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HIV and AIDSHHIV and AIDSHIV and AIDSEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2013-12-18T05:00:00ZDebra Louch, RN;Ari Bitnun, MD, MSc, FRCPC;Stanley Read, MD, PhD, FRCPC, FAAP;Georgina MacDougall, RN;Miriam Kaufman, BSN, MD, FRCPC8.3000000000000060.80000000000002328.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn more about HIV, AIDS and the test and treatment options that are available.</p><h2>What is HIV?</h2> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">HIV infects cell</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/HIV_cell_invasion_step1_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="HIV viruses around and attached to a CD4 cell" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">HIV attaches to the CD4 cell and then enters the cell.</figcaption> </figure> <p>HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. HIV is a virus that infects certain white blood cells of the <a href="/Article?contentid=926&language=English">immune system</a>. These cells have several names: CD4 cells, CD4+ cells, T cells, helper cells or CD4 lymphocytes. CD4 cells fight off infections. HIV infects and destroys CD4 cells and makes the immune system weaker over time. This puts a person at risk of other serious infections.</p><p>People who are infected with HIV are called HIV-positive. People who are not infected with HIV are called HIV-negative.</p><h3>HIV weakens the immune system and makes you sick</h3><div class="akh-series"><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/HIV_cell_invasion_step2_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="HIV viruses inside of and around a CD4 cell" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">HIV makes copies of itself inside CD4 cells. This destroys the CD4 cells.</figcaption> </figure> <p>When HIV enters the CD4 cell, it uses the cell machinery to make copies of itself. This is called viral replication. The process of viral replication destroys the cells.</p><p>Without medication, the amount of viruses in the blood rises. The amount of viruses in the blood is called viral load. The higher the viral load, the more viruses there are in the blood.</p></div></div><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/HIV_cell_invasion_step3_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Person with treatment holding one HIV and many CD4 cells, and person without treatment holding few CD4 and many HIV cells" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Without medication, the number of the CD4 cells becomes very low as the viral load goes up, and the immune system is weakened.</figcaption> </figure> <p>Without treatment, the number of CD4 cells decreases because they are destroyed by an increasing number of HIV. The number of CD4 cells in the blood is called CD4 cell count. When the CD4 cell count drops, it becomes harder for the immune system to fight off infections and the person becomes ill. These infections that are normally harmless for HIV-negative people are called opportunistic infections or opportunistic diseases.</p></div></div></div><h3>Difference between HIV and AIDS</h3><p>HIV infection means that the virus is in the person's body. Some people will remain healthy with their infection for some time, while others will get sick sooner. Once HIV is in your child's body, it never goes away.</p><p>AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. It is a late stage of HIV infection, which happens when the immune system is so damaged that opportunistic diseases have developed. This occurs when:</p><ul><li>the CD4 count is very low</li><li>certain types of serious infections or cancers develop</li></ul> <br><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>HIV is a virus that takes over and destroys certain types of white blood cells that fight infections.</li><li>If left untreated, HIV weakens the immune system.</li><li>Children can get HIV from their mothers during pregnancy, at birth or through breastfeeding, through blood or blood products that are infected with HIV, or through infected needles or surgical equipment.</li><li>Many problems can be prevented if the HIV infection is caught early on.</li><li>Children with HIV can live healthy, normal lives if they go to their clinic regularly for health care and take their medicines as prescribed.</li></ul><h2>How children get HIV</h2> <p>Children can get HIV in the following ways:</p> <ul> <li>A woman infected with HIV can unknowingly pass it onto her baby during pregnancy, at birth or after pregnancy through breastfeeding. Some women do not know they have HIV until they are pregnant and get tested. Most children are infected this way. If you are HIV-positive and having a baby, please visit our page on <a href="/Article?contentid=908&language=English">HIV and pregnancy</a>. It explains how to lower the risk that your baby will get HIV and how to find out if your baby is infected.</li> <li>Some children get HIV through blood or blood products that have HIV in them. This is very rare now as the blood supply in most countries is tested for HIV. Some children also get HIV through contaminated needles or surgical equipment. This usually happens in countries where the blood supply is not tested and surgical equipment and needles are not properly cleaned and sterilized.</li> <li>Teenagers who have unprotected sex or children who have been abused can become infected with HIV.</li> <li>Sharing needles that have been in contact with contaminated blood, such as in drug use, tattooing or body piercing.</li> </ul><h2>Tests for HIV</h2><p>The doctor cannot tell if your child has HIV just by looking at them. Most of the time, children with HIV look the same as HIV-negative children. If a child becomes sick with other infections, this could be related to HIV. It could also be an infection that the child would have had anyway.</p><h3>Tests for HIV in babies</h3><p>Your child's doctor needs to test your baby's blood soon after birth and two more times, usually when your baby is one month old and two months old. The test looks for HIV in your baby's blood. It takes about a month to get the test results back. If the tests do not find any virus, it means your baby is not infected with HIV.</p><h3>Tests for HIV in children</h3><p>For older children and adults, the regular HIV test is an antibody test. <a href="/Article?contentid=926&language=English">Antibodies</a> are what the immune system makes to help fight off infections. When someone has an infection or receives a vaccine, their body makes antibodies against the bug that made them sick or was used in the vaccine.</p><p>If someone has HIV antibodies in their blood, it usually means they have HIV. Unfortunately, HIV antibodies do not protect against HIV.</p><p>The antibody test does not work for babies because when a woman is pregnant, she passes some of her own antibodies to her baby. This means that if a woman has HIV, the antibody test will always find HIV antibodies in her baby's blood, even if the baby does not have HIV infection.</p> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">HIV antibodies cross the placenta</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/HIV_crossing_placenta_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="HIV viruses in placenta and antibodies in placenta, umbilical cord and baby" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">The mother's antibodies against HIV can be passed to the baby during pregnancy. Therefore, antibody testing for newborn babies cannot accurately check for the presence of HIV.</figcaption> </figure> <h3>Tests to monitor HIV infection</h3><p>Every three to four months, blood work will be done to assess how your child is doing with the HIV infection. Two tests will be done:</p><ul><li>The viral load will be checked to measure the amount of HIV in the blood. Viral load is measured in copies of virus per millilitre of blood (cpm).</li><li>The CD4 cell count will be checked to measure the number of CD4 cells present in the blood. This test tells the health-care team how well the immune system is doing. The normal number of CD4 cells for a child depends on the age of the child.</li></ul><h2>Treatments for HIV</h2> <p>Two main types of treatment are given to children and teenagers with HIV:</p> <ul> <li>medicines to treat the HIV</li> <li>medicines to prevent other infections</li> </ul> <h3>Medicines to treat the HIV</h3> <p>Medicines that treat HIV prevent the virus from making more copies of itself or entering CD4 cells. These medicines are called anti-retrovirals (ARVs).</p> <p>Most of the time HIV treatment consists of taking three or more types of medication. When given in combination, the treatment is often referred to as combination antiretroviral therapy or highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Using HAART decreases the chance that resistance will develop to any one medication, making the treatment more effective in the long-term. The combination products lower the number of pills needed each day.</p> <p>To work properly, these medicines must be taken as prescribed, without any missed doses. If your child follows their treatment properly, they can live a healthy, normal life.</p> <p>For more information on specific medications, visit SickKids <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/Go-Positive/Medications/index.html">Positively Good 2 Go</a> website.</p> <h3>Medicines to prevent other infections</h3> <p>Other medicines are given to prevent other infections. These include medications such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Septra), which is given to prevent a certain type of bad pneumonia. Not all children need these preventive medicines. They are given only when the child's immune system is too weak to prevent these kinds of infections.</p> <p>Managing HIV medication</p> <p>Your child (or teenager) may need to take anti-HIV medicine. Some of the things that your health-care team will consider when deciding to start a treatment include:</p> <ul> <li>your child's medical history (time since diagnosis, symptoms, other infections)</li> <li>your child's CD4 count</li> <li>your child's viral load</li> </ul> <p>The health-care team will discuss your child's treatment options with you. There are many possible medicine combinations. You and your health-care team need to decide on a combination that will work for your child.</p> <p>As you learn to manage your child's HIV medications, you will learn about:</p> <ul> <li>Efficacy: How well they work to lower your child's viral load and increase their CD4 count.</li> <li>Durability: How long they remain effective.</li> <li>Tolerability: How easy it is for your child to take the medications, what side effects may occur and how serious they are.</li> </ul> <h3>How to take HIV medication</h3> <p>Each medication has different dosing and frequency. Your health-care team will tell you how and when your child should take the medication.</p> <p>The medications will only work if your child takes them at the right time every day. Sticking to the schedule (adherence) can be difficult but is important for your child's long-term health.</p> <h3>The importance of not forgetting your child's medicines</h3> <p>Missing doses of medicines can allow the virus to replicate more easily. This will lead to an increase in the amount of HIV in your child's blood (increased viral load). When this happens, the virus can become resistant to the medication your child is taking. This also risks your child's immune system being further damaged. A few missed doses can be enough for this to happen. If the virus becomes resistant to the medications your child is taking, other antiretroviral medications that work in a similar way may also become ineffective.</p> <p>Do NOT stop your child's medication without speaking to your doctor first.</p> <h2>Side effects of anti-HIV medication</h2> <p>Most people do not have side effects from the anti-HIV medication. When side effects happen, they can range from very mild to very severe. Every medication has its own unique side effects but there are some common ones listed below. They are examples listed from the most common to the most uncommon.</p> <h3>Digestive problem</h3> <p>Stomach or bowel problems are the most commonly noticed side effects by people taking anti-HIV medicines. They include nausea, <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a>, loss of appetite, <a href="/Article?contentid=7&language=English">diarrhea</a> and excess gas. The health-care team may call these gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms.</p> <p>HIV disease can also cause digestive problems.</p> <p>Here are some tips to help you with GI symptoms:</p> <ul> <li>Eat small but frequent meals.</li> <li>Eat salty snacks before taking medications.</li> <li>Eat cool, bland and odourless foods.</li> </ul> <h3>Rash</h3> <p>Skin rash is another relatively common side effect of antiretroviral medications. In many cases the rash is mild and resolves over time without stopping the medication. In some cases, rash can be a serious side effect. You should let your doctor know about a new rash, especially if it appears within one or two months of starting a new medicine.</p> <h3>Allergic reactions</h3> <p>Before starting any anti-HIV medication, tell your doctor about any allergic reactions to other medications your child has had.</p> <p>A rash caused by anti-HIV medications is usually mild or moderate and not dangerous. However, in rare cases, the reaction may become more severe and have more serious consequences. A more severe allergic reaction could be a rash that is accompanied by fever, nausea or vomiting, blisters, or muscle or joint pain. For this reason, it is best that you bring your child to see a doctor if a rash appears.</p> <h3>Lipodystrophy Syndrome</h3> <p>Lipodystrophy syndrome can happen when taking certain kinds of anti-HIV medication. The body fat is relocated in other places. For example, fat may decrease on the face and increase on the belly. Lipodystrophy syndrome may also increase sugar, insulin or fat levels in the blood which may have long-term effects on your health.</p> <h3>Liver toxicity</h3> <p>Very rarely, anti-HIV medications may cause damage to the liver. Symptoms may include:</p> <ul> <li>nausea and vomiting</li> <li>abdominal pain (belly ache)</li> <li>dark coloured urine</li> <li>yellowing of the eyes or skin</li> </ul> <p>The damage can be reversed if the medication is stopped early enough. Your child will have regular blood tests to monitor the effect of the medications on their liver.</p> <h3>Managing side effects</h3> <p>Always talk with your health-care team as soon as possible about any symptoms your child has. It may be a side effect of a medication. If the side effect is not too serious, waiting it out may be an option. Sometime side effects improve or go away on their own.</p> <p>If the side effect is severe, or bothers your child too much, the medicine may need to be stopped.</p> <p>Make sure your health-care team knows all the medications and supplements (such as vitamins and herbal medicine) your child is taking because sometimes side effects can be due to interactions between medications.</p> <p>You should speak to your health-care team about possible side effects before your child starts any new treatments (including natural and herbal).</p> <h3>Medication interactions</h3> <p>Antiretroviral medications may interact with other medications. Other medications may lower or increase the effect of antiviral medications, or in some cases, the antiviral medication may lower or increase the effect of other medications.</p> <p>Keep a list of all medications your child is taking, including other prescription medications, medications that you can buy in the pharmacy without a prescription, and vitamins or herbal supplements.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/HIV_cell_invasion_step1_MED_ILL_EN.jpg
HIV and pregnancyHHIV and pregnancyHIV and pregnancyEnglishInfectious DiseasesPrenatalBodyImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2013-12-18T05:00:00ZDebra Louch, RN;Ari Bitnun, MD, MSc, FRCPC;Stanley Read, MD, PhD, FRCPC, FAAP;Georgina MacDougall, RN7.6000000000000066.1000000000000986.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>If you are infected with HIV and pregnant, learn how certain medicines can lower the risk of passing HIV on to your baby.</p><h2>What is HIV?</h2> <p>HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. <a href="/Article?contentid=910&language=English">HIV</a> is a virus that infects certain cells of the immune system. It makes the immune system weaker over time. This puts a person at risk for other serious infections.</p> <p>A woman who is infected with HIV (HIV-positive) can unknowingly pass the infection onto her baby during pregnancy, at birth or through breastfeeding. Some women do not know they have HIV until they are pregnant and get tested.</p> <h2>Healthy pregnancy and HIV</h2> <p>All pregnant women or women who are considering pregnancy should have a test for HIV. If you are HIV-positive, you should be seeing an HIV specialist. There is no cure for HIV, but there are many medicines that can help keep you healthy. Some medicines are not safe during pregnancy. Your HIV specialist will recommend the safest and best combination of medications for you during your pregnancy.</p> <p>Your HIV specialist will monitor the amount of HIV in your blood (viral load) to make sure the medicines are working. Keeping your viral load under control will help protect your baby from getting infected with HIV.</p> <p>You should also see an obstetrician during your pregnancy. An obstetrician is a doctor who has received special training in the care of women during pregnancy, labour and delivery, and the first few weeks after childbirth.</p> <p>Your family doctor or the clinic where you were diagnosed can refer you to an HIV specialist and an obstetrician.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>All pregnant women should be tested for HIV during pregnancy.</li> <li>Pregnant women who are infected with HIV should take medicines to lower the risk of passing HIV to their baby.</li> <li>If you take medicines and your viral load is low by the time of delivery, the risk of passing HIV to your baby becomes very low.</li> <li>If your viral load is greater than 1000 copies/mL at the time of delivery, having a C-section reduces the risk of passing HIV to your baby.</li> <li>If your viral load is less than 1000 copies/mL, then having a C-section does not give any extra benefit to your baby. You should be able to have a normal (vaginal) delivery.</li> </ul><h2>Taking HIV medicine during pregnancy lowers the risk of passing the virus to your baby</h2><p>If a pregnant woman has HIV and does not receive medicine during pregnancy or delivery, the risk of infection for the baby is around 25%. This means one in four babies will be infected.</p><p>The risk that your baby will be infected with HIV is much lower if:</p><ul><li>You take HIV medicines regularly as prescribed.</li><li>Your health-care team knows about your condition so they can deliver proper care during childbirth.</li><li>After being born, your baby takes medicines for six weeks.</li><li>You give formula to your baby and do not breast feed.<br></li></ul><p>In this case, the risk of infection to your baby is less than 1%. This means that fewer than one in 100 babies will be infected.</p> <figure class="asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">HIV: Medication and viral load</span> <img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/HIV_Viral_load_MED_ILL_EN.png" alt="Several HIV cells in blood without medication and only one HIV cell in blood with medication" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Taking HIV medication helps reduce the number of HIV in the blood (viral load). When viral load is low, the risk of passing HIV to your baby is reduced.</figcaption> </figure> <h3>When and how long you take HIV medicine depends on your situation</h3><p>Your HIV specialist will discuss the timing of your HIV medicine with you.</p><ul><li>If you need to take medicine for your own health, you will keep taking medicine after your baby is born.</li><li>If you do not need HIV medicine for your own health, you still need to take medication during your pregnancy. When your baby is born, talk to your HIV specialist about your medicine to see if you should continue taking them or not.</li></ul><h2>Normal delivery vs. C-section (caesarean section)</h2><p>If your viral load is greater than 1000 copies/mL near the time of delivery, having a C-section will reduce the risk of passing HIV to your baby. A high viral load can happen for any of these reasons:</p><ul><li>if the medicines are not working, that is if the virus is resistant to the combination of medicines you are taking</li><li>if you started taking medicine late in the pregnancy</li><li>if you are not taking the medicine regularly</li></ul><p>If your viral load is less than 1000 copies/mL, your obstetrician will not likely recommend you have a C-section. It's easier for you to recover for a vaginal delivery. Also, a C-section will not be safer for your baby.</p><p>Talk to your HIV specialist and your obstetrician about what kind of delivery is best for you.</p><h2>What to do when you go into labour</h2><p>Keep taking your medicines, even when you start to go into labour. Go to the hospital soon after you suspect you are in labour. You should be given an additional medicine called zidovudine (AZT) intravenously. It is best to receive it at least two to four hours before the baby is born.</p><h2>For more information</h2> <p>If you are planning on getting pregnant, talk to your health-care provider. They can help you make the safest choices. For more information, please visit <a href="http://www.thebody.com/content/art16969.html">http://www.thebody.com/content/art16969.html</a></p> <p>If you have any questions or concerns, contact your doctor or the HIV clinic. For more information, please see the following:</p> <ul> <li>Motherisk <a target="_blank" href="http://www.motherisk.org/">www.motherisk.org</a></li> <li>CATIE: Community AIDS Treatment Information Exchange <a target="_blank" href="http://www.catie.ca/">www.catie.ca</a></li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/HIV_pregnancy.jpg
HIV and teensHHIV and teensHIV and teensEnglishInfectious DiseasesTeen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2013-12-18T05:00:00ZDebra Louch, RN;Ari Bitnun, MD, MSc, FRCPC;Stanley Read, MD, PhD, FRCPC, FAAP;Georgina MacDougall, RN;Miriam Kaufman, BSN, MD, FRCPC8.2000000000000062.50000000000003097.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Information on HIV for teens including how people get HIV, managing HIV, disclosure and transitioning to adult health care.<br></p><h2>What is HIV?</h2><p>HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. <a href="/Article?contentid=910&language=English">HIV</a> is a virus that infects certain white blood cells of the <a href="/Article?contentid=926&language=English">immune system</a>. These white blood cells fight off infections. These cells have got several names: CD4 cells, CD4+ cells, T cells, helper cells or CD4 lymphocytes. HIV destroys CD4 cells and makes the immune system weaker over time. This puts a person at risk of other serious infections.</p><p>People who are infected with HIV are called HIV-positive. People who are not infected with HIV are called HIV-negative.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>HIV is a virus that destroys special white blood cells of the immune system.</li><li>HIV can be transmitted through contaminated body fluids (blood, saliva, semen and vaginal secretions), during sexual intercourse and during pregnancy and breastfeeding.</li><li>When you are ready to have sex, use condoms AND lubrication AND contraception. This will protect you and your partner from HIV transmission, protect you both from STIs and from unwanted pregnancy.</li><li>Slowly taking charge of your health, medications and becoming independent will help you transition into adult care when you turn 18.</li></ul><h2>How people get HIV</h2> <h3>Children can get HIV in the following ways:</h3> <ul> <li>A woman infected with HIV can unknowingly pass it onto her baby during pregnancy, at birth or after pregnancy through breastfeeding. Some women do not know they have HIV until they are pregnant and get tested. If you are HIV-positive and having a baby, please visit our page that explains how to <a href="/Article?contentid=908&language=English">lower the risk that your baby will get HIV</a> and how to find out if your baby is infected.</li> <li>Some children get HIV through blood or blood products that have HIV in them. This usually happens in countries where the blood supply is not tested. Some children also get HIV through contaminated needles or surgical equipment, if the surgical equipment and needles are not properly cleaned and sterilized.</li> <li>Children who have been abused can become infected with HIV.</li> </ul> <h3>Teenagers and adults can get HIV in the following ways:</h3> <ul> <li>Unprotected anal, vaginal or oral sex with an infected partner can lead to HIV infection.</li> <li>Sharing needles that have been in contact with contaminated blood, such as in drug use, tattooing or body piercing.</li> <li>Some people can get HIV through contaminated blood or blood products, or through needles or surgical equipment that were not properly cleaned and sterilized.</li> </ul><h2>Medication</h2> <h3>When is the right time to start a treatment?</h3> <p>There are many factors that must be considered when you and your health-care team start thinking about treatment. Some of the main factors that need to be considered when deciding to start treatment include:</p> <ul> <li>your history (time since diagnosis, symptoms, other infections)</li> <li>your CD4 count (the number of CD4 cells in your blood)</li> <li>your viral load (the amount of viruses in your blood)</li> </ul> <p>Starting treatment is not just about medical reasons. You have to commit to taking the medications all the time for them to work effectively. Talking with your health-care team, your support network and some of your peers living with HIV might help you decide whether to start a treatment.</p> <p>If your health-care team thinks you should start treatment and you feel ready to do so, the next step is to choose the right treatment. There is no single best treatment combination. You and your health-care team need to decide on a combination that will work for you.</p> <p>Three important words for you to remember as you learn to manage your HIV medications are:</p> <ul> <li>Efficacy: How well they work to lower your viral load and increase your CD4 count.</li> <li>Durability: How long they remain effective.</li> <li>Tolerability: How easy it is for you to take the medications, what side effects may occur and how serious they are.</li> </ul> <p>For more information on specific medications, visit SickKids <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/Go-Positive/Medications/index.html">Positively Good 2 Go</a> website. </p> <h3>How to take your medications</h3> <p>Each medication has different dosing and frequency. Your health-care team will tell you how and when to take the medication. The most important thing is to remember to take your medications and create a routine with reminders that will help you. Your medications will only work if you take them at the right time every day.</p> <p>Sticking to the schedule (adherence) can be difficult but is important for your long-term health. Becoming more independent in managing your medications will help you prepare for adult health care. Here are tips to help you remember your medications:</p> <ul> <li>Write a list with the medications, time and date and tape the list to the mirror in your bathroom. You can also print this on a grid and check off each medication after you take it.</li> <li>Put the pill bottles where you will remember them at the time of day they are scheduled. For example, put your morning dose beside your alarm clock.</li> <li>Use a pill box (dosette) to help you organize and remember to take your medications.</li> <li>If you use a computer, download 'sticky notes' to have a reminder on your desk top.</li> <li>Set alarm times on your cell phone or mobile device to go off when medications are scheduled.</li> </ul> <h3>The importance of not forgetting to take your medications</h3> <p>Missing doses of medicines can allow the virus to replicate more easily. This will lead to an increase in the amount of HIV in your blood (increased viral load). When this happens, the virus can become resistant to the medication you are taking. This also risks your immune system being further damaged. A few missed doses can be enough for this to happen. If the virus becomes resistant to the medications you are taking, other antiretroviral medications that work in a similar way may also become ineffective.</p> <p>Do NOT stop medications without speaking to your doctor first.</p> <h2>Side effects of HIV medication</h2> <p>Most people do not have side effects from the anti-HIV medication. When side effects do happen, they can range from very mild to very severe. Every medication has its own unique side effects but there are some common ones. For unique side effects, refer to the information sheets for each medication.</p> <p>The most common side effects are:</p> <ul> <li>digestive problem (such as nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, diarrhea and excess gas)</li> <li>rash</li> </ul> <p>Some more serious side effects may happen, but are rarer. They include:</p> <ul> <li>allergic reaction</li> <li>lipodystrophy syndrome (a rare syndrome affecting the location of the body fat)</li> <li>liver toxicity (damage to your liver)</li> </ul> <p>For more information on side effects, visit <a href="/Article?contentid=910&language=English">HIV and AIDS</a> and <a href="http://www.sickkids.ca/Go-Positive/index.html">Positively Good 2 Go</a>.</p> <h3>Managing side effects</h3> <p>Always talk with your health-care team as soon as possible about any symptom you have. It may be a side effect of a medication. If the side effect is not too serious, waiting it out may be an option. Sometime side effects improve or go away on their own.</p> <p>If the side effect is severe, or bothers you too much, the medicine may need to be stopped. Discuss your options with your health-care team before stopping any medications.</p> <p>Make sure your health-care team knows all the medications and supplements (such as vitamins and herbal medicine) you are taking because sometimes side effects can be due to interactions between medications.</p> <p>You should speak to your health-care team about possible side effects before starting any new treatments (including natural and herbal).</p> <h3>Medication interactions</h3> <p>Antiretroviral medications may have interactions with other medications. Other medications may lower or increase the effect of antiviral medications, or in some cases, the antiviral medication may lower or increase the effect of other medications.</p> <p>Keep a list of all medications you are taking, including other prescription medications, medications that you can buy in the pharmacy without a prescription, and vitamins or herbal supplements.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/HIV_and_teens.jpg
HIV and your babyHHIV and your babyHIV and your babyEnglishInfectious DiseasesNewborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)BodyImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2013-12-18T05:00:00ZDebra Louch, RN;Ari Bitnun, MD, MSc, FRCPC;Stanley Read, MD, PhD, FRCPC, FAAP;Georgina MacDougall, RN7.9000000000000063.90000000000001000.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to lower the risk of passing HIV to your baby and how the doctor can tell if your baby has HIV once they are born.</p><h2>What is HIV?</h2> <p>HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. <a href="/Article?contentid=910&language=English">HIV</a> is a virus that infects certain white blood cells of the immune system. It makes the immune system weaker over time. This puts a person at risk of other serious infections.</p> <p>A woman who is infected with HIV (HIV-positive) can unknowingly pass the infection onto her baby during pregnancy, at birth or through breastfeeding. Some women do not know they have HIV until they are pregnant and get tested.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>One in four babies of HIV-positive mothers will be infected with HIV if the mother does not receive proper care and medication during pregnancy and delivery.</li> <li>The risk of passing HIV onto the baby can be lowered if the mother's viral load is undetectable throughout the pregnancy, if mother and baby take their medicines and if the baby is formula fed and not breastfed.</li> <li>Your baby will be tested several times, several months apart to make sure they do not have HIV infection.</li> <li>Your baby will need follow-up care to see if the medicines cause any side effects.</li> </ul><h2>Taking HIV medicine during pregnancy lowers the risk of passing the virus to your baby</h2> <p>If a pregnant woman has HIV and does not receive medicine during pregnancy or delivery, the risk of infection for the baby is around 25%. This means one in four babies will be infected.</p> <p>The risk that your baby will be infected with HIV is much lower if:</p> <ul> <li>You take HIV medicines regularly as prescribed.</li> <li>Your health care team knows about your condition so they can deliver proper care during childbirth.</li> <li>After being born, your baby takes medicines for six weeks.</li> <li>You formula feed your baby and do not breastfeed.</li> </ul> <p>In this case, the risk of infection to your baby is less than 1%. This means that fewer than one in 100 babies will be infected.</p> <p>For more information, please read <a href="/Article?contentid=908&language=English">HIV and Pregnancy</a>.</p><h2>Your baby will be tested for HIV</h2> <p>The doctor cannot tell if your baby has HIV just by looking at them. Most of the time, babies with HIV look the same as babies who do not have HIV. If a baby becomes sick with other infections, this could be related to HIV. It could also be an infection that the baby would have had anyway.</p> <h3>Tests for HIV</h3> <p>Your baby's doctor needs to test your baby's blood soon after birth and two more times, usually when your baby is one month old and two months old. The test looks for HIV in your baby's blood. It takes about one month to get the test results back. If the tests do not find any virus, it means your baby is not infected with HIV.</p> <p>For more information, please read our page <a href="/Article?contentid=910&language=English">HIV and AIDS</a>.</p><h2>Formula feed your baby instead of breastfeeding</h2><p>In Canada and other developed countries, formula is the safest form of nutrition for your baby if you have HIV. HIV can be passed onto your baby, through breastfeeding, even if your viral load is undetectable. Discuss with your health-care team your feelings about breastfeeding and any concerns you have about not breastfeeding.</p><p>In Ontario, the Teresa Group provides free formula for the first year of life to babies born to HIV-positive mothers. Find out more by calling the Teresa Group (416-596-7703) or visiting their website <a target="_blank" href="http://www.teresagroup.ca/">www.teresagroup.ca</a>.</p><p>If you live outside Ontario, ask your health-care provider about programs that provide free formula.</p><h2>Your baby will need to take AZT</h2><p>Your baby will be given a medicine called zidovudine (AZT) within the first 24 hours after birth. You will need to give your baby this medicine twice a day for the first six weeks of life. This will lower the risk that your baby will be infected with HIV. A nurse or another health-care professional will show you how to give the medicine. In Canada, it is provided free by the Ministry of Health.</p><p>A nurse or another health care professional will show you how to give the medicine.</p> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">Giving oral medication</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/oral_medication_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Baby receiving medication by mouth through a syringe" /> </figure> <h3>Your baby may have side effects from the medicines</h3><p>Even if the HIV test is negative, the doctor will follow your baby to see if the medications cause any short-term or long-term problems. The medicines given to pregnant mothers are very safe. A few short-term side effects can sometimes happen.</p><ul><li>The AZT may cause anemia in your baby after birth. <a href="/Article?contentid=841&language=English">Anemia</a> means your baby does not have enough red blood cells, the cells that carry oxygen to the rest of the body.</li><li>AZT may also damage mitochondria and cause the baby to have problems with the blood or liver. Mitochondria are found in all the cells in your body. They help make energy in the cell.</li></ul><p>Any anemia or mitochondrial damage usually goes away once you are finished giving AZT to your baby.</p><p>So far, there have been no reported problems with taking these medicines. They do not lead to any major long-term effects. Children exposed to these medications are normal.</p><p>Your health-care team will assess your child's development on a regular basis. If there are any concerns, they will make suggestions or will refer your child to other programs.</p> <figure><span class="asset-image-title"></span><span class="asset-image-title"></span><span class="asset-image-title">Mitochondria</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Mitochondrion_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Mitochondria inside of cells" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Cells</figcaption><figcaption class="asset-image-caption"></figcaption><figcaption class="asset-image-caption"> have smaller subunits called organelles which have special functions. Mitochondria are organelles which act as energy factories.</figcaption> </figure> <h2>If your baby's HIV test is positive</h2><p>In Canada, children with HIV can live healthy, normal lives if they go to clinic regularly for health care and take medicines as prescribed. If your baby is diagnosed early, the doctor can start medicines right away, if needed, to keep your baby healthy.</p><p>For more information, please read <a href="/Article?contentid=900&language=English">HIV and Your Child</a>.</p><h2>HIV and pregnancy resources</h2> <p>If you have any questions or concerns, contact your child's doctor or the HIV clinic.</p> <p>For more information, please see the following:</p> <ul> <li>Motherisk <a target="_blank" href="http://www.motherisk.org/">www.motherisk.org</a></li> <li>Teresa Group <a target="_blank" href="http://www.teresagroup.ca/">www.teresagroup.ca</a> 416-596-7703</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/HIV_and_your_baby.jpg
HIV and your childHHIV and your childHIV and your childEnglishInfectious DiseasesChild (0-12 years)BodyImmune systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2013-12-18T05:00:00ZDebra Louch, RN;Ari Bitnun, MD, MSc, FRCPC;Stanley Read, MD, PhD, FRCPC, FAAP;Georgina MacDougall, RN8.9000000000000060.80000000000001339.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn how children get HIV, how it affects their bodies, and what you need to do as a parent to keep your child as healthy as possible.</p><h2>What is HIV?</h2><p>HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. <a href="/Article?contentid=910&language=English">HIV</a> is a virus that infects certain white blood cells of the immune system. It makes the immune system weaker over time. This puts a person at risk for other serious infections.</p><br><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Children can get HIV from their mothers during pregnancy, at birth or through breastfeeding, through blood or blood products that are infected with HIV, or through infected needles or surgical equipment.</li><li>When a child has HIV, the virus takes over and destroys certain types of white blood cells that fight infection and weakens the immune system.</li><li>In Canada, children with HIV can live healthy, normal lives if they go to their clinic regularly for health care and take their medicines as prescribed.</li><li>Many problems can be prevented with medicine if the HIV infection is found early.</li><li>Your health-care team will work with you, and support you and your child to stay healthy and grow to adulthood.<br></li></ul><h2>How children get HIV</h2><p>Children can get HIV in the following ways:</p><ul><li>A woman infected with HIV can unknowingly pass it onto their baby during pregnancy, at birth or after pregnancy through breastfeeding. Some women do not know they have HIV until they are pregnant and get tested. If you are HIV-positive and having a baby, please visit our page on <a href="/Article?contentid=908&language=English">HIV and pregnancy</a>. It explains how to lower the risk that your baby will get HIV and how to find out if your baby is infected.</li><li>Some children get HIV through blood or blood products that have HIV in them. This is very rare now as the blood supply in most countries is tested for HIV. Some children also get HIV through contaminated needles or surgical equipment. This usually happens in countries where the blood supply is not tested and surgical equipment and needles are not properly cleaned and sterilized.</li><li>Teenagers having unprotected sex or children who have been abused can become infected with HIV.</li><li>Sharing needles that have been in contact with contaminated blood, such as in drug use, tattooing or body piercing.</li></ul><h2>What having a child with HIV means to you and your family</h2><p>If your child has HIV, you should be tested so that you know whether you have HIV (your HIV status). If you are HIV-positive, your other children and sexual partners should also be tested. You should also seek care for yourself so that you can stay healthy to take care of your child and family.<br></p><p>Your child and any family members who are HIV-positive should have regular visits to a clinic that specializes in treating HIV.</p><h2>Treatments for children with HIV</h2><p>Two main types of treatment are given to children with HIV:</p><ul><li>medicines to treat the HIV infection</li><li>medicines to prevent other infections.<br></li></ul><h3>Medicines to treat the HIV infection</h3><p>Medicines that treat HIV prevent the virus from replicating (making more copies of itself) or entering CD4 cells. These medicines are called antiretrovirals (ARVs). Most of the time HIV treatment consists of taking three or more types of medication. When given in combination, the treatment is often referred to as combination antiretroviral therapy or highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Using HAART decreases the chance that resistance will develop to any one medicine, making the treatment more effective in the long-term. The combination products lower the number of pills needed each day.</p><p>To work properly, these medicines must be taken as prescribed, without missing any dose. If your child follows their treatment properly, they can live a healthy, normal life.</p><h3>Medicines to prevent other infections</h3><p>Other medicines are given to prevent other infections. These include medications such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Septra), which is given to prevent a certain type of serious <a href="/Article?contentid=784&language=English">pneumonia</a>. Not all children need these preventive medicines. They are given only when the child's immune system is too weak to prevent opportunistic infections.</p><h2>What to expect at your child's HIV clinic appointments</h2><p>All children should have regular visits to check on their health, usually every one to three months. Your child will be weighed and measured to see how well your child is growing. Your child will be seen by a nurse and one or more doctors to check your child's health since the last visit. Small amounts of blood will be taken to see how your child's immune system is doing, how much virus there is in the blood, and other tests for general health.</p><h3>Tests to monitor HIV infection</h3><p>Every three to four months, blood work will be done to assess how your child is doing with the HIV infection. Two tests will be done:</p><ul><li>The viral load will be checked to measure the amount of HIV in the blood. Results are given in copies of viruses (c) per milliliter (pm) of blood (cpm).</li><li>The CD4 cell count will be checked to measure the number of CD4 cells. This test tells the health-care team how well the immune system is doing. The normal number of CD4 cells for a child depends on the age of the child.</li></ul><h3>People who are available to see you and your child at the clinic</h3><p>Besides your child's doctors and nurses, here are some other people that you can talk to at the clinic:</p><ul><li>A social worker can talk to you about emotional and family concerns, and how HIV affects your family. The social worker can also help with issues such as money problems, medication costs and immigration issues.</li><li>A dietitian can discuss your child's diet and nutrition needs with you.</li><li>A developmental specialist can talk to you about your child's development and ability to learn in school.</li><li>A physiotherapist may assess your child's overall motor development, such as walking and running.</li><li>A psychiatrist is available to assess your child's self-esteem and whether or not they are ready to be told about HIV.</li></ul><p>Many other professionals are available in the hospital, if they are needed. Talk to your child's doctors or nurses about any concerns you have about your child to see if any of these people can help you in the care of your child.</p><h3>What to do if your child is sick between appointments or you are concerned about their medicines</h3><p>You should see a family doctor or paediatrician close to your home for regular care.</p><p>If you have some questions that can be answered over the phone, call your child's clinic nurse. If your questions are not urgent, you can discuss them at the next appointment.</p><p>If other problems need that your child is seen more quickly, either go to the clinic, to your family doctor or paediatrician's office, or even to the emergency department at a hospital close to you.</p><h2>HIV resources</h2> <p>If you have any questions or concerns, contact your child's doctor or the HIV clinic. For more information, check out the following:</p> <ul> <li>Teresa Group <a target="_blank" href="http://www.teresagroup.ca/">www.teresagroup.ca</a> 416-596-7703</li> <li>CATIE: Community AIDS Treatment Information Exchange <a target="_blank" href="http://www.catie.ca/">www.catie.ca</a><br></li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/PST_mom_baby_sleep_EN.jpg
Halloween safetyHHalloween safetyHalloween safetyEnglishPreventionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2013-10-08T04:00:00ZElly Berger, BA, MD, FRCPC, MHPE7.0000000000000071.0000000000000957.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Halloween is a time for dressing up, eating candy, carving pumpkins and decorating homes. Learn how to make it safe as well as fun.<br></p><p>Halloween is a time when children get dressed up in costumes and roam their neighbourhoods in search of candy. It is a time for carving pumpkins and decorating your home with spider webs, bats and maybe a few tombstones. This can be a lot of fun, but can also create some safety issues.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Make sure children can be seen. Use bright colours, reflective tape in costumes. Have children carry some sort of light such as a flashlight or glow stick.</li><li>Make sure children can see. Make sure hats, wigs and scarfs are secure and do not cover or slip over their eyes. Use not-toxic face paint or makeup instead of masks.</li><li>Make sure costumes fit properly and are not a tripping hazard.</li><li>Make sure children know how to cross the street safely.</li><li>Make sure children know not to eat any treats before you can inspect them.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/halloween_safety.jpg
Handling high and low blood sugar levelsHHandling high and low blood sugar levelsHandling high and low blood sugar levelsEnglishEndocrinologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)PancreasEndocrine systemHealthy living and preventionAdult (19+)NA2016-10-17T04:00:00ZCatherine Pastor, RN, MN, HonBSc;Vanita Pais, RD, CDE;Danielle van der Kaay, MD, PhD​​​​9.1000000000000054.30000000000001883.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn the symptoms, causes and treatment of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, or low and high blood sugar levels.</p><div class="table-content"><ul><li> <a href="#hypoglycemia">Hypoglycemia</a></li><li> <a href="#mild">Treatment of hypoglycemia</a></li><li> <a href="#severe">Treatment of severe hypoglycemia</a><br></li><li> <a href="#causes">Causes of hypoglycemia</a></li><li> <a href="#reducing">Reducing the risk of hypoglycemia</a></li><li> <a href="#high">Hyperglycemia</a></li></ul></div> <p>Managing diabetes is a little like performing a complicated juggling act. Sometimes the ball drops. No matter how hard you try, it is difficult to keep the <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=1725&language=English">blood glucose (sugar) level</a> in target range all of the time. Sometimes it will be high, other times low. Often there is no way of explaining the results.<br></p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Hypoglycemia or low blood sugar, is a blood sugar level lower than 4.0 mmol/L.<br></li> <li>Symptoms of hypoglycemia include feeling tired, paleness, irritability, increased hunger, blurry vision, sweatiness, dizziness, headache, shakiness.</li> <li>To treat hypoglycemia, it is important to always have a source of fast-acting sugar such as juice or dextrose tablets.</li> <li>Hyperglycemia or high blood sugar, is a blood sugar level of above 11 mmol/L.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/INM_hypoglycermia_symptoms_mild_to_moderate_EN.png
HandwashingHHandwashingHandwashingEnglishPreventionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HandSkinNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-03-28T04:00:00ZShawna Silver, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, PEng​​​7.0000000000000070.00000000000001091.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>The best way to prevent transmission of disease is good hand hygiene. Learn about proper handwashing and how to teach it to your young children.<br></p><p>As we go through the day, our hands pick up germs from many different sources. Even surfaces and object that seem clean can carry germs such as bacteria, viruses or fungi. The <a href="/article?contentid=912&language=English">influenza virus</a>, for example, can be infective for between two and eight hours on hard surfaces such as desks and doorknobs; some bacteria can survive for weeks or months.</p> <p>When we eat or touch our eyes or nose, those germs can enter our bodies and can make us sick. Often these germs are more annoying than serious. But they can also include dangerous and deadly infections.</p> <p>Handwashing is the most important thing you can do to help prevent common illnesses like colds, flu, and <a href="/article?contentid=907&language=English">gastroenteritis</a>. Proper handwashing with soap and warm water is the best way to remove bacteria and viruses from the hands, especially if your hands are visibly dirty or greasy. Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer when water is not available. Cleaning with an alcohol-based hand sanitizer can prevent some infections, but not as many as handwashing with soap and warm water.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>The best way to protect yourself and your child from germs is proper handwashing.</li><li>Wash your hands frequently with soap and warm water for at least 15 seconds, scrub every surface and rinse off all trace of soap.</li><li>When you do not have access to water, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Make sure it contains between 60% and 95% alcohol. Rub your hands with the sanitizer until they become dry.</li></ul><h2>Using soap and water</h2><p>Liquid, foaming and bar soap are all effective for cleaning your hands, if used properly. The type of soap is not as important as the right technique. It is the soap combined with the scrubbing action that helps loosen and remove germs from your skin. The running water washes them away. Antibacterial soap is not necessary. As long as you wash your hands properly, antibacterial soap does not work any better than regular soap.</p><h2>How to wash your hands properly<br></h2><p>Washing your hands will help only if it is done properly. Here is what to do:</p><ol class="akh-steps"><li> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/HandWashing_1_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Wetting hands under a tap" /> </figure> <p>Wet your hands thoroughly with warm water.</p></li><li> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/HandWashing_2_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Applying soap to hand" /> </figure> <p>Apply enough liquid, foam or clean bar soap to cover the entire surface of the hand.</p></li><li> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/HandWashing_3_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Washing hands away from water" /> </figure> <p>With your hands away from the water, rub your hands vigorously together.<br></p></li><li> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/HandWashing_4_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Washing palms" /> </figure> <p>Scrub all surfaces.</p></li><li> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/HandWashing_5_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Washing between fingers" /> </figure> <p>Make sure to get between the fingers and under the fingernails.</p></li><li> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/HandWashing_6_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Washing back of hand" /> </figure> <p>Wash the wrists and lower arms, if necessary.<br></p></li><li> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/HandWashing_7_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Washing wrist" /> </figure> <p>Continue for at least 15 seconds or about the length of time it takes to hum a short song such as Happy Birthday twice. It is the soap combined with the scrubbing action that helps dislodge and remove germs.</p></li><li> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/HandWashing_8_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Rinsing hands under a tap" /> </figure> <p>Rinse well, removing all soap residue.</p></li><li> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/HandWashing_9_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Drying hands on a towel" /> </figure> <p>Dry your hands on a clean towel or paper towel.</p></li><li> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/HandWashing_10_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Using towel to turn off the tap" /> </figure> <p>Use the towel to turn the tap off.</p></li></ol><p>Aiello AE, Larson EL, Levy SB. (2007). Consumer antibacterial soaps: Effective or just risky? <em>Clinical Infectious Diseases, 45(Suppl2),</em> S137-S147.</p><p>Cottingham A. (2004). “Now wash your hands please”: Teaching health concepts to very young children. <em>Paediatric Nursing, 16(8),</em> 33-35.</p><p>Fact Sheet on Hand Sanitizers. (2007, August 23). <em>Ontario Poison Centre</em>. Retrieved from <a href="http://www.ontariopoisoncentre.ca/pdf/44813-Hand%20Sanitizers%20FactSheet.pdf">http://www.ontariopoisoncentre.ca/pdf/44813-Hand%20Sanitizers%20FactSheet.pdf</a>.</p><p>Preventing Seasonal Flu Illness. (2013, September 25). <em>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention</em>. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/flu/prevent/">https://www.cdc.gov/flu/prevent/</a>.<br></p><p>Reynolds SA, Levy F, Walker ES. (2006). Hand sanitizer alert [letter]. <em>Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(3),</em> 527-527.</p><p>Show Me the Science - When to Use Hand Sanitizer. (2013, December 11). <em>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention</em>. Retrieved from <a href="http://www.cdc.gov/handwashing/show-me-the-science-hand-sanitizer.html">http://www.cdc.gov/handwashing/show-me-the-science-hand-sanitizer.html</a>.</p><p>The Benefits of Hand Washing. (2012, March 14). <em>Health Canada</em>. Retrieved from <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/healthy-living/your-health/diseases/benefits-hand-washing.html">https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/healthy-living/your-health/diseases/benefits-hand-washing.html</a>.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/HandWashing_1_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg
Harvesting donor stem cells for an allogeneic blood and marrow transplantHHarvesting donor stem cells for an allogeneic blood and marrow transplantHarvesting donor stem cells for an allogeneic blood and marrow transplantEnglishHaematology;Immunology;OncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemProceduresAdult (19+)NA2010-03-05T05:00:00ZJohn Doyle, MD, FRCPC, FAAPChristine Armstrong, RN, MScN, NP Peds7.2000000000000067.00000000000001099.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn what happens during a donor's stem cells harvest.</p><p>Before your child’s blood and marrow transplant (BMT), doctors need to collect stem cells from the donor. There are two ways a donor can give stem cells. They can donate cells from their: </p><ul><li>bone marrow. This is called a bone marrow harvest. </li><li>peripheral blood. This is called a peripheral blood harvest. Parent donors give stem cells from the peripheral blood.</li></ul><p>The donors can be unrelated or related to your child. In some cases, the donor will be a sibling.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>A bone marrow harvest is performed by a staff transplant physician and a BMT fellow.</li><li>Donors will experience pain after a bone marrow harvest, but serious complications are not common.</li><li>Parent donors will donate their stem cells via a peripheral blood stem cell harvest.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Bone_marrow_harvest_MED_ILL_EN.jpg
Harvesting stem cells for an autologous blood and marrow transplantHHarvesting stem cells for an autologous blood and marrow transplantHarvesting stem cells for an autologous blood and marrow transplantEnglishHaematology;Immunology;OncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemProceduresAdult (19+)NA2010-03-05T05:00:00ZJohn Doyle, MD, FRCPC, FAAPChristine Armstrong, RN, MScN, NP Peds7.0000000000000069.0000000000000962.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn how your child's stem cells are harvested, before the blood and marrow transplant.</p><p>If your child is undergoing an <a href="/article?contentid=1534&language=English">autologous stem cell transplant</a>, doctors will need to collect and store your child’s stem cells. This is done before being admitted into the hospital. In the past, doctors collected stem cells from your child’s bone marrow. This is called bone marrow harvesting. Doctors occasionally collect stem cells this way.</p><p>More commonly autologous stem cells are collected from the blood that circulates in the body, called the peripheral blood. This is called a peripheral blood stem cell harvest. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>To prepare for a blood stem cell harvest your child will undergo several tests and require injections of filgrastim.</li> <li>If doctors cannot collect enough stem cells from the peripheral blood, they will perform a bone marrow harvest.</li> <li>Bone marrow harvesting is generally safe, though your child may feel sore one or two days following the procedure.</li> <li>Call your doctor immediately if your child has severe tenderness, pain, redness or swelling, a fever, bleeding or drainage.</li></ul>
Head injury and concussionHHead injury and concussionHead injury and concussionEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BrainBrainConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Headache;Nausea;Vision problems;Vomiting2017-06-14T04:00:00ZShawna Silver, MD, FRPCP, FAAP, Peng8.7000000000000062.7000000000000862.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to recognize a concussion after a head injury and when to see a doctor or seek emergency care. </p><p>​​​A head injury can happen when a child hits their head or when there is a blow to another part of the body that causes the head to spin or jolt. Head injuries caused by falls are especially common when children are learning to walk or ride a bike or are taking part in recreational or competitive activities.</p><p>Most head injuries are minor and result in no symptoms or physical changes, but sometimes they can result in bumps, bruises or swelling to the scalp.</p><p>Sometimes, what seems to be a mild bump or blow to the head can be serious and cause a concussion. This is a risk with any head injury.</p><p>A concussion may result from a:</p><ul><li>direct impact to the head, neck or face</li><li>fall</li><li>blow to the body that causes the head and brain to move back and forth</li></ul><p>A concussion is an "invisible" brain injury that affects the way your child thinks and remembers. It cannot be seen on X-rays, MRIs or other forms of brain imaging.</p> ​<h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Most head injuries are minor.</li> <li>Any head injury puts your child at risk for concussion.</li> <li>If you think that your child has had a concussion, they should see a doctor on the same day that the head injury occurs.</li> <li>A doctor will examine your child and may recommend further tests or, if concussion is diagnosed, provide a post-concussion management plan and prescribe rest.</li> <li>Watch your child after a head injury. If you see signs that your child is getting worse, take them to the nearest emergency department or call 911 right away.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of a concussion</h2><p>Your child does not need to lose consciousness to have a concussion. In younger children, symptoms may not be clear and may be difficult for them to explain.</p><p>After a concussion, your child may experience some of the signs and symptoms below.</p><h3>Physical changes</h3><ul><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=29&language=English">Headache</a></li><li>Nausea or <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a></li><li>Vision changes</li><li>Loss of consciousness</li><li>Irritation from light or sound</li><li>Loss of balance, poor co-ordination</li><li>Decreased playing ability</li></ul><h3>Changes in behaviour</h3><ul><li>Irritability</li><li>Sadness</li><li> <a href="/Article?contentid=18&language=English">Anxiety</a></li><li>Inappropriate emotions</li></ul><h3>Thinking problems</h3><ul><li>Slowed reaction times</li><li>Confusion</li><li>Memory loss or difficulty concentrating</li><li>Feeling dazed</li></ul><h3>Trouble with sleep</h3><ul><li>Drowsiness</li><li>Trouble falling asleep</li><li>Sleeping more than usual</li><li>Sleeping less than usual</li></ul><p>Some symptoms may appear right away. However, in some cases, signs and symptoms evolve over a number of minutes to hours. In addition, symptoms may change over time. Your child may look fine even though they are acting or feeling differently.</p><p>Most people with a concussion recover quickly and fully. But for some people, symptoms can last for days, weeks or longer. In general, recovery may be slower among older adults, young children and teens. Those who have had a concussion in the past are also at risk of having another one and may take longer to recover from a second or further concussion.</p><h2>Taking care of your child after a head injury</h2> <h3>Wound care</h3> <p>If your child has cut themselves, clean the wound with warm water and soap. To control any bleeding, gently press down on the wound with sterile gauze or a clean cloth.</p> <p>If there is swelling over the injured area, wrap some ice in a cloth and hold it over the swelling for 20 minutes.</p> <h3>Concussion</h3> <p>If you think that your child has had a concussion, take them to a doctor on the same day that the head injury occurs. If the concussion occurs during a sporting activity, your child should stop the activity immediately; if they continue, they are at greater risk for another injury.</p><h2>When to see a doctor for a head injury</h2> <p>See a doctor if your child has a deep cut that requires stitches or if you suspect that your child has a concussion.</p> <p>Your child's doctor will assess your child for any physical, cognitive and neurological symptoms, for example any swelling, concentration difficulties or problems with vision or co-ordination. Your child may need to have a brain scan or be admitted to hospital if their symptoms are getting worse or are not improving.</p> <p>If your doctor diagnoses your child with a concussion, they will prescribe rest from physical and cognitive (for example problem-solving or memory-based) activities. Your child's doctor should also give you a post-concussion management plan for your child.</p> <h2>When to seek emergency care for a head injury</h2> <p>Take your child to the nearest emergency department, or call 911, if your child is showing signs of a more serious brain injury.</p> <h3>Signs and symptoms of a serious brain injury in babies</h3> <ul> <li>Poor feeding</li> <li>Repeated vomiting (throwing up)</li> <li>Being unable to stop crying or be consoled</li> <li>Appearing very drowsy and unable to be awakened</li> <li>Seizures</li> <li>Tense bulging of the fontanelle (soft spot on top of head)</li> </ul> <h3>Signs and symptoms of a serious brain injury in children and teenagers</h3> <ul> <li>A headache that does not go away or gets worse</li> <li>Repeated vomiting (throwing up)</li> <li>Confusion, agitation or unusual behaviour</li> <li>Trouble seeing, speaking or walking</li> <li>Weakness, numbness or decreased co-ordination of an arm or leg</li> <li>Drowsiness (sleepiness)</li> <li>Seizures (convulsions)</li> </ul>concussionhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/head_injury_concussion.jpg
Head liceHHead liceHead liceEnglishDermatologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)ScalpHairConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-10-08T04:00:00ZElizabeth Berger​, BA, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, MHPE​​5.3000000000000078.2000000000000693.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Head lice are common in children. Learn how to check for, treat and prevent lice. </p><h2>What are head lice?</h2> <figure><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/head_lice.jpg" alt="Lice of various sizes and strands of hair on a white surface" /> </figure> <p>Lice are small, grey, flat, wingless insects that live on the surface of the scalp. An adult louse is 2 mm to 4 mm long.</p><p>Lice suck blood from the scalp. They survive by staying close to the scalp for food and shelter. Adult lice lay eggs (nits) that stick to the hair shaft.<br></p><p>A head lice infestation is also called pediculosis. It does not indicate poor hygiene. In fact, head lice prefer clean hair and skin.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Head lice infestations are common in school children. They are not a sign of poor hygiene.</li> <li>Symptoms include itchiness and red bumps on the scalp. Some children do not show symptoms for weeks.</li> <li>The best way to detect head lice is to use a fine-toothed comb on wet hair.</li> <li>To treat head lice, apply an approved head lice lotion or shampoo. You may need to re-apply it about a week later.</li> <li>Tell your child's school immediately if you discover head lice.</li> <li>Discourage your child from sharing hats, combs or headphones.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of head lice</h2> <p>Common symptoms of head lice include:</p> <ul> <li>itchiness of the scalp</li> <li>tiny red bumps on the scalp</li> <li>presence of lice, although they are hard to see</li> <li>light grey lice eggs (nits) sticking to the hair shaft.</li> </ul> <p>Sometimes there are no symptoms at all for the first few weeks.</p><h2>Causes of head lice</h2> <p>Lice infestation is very common. Children and adults can catch lice easily through direct contact with another person who has lice or by sharing hats, combs, headphones, towels or bedding. Lice can move from one head to another if two people literally put their heads together, but they cannot jump any significant distance.</p><h2>How to check if your child has head lice</h2><p>If you suspect your child has head lice, use the following steps to check their hair.</p><ol><li>Wet your child's hair.</li><li>Comb it with a lice-removal comb (a small fine-toothed comb that you can buy in your local pharmacy).</li><li>Submerge the comb in water in a white bowl.</li><li>Look for the adult or baby lice at the bottom of the bowl.</li></ol> <p>You may see the nits floating in the water, but they may be so well 'stuck' that you may also need to examine the hairs near your child's scalp.</p><p>It is also possible to see small live lice in your child's hair. Check especially around their ears and neckline.</p><h2>How to treat head lice</h2> <p>Consult a doctor before treatment if your child is under two years old or has allergies. Otherwise, you can treat your child at home. There are several treatment options.</p> <p>One common option is to use approved, medicated lice-killing shampoos or lotions and special combs. These are available at your local pharmacy without a prescription. Each product is applied differently, so read the directions carefully. Make sure to rinse the lotion from your child's skin to avoid irritation.</p> <p>Most products are not 100 per cent effective the first time you use them; you will usually need to repeat the treatment about a week later.</p> <p>Various other treatments are available, but some work better than others. Ask your pharmacist for advice on the best option for your child.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/headlice_alt.jpg
HeadacheHHeadacheHeadacheEnglishNeurologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeadBrainConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Headache2014-11-25T05:00:00ZElizabeth Berger BA, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, MHPE​​​​7.9000000000000060.2000000000000943.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Your child may have a headache for a number of different reasons. Find out what these are, and what you can do to help alleviate the pain.</p><h2>What is a headache?</h2> <p>A headache is a pain, ache or throbbing sensation in any area of the head. Headaches are common in children and teenagers.</p> <h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Headaches in children are uncomfortable and may cause you to worry. They are rarely associated with a more serious medical condition.</li><li>Care for simple headaches by making your child feel comfortable. Give over-the-counter medications like acetaminophen or ibuprofen.</li><li>A doctor does a medical assessment to help identify the cause of a recurrent or persistent headache.</li></ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of headache</h2> <p>A headache can feel like a sharp pain, throbbing sensation, or a dull ache. The pain may occur on one or both sides of the head.</p> <p>Observe your child and ask about any associated symptoms, such as:</p> <ul> <li>changes in concentration, memory, or speech</li> <li>weakness of an arm or leg</li> <li>any vision or hearing changes</li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a></li> <li>congestion, runny nose or muscle aches</li> <li>nausea or <a href="/Article?contentid=746&language=English">vomiting</a> (throwing up)</li> <li>trauma or accidents</li> </ul> <p>Make note of possible triggers relating to the headaches, such as:</p> <ul> <li>lack of sleep</li> <li>skipping meals</li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=776&language=English">dehydration</a></li> <li>stress</li> <li>using video games or watching TV for a prolonged period of time</li> <li>smelling a strong odour or perfume</li> <li>menstruation in girls</li> </ul> <h2>Causes of headache</h2> <p>Headaches can be primary or secondary. Primary headaches do not have a serious underlying medical cause. This category includes tension-type headaches, migraines and cluster headaches.</p> <h3>Tension-type headaches</h3> <p>A tension-type headache feels like there is a tight band around the head. They are usually mild to moderate in intensity and last anywhere from 30 minutes to several days. They are not associated with nausea or vomiting. Treatment involves emotional support and pain medication.</p> <h3>Migraines</h3> <p>Children can suffer from migraine headaches. Children who develop migraines are likely to have one or more relatives with migraines. Migraine headaches are usually recurrent. This means they come back repeatedly. They can last from two to 72 hours and are often described as feeling pulsatile.</p> <p>Migraine headaches are associated with other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and sensitivity to noise and light. They are severe in intensity and often interfere with activities of daily living. Symptoms get worse with activity and improve with rest.</p> <p>There are medications which can be used to prevent migraine headaches from recurring and medications to treat a migraine once it starts. Speak to your doctor for more details of these medications.</p> <h3>Cluster headaches</h3> <p>Cluster headaches are severe and last less than three hours. However, a child can have up to eight attacks in one day. The headache is localized to one side of the head. On that same side, the child also has other symptoms such as pain in or above the eye or pain over the temporal area, tearing or redness of the eye, swelling of the eyelid, sweating or flushing of the face or forehead, a sensation of fullness in the ear or a sense of restlessness. These types of headaches are rare in children under the age of 10.</p> <h3>Secondary causes of headache</h3> <p>A secondary headache is caused by another medical condition that your child already has. There are many possible causes which include:</p> <ul> <li>minor illness (such as a cold) or major infection (such as meningitis)</li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=804&language=English">allergies</a></li> <li>effects of medications</li> <li><a href="/Article?contentid=766&language=English">head injury or trauma</a></li> <li>sinus infection</li> <li>elevated blood pressure</li> <li>dental or TMJ (temporomandibular joint) problems</li> <li>exposure to drugs or toxins</li> <li>brain tumour</li> <li>bleeding in the brain</li> </ul><h2>When to see a doctor</h2> <p>Make an appointment with your child’s regular doctor if:</p> <ul> <li>headaches last longer than two days</li> <li>headaches do not improve, or get worse, despite using acetaminophen or ibuprofen or other headache remedies</li> <li>headaches affect your child’s usual habits or routines such as play, school, eating, drinking or sleeping</li> <li>recurrent headaches happen more often or are worse than usual</li> <li>recurrent headaches are not improving with recommended treatments and medications</li> <li>the headaches are waking your child at night or are associated with vomiting</li> </ul> <p>Go to your nearest Emergency Department or call 911 if your child has a headache with the following symptoms:</p> <ul> <li>sudden severe pain in the head</li> <li>a headache that gets worse or continues to come back following a head injury</li> <li>dizziness, fainting or loss of consciousness</li> <li>fever</li> <li>stiff neck</li> <li>nausea or vomiting (throwing up)</li> <li>slurred or altered speech</li> <li>weakness of a part of the body</li> <li>difficulty sleeping</li> <li>changes in vision</li> </ul>headachehttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/headache.jpg
Health & wellnessHHealth & wellnessHealth & wellnessEnglishNAChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2018-01-19T05:00:00Z000Landing PageLearning Hub<p>Learn about the importance of routine health care. Also find information about the importance of sleep and physical activity and how much your child should be getting.</p><p>Learn about the importance of routine health care including hand washing, eye and ear care, and dental care (includes some practical posters that can be downloaded and printed out). Also find information about physical activity and its benefits, and how much your child should be getting. Finally, learn about the importance of sleep and how you can help your child get a good night's sleep.</p>healthwellnesshttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/health_and_wellness_learning_hub.jpg
Health care at birthHHealth care at birthHealth care at birthEnglishNeonatologyNewborn (0-28 days)BodyNANAAdult (19+)NA2009-10-18T04:00:00ZDouglas Campbell, MD, FRCPCDouglas Campbell, MD, FRCPCHosanna Au, MD, FRCPC10.100000000000054.20000000000001210.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about the various types of health care your newborn will receive at birth. Skin care, regulation of body temperature, and eye care are included.</p><p>Newborn babies will require special health care when they're born to help them thrive. If a newborn develops jaundice they will need extra special care.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Health care for your baby at birth includes taking care of their skin, body temperature, eyes, making sure their blood clots properly, the umbilical cord, stool and urine.</li> <li>About two-thirds of newborns develop jaundice, a condition where too much bilirubin builds up in the body.</li> <li>Signs of severe jaundice include yellow tinge to skin and eyes, excessive sleepiness, refusal to feed and weight loss of more than 10% of birth weight.</li> <li>Babies with jaundice will be treated with phototherapy.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/health_care_at_birth.jpg
Health care before pregnancyHHealth care before pregnancyHealth care before pregnancyEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)BodyNAHealthy living and preventionPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-11T04:00:00Z12.900000000000039.9000000000000818.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Critical information on health care before pregnancy, including information about nutrition, exercise, genetic screening, and screening for infections.</p><p>The time before a woman's first prenatal doctor's appointment is the most crucial to the baby’s development. To reduce any risk to the unborn baby, try to seek medical advice before you actually become pregnant. Your doctor can help to make sure that you are in the best possible health before conceiving, in order to ensure the best outcomes for you and your baby.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>The first eight to 12 weeks of pregnancy are the most crucial to a baby's development.</li> <li>Before becoming pregnant, try to maintain a healthy diet, exercise regularly and take folic acid.</li> <li>If you or your partner have a family history of certain diseases, you should both undergo testing to determine if you carry the traits for those diseases.</li> <li>Reduce your exposure to potentially harmful substances (teratogens) before becoming pregnant.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/health_care_before_pregnancy.jpg
Health care in pregnancyHHealth care in pregnancyHealth care in pregnancyEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)BodyReproductive systemHealthy living and preventionPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-11T04:00:00Z13.200000000000038.4000000000000814.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>An in-depth discussion of what to consider in terms of your health care during pregnancy. Answers from Canadian Paediatric Hospitals</p><p>Health care during pregnancy is a multifaceted program involving medical visits, prenatal testing, nutrition, exercise, screening for infections and certain genetic diseases where appropriate, getting any maternal illnesses under control, and taking any other special considerations. The first step to receiving good health care during pregnancy is to choose the health-care provider.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Your choice of health-care provider will need to take into consideration whether you are low- or high-risk, how much of a role you want to play in decision-making, and your thoughts about 'natural' deliveries and pain medication.</li><li>Proper nutrition and moderate exercise are critical for a healthy pregnancy.</li> <li>Remove or reduce your exposure to any potentially harmful substances, called teratogens.</li><li>If you are over age 35, you may want to consult a geneticist to go over any risks to your unborn baby.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/health_care_in_pregnancy.jpg
Health care visitsHHealth care visitsHealth care visitsEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)BodyReproductive systemHealthy living and preventionPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-11T04:00:00Z10.700000000000058.6000000000000542.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>This page gives an overview of what to expect during medical visits throughout pregnancy.</p><p>To reduce the risk to the unborn baby, women are encouraged to seek health-care advice before they become pregnant. If you have not already seen a doctor before becoming pregnant, you should seek health-care advice as soon as you think you are pregnant, both to confirm the pregnancy and to make sure your health is in prime condition. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>At your first health care visit, your health-care provider will ask you questions about your health and medical history and your family's medical history to help spot any potential risks.</li> <li>You will need to see your health-care provider once a month for the first six months of pregnancy, twice a month in the seventh and eighth months, and one a week in the ninth month.</li> <li>Your health-care provider will send you for various prenatal tests throughout your pregnancy.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/health_care_visits_pregnancy.jpg
Health issues in your babyHHealth issues in your babyHealth issues in your babyEnglishNABaby (1-12 months)BodyNANAAdult (19+)NA2009-10-18T04:00:00ZDouglas Campbell, MD, FRCPCAndrew James, MBChB, MBI, FRACP, FRCPC11.400000000000045.5000000000000496.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about various health concerns including changes in behaviour, fever, respiratory illnesses and other infections, and sudden infant death syndrome.</p><p>One of the first signs of illness in babies is a change in behaviour. Your baby may cry more or have a change in activity level. Generally, if your baby is active when awake, feeding well, and can be comforted when crying, small differences in activity level or crying are normal. However, if your baby becomes lethargic or irritable, it may be time to see a doctor. Lethargy or irritability may be signs that an illness is present. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>One of the first signs of illness in babies is a change in behaviour including lethargy and irritability.</li> <li>Health issues that may arise include fever, respiratory illness, ear infections, sore throat, digestive problems, skin conditions and failure to thrive.</li</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/health_issues_in_your_baby.jpg
Health issues in your newborn babyHHealth issues in your newborn babyHealth issues in your newborn babyEnglishNeonatologyNewborn (0-28 days)BodyNAConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2019-01-07T05:00:00ZHazel Pleasants, RN, MNAndrew James, MBChB, FRACP, FRCPC9.1000000000000061.9000000000000429.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about various health issues that may arise in your newborn baby. Skin conditions, jaundice, fever and feeding are discussed.</p><p>Newborn babies keep their parents on their toes! Common health concerns in newborn babies include <a href="/Article?contentid=455&language=English&hub=YourNewborn">skin conditions</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=775&language=English">jaundice</a>, <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English&hub=YourNewborn">fever</a> and <a href="/Article?contentid=439&language=English&hub=YourNewborn">feeding</a>.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Health issues that you may experience with your newborn include skin conditions, jaundice, feeding and fever.<br></li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/health_issues_in_your_newborn_baby.jpg
Healthy eating for teensHHealthy eating for teensHealthy eating for teensEnglishDevelopmentalTeen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2010-05-06T04:00:00ZKellie Welch, RD6.9000000000000064.70000000000001174.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Teens don't always eat the best foods. Here are some helpful tips on how to meet a growing body's needs.</p><p>The teen years are a time of rapid growth. They need extra nutrients to support bone growth, hormonal changes, and organ and tissue development, including the brain. The two main nutrients of concern for teenagers are <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=1448&language=English">calcium</a> and <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=1450&language=English">iron</a>.​<br></p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Teens need extra nutrients to support bone growth, hormonal changes and organ and tissue development, including the brain.</li><li>All teens, including active teens, will get their nutrient needs by following the recommended servings in the Canadian Food Guide.</li><li>Teens should always eat breakfast and limit junk food, soft drinks and eating out.</li><li>Healthy eating habits and physical activity can help lower the risk of obesity.<br></li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/healthy_eating_for_teens.jpg
Healthy food and drink choices outside the homeHHealthy food and drink choices outside the homeHealthy food and drink choices outside the homeEnglishNutritionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+) Educators Hospital healthcare providers Community healthcare providers Remote populations First nationsNA2013-09-27T04:00:00ZSamantha Thiessen, RD, MHSc.;Elly Berger, BA, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, MHPE8.4000000000000067.9000000000000904.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Find out how to encourage your tween or teen to make healthy food and drink choices outside the home.</p><p>Tweens and teens are gaining independence and are likely to start making up their own lunch or eating out more often with their friends. Encourage them to make healthy choices when they eat out, whether at school or a local restaurant.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Let your tween or teen make up their own healthy lunches, whether from dinner leftovers or nutritious food choices in the fridge.</li> <li>If your child is eating at a school cafeteria, advise them to choose baked, steamed or grilled food rather than fried.</li> <li>To help your child avoid high-sugar or high-caffeine drinks, keep a filled water bottle or individual milk cartons in the fridge at home and encourage your child to eat fruit instead of fruit juice.</li> <li>Help your teen <a href="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/article?contentid=1942&language=English">make wise choices at restaurants</a> by looking up nutritional information in advance, watching portion sizes and prioritizing lean proteins and vegetables.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/healthy_food_drink_choices_outside_home.jpg
Hearing and communication in the first yearHHearing and communication in the first yearHearing and communication in the first yearEnglishNABaby (1-12 months)Ears;BodyNANAAdult (19+)NA2009-10-18T04:00:00Z7.0000000000000071.3000000000000763.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about development of hearing and communication in a baby's first year of life. Trusted Answers provided by Canadian Paediatric Hospitals.</p><p>Most babies are born with a strong sense of hearing and enjoy human voices and music. Their communication will improve steadily over the first year of life, as they learn to indicate objects, make sounds and eventually speak their first words.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>From the first month, babies enjoy listening to human voices and music, as well as experimenting with their voice.</li> <li>A baby's communication skills will continue to develop over the next 12 months as they learn to imitate sounds, gestures and eventually speak their first words.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/hearing_communication_first_year.jpg
HeartHHeartHeartheartlearninghubEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2018-01-19T05:00:00Z000Landing Page (Overview)Learning Hub<p>Information about different heart conditions, including congenital heart conditions such as atrial septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus. Also discussed are arrhythmias, blue spells and congestive heart failure.</p><p>Information about different heart conditions, including congenital heart conditions such as atrial septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus. Also discussed are arrhythmias, blue spells and congestive heart failure. Learn about the different medications your child might be given and the possible tests and treatments that are available.</p>heart,cardiologyhttps://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/heart_learning_hub.png
Heart catheterizationHHeart catheterizationHeart catheterizationEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemProceduresAdult (19+)NA2009-12-11T05:00:00ZJennifer Russell, MD, FRCPC9.0000000000000059.00000000000001418.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Heart catheterization may be used to correct various kinds of heart defects. Learn how to prepare for heart catheterization and how to care for your child at home.</p><p>Cardiac catheterization is a procedure in which a thin, flexible tube called a catheter is passed into the heart and its surrounding blood vessels.</p><h2>Key points</h2><ul><li>Cardiac catheterizations are performed on people of all ages.</li><li>Catheters are used for blood sampling, pressure measurements, dye injection (angiogram), and to repair specific areas of the heart and the surrounding blood vessels.</li><li>The procedures are done in the cardiac catheterization lab.</li><li>In many heart conditions, cardiac catheterizations can repair the heart without open-chest surgery.</li><li> Tell the catheterization lab coordinator before the day of catheterization if your child has a cold or cough, diarrhea, signs of the flu, or has had any contact with someone with a contagious disease as the procedure may need to be postponed.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Catheter_balloon_MED_ILL_EN.jpg
Heart catheterization testHHeart catheterization testHeart catheterization testEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemTestsAdult (19+)NA2009-12-11T05:00:00ZAndrew N. Redington, MD, FRCP (UK), FRCPC7.3000000000000068.30000000000001609.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about heart catheterization tests and electrophysiology studies, which give information about the structure of a child's heart and how well it is working.</p><p>Heart catheterization involves threading a thin tube called a catheter through a vein to your child's heart. The doctor can then inject contrast fluid to learn about the structure of the heart, perform a special test called an electrophysiology study, or perform certain treatments.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>In a heart catheterization test, the doctor injects a dye that shows up on X-rays into the chambers of the heart through a catheter.</li> <li>Most children need a general anaesthetic for this catheterization test.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Catheter_diagnostic_MED_ILL_EN.jpg
Heart catheterization: Caring for your child after the procedureHHeart catheterization: Caring for your child after the procedureHeart catheterization: Caring for your child after the procedureEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartHeart;Arteries;VeinsNon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-11-17T05:00:00ZLee Benson, MD, FRCP(C), FACC, FSCAI;Jackie Hubbert, RN, BScN;Jennifer Kilburn, BScN, MN;Carrie Heffernan, RN, MN7.0000000000000070.0000000000000746.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Learn how you can take care of your child who has just had heart catheterization. Dressing changes and emergency situations are discussed. </p><p>Your child has had a heart, or cardiac, catheterization (say: CATH-uh-ter-ize-A-shun). Here are some instructions to help your child recover from the procedure. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Children usually need some time to get better from a heart catheterization. </li> <li>You will need to change your child's bandage once a day for five days after the procedure. </li> <li>If the site bleeds for more than five minutes, keep applying pressure and go to your nearest emergency department. </li> <li>If your child's leg is swollen, pale or cold, call the cardiology fellow on call and go to your nearest emergency department. </li> <li>If you notice any swelling or redness at the site, if the site is sore for more than one or two days, or if your child has a fever or an upset stomach, call your child's family doctor or paediatrician. </li> </ul><h2>When to call the doctor</h2><p>Some children have bruising in the area around the site. A little bruising is normal, so long as the bruising gets better over time. You can tell that the bruising is going away if it is getting lighter in colour. If you notice any swelling or redness, or if your child has a <a href="/Article?contentid=30&language=English">fever</a>, call your child's paediatrician or family doctor. </p><p>Your child may complain of a sore groin or leg on the side of the catheterization. Soreness for one or two days is normal. But if your child is sore for more than a couple of days, call the paediatrician or family doctor. </p><h2>When to go to the emergency department</h2><p>If the site starts to bleed, press firmly with a piece of clean gauze over the site for at least five minutes.</p><p>If the bleeding does not stop after five minutes:</p><ul><li>Keep applying pressure and </li><li>Go to the nearest emergency department </li></ul><p>If you notice your child's leg is swollen, pale in colour or cold to the touch:</p><ul><li>Call the cardiology fellow on call and </li><li>Go to the nearest emergency department. </li></ul><h3>Write down the number of your cardiology clinic here:</h3><p><br></p>
Heart catheterization: Getting ready for the procedureHHeart catheterization: Getting ready for the procedureHeart catheterization: Getting ready for the procedureEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartHeart;Arteries;VeinsProceduresCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-12-17T05:00:00ZJackie Hubbert, BScN;Lee Benson, MD, FRCP(C), FACC, FSCAI;Carrie Heffernan, RN, MN;Jennifer Kilburn, RN, MN6.2000000000000074.10000000000001723.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Heart catheterization is a test that is done to see how well blood is moving through the heart. Read how to prepare your child for heart catheterization.</p><p>Your child needs to have a heart catheterization test (say: CATH-uh-ter-ize-A-shun). You may also hear this called a cardiac catheterization test. This test gives your child's cardiologist (heart doctor) information about how your child's heart is working. </p> <p>This page explains what happens before, during, and after the test. It will answer some of your questions about your child's test. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Heart catheterization is a test that gives your child's doctor information about how your child's heart is working. </li> <li>Your child will need to have some other tests before the heart catheterization test. </li> <li>Before the test, you will be given special instructions on when to stop feeding your child, and any medication changes. </li> <li>Your child will probably have sleep medicine for the test. Your child may need to stay in hospital overnight after the test. </li> <li>Your child's doctor will talk to you about problems that could happen because of the test. </li> </ul><h2>The heart catheterization test is done in a special laboratory</h2> <p>Your child will be taken to a special treatment room for the test. This room looks like a small operating room. It is called a catheterization laboratory and it is part of a Cardiac Diagnostic Interventional Unit (CDIU). On the day of the test, your child will need an intravenous line, also called an IV. An IV is a small tube put in a vein of an arm or leg to give your child liquids and medicines. </p> <h2>The health-care team will take care of your child</h2> <p>There are usually two doctors, two nurses, and an anesthetist on the heart catheterization team. The anesthetist is a specially trained doctor who gives sleep medicine to your child. This medicine, called a general anesthetic, keeps your child asleep during the test so that they feel no pain. The anesthetist will speak to you about these medicines before the test. </p> <p>Older children may have sedation instead of a general anesthetic. Sedation is medicine given through the IV to calm your child so they can keep still for the test. </p> <h2>What happens during the test</h2> <p>The cardiologist carefully puts a long, thin tube called a catheter into a vein or artery in your child's neck or groin. The groin is the area at the top of the leg. Then, the catheter is threaded through the vein or artery to your child's heart. </p> <p>The cardiologist uses X-rays on a monitor to watch the catheter as it enters the heart. Your child's heart will keep working normally during this test. </p> <p>The doctor puts a liquid called contrast into the chambers of the heart through the catheter. The contrast is a kind of dye that lets the doctor better see the blood flowing. They then take X-ray pictures of the flow of the dye through your child's heart. Your child will get rid of this dye in their urine (pee), a few hours after the test. </p> <p>After the test is finished, the cardiologist takes the catheter(s) out. They cover the small wound in your child's groin with a heavy bandage. Your child will not need stitches. </p> <h2>Heart catheterization is sometimes used to treat heart problems</h2> <p>Sometimes the cardiologist uses heart catheterization to treat your child's heart problem. Heart catheterization can be used to close a hole in the heart or blood vessel. It can also be used to stretch a valve or a blood vessel. This treatment is called interventional catheterization. Your child's doctor will explain this treatment if your child needs it. </p> <h2>You can wait for your child during the heart catheterization test</h2> <p>The health-care team will tell you where to wait during your child's test. This may be either the CDIU waiting room or your child's in-patient room. If you are not told where to wait, ask the nurse. </p> <h2>How long does the heart catheterization test take?</h2> <p>The cardiologist will tell you how long they think your child's test will take. The amount of time needed depends on two things: </p> <ul> <li>the time it takes to insert the catheter </li> <li>what procedures need to be done during the catheterization </li> </ul><h2>Your child will take a few hours to recover</h2> <p>If your child has a general anesthetic, they will wake up in the recovery room. Your child will stay there until they are ready for discharge. If your child needs to stay overnight, they will be transferred to the in-patient unit. </p> <p>After you talk to the cardiologist about your child's test, you can ask to see your child in the recovery room.</p> <p>The nurse will check your child's heart rate, blood pressure and breathing for about the next four hours. They will also check the bandage over the place where the catheter was put in and the pulse in the foot of that leg. </p> <p>Your child will be quite sleepy and may have to stay in bed for a while after the test. When your child is awake, they will be able to drink liquids. Soon after that, your child will slowly begin to eat normally again. </p> <p>The nurse will explain when your child can go back to taking their regular medications and if there are any changes. If you have not received information about your child's medications, please ask your child's nurse. </p> <h3>Write any changes here:</h3> <p> </p> <h2>Leaving the hospital and going home</h2> <p>When your child goes home depends on how well your child is feeling after the test and the type of procedure your child received. Some children are able to go home on the evening of the test. Others may have to stay in the hospital overnight and go home the next day.</p> <p>For more information, please see <a href="/Article?contentid=1214&language=English">Heart catheterization: Caring for your child after the procedure</a>.</p> <h2>What to expect after the heart catheterization test</h2> <p>Your child may have some bruising in the area around the groin. It may be sore for a day or two.</p> <p>Your child may have an upset stomach for the first day (24 hours) after the test. This is more likely to happen if your child had a general anesthetic. </p> <p>Your child should only do quiet activities for the first five days after the test.</p><h2>Talk to your child about the test</h2> <p>Talk to your child using words that they can understand. It is important to be honest. Your child will feel less anxious and scared when they know what to expect. </p> <p>Do not tell your child that there will be no pain or needles. Comfort your child. Tell your child that you will be with him or her as much as you can. </p> <p>Tell your child that he or she needs the test and that the doctors and nurses are there to help.</p> <h2>Getting ready for the test</h2> <p>Usually, you will visit the pre-catheterization clinic a few days before the heart catheterization test. This will help you and your child get ready for the procedure. </p> <h3>Write the date and time of the clinic visit here:</h3> <p> </p> <p>At the clinic, you will meet with a nurse, who will explain:</p> <ul> <li>what your child can eat and drink before the test </li> <li>any medication changes needed before the test </li> <li>what to expect on the day of the test </li> </ul> <p>At the same visit, your child will have one or more of these tests:</p> <ul> <li>An electrocardiogram (ECG). This is a recording of the electrical activity of the heart. </li> <li>Blood tests. </li> <li>A chest X-ray. This is a special picture of the inside of your child's chest. </li> <li>An echocardiogram. This is a recording of the positions and movement of the walls of the heart, or the parts inside the heart, such as the valves. </li> </ul> <p>You and your child will also meet with the cardiologist, who will explain the risks of the procedure in a detailed way before you give your consent. Giving consent means that you understand the procedure and agree to allow the doctors to perform it. </p> <h2>Eating and drinking before the procedure</h2> <p>Before the heart catheterization test, your child must stop eating and drinking. Please follow these instructions when feeding your child before the test: </p> <table class="akh-table"> <thead> <tr><th>Time before procedure</th><th>What you need to know</th></tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td>Midnight before the procedure</td> <td><p>No more solid food. This also means no gum or candy and Jello.</p> <p>Your child can still drink liquids such as milk, orange juice, and clear liquids. Clear liquids are anything you can see through, such as apple juice, ginger ale or water. </p></td> </tr> <tr> <td>6 hours</td> <td>No more milk, formula, or liquids you cannot see through, such as milk, orange juice, and cola.</td> </tr> <tr> <td>4 hours</td> <td>Stop breastfeeding your baby.</td> </tr> <tr> <td>2 hours</td> <td>No more clear liquids. This means no more apple juice, water or ginger ale.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <h2>Your child's medications</h2> <p>If a change in your child's medications is needed before the procedure, the nurse will discuss this with you at the pre-catheterization clinic visit. Please bring all of your child's medications with you for all visits to the hospital. </p> <h3>Write the instructions here:</h3> <p> </p> <p> </p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/Heart_catheterization_Getting_ready_for%20the_procedure.jpg
Heart conditions and complementary and alternative therapiesHHeart conditions and complementary and alternative therapiesHeart conditions and complementary and alternative therapiesEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemNon-drug treatmentAdult (19+)NA2009-12-11T05:00:00ZBeverley Hales, BScPhm, MHScAndrew James, MBChB, MBI, FRACP, FRCPC11.000000000000044.00000000000001725.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about complementary and alternative therapies and what to consider before you try them.</p><p>If your child has a serious heart condition, you want access to the best medicine and doctors possible. When your child goes to a hospital in North America, they will receive conventional medicine. There are, however, other non-medical practitioners that offer treatment called complementary therapy and alternative therapy. It is important that you understand the differences between these approaches to make informed decisions about your child's care.</p><h2> Key points </h2><ul><li>Conventional medicine refers to the health practices used by specially trained health professionals to diagnose and treat disease.</li><li>Conventional medicine is based on evidence that shows what works through a series of clinical trials that ensure a drug's safety. </li><li>Complementary and alternative therapy refers to products, techniques, theories, or practices that fall outside conventional medicine. </li><li>Complementary therapy is used with conventional medicine while alternative therapy is used instead of conventional medicine. </li><li>Complementary therapies can help, or not cause harm, when used with conventional medicine, while alternative therapies are unproven and could be harmful. </li><li>Before you try anything your child’s doctor has not recommended, you should discuss it with the doctor.</li></ul>
Heart conditions and examples of complementary and alternative therapiesHHeart conditions and examples of complementary and alternative therapiesHeart conditions and examples of complementary and alternative therapiesEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemNon-drug treatmentAdult (19+)NA2009-12-11T05:00:00Z12.000000000000044.0000000000000543.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about complementary and alternative therapy for children with heart conditions. Art therapy and aromatherapy are among the therapies discussed.</p><p>Because heart conditions are tied to very specific events or structural problems in the heart, conventional medicine is generally geared toward drugs to minimize symptoms or surgery to repair the heart as much as possible. Because of this, alternative therapies are not widely used in heart conditions, though you may hear about things like acupuncture, Reiki, homeopathy, or naturopathy. </p> <p>If you think you want your child to engage in an alternative therapy, speak to your child's doctor first. It is more likely that you will hear about complementary therapies. Relaxation therapy or massage, for example, may be used to relieve symptoms or improve a patient's overall sense of well-being.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>Alternative therapies are not widely used in heart conditions.</li> <li> Complementary therapies may improve how your child feels by calming and re-energizing them.</li> <li>Speak to your child's doctor before using complementary therapies in case they pose risks due to your child's condition.</li></ul>
Heart conditions in newborn babiesHHeart conditions in newborn babiesHeart conditions in newborn babiesEnglishNeonatologyNewborn (0-28 days)HeartCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-10-28T04:00:00ZPatrick McNamara, MB, BCh, BAO, FRCPCAndrew James, MBChB, MBI, FRACP, FRCPC9.9000000000000050.40000000000001232.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about types of heart conditions that can occur in a newborn baby. Heart failure, patent ductus arteriosus, and congenital heart defects are discussed.</p><p>Some babies are born with congenital heart conditions. The severity of these conditions ranges; children with simple conditions may lead completely normal lives while those with more complex conditions will usually face more challenges. Most children with heart conditions reach adulthood.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Heart failure occurs when not enough oxygen is delivered to the body as a result of low cardiac output syndrome.</li> <li>Heart failure is treated with medications called intropes, which encourage the heart to beat more strongly.</li> <li>There are 35 known types of congenital heart defects ranging from simple to complex. </li><li>Treatment of heart defects will depend on the area of the heart affected and how severe the defect is.</li></ul>
Heart conditions in premature babiesHHeart conditions in premature babiesHeart conditions in premature babiesEnglishNeonatology;CardiologyPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)Heart;LungsCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZPatrick McNamara, MB, BCh, BAO, FRCPC10.100000000000055.90000000000001141.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about why premature babies are especially at risk for several types of heart conditions, and about the various conditions themselves.</p><p>Premature babies are often at risk for developing various heart conditions including congestive heart failure and congenital heart defects. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>The heart of a fetus is different in structure and function inside the womb than that of a baby outside the womb.<br></li> <li>Due to their underdeveloped heart and lungs, premature babies are at risk for several heart complications.</li> <li>Heart failure is a condition in which h the amount of blood pumping and the amount of oxygen being delivered is too small to meet the body's needs.</li> <li>Heart failure may be caused by weakness of the heart muscle, periods of high or low blood pressure, and abnormal heart rhythms.</li> <li>Congenital heart defects are malformations of the heart that occur before birth, with some being minor and others more severe with long-term complications.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/heart_conditions_in_premature_babies.jpg
Heart conditions resourcesHHeart conditions resourcesHeart conditions resourcesEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemSupport, services and resourcesAdult (19+)NA2010-01-15T05:00:00Z000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Books and websites with information about heart conditions in children.<br></p>
Heart disease and pregnancyHHeart disease and pregnancyHeart disease and pregnancyEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)BodyReproductive systemConditions and diseasesPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-11T04:00:00ZNicolette Caccia, MEd, MD, FRCSCRory Windrim, MB, MSc, FRCSC11.000000000000047.70000000000001206.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn about the effects of various types of maternal heart disease on pregnancy. Treatment of heart disease during pregnancy is also discussed.</p><p>Pregnancy has a profound effect in women who have underlying heart disease. Much of the increase in the output of the heart occurs during early pregnancy. As a result, a pregnant woman with heart disease may have additional cardiovascular problems by the middle of her pregnancy. The outcome for a pregnant mother with heart disease depends on the capacity of her heart, whether there are other complications during pregnancy, and what type of medical care she receives. For some women, bed rest may be required throughout pregnancy. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>The different types of heart disease are categorized into three groups according to the risk of death that they pose to the mother in pregnancy.</li> <li>Women with heart disease may need to be followed by a multidisciplinary team that specializes in heart disease in pregnancy.</li> <li>If you are pregnant and you have mild heart disease, avoid people who have respiratory infections, get a flu shot and do not smoke.</li> <li>Babies of mothers with heart disease may inherit congenital heart problems.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/heart_disease_and_pregnancy.jpg
Heart murmursHHeart murmursHeart murmursEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years);Adult (19+)HeartCardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-12-04T05:00:00ZFraser Golding, MD, FRCPC8.0000000000000063.0000000000000560.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to identify and treat different kinds of heart murmurs. <br></p><p>This page explains how doctors distinguish between innocent and serious heart murmurs.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li> Heart murmurs are common and most are normal. </li> <li>A doctor listens to the heart through a stethoscope on the chest to help determine if your child's heart murmur is innocent or needs to be examined further. </li></ul>
Heart problemsHHeart problemsHeart problemsEnglishPregnancyAdult (19+)Body;HeartReproductive system;Cardiovascular systemConditions and diseasesPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-09-10T04:00:00ZNicolette Caccia, MEd, MD, FRCSCRory Windrim, MB, MSc, FRCSC Andrew James, MBChB, MBI, FRACP, FRCPC10.000000000000051.90000000000001022.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about various types of heart problems that can occur in a baby during pregnancy. Types of heart defects, diagnosis and treatment, are discussed.</p><p>Congenital heart defects, or lesions, are parts of the heart that have not formed properly. They occur very early in pregnancy, often even before a woman knows she’s pregnant. These defects can include "holes" in parts of the heart, or missing or malformed parts of the heart. The vast majority of heart problems in newborn babies are due to a combination of genetic factors and teratogens. Heart disease in the mother may also lead to congenital heart disease in the baby.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>The most common kind of congenital heart defects are what are referred to as "flow defects" since they affect how blood flows through the heart.</li> <li>Babies and children with heart defects may have difficulties eating or gaining weight, breathe faster than normal, or sweat when eating or sleeping.</li> <li>Sometimes doctors can diagnose a heart defect before the baby is born but usually defects are identified days or months after birth when symptoms become obvious.</li> <li>Treatment depends on which part of the heart is affected and the severity of the defect.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Heart_location_small_MED_ILL_EN.jpg
Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias)HHeart rhythm problems (arrhythmias)Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias)EnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartHeartConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2010-03-19T04:00:00ZElizabeth Stephenson, MD, MSc9.3000000000000049.80000000000001509.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn about heart rhythm problems. Usually identified as an irregular heartbeat, they can occur at any age and may or may not have symptoms. </p><h2>How does the heart beat?</h2> <p>The heartbeat is controlled by electricity. Special cells called pacemakers release bursts of electrical energy that travel through the heart muscle, causing it to contract. When the muscle contracts, blood is pumped through the heart.</p> <p>To learn more about the heart's electrical system and the normal heartbeat, please see <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=heart">How the Body Works: Electrocardiogram (ECG).</a></p> <h2>What is an arrhythmia?</h2> <p>An arrhythmia (also called dysrhythmia) refers to what is usually an irregular heartbeat. The heart rate can be fast, slow or irregular, taking into consideration age and activity. For example, a newborn's heart beats much faster than a five-year-old child's heart. </p> <p>A fast heart rate is called tachycardia. A slow heart rate is called bradycardia. </p> <p>Some irregular heartbeats are normal:</p> <ul> <li>Sinus arrhythmia is the normal variation in heart rate that accompanies breathing in and out.</li> <li>Sinus tachycardia is the normal increase in the heart rate that occurs in healthy people when they are excited, exercising or have a fever. </li> </ul> <p>An arrhythmia can be short-lived (acute) and resolve on its own, or long-lasting (chronic) requiring treatment. </p> <p>Arrhythmias can occur at any age and may or may not cause symptoms. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>An arrhythmia is a fast, slow, or irregular heartbeat.</li> <li>Arrhythmias may be short-lived, or they may last for a long time and need treatment.</li> <li>Your child may not notice any symptoms of an arrhythmia.</li> <li>Arrhythmias are identified through electrocardiograms, which measure the heart's electrical activity.</li> <li>Treatment depends on what is causing the arrhythmia.</li> </ul><h2>What causes arrhythmias?</h2> <p>Arrhythmias can develop on their own (primary arrhythmia) or because of another condition, typically after heart surgery (secondary arrhythmia). </p> <p>Some types of arrhythmia may have a genetic component. If someone in your family had an arrhythmia, it may be more likely that your child might too. </p> <p>Arrhythmias can occur in structurally healthy hearts, but sometimes arrhythmias are a symptom of a heart abnormality. </p> <p>Sometimes arrhythmias can be caused by an external factor, like a drug a child is taking or a fever. </p><h2>How is an arrhythmia diagnosed?</h2><p>You or your child may not notice anything unusual about their heart rhythm. Arrhythmias may be discovered during a usual check-up. The doctor may ask you questions like:</p><ul><li>Is your child aware of unusual heartbeats?</li><li>Are unusual heartbeats brought on by anything in particular?</li><li>If the heart rate is fast, how fast is it?</li><li>Has your child shown any symptoms, like feeling weak or dizzy?</li><li>Has your child ever fainted?</li></ul><div class="akh-series"><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <figure><span class="asset-image-title">Electrocardiogram</span><img alt="Electrocardiogram pattern" src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/ECG_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.jpg" /> </figure> <p>Arrhythmias are identified through electrocardiograms. These tests show the electrical activity in the atria (upper chambers) and the ventricles (lower chambers) of the heart. Doctors examine the heart rate activity, how often these electrical signals occur, and how regularly the heart beats to determine if a child has an arrhythmia.</p></div></div></div> <p>A test called a Holter monitor may be done. This is a recording of an electrocardiogram reading for a 24-hour period. Because arrhythmias tend to happen only once in a while, it is important to monitor the child for a good amount of time.</p><p>For more information, please read <a href="/Article?contentid=1281&language=English">Holter Monitors</a>.</p><p>Fetal arrhythmias can also be identified when the baby is still in the womb. To manage this situation, the mother is generally given anti-arrhythmic drugs. Intermittent fetal tachycardias can pose a threat to the baby, possibly before or after birth, and the arrhythmias tend to recur in infancy.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/ECG_MEDIMG_PHO_EN.jpg
Heart stents: Placement in the heart catheterization labHHeart stents: Placement in the heart catheterization labHeart stents: Placement in the heart catheterization labEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartHeart;Arteries;VeinsProceduresCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2009-05-04T04:00:00ZJackie Hubbert, BScN;Lee Benson, MD, FRCP(C), FACC, FSCAI;Carrie Morgan, RN, MN;Cindy Wasyliw, RN, BNSc7.7000000000000066.00000000000001151.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>A heart stent is a small metal tube that is placed inside a narrowed blood vessel or conduit to keep it open. Read about heart stent surgery and recovery.</p><h2>What is a stent and when is it needed?</h2><p>When part of a major blood vessel or conduit becomes narrowed (stenotic), blood cannot flow through it easily. A conduit is a tube that has been surgically implanted in some children to create a passageway for blood to flow.</p><p>A stent is a small metal tube made of stainless steel or another type of metal. It can be inserted into a blood vessel or conduit to help widen the narrowed passage by supporting the walls of the blood vessel to keep it open.</p><p>A stent is used:<br></p><ul><li>if the cardiologist feels that a balloon dilation (angioplasty) will not be enough to keep a blood vessel or conduit open</li><li>if a dilation has not kept the vessel or conduit open</li></ul> <figure> <span class="asset-image-title">Heart </span> <span class="asset-image-title"></span> <span class="asset-image-title">stent</span><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Stent_MED_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="A catheter in the heart and into a narrow artery, close-up of a balloon on the end of the catheter, and a stent in the artery" /> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">A</figcaption> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption"></figcaption> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption"> catheter with a deflated balloon and stent on its tip is threaded through a blood vessel in the body up to the heart. When the balloon reaches the narrow area it is inflated, which opens up stent. The balloon is deflated and the catheter is removed. The stent stays in place permanently to keep the area open.</figcaption> </figure> <h2>What is heart catheterization?</h2><p>During heart catheterization, the doctor carefully puts a long, thin tube called a catheter into a vein or artery in your child's neck or groin. The groin is the area at the top of the leg. Then, the catheter is threaded through the vein or artery to your child's heart.<br></p><p>The doctor who does the procedure is a cardiologist, which means a doctor who works on the heart and blood vessels. This may not be your child's regular cardiologist.</p><p>To learn about heart catheterization, please see <a href="/Article?contentid=59&language=English">Heart catheterization: Getting ready for the procedure</a>.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>A stent is a small metal tube that supports the walls of a narrowed blood vessel or conduit to widen it and keep it open. </li> <li>There is a small risk that your child will have complications from the procedure. Your child's doctor will explain the risks to you before the procedure. </li> <li>Your child will need to have an anesthetic. Your child will probably need to stay overnight in the hospital after the procedure. </li> <li>Your child will need to take medicine to prevent blood clots from forming on the stent. </li> </ul><h2>What happens during the procedure</h2> <p>The procedure is performed while your child is under a general anaesthetic. This means that your child will be asleep during the procedure. </p> <p>When your child is asleep, the doctor threads a special catheter with a balloon and stent through your child's blood vessel to the narrowed area. The balloon is inflated. This forces the narrowed area open and expands the stent. The stent stays in place permanently to keep the vessel open. </p> <p>Once the stent is in place, the doctor takes out the catheter and covers the cut on your child's leg with a bandage.</p> <h2>The procedure will take two to four hours</h2> <p>The procedure usually takes two to four hours. After the procedure, your child will go to the recovery room to wake up from the anesthetic. They will then be transferred to the inpatient unit. </p><h2>After the procedure</h2> <p>Most children will spend the night in hospital after the procedure. The cardiologist will tell you when your child can go home. </p> <p>For information on what to do after your child goes home, please see <a href="/Article?contentid=1214&language=English">Heart catheterization: Caring for your child after the procedure</a>.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Stent_MED_ILL_EN.jpg
Heart transplantsHHeart transplantsHeart transplantsEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemProceduresAdult (19+)NA2009-12-11T05:00:00ZAnne Dipchand, MD, FRCPC8.8000000000000062.0000000000000765.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>A heart transplant is surgery that replaces a heart that is not working properly with a healthy donor heart. Learn about heart transplants for children.</p><p> This page explains when your child might need a heart transplant.</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>A heart transplant replaces a defective heart with a donor heart.</li> <li>Getting a transplant is not a cure.</li> <li>Heart transplants are usually done for children with complex heart defects that cannot be effectively treated with drugs or corrective surgery.</li> <li>If your child’s doctor feels that your child needs a heart transplant, they will refer them to the heart transplant team. </li></ul>
Heart transplants: MedicationsHHeart transplants: MedicationsHeart transplants: MedicationsEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeartCardiovascular systemProcedures;Drug treatmentAdult (19+)NA2009-12-11T05:00:00ZAnne Dipchand, MD, FRCPC9.8000000000000050.6000000000000349.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>After a heart transplant, your child will need a variety of medications, including immunosuppressants, drugs to prevent infection, and drugs to lower blood pressure.<br></p><p>Your child will need a variety of different medications after a heart transplant. They can be grouped in the following categories:</p><h2> Key points </h2> <ul><li>Your child must take immunosuppressants for the rest of their life to prevent and treat rejection.</li> <li>Your child will take medicines to prevent infection as immunosuppressants increase their risk of contracting infection.</li> <li> Since immunosuppressants can cause high blood pressure, most children will be on blood pressure medication for the first 6 months after transplant.</li></ul>
Heart tumoursHHeart tumoursHeart tumoursEnglishCardiologyChild (0-12 years)HeartHeartConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2010-03-19T04:00:00ZFraser Golding, MD, FRCPC7.7000000000000059.3000000000000874.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn about heart tumours in children, and how they are diagnosed. Both the most common types of benign and malignant tumours are discussed.</p><h2>What is a tumour?</h2><p>A tumour is any abnormal mass of the cells that make up the human body. It develops when cells reproduce in an uncontrollable way. It is also called a growth. </p> <figure class="swf-asset-c-80"> <span class="asset-image-title">Tumour cell division</span> <div class="asset-animation"> src="https://akhpub.aboutkidshealth.ca/Style%20Library/akh/swfanimations/swf.html?swffile=Cells_dividing_tumour_MED_ANI_EN.swf" </div> <figcaption class="asset-image-caption">When genes in a cell change or are missing, cells can make copies of themselves in unpredictable and uncontrollable ways. Tumours may develop.</figcaption> </figure> <h2>What is a heart tumour?</h2><p>Heart tumours can occur inside the heart, in the muscle of the heart or in the outside wall of the heart. They are very rare.</p><p>A heart tumour may start growing in the heart. This is called a primary tumour. Or it may spread (metastasize) to the heart from another part of the body. This is called a secondary tumour. In children, secondary tumours are more common than primary tumours. </p><p>Most tumours of the heart are harmless (benign). Most of them occur in children under the age of 12. They have a very good outlook.</p><p>The outlook is not as good for cancerous (malignant) tumours. However, these are very rare. Less than 10% of primary heart tumours are malignant. Malignant tumours can invade and destroy tissue in the body. They often cause symptoms that mimic heart disease. </p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Heart tumours may start growing in the heart (primary tumours) or they may metastasize from somewhere else in the body (secondary tumours).</li> <li>There are many different types of heart tumours. Most primary heart tumours are benign (non-cancerous).</li> <li>Heart tumours often mimic the symptoms of other conditions, so they can be hard to diagnose.</li> <li>Treatment depends on the type of heart tumour, its size and whether it is cancerous.</li> </ul><h2>Symptoms of heart tumours</h2> <p>Sometimes heart tumours do not cause any symptoms. In other cases, they may cause symptoms similar to other heart conditions or defects. These symptoms include heart failure and arrhythmias. </p> <p>Whether or not a tumour causes symptoms depends on:</p> <ul> <li>where the tumour is located in the heart </li> <li>the size of the tumour</li> </ul><h2>Several tests are used to diagnose heart tumours</h2> <p>Tumours in the heart may show no symptoms at all, or they can lead to a malfunction of the heart that is life-threatening. They tend to imitate other heart diseases, which can make it more challenging to make the correct diagnosis. </p> <p>A heart tumour may be suspected in a child who is known to have cancer already, particularly if they start having shortness of breath, chest pain and swelling of the ankles.</p> <p>Several tests are used to diagnose heart tumours:</p> <ul> <li>Often, an echocardiogram (heart ultrasound) is done to outline the tumours. The sound waves pass through the chest wall and provide an image of the heart. </li> <li>Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans are also used to diagnose tumours in children, but usually after a heart ultrasound has been performed. </li> </ul><h2>How are heart tumours treated?</h2> <p>In some cases, tumours will go away by themselves and no treatment is needed. This is seen mainly in children with rhabdomyomas. If symptoms are severe, though, the doctor will treat the tumour or tumours. </p> <ul> <li>Single, noncancerous primary tumours may be surgically removed. </li> <li>When several noncancerous tumours are present, or if the noncancerous tumour is so large that it cannot be removed, they are typically not treated, or heart transplantation may be considered. </li> <li>With both primary and secondary tumours that are cancerous and incurable, only the symptoms can be treated. </li> </ul>
Heart, lung, kidney and bladder effects of brain tumour treatmentHHeart, lung, kidney and bladder effects of brain tumour treatmentHeart, lung, kidney and bladder effects of brain tumour treatmentEnglishNeurology;Cardiology;Respiratory;UrologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)Brain;Heart;Lungs;Bladder;KidneysNervous system;Cardiovascular system;Respiratory system;Renal system/Urinary systemConditions and diseasesAdult (19+)NA2009-08-14T04:00:00ZEric Bouffet, MD, FRCPC9.0000000000000051.0000000000000203.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Detailed information on how your child's kidneys and bladder may be affected by chemotherapy. Answers provided by Canadian Paediatric Hospitals.</p><p>Some children with brain tumours may experience long-term effects to their kidneys and bladder after chemotherapy treatment. With regular monitoring, most kidney or bladder problems can be managed and treated before more serious symptoms develop.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Brain tumour treatment can have long-term effects on the lungs, heart, kidneys and bladder.</li> <li>Some chemotherapy drugs and radiation therapy can have a negative impact on these parts of the body.</li> <li>Your child will need regular monitoring to ensure proper lung, heart, kidney and bladder functions.</li></ul>
Heat and cold for pain managementHHeat and cold for pain managementHeat and cold for pain managementEnglishPain/AnaesthesiaChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyCentral nervous system;Peripheral nervous system;Autonomic nervous systemSymptomsCaregivers Adult (19+)Pain2009-09-18T04:00:00ZAnne Ayling-Campos, BScPT68.00000000000008.00000000000000405.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about hot packs and cold packs, and how they can effectively reduce pain from injuries.</p><p>Depending on your child’s injury, applying hot packs or cold packs to the affected area of their body can be an effective way to reduce pain. These treatments can be performed at home and may be used in conjunction with other treatments and pain medicine.</p>
Heat rash (miliaria)HHeat rash (miliaria)Heat rash (miliaria)EnglishDermatologyNewborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months);Toddler (13-24 months);Preschooler (2-4 years)SkinSkinConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2010-11-10T05:00:00ZSheila Jacobson, MBBCh, FRCPC5.8000000000000071.5000000000000565.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Information about symptoms, causes and treatment of heat rash.</p><h2>What is heat rash?</h2> <p>Heat rash, or miliaria, is a raised rash that consists of small, fluid-filled blisters. Also called "prickly heat," the little bumps contain sweat (perspiration) that could not get to the skin's surface and evaporate. It is common in babies and young children. The rash usually disappears on its own.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>Miliaria is a common rash, caused by heat.</li> <li>It looks like tiny, raised, white or red blisters.</li> <li>It can be avoided by not overheating your child.</li> <li>Complications are rare but can be serious.</li> </ul><h2>Signs and symptoms of heat rash</h2> <p>The rash looks like droplets of sweat that are trapped under the skin. The fluid may be clear or milky white. The bumps are only a few millimeters wide. The rash may also appear red on your baby's skin. </p> <p>The rash usually appears where babies and children sweat the most, such as:</p> <ul> <li>forehead</li> <li>neck</li> <li>armpits</li> <li>buttocks</li> <li>groin</li> <li>shoulders</li> <li>chest</li> <li>elbow creases</li> <li>behind the knees</li> </ul> <p>Your baby may appear irritated or your child may complain of the rash being itchy or having a prickly feeling.</p><h2>Causes of heat rash</h2> <p>Clogged (blocked) sweat ducts are the main cause of heat rash. When ducts are blocked, sweat cannot escape. Instead of evaporating on the skin's surface, sweat droplets are trapped under the skin, causing inflammation and rash. </p> <p>Clogged sweat ducts are caused by many factors. Most often, babies develop the rash due to one of the following reasons:</p> <ul> <li>wearing too much clothing or clothing that does not allow sweat to evaporate</li> <li>fever</li> <li>environmental factors such as hot, humid weather or a room that is too hot</li> </ul> <p>Babies with fevers or newborns in incubators may develop blocked sweat ducts.</p><h2>How you can help your child with heat rash</h2> <p>Treating heat rash is very simple. Try to cool your baby or child's skin and prevent sweating: </p> <ul> <li>Remove clothing as often as possible.</li> <li>Do not overdress your child.</li> <li>Give your child a lukewarm bath with non-drying soap.</li> <li>After bathing, let your baby or child air-dry instead of towelling off.</li> <li>Keep your child's room well ventilated and at a moderate temperature (16 to 20 degrees Celsius).</li> <li>Dress your child in loose-fitting, light cotton clothing. Avoid dressing your child in tight-fitting clothing.</li> <li>Avoid using creams or ointments, which can block pores.</li> </ul><h2>Complications</h2> <p>Rarely, heat rash can become infected with bacteria. This makes the fluid-filled bumps painful, bigger and more inflamed. </p> <p>A very rare complication of heat rash is heat exhaustion. If your child's sweat ducts are clogged, the body cannot cool itself properly. Untreated heat exhaustion can lead to heat stroke. This is a dangerous illness that can lead to organ damage or death. Heat stroke happens when a child's body creates more heat than it can release. The child's core body temperature increases rapidly, to 40°C or higher.</p><h2>When to seek medical assistance</h2> <p>In general, heat rash usually heals without medical treatment. </p> <p>If your child's rash lasts longer than a few days or the rash seems to be getting worse, make an appointment with your child's doctor. </p> <p>See a doctor right away if your baby or child has any of the following signs: </p> <ul> <li>increased pain or swelling around the rash</li> <li>pus draining from the fluid-filled bumps</li> <li>swollen lymph nodes (small bumps) in the armpit, neck or groin</li> <li>fever or chills</li> <li>feels very hot or looks unwell</li> </ul>
Heat-related illness in young athletesHHeat-related illness in young athletesHeat-related illness in young athletesEnglishPreventionSchool age child (5-8 years);Pre-teen (9-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyNAConditions and diseasesCaregivers Adult (19+)Headache;Nausea;Vomiting2014-05-30T04:00:00ZShawna Silver, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, PEng8.9000000000000055.30000000000001302.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ConditionsHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to prevent and treat heat-related illness in children and teens who exercise in hot and humid conditions.</p><p>Sports are an important part of summer for many children and teens. But physical activity in heat and humidity can increase the risk of the heat-related illness.</p> <p>The American Academy of Pediatrics lists a number of factors that make children and teens more vulnerable to heat-related illness caused by physical exertion. They include:</p><ul><li>a hot or humid climate</li><li>insufficient adjustment to exercising in the heat and humidity</li><li>insufficient adjustment to the intensity or duration of activity or to the uniform and protective equipment</li><li>excessive physical exertion in terms of intensity or duration</li><li>clothing, uniform or protective equipment that does not allow the body to release enough heat</li><li>poor hydration</li><li>insufficient cardiovascular fitness</li><li>inadequate sleep or rest</li><li>insufficient rest and recovery time between same-day practice or training sessions and competitions</li><li>being overweight or obese</li><li>a current or recent illness and other medical conditions (or medications) that affect hydration and the body’s ability to regulate temperature.</li></ul><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>A number of factors make heat-related illness more likely for young athletes. These include wearing clothing or protective equipment that does not allow enough heat to escape from the body, exercising too intensively or for too long in the heat and not having enough rest between same-day training sessions and competitions.</li> <li>Dehydration is a common heat-related illness. If it is not treated in time or correctly, it can result in heat cramps, hyponatremia, heat exhaustion and heat stroke.</li> <li>Hyponatremia, heat cramps and heat exhaustion can usually be treated first by replacing lost fluids and salt, resting in a shaded area and removing extra clothing or equipment, if any. A child should see a doctor only if their symptoms last more than an hour or get worse.</li> <li>Heat stroke is a medical emergency. While waiting for a doctor, it is important to cool the child using whatever means are available, such as immersing them in or spraying them with cold water.</li> <li>To prevent the risk of heat-related illness during physical activity, drink enough fluids before, during and after exercise, take frequent breaks, reduce the intensity and length of the exercise and wear lightweight and loose clothing.</li> </ul><h2>Common heat-related illnesses during sports activities</h2> <p><a href="/Article?contentid=776&language=French">Dehydration</a> is commonly the first sign of a <a href="/Article?contentid=1966&language=English">heat-related illness</a>. If it is not addressed correctly, it can be followed by:</p> <ul> <li>heat cramps</li> <li>hyponatremia</li> <li>heat exhaustion</li> <li>in extreme cases, heat stroke – a medical emergency.</li> </ul> <h2>Heat cramps</h2> <p>Heat cramps are the most common heat-related injury. They usually occur in cases of mild dehydration or salt loss, normally after someone has been physically active for a while.</p> <p>Symptoms of heat cramps include intense muscle pain or spasms that are not caused by injury. These cramps normally affect the legs, but they can also affect the arms or abdomen.</p> <h3>How to treat heat cramps</h3> <p>If your child has heat cramps, they should:</p> <ul> <li>stop exercising and sit down</li> <li>drink clear juice or a sports drink to help replace fluid and salt</li> <li>do some light stretching or relaxation</li> </ul> <p>Massaging the area of the body affected by the cramps may also help.</p> <p>Your child can return to the physical activity when the cramps go away.</p> <h3>When to see a doctor</h3> <p>Take your child to a doctor if the cramps do not go away after an hour.</p> <h2>Hyponatremia</h2> <p>The body needs a tiny amount of sodium to control blood pressure and blood volume and help muscles and nerves work properly.</p> <p>Hyponatremia occurs when the body’s blood sodium level becomes too low. It is more likely to happen if a child:</p> <ul> <li>does not usually get enough salt in their diet</li> <li>loses large amounts of salt during strenuous or prolonged exercise</li> <li>drinks much more water than they need during or after exercise</li> </ul> <p>Hyponatremia is quite a rare condition, but it can be dangerous. Teens are at higher risk of hyponatremia than younger children.</p> <h3>How to treat hyponatremia</h3> <p>For prolonged activity (one hour or more) in the sun, your child should replace lost water and lost salt with a sports drink or a meal. Salt pills are not recommended.</p> <h2>Heat exhaustion</h2> <p>Heat exhaustion is caused by loss of water and salt, often as a result of exercise in hot weather. If heat exhaustion is not treated, it may progress to heat stroke.</p> <p>Symptoms of heat exhaustion include:</p> <ul> <li>normal or raised body temperature, but less than 40°C (104°F)</li> <li>pale skin</li> <li>cool and moist skin</li> <li><a href="/article?contentid=29&language=English">headache</a></li> <li>nausea or vomiting</li> <li>dizziness, weakness or fainting</li> </ul> <h3>How to treat heat exhaustion</h3> <ul> <li>Move your child to a shady or air-conditioned area and have them lie comfortably.</li> <li>Remove extra clothing and sports equipment, if any.</li> <li>Cool them with cold water, fans or cold towels.</li> <li>If your child is not vomiting or feeling nauseous, have them drink chilled water, juice or a sports drink.</li> </ul> <h3>When to see a doctor</h3> <p>Take your child to see a doctor if:</p> <ul> <li>they do not seem better after an hour</li> <li>their symptoms are severe</li> <li>they seem confused or disoriented</li> <li>they are behaving oddly</li> </ul> <h2>Heat stroke</h2> <p>Heat stroke is a dangerous illness that can lead to organ damage or death. In fact, heat stroke caused by exertion is the leading cause of preventable death in youth sports.</p> <p>Heat stroke happens when a child's body creates more heat than it can release. The main symptoms are:</p> <ul> <li>increase in core body temperature, usually above 40°C (104°F)</li> <li>break down of the central nervous system, which may appear as altered consciousness, seizures, confusion, emotional instability or irrational behaviour</li> <li>hot and wet or dry skin (profuse sweating usually occurs with intense exertion)</li> </ul> <h3>How to treat heat stroke</h3> <ul> <li>Heat stroke is a medical emergency. Call 911 right away.</li> <li>While waiting for emergency services, remove the child's clothing and any sports equipment.</li> <li>Begin cooling the child by any means available, including immersing them in cold water, spraying them with cold water, placing fans in front of them or using ice bags.</li> <li>Do not give the child anything to drink.</li> <li>Monitor the child's body temperature.</li> </ul> <p>Even if a child with heat stroke feels better after cooling, they should not return to their activities until they have been seen by a doctor.</p><h2>Sources</h2> <p>American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Sports Medicine and Fitness. (2011). Climatic heat stress and the exercising child or adolescent. <em>Pediatrics, 128(3),</em> 741-747.</p> <p>Bergeron, MF (2013). Reducing Sports Heat Illness Risk. <em>Pediatrics in Review, 34, </em> 270-279.</p> <p>U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Tips for Preventing Heat-Related Illness. <em>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.</em> Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/disasters/extremeheat/heattips.html.</p> <p>Parents' and Coaches' Guide to Dehydration and Other Heat Illnesses in Children. (2003). <em>National Athletic Trainers' Association.</em> Retrieved from http://www.nata.org/sites/default/files/Heat-Illness-Parent-Coach-Guide.pdf.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/heat_related_illness_in_youg_athletes.jpg
Heat-related illness: How to preventHHeat-related illness: How to preventHeat-related illness: How to preventEnglishPreventionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)NANAHealthy living and preventionCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-05-28T04:00:00ZSha​wna Silver, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, PEng8.5000000000000058.90000000000001037.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn how to prevent, recognize and treat dehydration and other heat-related illnesses in children.</p><p>The arrival of summer signals long, hot days outside. But as temperatures and humidity go up, so does the risk of heat-related illness. To help ensure a safe, healthy summer, make sure you know how to prevent, recognize and treat heat-related illness.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>The body tries to shed excess heat when its core temperature rises above 37°C. It is harder to shed excess heat in high temperatures, high humidity and direct sunlight.</li> <li>Dehydration is the most common heat-related illness. If you suspect dehydration, take your child to a cool area and give them water or clear juice.</li> <li>If dehydration is not treated correctly or if children are engaged in prolonged activity in direct sunlight, they can also develop heat cramps, heat exhaustion and, in severe cases, heat stroke.</li> <li>To prevent a heat-related illness, stay out of direct sunlight, especially between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m., rest in shady areas, have your child drink water and dress them in lightweight, light-coloured and loose clothing.</li> </ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/summer_safety_preventing_heat_related_illness.jpg
Helmets: How they prevent injuryHHelmets: How they prevent injuryHelmets: How they prevent injuryEnglishPreventionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeadNANon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-05-20T04:00:00ZShawna Silver, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, PEng​​​8.0000000000000060.00000000000001524.00000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>Find out how helmets are designed to protect against head injury.</p><div class="asset-video"><iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/Zie-UrMfMKk?rel=0"></iframe> </div> <p>Sports and recreational activities are important for children’s health and development. They also carry a risk of injury: almost half of children’s injuries treated in emergency departments every year occur during sports and recreation activities. The skull offers some protection to the brain, but serious injuries can still occur without a helmet.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>In case of an accident, helmets are designed to spread the impact over a larger area and prevent direct impact to the skull.</li> <li>A helmet can make all the difference between serious injury and walking away from an accident unharmed.</li> <li>Most sports have their own helmet design. Children should wear the right helmet for their activity. You can check the suitability of a helmet by looking at its certification sticker.</li> <li>Most countries have regulations covering helmet use and helmet design. Even when no laws exist always make sure your child wears a helmet.</li> </ul><h2>How helmets work to prevent injury</h2> <p>In many cases, a helmet can make all the difference between serious injury and walking away from an accident unharmed.</p> <p>In general, helmets are designed to:</p> <ul> <li>help the head slow down more gradually</li> <li>spread the impact of a knock or a fall over a larger area</li> <li>prevent direct impact to the skull</li> </ul> <p>The right helmet can protect against head injury in the following sports and activities:</p> <ul> <li>bicycling</li> <li>football</li> <li>hockey</li> <li>horseback riding</li> <li>ice skating</li> <li>off-road and all-terrain vehicle (ATV) driving</li> <li>rugby</li> <li>skiing and snowboarding</li> </ul> <p>These are not the only sports that may benefit from helmet use. Many more activities see far fewer injuries when helmets are worn.</p> <h2>Helmet features that prevent injury</h2> <p>The materials and shape of the helmet are important features in minimizing the risk of injury.</p> <ul> <li>Most helmets use foam or another crushable material. When your head hits something, your skull smacks into the foam and then slows down over a distance of a few centimetres. When the impact is over, the foam has deformed, but the skull and brain are much better off.</li> <li>The shape of helmets has changed to improve fit and stability. Without a good fit, helmets do not work. If you or your child tried wearing a helmet previously, only to give it up because the helmet was uncomfortable or would not stay on, try adjusting the straps and padding or using a different helmet.</li> <li>Some helmets use dozens of vents to protect the head. These helmets are more expensive because they use higher quality foam.</li> </ul><h2>Types of helmets</h2><p>Most sports have their own helmet design. Children should wear the right helmet for their activity: it is not safe, for example, to wear a bicycle helmet to play hockey or vice versa.</p><p>Despite differences in design, there are two broad categories of helmets for non-motorized sports:</p><ul><li>single-impact helmets</li><li>multi-impact helmets.</li></ul> <h3>Single-impact helmets</h3><p>These helmets are designed to absorb the energy of a single serious crash but must then be replaced.</p><ul><li>Their foam material, expanded polystyrene, crushes on impact and remains crushed.</li><li>They are suitable for road biking, most types of off-road biking, skiing and snowboarding. They are also good for inline skating, unless your child does tricks or inline hockey or crashes often.</li></ul><h3>Multi-impact helmets</h3><p>Multi-impact helmets can absorb the impact of a number of crashes. This category is relatively new. One helmet is often suitable for more than one sport.</p><ul><li>They use expanded polypropylene or polyurethane foam that can crush, absorbing an impact, and then bounce back to recover its shape.</li><li>They spread the impact across a larger area, thanks to their rigid surface.</li><li>They are suitable for BMX biking, free-riding, trials riding, skateboarding, trick inline skating, parkour, ice skating, hockey and rock climbing.</li><li>These are <em>not suitable for</em> skiing, water skiing, horse jumping or other equestrian sports, any team sports or any motorized activity such as driving an all-terrain vehicle.</li></ul><h2>Source</h2><p>Injury Prevention Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society. (2012). Preventing injuries from all-terrain vehicles. <em>Paediatrics & Child Health, 17(9),</em> 513-515.</p><p>Injury Prevention Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society. (2012). Skiing and snowboarding injury prevention. <em>Paediatrics & Child Health, 17(1),</em> 35-6.</p><p>Injury Prevention Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society. (2013). Bicycle helmet use in Canada: The need for legislation to reduce the risk of head injury. <em>Paediatrics & Child Health, 18(9),</em> 475-80.</p><p>Helmet FAQ. <em>Parachute</em> Retrieved from <a href="http://www.parachutecanada.org/injury-topics/topic/C8">http://www.parachutecanada.org/injury-topics/topic/C8</a>.</p><p>The cost of injury in Canada. <em>Parachute</em> Retrieved from <a href="http://www.parachutecanada.org/downloads/research/Cost_of_Injury-2015-Child_Injury_Compendium.pdf">http://www.parachutecanada.org/downloads/research/Cost_of_Injury-2015-Child_Injury_Compendium.pdf</a>.</p><br>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/AKHAssets/helmets_how_they_prevent_injury.jpg
Helmets: How to get your child to wear oneHHelmets: How to get your child to wear oneHelmets: How to get your child to wear oneEnglishPreventionChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)HeadNANon-drug treatmentCaregivers Adult (19+)NA2014-05-23T04:00:00ZShawna Silver, MD, FRCPC, FAAP, PEng​​​7.0000000000000074.0000000000000919.000000000000Health (A-Z) - ProcedureHealth A-Z<p>A step-by-step guide for parents on how to fit a safety helmet and encourage a child to wear one.</p><p>Making sure that your child always wears a helmet when they are cycling or playing particular sports is the best way to prevent head injuries. To do this, it is important to know how to fit a helmet correctly and teach your child why it is important to use a helmet for protection.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul> <li>A child's helmet should be centered on their head, over the forehead. It should not slip forward or back or from side to side.</li> <li>Always buy a helmet that is the right size for your child at the time you buy it. The front and back straps should meet just under the ear in a 'V' shape.</li> <li>Make sure the helmet is snug but not too tight. The strap under the chin should not be loose, but it should allow your child to open their mouth.</li> <li>Encourage your child to wear a helmet by wearing a helmet yourself and talking about why it is so important to protect their brain.</li> </ul><h2>How to fit a helmet correctly</h2><p>Helmets that do not fit or that are not fastened correctly are no help to the <a href="https://pie.med.utoronto.ca/htbw/module.html?module=brain-child" title="The Brain">brain</a>. Use the tips below to make sure that your child is wearing a helmet properly.</p><p>A helmet must not slip forward or back. The frontal lobes, a part of the front of the brain that is important for memory and decision-making, and occipital lobes, a crucial vision centre at the back of the brain, need protection. This can only be achieved when the helmet is centred on your child's head.</p> <figure class="asset-c-100"><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Helmet_safety_side_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Correct helmet position and incorrect helmet position" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Make sure that the helmet is level at the front and back, it should not be tilted back on an angle. Adjust the straps so the helmet fits securely.</figcaption> </figure> <p>The helmet must fit snugly, but not tightly and not sit too high on the head. It should cover the forehead and must not slip from side to side. The straps from the front and back of the helmet should form a 'V' around the ears and meet just under the ear. When fastened, the helmet straps should allow the mouth to open to drink or shout, but the strap under the chin must not be loose.</p> <figure class="asset-c-100"><img src="https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Helmet_safety_front_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg" alt="Checking helmet fit" /><figcaption class="asset-image-caption">Check to make sure the helmet is secure and fits snugly.</figcaption> </figure> <p>Do not buy a large helmet and let your child grow into it. Make sure that the helmet fits perfectly at the time you buy it. You can adjust the fit for comfort using the small foam pads included with the helmet.</p><p>Take a look at this video for more tips.</p><div class="asset-video"> <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/Zie-UrMfMKk?rel=0"></iframe> </div><p>Your child should not wear anything under the helmet, such as a hat. Helmets are designed to provide the most effective protection from head injuries when they are worn directly next to the head. If you are concerned about keeping your child warm during the winter, you can buy helmets with outer warmth protection that help keep children's heads warm during activities.</p>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/Helmet_safety_front_EQUIP_ILL_EN.jpg
Helping siblings with griefHHelping siblings with griefHelping siblings with griefEnglishOtherPremature;Newborn (0-28 days);Baby (1-12 months)NANASupport, services and resourcesPrenatal Adult (19+)NA2009-10-31T04:00:00ZChristine Newman, MD, FRCPCLori A. Ives-Baine, RN, BScN8.3000000000000062.20000000000001083.00000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Read about the way children understand death, which will depend on their age. Young children tend to personify death, viewing it as a monster, for example. </p><p>Children understand death differently, depending on their age. Early on, they may think it is not permanent. Only later will they understand it is more final. Young children tend to personify death, viewing it as a monster, for example. After about age 10, they start to understand death and realize they too can die. The following provides a basic understanding of children's concepts of death and dying.</p><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Depending on their age, children have different understandings of death and will grieve and accept it in different ways.</li> <li>Help your children grieve by having open conversations with them, listening to them and getting help for them if they need it.</li></ul>https://assets.aboutkidshealth.ca/akhassets/LIB_bereavementpic_10_EN.jpg
Helping your child cope after a blood and marrow transplantHHelping your child cope after a blood and marrow transplantHelping your child cope after a blood and marrow transplantEnglishHaematology;Immunology;OncologyChild (0-12 years);Teen (13-18 years)BodyImmune systemNAAdult (19+)NA2009-11-30T05:00:00ZJohn Doyle, MD, FRCPC, FAAPChristine Armstrong, RN, MScN, NP Peds7.2000000000000069.2000000000000934.000000000000Flat ContentHealth A-Z<p>Learn how you can help your child cope, after their blood and marrow transplant (BMT).</p><p>Children spend a lot of time becoming more independent as they grow up. But they lose this independence when they undergo a blood and marrow transplant (BMT). This might make them feel angry or depressed. They may have trouble getting used to new rules and new people telling them what to do. Your child may feel overwhelmed with all the tests, medications, and daily medical procedures. </p><p>They might express their loss of personal control through:</p><ul><li>anger </li><li>refusing to co-operate with parents or the health care team</li><li>crying for no apparent reason, and being unable to explain what is making them sad</li><li>refusing to eat and play</li><li><a href="/article?contentid=19&language=English">depression</a><br></li><li>babyish behaviour </li></ul><h2>Key points</h2> <ul><li>Help your child cope by working with a child life specialist, maintaining a routine and engaging in activities.</li> <li>To help your child cope with pain, use strategies such as distraction, relaxation, and physical stimulation such as heat and cold.</li></ul>

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