>abdominal (tummy) pain</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a></li></ul><h3>Hepatitis A</h3><p>The liver is an organ that helps the body digest food. It also removes waste and toxins and stores energy. <a href="/Article?contentid=819&language=English">Hepatitis</a> is an inflammation of the liver that affects its ability to do its usual tasks.</p><p>Hepatitis A is caused by a virus. It is usually passed through the fecal-oral route (for example through poor hand washing between using the bathroom and eating) or by having contaminated food or drink.</p><p>Most cases of hepatitis A occur two to six weeks after a person is exposed to the virus. In young children, most hepatitis A infections are mild and may not even show any signs or symptoms.</p><p>Older children may show some of the following signs and symptoms:</p><ul><li>dark urine</li><li>extreme tiredness</li><li>flu-like symptoms of fever, headache and weakness</li><li>nausea and vomiting</li><li>abdominal discomfort</li><li>pain in the area of the liver, on the right side of the body beneath the lower ribs</li><li>poor appetite</li><li>muscle pain</li><li>itching</li><li>jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) - rarely</li></ul><h3>Malaria</h3><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=904&language=English">Malaria</a> is caused by parasites. It is spread by mosquitoes. If left untreated, malaria can lead to death.</p><p>Malaria symptoms usually appear six to 30 days after a person becomes infected, but they may appear up to 12 months later.</p><p>The symptoms of malaria are similar to those of a terrible flu. They include:</p><ul><li>fever</li><li>chills</li><li>headache</li><li>nausea</li><li>vomiting</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a></li><li>extreme weakness</li><li>muscle aches</li><li>pain in the abdomen, back and joints</li><li>coughing</li><li>confusion</li></ul><p>If your child shows several of these signs, see a doctor right away. If they are not treated properly, the symptoms can get worse quickly.</p><p>The best ways to prevent malaria are by:</p><ul><li>taking anti-malarial medications</li><li>avoiding mosquito bites by wearing protecting clothing, using child safe DEET products and sleeping under a mosquito net</li></ul><h3>Tuberculosis</h3><p>Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease of the lungs that is caused by slow-growing bacteria. It can be spread from person to person through the air.</p><p>Children with TB may not show any signs or symptoms. Instead, TB is usually diagnosed with the help of a skin test that can screen for exposure to the bacteria that causes it. If the infection is diagnosed promptly, your child can be treated earlier with effective medications. This will prevent the disease from spreading to other people.</p><h3>Typhoid fever</h3><p> <a href="/Article?contentid=902&language=English">Typhoid fever</a> is an infection caused by bacteria. It is usually transmitted by consuming contaminated food or drink.</p><p>Signs and symptoms of typhoid fever appear about seven to 14 days after a person is exposed to the bacteria. However, some children may become sick as little as three days or as much as two months after exposure.</p><p>Signs and symptoms of typhoid fever may include:</p><ul><li>persistent fever that rises gradually to 39°C to 40°C (102°F to 104°F) </li><li>headache</li><li>sore throat</li><li>tiredness</li><li>low energy</li><li>stomach pain</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=6&language=English">constipation</a></li><li>diarrhea</li><li>a temporary rash with raised pink spots on the stomach or chest</li></ul><h3>Yellow fever</h3><p>Yellow fever is a viral disease that is spread by mosquitoes. Symptoms of yellow fever appear three to six days after a person is exposed to the virus. They may include:</p><ul><li>fever</li><li>chills</li><li>headache</li><li>back and knee pain</li><li>muscle aches</li><li>nausea</li><li>redness of the eyes, tongue and face</li></ul><p>In severe cases, yellow fever can cause shock, organ failure and death.</p><p>Your child's doctor will need to take blood tests to diagnose yellow fever.</p><p>The best way to prevent yellow fever is by getting a yellow fever vaccine. Anyone nine months old or older can receive the vaccine, and it will protect your child for 10 years. You and your child should also avoid mosquito bites while travelling by:</p><ul><li>wearing protective clothing</li><li>using child safe DEET products</li><li>sleeping under a mosquito net.</li></ul><h2>Finding out why a returning traveller has a fever</h2> <p>Your child's doctor may need to do some tests to find out why your child has a fever. These may include:</p> <ul> <li>blood tests</li> <li>urine tests</li> <li>diagnostic imaging, such as a chest x-ray</li> <li>stool (poo) tests.</li> </ul> <p>Your child may need to have other tests as well.</p><h2>Further information</h2><p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. <em> <a target="_blank" href="https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/?s_cid=cdc_homepage_topmenu_003">Traveler's Health​</a></em></p><p>Government of Canada. <a target="_blank" href="https://travel.gc.ca/travelling?_ga=1.210770070.2052734278.1397067394"> <em>Travelling Abroad</em></a></p><p>Public Health Agency of Canada. <em> <a target="_blank" href="https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/travel-health.html">Travel Health</a></em></p><p>World Health Organization. <em> <a target="_blank" href="https://www.who.int/topics/travel/en/">Travel and Health</a></em></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/fever_in_returning_traveller.jpg
Financial literacy: Teaching kids about moneyFFinancial literacy: Teaching kids about moneyFinancial literacy: Teaching kids about moneyEnglishNAPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2012-03-28T04:00:00Z7.4000000000000065.0000000000000753.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Follow these money milestones to teach your preschooler, tween or teen about the basics of money.</p><p>Parents can teach money management to kids of any age. Whether your child is in preschool, middle school or high school, follow these simple money milestones.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>When teaching money to preschoolers, start by teaching them to practice patience and how to count.</li><li>School-aged children can begin receiving an allowance and learning the cost of household items.<br></li><li>Tweens will feel empowered about money if they have a savings account. Teach them to be critical consumers by talking about how advertising companies work.</li><li>Teach your teenager about money by talking about how investing works and suggesting a part-time job.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/financial_literacy_teaching_kids.jpg
Financial support for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)FFinancial support for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)Financial support for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)EnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years)NANervous systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-03-09T04:00:00Z11.600000000000042.10000000000001325.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Information about where to obtain financial assistance if you have a child with autism spectrum disorder.</p><p>As a parent of a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), you may qualify for financial support. This support can help cover the extraordinary costs associated with being a parent of a child with special needs. Financial support can come from government and private programs. The amount of money you receive will depend on your child’s needs and your family’s financial situation. The list that follows describes some, but not all, of the financial benefits available to children with special needs and their families. Financial support also includes tax benefits for families raising a child with special needs.</p><h2> Key points </h2><ul><li>If your child has autism spectrum disorder (ASD), you may qualify for financial support from government and private programs.</li> <li>The amount of money you receive will depend on your child's needs and your financial situation.</li></ul>
Financial support for parents in OntarioFFinancial support for parents in OntarioFinancial support for parents in OntarioEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANASupport, services and resourcesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2012-06-13T04:00:00Z10.900000000000047.60000000000001047.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find financial support and resources in Ontario for parents with a sick child. </p><p>If your family has extra expenses because of your sick child, you may be able to obtain financial or other assistance. There are a number of <a href="/Article?contentid=1150&language=English">federal tax breaks for children with disabilities in Canada</a>.</p><p>You can discuss financial and practical problems with a <a href="/Article?contentid=1168&language=English">social worker</a>. They can also direct you to useful <a href="/Article?contentid=1155&language=English">community health services</a>.</p><p>When you complete an application, always mail the original and keep a copy for yourself. Pay attention to renewal dates for programs that must be re-applied for every year. If you miss a renewal date or hand an application in late, it may result in you losing your benefits. If you have any questions when completing an application, call the appropriate agency for information. Developing a relationship with a worker from each agency can be helpful when specific questions arise about your application or available services. You will need to be <a href="/Article?contentid=1148&language=English">organized</a> and keep a phone contact record of everyone you have spoken to.</p><p>Some of the options available in Ontario are described here; other provinces may have similar programs.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>In Ontario, the Ministry of Community and Social Services and the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care have programs to help families who have extra expenses because they are taking care of a sick family member.</li> <li>Talk to the social worker on your child's health-care team to learn more about the types of financial assistance you may be eligible for and what community health services may be available to you.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/financial_support_for_parents_in_ontario.jpg
Finding a primary health-care providerFFinding a primary health-care providerFinding a primary health-care providerEnglishPreventionTeen (13-18 years);Adult (19+);Child (0-12 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2021-08-16T04:00:00Z11.000000000000047.70000000000001377.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about tips and tricks for finding a primary health-care provider for your family.</p><h2>What is a primary care provider?</h2><p>A primary care provider is a health-care provider who is trained to care for your general health. They can help you and your family manage most aspects of your health care including your physical, mental and emotional health.</p><p>A primary care provider can diagnose and treat acute illness (like an ear infection) and chronic illnesses (like diabetes). They also provide routine health screenings and counselling on lifestyle changes including recommendations for changing your diet and exercise routines.</p><p>Much of a primary care provider’s job is to help prevent health issues before they happen. This is why it is important to see the same provider consistently so that they can get to know your health history and make more informed health recommendations for you. Part of a primary care provider’s job is also to refer you to a specialist if you or your family need specific health care that requires more specialized attention.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A primary care provider is a health-care practitioner who can help you and your family manage most aspects of your health care.</li><li>Most provinces and territories in Canada have a health navigation services that can help you in your search for your own primary care provider.</li><li>If you cannot find a primary care provider, it can be helpful to attend the same walk-in clinic each time you or your family need to see a doctor.</li></ul><h2>Health services resources</h2><h3>British Columbia</h3><p> <a href="https://www.healthlinkbc.ca/services-and-resources/find-services">HealthLinkBC Directory</a><br>Listings of health services in British Columbia, including walk-in clinics, emergency rooms, hospitals, mental health programs, home care programs, pharmacy services, laboratory services, and more.</p><p> <a href="https://www.healthlinkbc.ca/services-and-resources/about-8-1-1">HealthLinkBC 8-1-1</a><br>Phone: 811<br> A toll-free number where a health service navigator can help you find health information and services; or connect you directly with a registered nurse, a registered dietitian, a qualified exercise professional, or a pharmacist.</p><h3>Alberta</h3><p> <a href="https://albertafindadoctor.ca/">Find a Family Doctor</a><br>A search tool provided by Primary Care Networks that lists the family doctors practicing in Alberta.</p><p> <a href="https://search.cpsa.ca/physiciansearch">Find a Physician</a><br>A search tool provided by The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Alberta that lists the practicing physicians in in your area.</p><p> <a href="https://www.albertahealthservices.ca/assets/healthinfo/link/index.html">HealthLink Alberta 8-1-1</a><br>Phone: 811<br> A toll-free number where a registered nurse can provide 24/7 quick and easy health-care advice.</p><h3>Saskatchewan</h3><p> <a href="https://www.saskhealthauthority.ca/your-health/providers-accepting-patients">The Saskatchewan Health Authority</a><br>A list of regions in the province where doctors are accepting new patients.</p><p> <a href="https://www.cps.sk.ca/imis/">Physician Search</a><br>A search tool provided by The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Saskatchewan that lists the practicing physicians in in your area.</p><p> <a href="https://www.saskhealthauthority.ca/your-health/conditions-diseases-services/healthline-8-1-1">HealthLine 8-1-1</a><br>Phone: 811<br> A toll-free number for 24/7 professional health or mental health and addictions advice, education and support.</p><h3>Manitoba</h3><p> <a href="https://www.gov.mb.ca/health/familydoctorfinder/">Family Doctor Finder</a><br>A tool where patients can register online or by phone to get connected with a clinic in their area.</p><p> <a href="https://misericordia.mb.ca/programs/phcc/health-links-info-sante/">Health Links – Info Santé</a><br>Phone: 204-788-8200 or 1-888-315-9257<br>A phone-based, bilingual nursing triage system where a registered nurse can provide 24/7 health-care advice.</p><h3>Ontario</h3><p> <a href="https://www.ontario.ca/page/find-family-doctor-or-nurse-practitioner">Health Care Connect</a><br>A registration service that finds you a doctor or nurse practitioner who is accepting new patients in your community.</p><p> <a href="https://doctors.cpso.on.ca/?search=general">Doctor Search</a><br>A search tool provided by The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario that lists the practicing physicians in in your area.</p><p> <a href="https://www.ontariodoctordirectory.ca/index.html">Ontario Doctor Directory</a><br>An independently run online provincial directory of doctors.</p><p> <a href="https://www.ontario.ca/page/get-medical-advice-telehealth-ontario">Telehealth Ontario</a><br>Phone: 1-866-797-0000<br> A free 24-hour phone service that provides access to a registered nurse for health advice or information.</p><h3>Quebec</h3><p> <a href="https://www4.prod.ramq.gouv.qc.ca/GRL/LM_GuichAccesMdFamCitoy/en">Québec Family Doctor Finder</a><br>A provincial waitlist where patients can register to find a family doctor.Find out how to register by phone <a href="https://sante.gouv.qc.ca/en/votre-gaco/">here</a>.</p><p> <a href="https://www.quebec.ca/en/health/finding-a-resource/info-sante-811">Info-Santé 811</a><br>Phone: 811<br> A free and confidential telephone consultation service where nurses evaluate your health situation and give advice based on your condition.</p><h3>New Brunswick</h3><p> <a href="https://www.pxw1.snb.ca/snb9000/product.aspx?productid=A001P351710a&l=e">Patient Connect NB</a><br>A registry that matches New Brunswick residents with a primary health-care provider, either a family doctor or nurse practitioner.</p><p> <a href="https://www2.gnb.ca/content/gnb/en/services/services_renderer.8995.Tele-Care.html">Tele-Care</a><br>Phone: 811<br> A free, bilingual and confidential telephone service where registered nurses provide telephone triage and information for non-urgent health concerns.</p><h3>Nova Scotia</h3><p> <a href="https://needafamilypractice.nshealth.ca/">Need a Family Practice Registry</a><br>A provincial list for people without a family doctor or nurse practitioner.</p><p> <a href="https://811.novascotia.ca/">811 Nova Scotia</a><br>Phone: 811<br> A free telephone service where registered nurses provide advice on a broad range of everyday health concerns.</p><h3>Prince Edward Island</h3><p> <a href="https://www.princeedwardisland.ca/en/information/health-pei/patient-registry-program">Patient Registry Program</a><br>A program that helps connect Islanders to a family doctor or nurse practitioner who is accepting new patients.</p><p> <a href="https://www.princeedwardisland.ca/en/information/health-and-wellness/811-telehealth">811 Telehealth</a><br>Phone: 811<br> A free telephone service where registered nurses provide non-emergency health information.</p><h3>Newfoundland and Labrador</h3><p> <a href="https://findadoctornl.ca/">Find a Doctor NF</a><br>A search tool where patients can find a family doctor in their area that is taking new patients.</p><p> <a href="https://www.811healthline.ca/">811 HealthLine</a><br>Phone: 811<br> A confidential and free telephone line where registered nurses provide advice on everyday health concerns.</p><h3>Yukon</h3><p> <a href="https://ihs.gov.yk.ca/find-a-family-doctor/f?p=100:1::::::">Find a family doctor</a><br>A service that connects Yukoners with a family doctor who is accepting new patients.</p><p> <a href="https://yukon.ca/en/811">811 HealthLine</a><br>A free telephone line where registered nurses can answer your health questions or direct you to someone in your community who can help you.</p><h3>Northwest Territories</h3><p> <a href="https://www.hss.gov.nt.ca/en/services/nwt-healthnet/telehealth">Telehealth</a><br>Phone: 1-867-767-9054<br> A service that connects patients in their home communities with health care providers in other locations through secure video conferencing.</p><h3>Nunavut</h3><p> <a href="https://gov.nu.ca/health/information/health-centres#2381">Health Facilities Map</a><br>An interactive map where patients can find a list of health-care centres and services.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Finding_a_primary-care_provider.jpg
Finding a weight that is right for youFFinding a weight that is right for youFinding a weight that is right for youEnglishNutritionPre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyNANon-drug treatmentPre-teen (9-12 years) Teen (13-18 years)NA2021-05-11T04:00:00Z7.4000000000000067.90000000000001356.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Eating healthy foods and being physically active are important factors in maintaining a healthy weight. Read about tips for keeping a healthy body weight.</p><p>Health and weight are not connected in the way many people assume. It is possible to have a small body and be unhealthy just as it is possible to have a large body and be in excellent health. We can’t judge a person’s health by only looking at them on the outside. Weight is based on some factors that cannot be controlled, like genetics, side effects from medications and as a result of certain health conditions. However, there are some factors that we can control in order to maintain a healthy weight. These include eating healthy foods, being physically active and having a healthy body image.</p><h2>Tips for living a healthy lifestyle for kids and teens</h2><p>Healthy living is more than just <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1436&language=English&hub=nutrition">the food your child eats</a>. It is also about their lifestyle. Feeling good about themselves, eating well and being physically active are all part of living a healthy lifestyle. People who live healthy lifestyles come in all shapes and sizes, so your child’s healthy weight will be completely unique to them.</p><p>Here are the four basic guidelines for helping your child achieve and maintain a healthy weight:</p><ul><li>Be active</li><li>Establish healthy eating routines</li><li>Make healthy food choices</li><li>Talk about weight and size in a positive way</li></ul><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>To achieve and maintain a healthy weight, it is helpful to be active, establish healthy eating routines, make healthy food choices and talk about weight in a positive way.</li><li>Follow the recommendations in Canada's Food Guide, and eat the right balance of vegetables and fruit, whole grain products, and protein foods such as lean meats, eggs, dairy and plant-based protein sources (e.g., chickpeas, lentils, and tofu).</li><li>Treats have a place in a healthy eating lifestyle. Eating treats in moderation is part of balanced eating. In order to keep up with healthy eating choices in the long-term, it is important to be flexible with food choices and include foods you enjoy every day.</li></ul><h2>Be active</h2><ul><li>Encourage your child to <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=642&language=English">be active</a> in every season (spring, summer, fall and winter). Embrace the outdoors and stay active indoors during poor weather.</li><li>Have them participate in activities they enjoy.</li><li>Try increasing their current activity level. Small bouts of active time add up quickly throughout the day.</li><ul><li>Aim for 60 minutes (1 hour) of activities that increase your child’s heart rate and breathing everyday. These 60 minutes can be done in smaller increments (e.g., 15 minutes) and added up throughout the day. It is also good for your child to do several hours of light intensity activities such as playing, walking to or from school, or doing chores.</li></ul><li>Choose different activities that they like so that they look forward to doing them.</li><li>Active transportation is a great way of sneaking in some activity to your child’s day, like walking or riding a bike to school.</li><li>Limit the amount of time your child spends watching TV and playing on the computer to less than 2 hours per day. Start by reducing their current daily <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=643&language=English">screen time</a> by 30 minutes per day (e.g., no screen during mealtimes or before bed).</li></ul><h2>Establish healthy eating routines</h2><ul><li>Your child should eat three meals a day. They should not skip meals, especially breakfast.</li><ul><li>Healthy routines include eating three meals per day and having something to eat approximately every three hours, which can include 1-3 snacks daily.</li></ul><li>Your child should try to eat within half an hour of waking up.</li><li>Between meals, plan for healthy snacks such as yogurt and fruit, cut up vegetables and hummus, or whole grain crackers and cheese. One to three healthy snacks a day can be helpful in preventing getting overly hungry between meals.</li><li>Have your child eat slowly and without distractions like homework, TV or other screens and toys. That way, they can better sense when they are full.</li><li>See <a href="https://food-guide.canada.ca/en/food-guide-snapshot/">Canada's Food Guide</a> for recommended ratios to aim for and examples of foods that are high in helpful nutrients to the body.</li><li>Eat together at home more often. Try to eat out less often.</li><li>Eat home cooked meals with family more often.</li></ul><h2>Make healthy food choices</h2><div class="akh-series"><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Body_weight_drinks.jpg" alt="Milk and water" /></figure> <h3>Drinks</h3><ul><li>Choose water. If your child does not want water, have them choose from a variety of sugar-free drinks like unsweetened milk or soy-beverages and sparkling water.</li><li>Add sugar-free flavour-enhancing products, mint or fruits like lemon, lime, cucumber or orange wedges to tap water or sparkling water for additional variety and flavour.</li></ul></div><h3>Vegetables and fruits</h3><ul><li>Choose whole <a href="/article?contentid=1437&language=English">vegetables and fruit</a> with the skin left on for added fiber instead of juice.</li><li>At meal times, fill half the plate with vegetables and fruits.</li><li>Choose vegetables and fruits with a variety of colours, tastes and textures.</li><li>Use herbs, spices and lemon juice to add flavour to vegetables, instead of butter and cream.</li><li>Try out vegetables or fruit with a source of protein for a balanced snack in between meals, like apple with peanut butter spread on top.</li></ul><div class="asset-2-up"> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Body_weight_fruits_veggies.jpg" alt="Fruits, vegetables and juice" /> </figure> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Canadas_Food_Guide_Fruits_Veggies.jpg" alt="Food plate, vegetables" /> </figure> </div><h3>Whole grain products and starchy vegetables</h3><ul><li>Choose whole grain breads such as whole grain wheat and whole rye for added fiber. Choose cereals made from whole grains to help increase your fiber intake.</li><li>Try not to eat cereals or granola with a lot of added sugar or fat.</li><li>At meal times, fill one quarter of the plate with <a href="/article?contentid=1438&language=English">whole grains</a> and starchy vegetables like potatoes and corn.</li></ul><div class="asset-2-up"> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Body_weight_grains.jpg" alt="Grain products" /> </figure> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Canadas_Food_Guide_Carbohydrates.jpg" alt="Food plate, grains" /> </figure> </div><h3>Protein foods</h3><ul><li>At meal times, fill one quarter of the plate with <a href="/article?contentid=1439&language=English">protein foods</a>.</li><li>Offer your child plant-based protein foods more often such as legumes, nuts, seeds, tofu and fortified soy beverages.</li><li>Choose leaner cuts of meat, such as loins and rounds, or trim visible fat. Chicken and turkey are lean choices if you take the skin off before cooking them.</li><li>Choose tuna and other fish canned in water instead of oil.</li><li>Limit the use of gravy and cream-based sauces.</li></ul><div class="asset-2-up"> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Body_weight_protein.jpg" alt="Milk, cheese, yogurt, chicken, fish" /> </figure> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Canadas_Food_Guide_Proteins.jpg" alt="Food plate, protein" /> </figure> </div><h2>Treat foods</h2><p>Eating treats occasionally is part of balanced eating and helps prevent us from feeling deprived.</p><ul><li>The key is moderation. If your child eats treats regularly, try decreasing how often they have them.</li><li>You can decrease snacking on treats by not keeping too many treats in the house. If healthy foods that your child enjoys are visible at home, like berries and yogurt or cucumbers with a yogurt-based dip, your child will eat these foods more often.</li><li>Role model healthy eating for your child/children by eating healthy treats that you enjoy.</li><li>Choose healthier treats if you can, or modify treats to make them more nutrient dense. Instead of serving two scoops of ice cream, give your child one scoop with protein-rich nuts and berries as toppings.</li><li>Enjoy treats without guilt during holidays and other special events. Treats served on special occasions, like birthday cake, can be important because food plays a role in our emotional health. If we allow ourselves and our children to eat treat foods sometimes, we will be better able to enjoy moderate amounts of treat foods when we do have them.</li></ul><h3>TRUE or FALSE - Avoid treats to maintain a healthy body weight?</h3><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/videoseries?list=PLjJtOP3StIuVhnlhoHNRqwzjJKB0pBimj" frameborder="0"></iframe> <br></div><p>For more videos from SickKids experts in collaboration with Youngster, visit <a href="https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCoKMd2cYwegtZX19uHdNLQA">Youngster on YouTube</a>.</p><h2>Talk about weight and body size in a positive way</h2><ul><li>Remember that healthy bodies come in different shapes and sizes.</li><li>Focus on the positive changes your child has made to their lifestyle.</li><li>Do not have your child weigh themselves often. Do not compare different scales.</li><li>Reward your child’s efforts with non-food rewards. Their hard work deserves to be recognized.</li><li>Be a healthy role model. If you are positive about your body, your child will be more positive about their body. If you practice healthy eating routines, your child is more likely to practice them too.</li></ul></div></div><h2>Further information</h2><p>Visit <a href="https://meant2prevent.ca/">Meant2Prevent</a> to find more resources about the importance of healthy living and lifestyle habits.</p><p> <a href="https://meant2preventkitchen.ca/">www.meant2preventkitchen.ca</a></p><p>For some healthy recipe videos, watch SickKids dietitians make:</p><ul><li> <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0f7LC0_XkrI">Banana Mango Chocolate Smoothie</a></li><li> <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IijC5afS1qs">Homemade Dips</a></li><li> <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hEeB03H6VGY">Protein Cookie Dough Bites</a></li><li> <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FlnCY_UDYGA">Breakfast on the go</a></li></ul>healthybodyweighthttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Body_weight_fruits_veggies.jpg
Finger feeding your babyFFinger feeding your babyFinger feeding your babyEnglishDevelopmentalNewborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)NANANon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-06T05:00:00Z6.8000000000000072.60000000000001776.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Finger feeding is a temporary way to feed your baby using your finger and a small tube. Learn what supplies you will need and tips for finger feeding.</p><h2>What is finger feeding?</h2> <p>Finger feeding is a temporary way to feed your baby. To finger feed, tape a feeding tube on the soft side of your finger or thumb and put your finger or thumb in your baby's mouth. Try to use the largest finger or thumb that you are comfortable using and that fits into the baby's mouth. Your baby will suck on your finger or thumb and the feeding tube, in much the same way that he would suck on your breast. Fathers and other caregivers can feed the baby this way too. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Finger feeding is a temporary method of feeding your baby using your finger or thumb and a small tube. </li> <li>Finger feeding can be a supplement or a replacement for breastfeeding. </li> <li>Finger feeding can help your baby learn to suck to help with breastfeeding. </li> <li>Finger feeding needs to be supervised by a breastfeeding specialist or doctor once you are discharged from the hospital. </li> </ul><h2>How to finger feed your baby</h2><p>You can use two different containers to finger feed your baby:</p><ul><li>a syringe without a needle with the plunger removed</li><li>a bottle</li></ul><p>To finger feed your baby, follow these steps:</p><ol><li> <a href="/article?contentid=1981&language=English">Wash your hands</a> thoroughly. Parents can use their bare finger or thumb, or you can cover your hand with a hospital glove. Health-care professions will wear a glove if they finger feed your baby. Make sure the nail on the finger or thumb that you will use is cut short so that you do not hurt your baby's mouth.</li><ul class="akh-steps"><li> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">Finger feeding with a syringe</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Finger_feeding_1_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Woman finger feeding a baby with a syringe" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption"> Fasten the syringe to your clothing.</figcaption> </figure> <p>If you are using a syringe, attach the wide end of the feeding tube to the tip of the syringe. Pour the feeding supplement into the syringe. Place the elastic band around the top of the syringe. Then put a safety pin through the end of the elastic. Pin the syringe to your clothing so the bottom of the syringe is at the same level with your baby's head.<br></p></li><li> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">Finger feeding with a </span><span class="asset-image-title"></span><span class="asset-image-title">bottle</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Finger_feeding_3_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Woman finger feeding a baby with a bottle" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The</figcaption><figcaption class="asset-image-caption"></figcaption><figcaption class="asset-image-caption"> bottle should be on a flat surface so the fluid in the bottle is level with the baby's head.</figcaption> </figure> <p>If you are using a bottle, pour the feeding supplement into the bottle. Put the wide end of the feeding tube into the feeding supplement. Put the small end of the feeding tube through the enlarged nipple hole, leaving the large end of the tube touching the bottom of the bottle. Place the bottle on a flat surface close to you so the fluid is at the same level as your baby's head.<br></p></li></ul></ol><ol start="2"><li>Sit comfortably with your baby on your lap. Your baby should be facing you. Your baby should be sitting almost upright, but at a little bit of an angle.</li><li> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Finger_feeding_2_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="How to insert finger in baby’s mouth for finger feeding" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The finger is inserted just past the first knuckle, soft side up, just as far as where the hard palate meets the soft palate.</figcaption> </figure> <p>Hold your finger or thumb soft side up. Place the thin end of the feeding tube on your finger so that the end of the feeding tube is at the end of your finger. Tape the feeding tube in place behind the second joint of your finger or the first joint of your thumb.</p></li><li>Tickle your baby's lip so that the baby will open their mouth wide. Put the finger with the feeding tube, soft side up, in your baby's mouth.</li><li>Move your finger back and forth slightly along the baby's tongue if you need to encourage your baby to suck.</li><li>Let your fingertip move to the back of the baby's mouth with each suck. Your finger should just touch the ridge at the top of the mouth where the hard part of the mouth becomes soft. Your finger will be in your baby's mouth up to between the first and second knuckle.</li><li>Make sure your baby is getting enough feeding supplement. The feeding supplement should flow when the baby sucks and stop when the baby stops sucking. Your baby is getting enough feeding supplement if you can hear them swallowing with each suck.</li></ol><h3>Troubleshooting</h3><p>If your baby is not getting enough feeding supplement, try the following things:</p><ul><li>Check for bends or kinks in the feeding tube.</li><li>Check the position of the feeding tube in your baby's mouth.</li><li>Raise the bottle or syringe higher above the level of your baby's head.</li></ul><p>If your baby is getting the feeding supplement too fast, lower the bottle or syringe so it is below the level of your baby's head.</p><h2>Cleaning your finger feeding supplies is easy</h2> <p>You can use your finger feeding supplies at home as long as you clean the supplies thoroughly right after you feed your baby. Follow these steps to clean the supplies: </p> <ol> <li>Wash your finger-feeding supplies with warm soapy water.</li> <li>Rinse the supplies well with warm clean water. Make sure there is no dry feeding supplement left in the feeding supplies.</li> <li>Keep the feeding supplies wrapped in a clean towel or in a sealed plastic bag after you wash them.</li> </ol> <p>The feeding tube can generally be used for seven days or until it becomes hard.</p> <p>Note: You should not boil the feeding supplies because boiling will make the plastic hard too quickly.</p><h2>Supplies you need to finger feed your baby</h2><ul><li>A number 5 French feeding tube that is 36 inches long. </li><li>A baby bottle or a syringe without a needle that will hold 30 to 60 mL of liquid. A syringe is a hollow tube that has a plunger and holds liquids. </li><li>Adhesive or clear medical tape. </li><li>An elastic band and a safety pin, if you are using a syringe. </li><li>A clean hand or a hospital glove, if you want to cover your hand. </li><li>A feeding supplement such as milk taken from your breast or formula. Milk taken from your breast is called <a href="/Article?contentid=1979&language=English">expressed breast milk</a>. Sometimes, a liquid or powder is added to breast milk or formula if your baby needs extra calories.</li><li>A plastic bag that you can seal to store the feeding tube. </li></ul><p>These supplies may be available at your local hospital. Some drugstores and medical supply stores may carry these supplies as well. If you are unable to get these supplies at your location, they can be ordered in person, on the phone or online from the Specialty Food Shop at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto. </p><p>For details, go to: <a href="https://www.specialtyfoodshop.ca/products/baby-kids/infant-feeding-supplies/breast-pumps-supplies" target="_blank">https://www.specialtyfoodshop.ca/products/baby-kids/infant-feeding-supplies/breast-pumps-supplies </a> or call 1-800-737-7976. The Specialty Food Shop may be able to ship these supplies directly to your home.</p><h2>At SickKids</h2> <p>If you have any questions about finger feeding or breastfeeding in general, please call the Breastfeeding Program at 416-813-5757 ext 2.</p> <p>Finger feeding and other breastfeeding supplies are sold at the <a href="https://www.specialtyfoodshop.ca/products/baby-kids/infant-feeding-supplies/breast-pumps-supplies">Specialty Food Shop</a> on the Main floor of the hospital. Ask your nurse how to clean the feeding tube and syringe while your baby is in hospital. A new feeding tune is used each 12 hours.</p> ​https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Finger_feeding_2_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg
Fingernail infection (paronychia)FFingernail infection (paronychia)Fingernail infection (paronychia)EnglishDermatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Fingers;ToesNailsConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2019-05-10T04:00:00Z8.0000000000000062.7000000000000497.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>An overview of fingernail infections including possible causes, treatment and when to see a doctor.</p><h2>What is a fingernail infection? </h2><p>Fingernail infections occur on or near the edge of the nail. Most of the time, fingernail infections are not serious but they can be painful. This type of infection can also form on the toenails.​</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Nail infections can occur on the hands and the feet.</li> <li>Nail biting and finger sucking can cause breaks in the skin, allowing bacteria to enter. </li> <li>Symptoms include swelling, redness and tenderness of the area where the nail meets the tissue of the finger. </li> <li>Clean the infected nail three times a day with warm water and an antibacterial soap.</li> <li>If the infection has not gone away after four or five days, seek medical attention.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of a fingernail infection</h2> <p>Signs and symptoms may include: </p> <ul> <li>Swelling where the finger meets the nail </li> <li>Redness and mild tenderness surrounding the infected area </li> <li>A blister filled with pus or pus draining from the swollen area </li> </ul><h2>Causes of a fingernail infection</h2> <p>Fingernail infections are caused by bacteria entering the skin around the nail. Nail biting, ingrown nails and finger sucking can cause skin breakdown, allowing bacteria to enter. Pushing the cuticle down or trimming the cuticle (which is usually done as part of a manicure) can also lead to infection. </p><h2>Treatment of a fingernail infection</h2> <h3>Antiseptic soaks </h3> <p>Soak the affected area in warm water with an antibacterial soap. Do this three times a day for 10 to 20 minutes at a time. If the infection has not cleared after four or five days, make an appointment to see your child's doctor. </p> <h3>Draining </h3> <p>In most cases, pus will drain on its own after soaking the infection. You may need to apply a bit of pressure by gently rubbing or squeezing the area with a damp cloth or cotton swab. If this does not work, then see your doctor. You doctor may take a small needle to open up the affected area and drain the pus.</p> <h3>Antibiotics </h3> <p>You can try applying an over-the-counter antibiotic ointment such as Polysporin to the infected area two to three times per day. The best time to apply this ointment is after the area has been soaked in warm water for 10 to 20 minutes. If the infection persists, your child's doctor may prescribe a stronger antibiotic ointment to fight the infection. Apply the ointment as directed until the infection disappears. If the infection appears to be spreading beyond the nail, your child's doctor may prescribe an oral antibiotic. </p> <h3>Prevention </h3> <p>Encourage your child to not bite, pick or chew their fingernails. Use nail clippers instead. Avoid pushing cuticles down and do not trim the cuticle. </p><h2>When to see a doctor</h2><p>Make an appointment with your child's doctor if: </p><ul><li>your child develops a <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a></li><li>the infection has not cleared after four or five days</li><li>the area of redness or swelling is getting bigger</li><li>the area is hot and painful</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/fingernail_infection.jpg
First aid kitFFirst aid kitFirst aid kitEnglishPreventionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2013-04-23T04:00:00Z8.2000000000000061.5000000000000376.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find a list of supplies and medicines to include in a first aid kit. It is recommended that there be an equipped first aid kit in the house and in the car.</p><p>Like smoke detectors and fire extinguishers, a first aid kit is a necessity for every home, cottage, and workplace. Accidents and injuries can happen to anyone at any time so it is important to be prepared.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Keep your first aid kit in a central location so it is easily accessible.</li> <li>Try to keep the contents of the first aid kit at room temperature.</li> <li>If your first aid kit contains medications, remember to check expiration dates and replace when necessary. Remember to keep out of reach of small children.</li> <li>Consider keeping a basic first aid kit in your car.</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/first_aid_kit.jpg
Fish allergyFFish allergyFish allergyEnglishAllergyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2021-03-08T05:00:00Z9.0000000000000059.80000000000001217.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Find out how to help your child manage a fish allergy.</p><h2>What is a fish allergy?</h2><p>A fish allergy is a reaction to one or more of the proteins in fish.</p><p>It can be easy to mistake a true fish allergy for histamine poisoning. Anchovies, mackerel, mahi-mahi and tuna can contain high levels of histamine when they are not properly frozen or refrigerated. When someone eats these improperly stored fish, they may experience similar symptoms to that of a fish or seafood allergy. See your child's doctor if you suspect your child has histamine poisoning.</p> ​ <h2>How serious is a fish allergy?</h2><p>Fish allergy reactions are different for each child, but they usually happen soon after your child consumes fish. A fish allergy carries the risk anaphylaxis, a severe and life-threatening allergic reaction.</p><h2>Fish and seafood allergies</h2><p>Not all children who have a seafood allergy will have a fish allergy. However, all children who have a fish allergy are considered to have a seafood allergy, as fish is a type of seafood.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A fish allergy can be different for each person: for example, some people can eat some types of fish but not others.</li><li>Most children with a fish allergy do not outgrow it. Consult an allergist regularly to see if there is any change in your child's allergy.</li><li>Sources of fish include coffee, fried rice, salad dressing and gelatin. </li><li>To prevent an allergic reaction, always read food product labels, avoid foods if you are not sure of the ingredients and avoid using utensils or containers that might have come in contact with fish.</li><li>If your child's diet is limited because of a fish allergy, a registered dietitian can offer advice on getting a balanced diet.</li></ul><h2>Possible sources of fish</h2> <p>Fish and other seafood are used in a wide range of packaged foods. Below is a list of some of the many food products that can contain fish.</p> <table class="akh-table"> <tbody> <tr> <td>Coffee</td> <td>Deli meats (bologna, ham)</td> </tr> <tr> <td>​Fried rice</td> <td>Gelatin</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Hot dogs</td> <td>Marshmallows</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Salad dressing (for example Caesar dressing)</td> <td>Soups and sauces</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Spring rolls</td> <td>Sushi</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Worcestershire sauce​ </td> <td> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table><h2>What do I do if my child has a fish allergy?</h2><p>Your child should see an allergist (a doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating allergies) who can discuss the fish allergy with you in more detail. Children who have a fish allergy may need to avoid all products that may contain fish.</p><p>Your child’s doctor will also prescribe a medication called an epinephrine auto-injector, which can be used to treat allergic reactions, in case your child accidentally eats a food containing fish.</p><h2>If my child has an allergy to fish, must they avoid all seafood?</h2><p>Some people may be allergic to one group of seafood, such as fish, but may be able to eat other groups of seafood, such as molluscs or crustaceans, as long as one group has not come in contact with the other in any way.</p><p>In addition, allergic reactions do not always occur within complete families of seafood. For example, a person can be allergic to salmon but not to other types of fish.</p><p>If your child has an allergy to a specific fish, speak to an allergist before letting them try other types of fish or seafood. Your child may need to avoid all seafood due to the high chance of cross-contamination (see below), as fish products are often processed in the same facility as other seafood products.</p><h2>Reducing the risk of cross-contamination</h2><p>Cross-contamination occurs when one substance unintentionally comes in contact with another substance, for example a potential allergen. If the substances mix together, the one substance taints the other substance, making it unsafe to eat.</p><p>Food allergens can contaminate other foods when, for example, the same food containers, utensils or frying pans hold a range of foods.</p><p>Avoid using utensils or containers that may have come in contact with allergy-causing foods and ask about possible cross-contamination when eating out.</p><h2>How can my child get the right mix of nutrients if they must avoid fish?</h2><p>The main nutrients in fish include <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1444&language=English">protein</a>, omega-3 fats, vitamin A, <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=1446&language=English">vitamin B12</a>, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1447&language=English">vitamin D</a>, vitamin E, <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=1448&language=English">calcium</a>, <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=1450&language=English">iron</a> and <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=1452&language=English">zinc</a>. Your child can still get these nutrients even if they must avoid fish and products that contain them.</p><h3>Nutrients in fish that are found in other foods</h3><table class="akh-table"><thead><tr><th>Nutrie​nt​</th><th>Where to find it​</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>Protein</td><td>Milk, chicken, egg, beans, soy</td></tr><tr><td>​Omega-3 fats</td><td>Flaxseed oil, edamame (soybeans), radish seeds, omega-3 eggs fortified with DHA</td></tr><tr><td>​Vitamin A​</td><td>Sweet potato, pumpkin, liver, goat cheese, carrots, squash, spinach</td></tr><tr><td>​Vitamin B12</td><td>Milk, cheese, liver, beef</td></tr><tr><td>Vitamin D</td><td>Milk or soy beverage fortified with vitamin D</td></tr><tr><td>​Vitamin E</td><td>Spinach, red pepper, Swiss chard, wheat germ cereal, egg, almonds, sunflower seeds</td></tr><tr><td>​Calcium</td><td>Milk, buttermilk, cheese, yogurt, spinach, collards, beans, soy beverage fortified with calcium</td></tr><tr><td>Iron​</td><td>Spinach, tomato puree, edamame, lima beans, snow peas, instant oatmeal, cereal</td></tr><tr><td>​Zinc</td><td>Bran cereal, wheat germ, cheese, milk, beef, pumpkin seeds, baked beans</td></tr></tbody></table><h2>When to go the emergency room</h2><p>If your child is having a severe allergic reaction to fish, call 911 or go to your nearest emergency department immediately. If your child’s doctor prescribed them an epinephrine auto-injector, administer this medication to your child right away. See <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=781&language=English">Anaphylaxis: How to recognize and respond to a severe allergic reaction</a> for more information.</p><h2>​Further information</h2> <p>Health Canada. <a href="http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/alt_formats/pdf/pubs/securit/fish-poisson-eng.pdf" target="_blank">Seafood (fish, crustaceans and shellfish) - One of the ten priority food allergens​</a></p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/fish_allergy.jpg
Flexor tendon repair and rehabilitationFFlexor tendon repair and rehabilitationFlexor tendon repair and rehabilitationEnglishPlasticsChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Hand;Fingers;Thumb;Lower armMuscular systemNon-drug treatmentAdult (19+) CaregiversNA2020-11-11T05:00:00Z8.7000000000000063.90000000000001501.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>If your child is unable to bend one of their fingers or their thumb in a way that is normally expected, then they may have a flexor tendon injury. Your child will have surgery to repair the tendon followed by therapy to make sure they have the best possible result. </p><h2>What is a flexor tendon?</h2> <p>Your child has injured one of the tendons in their hand called a flexor tendon. A flexor tendon is responsible for bending one or more of the small joints in the fingers or thumb. The flexor tendon is also attached to a muscle in the forearm. When the two act together, they work as a pulley to allow our hand to grip and to hold.</p><p>With a flexor tendon injury, the tendon has become unattached from its muscle in the forearm in one or more places. This means that the muscle in the forearm is not able to move the affected finger or thumb in the way that is normally expected.</p><p>The finger(s) and the tendon(s) that have been involved are: ___________________________________</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Hand tendons</span> <img alt="The hand and forearm showing tendons that can be injured if you have a flexor tendon injury" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Hand_tendons.jpg" /> </figure> <h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A flexor tendon injury occurs when the muscle in your forearm is not able to move the finger or thumb in the way that is normally expected.</li><li>After the surgery to repair the tendon, your child will be need to wear a splint and do exercises to get the best possible result.</li><li>During recovery there is a balance needed between allowing the finger to heal and moving the finger after surgery.</li><li>The specific timeline for recovery will be guided by your child’s health care team to make sure your child gets the best possible result of the surgical repair.</li></ul> <p>Please contact your health-care provider:</p><ul><li>If your child has had a fall or injury that may have caused damage to the repaired tendon.</li><li>If your child is showing signs of infection or excessive bleeding at the incision site.</li></ul> <h2>Why is the rehabilitation after the tendon repair important?</h2><p>After a flexor tendon repair, there needs to be a balance between time needed to heal and movement to have the best result. If your child moves their hand too much too soon, there is a risk the surgical repair will come undone. If your child moves their hand too little, there is a risk there will be too much scarring in the surrounding tissues that will prevent your child’s hand from moving in the expected way.</p><p>Your hand is made up of a lot of small parts, including 27 bones, that exist together in a small space. You need all these different parts to move your hand in the way that you do. Because of this, there needs to be a balance between allowing the tendon to heal and preventing scar tissue from acting like glue between all the small parts. Your health-care team, which includes you, will help guide this balance.</p><p>Once the tendon is repaired by your surgeon, your child’s hand and arm will be in a post-operative splint for up to several weeks. This helps your child’s body to heal the tendon. The time that your child’s finger will remain completely immobilized in the post-operative splint will be dependent on several factors including, their age, the structures involved in the injury and the type of repair that was possible at the time of the surgery.</p><p>Once it is safe for your child to move their hand, there will still be a balance needed between allowing the tendon to heal into a solid structure and preventing the tendon from being stuck to all the surrounding parts such as other tendons and bones. The occupational therapist and physiotherapist will guide your child’s exercises to make sure they are not doing too much or too little.</p> <h2>How long will my child have to wear a splint for?</h2><p>Your child will likely have to wear a splint after the post-operative splint is removed to protect the tendon repair. Your child will likely be required to wear the splint both during the day and while they are sleeping. Your child will continue to wear the splint for all or part of the day as the weeks progress. The wear schedule of your child’s splint will be determined by your child’s health-care team. Your child will likely not be wearing any splint by eight weeks after the repair.</p><h2>Who will I meet?</h2><p>Your child’s recovery will be managed by a team of health-care professionals that include a plastic surgeon, a physiotherapist and an occupational therapist.</p><p>Your plastic surgeon will discuss with you the course of your child’s surgical treatment during your clinic visit. The surgeon will review with you the associated risks and the benefits of the surgery.</p><p>Your physiotherapist will help your child with the exercises that are needed throughout their recovery to ensure the best possible outcome from the surgery. They will teach you and your child what to do at home, so you feel comfortable doing all the exercises together. The physiotherapist may see your child prior to surgery and then when it is safe for your child to move their finger after the surgery.</p><p>Your occupational therapist will make sure your child is fitted with a thermoplastic splint to help position their hand for the best possible recovery. They will teach you about when to take the splint off and how often to wear the splint. The occupational therapist may see your child prior to the surgery and they will see your child after it is safe for the post-operative splint to be taken off. </p> https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Hand_tendons.jpg
Flow rate testFFlow rate testFlow rate testEnglishUrologyPreschooler (2-4 years);School age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BladderBladderTestsCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2010-12-17T05:00:00Z6.7000000000000072.8000000000000685.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>A flow rate test helps to assess how well your child can empty their bladder by measuring the rate at which urine flows out of it. Learn more about the procedure and preparing your child. </p><h2>What is a flow rate test?</h2> <p>A flow rate test assesses how your child urinates (pees or voids). It is not invasive and does not hurt.</p> <p>Your child will be asked to urinate into a flow rate toilet. This is a special toilet that measures the volume (amount) and rate (speed) of urine flow. The nurse will explain this test to you and your child as it is being performed. </p> <p>Before and after the test, a bladder scan is done to show how much urine is left in your child's bladder (residual urine).</p> <h3>What is a flow rate test with EMG?</h3> <p>A flow rate test with EMG is similar to a regular flow rate test. <a href="/Article?contentid=1278&language=English">EMG</a> is a test that looks at how muscles and nerves work together. Your child will have electrodes, which are like stickers, gently placed on the buttocks and hip. These electrodes allow us to assess your child's pelvic floor muscles while your child pees. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>A flow rate test assesses how your child urinates (pees). Your child will need to urinate into a special toilet.</li> <li>Your child will need a full bladder for the test.</li> <li>Your child will have a bladder scan before and after urinating.</li> </ul><h2>Purpose of the flow rate test</h2> <p>Your child may be sent for this test for any of the following reasons:</p> <ul> <li>to see if your child has urination problems</li> <li>to assess the effects of certain medicines</li> <li>to evaluate how your child urinates before and after an operation</li> <li>to assess the results of a procedure</li> </ul><h2>Taking the test</h2> <p>Every child has a different bladder capacity. We want to do this test when your child feels a strong urge to urinate. A strong urge to urinate shows that your child's bladder is full.</p> <p>If your child is not ready for the test when you arrive at the clinic, encourage your child to drink water. When your child feels a strong urge to urinate, please tell the clerical staff at the front desk. </p> <p>Once your child's bladder is full, the test will take about five minutes. Your child will have a bladder scan and will be asked to urinate into the flow rate toilet. Then your child will have a second bladder scan to see if any urine is left in the bladder.</p><h2>Getting ready for the test</h2> <p>Your child will need a full bladder for this test.</p> <p>Remember that it takes 20 to 30 minutes for liquid to get down to the bladder. If your child does not normally drink a lot of water, or if your child has been ill, your child may be slightly dehydrated. If your child is dehydrated, it will take more water to fill the bladder. </p> <p>Your child can eat and drink as usual before this test. You can bring their favourite drinks or formula from home or buy a drink from the hospital cafeteria.</p><h2>At SickKids</h2> <p>If this is your child's first visit to the hospital, you will need to register at Clinic Registration on the main floor, in the Atrium. Then go to the Urodynamics clinic on 5D (Atrium elevators), where the test is done.</p> <p>If your child has been to the hospital before, go directly to 5D.</p> <p>Check in with the clerical staff at the front desk of 5D. You can wait in the kitchen or playroom on 5D until your child is ready for the test.</p> <p>If you have any questions, speak with your urologist or nurse practitioner or call the urodynamics nurses at 416-813-6661.</p> <p>For any cancellations or changes in appointment dates, please call the Urology Clinic at 416-813-6661.</p>
FolateFFolateFolateEnglishNutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NADigestive systemHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+) Educators Hospital healthcare providers Community healthcare providers Remote populations First nationsNA2021-12-16T05:00:00Z8.7000000000000056.8000000000000459.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Discover the role of folate in the body and how to get enough in your diet.</p><h2>What is folate and what does it do?</h2><p>Folate is another name for vitamin B9. It is important for making blood cells, and it keeps the heart and blood vessels healthy. Folate is essential during early pregnancy to help reduce the risk of some birth defects, such as <a href="https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=848&language=English">spina bifida</a>. It is also important for children’s growth.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Folate is a B vitamin that is important for making healthy blood cells.</li><li>Folate is the form naturally found in food, while folic acid is the form found in enriched foods and vitamin supplements.</li><li>There are many food sources of folate to choose from.</li><li>Women of childbearing age and pregnant women need to take a vitamin supplement with folic acid in addition to the folate found in a healthy diet.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/INM_NRC_track1-8-4_illustration_food_folate.jpg
FolliculitisFFolliculitisFolliculitisEnglishDermatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)SkinSkinConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2016-06-24T04:00:00Z8.6000000000000054.3000000000000495.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Folliculitis occurs when the hair follicle becomes inflamed or infected. Learn about the causes and treatment for this skin condition.<br></p><figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_folliculitis_EN.jpg" alt="Skin affected by folliculitis" /> </figure> <h2>What is folliculitis?</h2><p>A follicle is a small pouch from which hair grows. Folliculitis occurs when the hair follicle becomes inflamed or infected.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Folliculitis is an inflammation or infection of the hair follicle. It results in small red bumps, which may be itchy or painful.</li> <li>The most common cause of folliculitis is a bacterial infection, but skin irritation is also a factor.</li> <li>Folliculitis usually goes away on its own but can be helped with warm wet compresses or antibacterial soaps.</li> <li>See your child’s doctor if the folliculitis does not improve, if there is redness, swelling or pain at the folliculitis or if your child develops a fever. Your child may need an antibiotic.</li> </ul><h2>How does folliculitis affect the body?</h2><p>If your child has folliculitis, they will develop many little red bumps where their body hair grows. Sometimes these bumps may feel itchy or slightly painful and even produce pus. Other times there are no symptoms.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/IMD_folliculitis_EN.png" alt="Cross section of skin with normal hair follicle and cross section of skin with infected hair follicle (folliculitis)" /> </figure> <p>When the folliculitis heals, the red bump is sometimes replaced by darker skin. This condition is called <a href="/Article?contentid=2299&language=English">post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation</a>.</p><h2>What causes folliculitis?</h2> <p>There are many causes for folliculitis, including:</p> <ul> <li>infections by <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> or other bacteria, for example from water in hot tubs or swimming pools</li> <li>irritation from shaving, plucking or waxing hair (especially common among those with very curly hair)</li> <li>irritation from sporting equipment or tight clothing rubbing against the skin</li> <li>blockage of hair follicles by creams, oils or ointments.<br></li> </ul><h2>How is folliculitis diagnosed?</h2> <p>Your child’s doctor can often diagnose folliculitis simply by looking at your child’s skin and asking about your child’s symptoms and recent activities.</p> <p>If your child’s skin seems to be very infected or there have been many episodes of folliculitis, your doctor may do a skin swab to see which bacteria are responsible.</p><h2>How is folliculitis treated?</h2> <p>Treatment depends on the extent of the folliculitis and where it is located on the body. In most cases, folliculitis goes away on its own, especially if it is mild and limited to a small area.</p><h2>When to see a doctor for folliculitis</h2><p>See your child’s doctor if the folliculitis does not go away on its own. The doctor may suggest one or more of the following treatments.</p><ul><li>Using a warm wet cloth compress over the affected area for 10 to 15 minutes three times a day</li><li>Using antibacterial soaps and washes (such as benzoyl peroxide or chlorhexidine) or bleach baths</li><li>Avoiding any triggers of folliculitis (such as tight clothing)</li><li>Avoiding any contaminated water (such as in a hot tub) until it is thoroughly cleaned</li></ul><p>Your child’s doctor may recommend a topical or oral antibiotic (an antibiotic for the skin or by mouth) if:</p><ul><li>your child’s folliculitis is spreading </li><li>your child's folliculitis does not improve on its own with time</li><li>your child’s skin is red, tender or painful around the folliculitis</li><li>your child develops a <a href="/article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a>.</li></ul><br>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PMD_folliculitis_EN.jpg
Follow-up care for newborn babiesFFollow-up care for newborn babiesFollow-up care for newborn babiesEnglishNeonatologyNewborn (0-28 days)NANANAAdult (19+)NA2009-10-18T04:00:00Z10.500000000000054.60000000000001418.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Important factors and detailed information to consider when choosing a health-care provider for your baby. </p><p>After your baby is born you will need to make decisions about their future health care. You can choose between a family physician or a paediatrician to care for your baby's health. You will also need to decide what type of health-care practice you want to go to. There are a few other factors you may need to consider, outlined below.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>A family physician cares for the entire family while a paediatrician specializes in child health-care.</li> <li>When choosing a health-care provider, consider their style and philosophy of medicine, as well as the logistics and atmosphere of the doctor's office.</li> <li>Newborns need to be seen by their health-care provider within the fourth and seventh day of life.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/follow_up_care_baby.jpg

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